Odd numbers of photons and teleportation
Enk, S.J. van
2003-02-01
Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.
Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Pace P.
2007-12-01
An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.
On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo
2007-09-01
A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .
The odd-number sequence: squares and sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2015-11-01
Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.
A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nishiyama, Yutaka
2006-01-01
Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…
Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.
2015-05-01
In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.
Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te
1991-10-01
If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .
Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.
2014-10-01
Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.
Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.
Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H
2014-10-17
Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253
Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130
Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka
2011-05-06
Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.
Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems
Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.
2015-03-30
An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.
Benford's law and number selection in fixed-odds numbers game.
Chou, Mabel C; Kong, Qingxia; Teo, Chung-Piaw; Wang, Zuozheng; Zheng, Huan
2009-12-01
In fixed-odds numbers games, the prizes and the odds of winning are known at the time of placement of the wager. Both players and operators are subject to the vagaries of luck in such games. Most game operators limit their liability exposure by imposing a sales limit on the bets received for each bet type, at the risk of losing the rejected bets to the underground operators. This raises a question--how should the game operator set the appropriate sales limit? We argue that the choice of the sales limit is intimately related to the ways players select numbers to bet on in the games. There are ample empirical evidences suggesting that players do not choose all numbers with equal probability, but have a tendency to bet on (small) numbers that are closely related to events around them (e.g., birth dates, addresses, etc.). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to quantify this phenomenon and examine its relation to the classical Benford's law. We use this connection to develop a choice model, and propose a method to set the appropriate sales limit in these games. PMID:19641983
Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.
2016-05-01
A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.
New techniques for bounds on the total number of prime factors of an odd perfect number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hare, Kevin G.
2007-12-01
Let sigma(n) denote the sum of the positive divisors of n . We say that n is perfect if sigma(n) = 2 n . Currently there are no known odd perfect numbers. It is known that if an odd perfect number exists, then it must be of the form N = p^alpha prod_{jD1}^k q_j^{2 beta_j} , where p, q_1, \\cdots, q_k are distinct primes and p equiv alphaequiv 1 pmod{4} . Define the total number of prime factors of N as Omega(N) :D alpha + 2 sum_{jD1}^k beta_j . Sayers showed that Omega(N) geq 29 . This was later extended by Iannucci and Sorli to show that Omega(N) geq 37 . This was extended by the author to show that Omega(N) geq 47 . Using an idea of Carl Pomerance this paper extends these results. The current new bound is Omega(N) geq 75 .
Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.
2016-05-01
The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.
The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.
Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V
2015-01-01
Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839
The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
2015-01-01
Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839
Mass media campaigns: the odds against finding behavior change.
Wallack, L M
1981-01-01
The use of mass media has long been an attractive method for implementing and discharging institutional responsibility for the promotion of good health practices and the prevention of various social and health problems. Although there is a long history of such efforts, relatively little is known about the effects such campaigns might have. The large number of programs currently being conceived and implemented on local, state, and federal levels have not benefited as much as they might have from the experience of past mass media efforts. This paper reviews the history, commonalities, assumptions, and effects of planned largescale campaigns to communicate information to the general population to encourage moderation or abstinence in the use of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco. The concept of experimental design is critiqued regarding the appropriateness of such a model for evaluation of mass media campaigns. Suggestions are offered for making evaluations of such campaigns more able to generate useful information for program and planning purposes. This includes expanding evaluation questions through additional forms of inquiry rather than constricting the information obtained through methods based on assumptions of experimental design. PMID:7037686
Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb
A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss
1999-12-31
Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.
Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb
Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.
1999-11-16
Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.
Odd perfect numbers have a prime factor exceeding 10^8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo
2008-09-01
Jenkins in 2003 showed that every odd perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^7 . Using the properties of cyclotomic polynomials, we improve this result to show that every perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^8 .
Du, H; Shi, G; Huang, M; Jin, C
2000-06-01
Single-colour and two-colour multiphoton resonant ionization spectra of uranium atom were studied extensively with a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser atomic beam apparatus time-of-flight mass spectrometer in our laboratory. The energy locations of high-lying odd-parity levels in the region 33,003-34,264 cm-1, measured by a two-colour three-step ionization technique, were reported here. The angular momentum quantum number J was uniquely assigned for these levels by using angular momentum selection rules. PMID:12958925
Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality
Padmanaban, Jeya
2003-01-01
Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244
Towards easier realization of time-delayed feedback control of odd-number orbits.
Flunkert, V; Schöll, E
2011-07-01
We develop generalized time-delayed feedback schemes for the stabilization of periodic orbits with an odd number of positive Floquet exponents, which are particularly well suited for experimental realization. We construct the parameter regimes of successful control and validate these by numerical simulations and numerical continuation methods. In particular, it is shown how periodic orbits can be stabilized with symmetric feedback matrices by introducing an additional latency time in the control loop. Finally, we show using normal form analysis and numerical simulations how our results could be implemented in a laser setup using optoelectronic feedback. PMID:21867280
Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei
Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Ramady, Amir M.
2016-01-01
Thallium (Tl81217), Bismuth (Bi83217), Astatine (At85217), Francium (Fr87217), Actinium (Ac89217) and Protactinium (Pa91217) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory’s website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207
Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.
Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M
2016-01-01
Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays. PMID:26761207
Cluster interpretation of parity doublet rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei
Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Shneidman, T.M.
2004-12-01
The structure of parity doublet rotational bands in odd actinides and medium mass nuclei is described in a cluster model. The model is based on the assumption that cluster-type shapes are produced by the motion of the nuclear system in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. The calculated rotational bands and the electric dipole transitions between the members of the parity doublet are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakut, H.; Guliyev, E.; Guner, M.; Tabar, E.; Zenginerler, Z.
2012-08-01
A new microscopic method has been developed in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) in order to investigate spin polarization effects on the magnetic properties such as magnetic moment, intrinsic magnetic moment and effective gs factor of the ground state of odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. The calculations were performed using both Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA) and Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA). Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the QRPA results and the relevant experimental data. Furthermore the variation of the intrinsic magnetic moment gK values with the mass number A exhibits similar behavior for both theoretical and experimental results. From the compression of the calculated intrinsic magnetic moment values with the experimental data the spin-spin interaction parameter has been found as χ=(30/A) MeV for odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. Our results clarify the possibility of using this new method to describe the magnetic properties of odd-mass deformed nuclei.
Hakala, J; Dobaczewski, J; Gorelov, D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kortelainen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonnenschein, V; Äystö, J
2012-07-20
Atomic masses of the neutron-rich isotopes (121-128)Cd, (129,131)In, (130-135)Sn, (131-136)Sb, and (132-140)Te have been measured with high precision (10 ppb) using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP. Among these, the masses of four r-process nuclei (135)Sn, (136)Sb, and (139,140)Te were measured for the first time. An empirical neutron pairing gap expressed as the odd-even staggering of isotopic masses shows a strong quenching across N = 82 for Sn, with a Z dependence that is unexplainable by the current theoretical models. PMID:22861839
Generation of a Superposition of Odd Photon Number States for Quantum Information Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.; Nielsen, B. Melholt; Hettich, C.; Mølmer, K.; Polzik, E. S.
2006-08-01
We report on the experimental observation of quantum-network-compatible light described by a nonpositive Wigner function. The state is generated by photon subtraction from a squeezed vacuum state produced by a continuous wave optical parametric amplifier. Ideally, the state is a coherent superposition of odd photon number states, closely resembling a superposition of weak coherent states |α⟩-|-α⟩. In the limit of low squeezing the state is basically a single photon state. Light is generated with about 10 000 and more events per second in a nearly perfect spatial mode with a Fourier-limited frequency bandwidth which matches well atomic quantum memory requirements. The generated state of light is an excellent input state for testing quantum memories, quantum repeaters, and linear optics quantum computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jie; Kan, Haibin
It is well known that Boolean functions used in stream and block ciphers should have high algebraic immunity to resist algebraic attacks. Up to now, there have been many constructions of Boolean functions achieving the maximum algebraic immunity. In this paper, we present several constructions of rotation symmetric Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity on an odd number of variables which are not symmetric, via a study of invertible cyclic matrices over the binary field. In particular, we generalize the existing results and introduce a new method to construct all the rotation symmetric Boolean functions that differ from the majority function on two orbits. Moreover, we prove that their nonlinearities are upper bounded by 2^{n-1}-\\binom{n-1}{\\lfloor\\frac{n}{2}\\rfloor}+2(n-6).
McElvany, S.W.; Callahan, J.H.; Ross, M.M.; Lamb, L.D.; Huffman, D.R.
1993-06-11
The odd-numbered carbon clusters C119, C129 and C139 have been observed in the mass spectra of toluene extracts of fullerene soots and of the products of ozone-fullerene reactions. Specifically, ozone-C60 reactions yield C119, and ozone-C70 reactions yield C139, and ozone-(C60/C70) reactions produce C119, C129, and C139. These unexpected species correspond to dimers of C60, C60/C70, and C70, respectively, less one carbon atom, and are stable gas-phase ions with behavior similar to that of fullerenes. The results suggest a new route to functionalization and derivatization of fullerenes through controlled ozone-catalyzed cage-opening reactions.
Neutron drip line in odd and even mass calcium and nickel nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Gangopadhyay, G.
2005-10-01
Neutron-rich Ca and Ni nuclei have been studied in a spherical relativistic mean-field formalism in coordinate space. A δ interaction has been adopted to treat the pairing correlations for the neutrons. Odd nuclei have been treated in the blocking approximation. The effect of the positive-energy continuum and the role of pairing in the stability of nuclei have been investigated by use of the resonant-BCS approach. In Ca isotopes, N=50 is no longer a magic number, whereas in Ni nuclei, a new magic number emerges at N=70. There is a remarkable difference in the relative positions of the drip lines for odd and even isotopes. In Ca isotopes, the last bound even and odd nuclei are found to be 72Ca and 59Ca, respectively. In Ni isotopes, the corresponding nuclei are 98Ni and 97Ni, respectively. The origin of this difference in relative positions of the drip line in even and odd isotopes in the two chains is traced to the difference in the single-particle level structures and consequent modification in the magic numbers in the two elements. Pairing interaction is seen to play a major role. The effect of the width of the resonance states on pairing has also been investigated.
Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P
2016-01-26
The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964
Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids.
Kondo, Natsuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Yamagata, Maki; Obara, Takashi; Seki, Naoya; Kitamura, Takuya; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Kihara, Akio
2014-01-01
The long-chain base phytosphingosine is a component of sphingolipids and exists in yeast, plants and some mammalian tissues. Phytosphingosine is unique in that it possesses an additional hydroxyl group compared with other long-chain bases. However, its metabolism is unknown. Here we show that phytosphingosine is metabolized to odd-numbered fatty acids and is incorporated into glycerophospholipids both in yeast and mammalian cells. Disruption of the yeast gene encoding long-chain base 1-phosphate lyase, which catalyzes the committed step in the metabolism of phytosphingosine to glycerophospholipids, causes an ~40% reduction in the level of phosphatidylcholines that contain a C15 fatty acid. We also find that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid is an intermediate of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we show that the yeast MPO1 gene, whose product belongs to a large, conserved protein family of unknown function, is involved in phytosphingosine metabolism. Our findings provide insights into fatty acid diversity and identify a pathway by which hydroxyl group-containing lipids are metabolized. PMID:25345524
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreim, S.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cocolios, T. E.; Gottberg, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Mendonca, T. M.; Naimi, S.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Stora, Th.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.
2014-08-01
The masses of Fr222,224,226-233 and Ra233,234 have been determined with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, including the previously unknown mass and half-life of Fr233. We study the evolution of the odd-even staggering of binding energies along the francium and radium isotopic chains and of its lowest-order estimator, Δ3(N). An enhancement of the staggering of Δ3(N) is observed towards neutron number N =146, which points to contributions beyond pairing correlations. These contributions are investigated in the Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approaches, emphasizing the connections to the single-particle level density and nuclear deformation.
Study of nuclear structure of odd mass 119-127I nuclei in a phenomenological approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.
2016-08-01
By using the phenomenological approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), the positive and negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 119-127I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of backbending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work. Besides this, the reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B (E 2) and B (M 1), are obtained from the PSM wavefunction for the first time for yrast bands of these isotopes.
Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu
2010-01-01
The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…
Tian, Haiquan; Bao, Song-Song; Zheng, Li-Min
2016-02-01
A heptanuclear and a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters (Dy7 and Dy14) have been successfully synthesized by ingenious coalescence of the single and double pyrazinyl hydrazone as well as phosphonate ligands. The complexes feature the largest odd-numbered cyclic lanthanide clusters reported thus far. Both exhibit single molecule magnet behaviors at low temperature. PMID:26728975
Odd-Even Mass Staggering Described by Relativistic Hartree-Fock Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Long Jun; Long, Wen Hui
2013-11-01
The neutron and proton odd-even mass staggering (OES) are systematically studied within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (DDRHFB) theory and the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (DDRHB) theory. In terms of the finite-range Gogny D1S as the pairing force, both DDRHFB and DDRHB theories can well reproduce the experimental OES, including C, O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn, Ce, Gd and Pb isotopes, and N = 50 and 82 isotones. In addition, the optimizations on the pairing force with the prefix factors bring systematical improvements on the OES for the light and heavy nuclei. It is also found that the pairing effects are essentially related with the appropriate description of the nuclear structures, in which the ρ-tensor correlations play an important role.
Description of electromagnetic and favored α transitions in heavy odd-mass nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrescu, A.; Delion, D. S.
2016-02-01
We describe electromagnetic and favored α transitions to rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei built upon a single particle state with angular momentum projection Ω ≠1/2 in the region 88 ≤Z ≤98 . We use the particle coupled to an even-even core approach described by the coherent state model and the coupled channels method to estimate partial α -decay widths. We reproduce the energy levels of the rotational band where favored α transitions occur for 26 nuclei and predict B (" close=")E 2 )">E 2 values for electromagnetic transitions to the band head using a deformation parameter and a Hamiltonian strength parameter for each nucleus, together with an effective collective charge depending linearly on the deformation parameter. Where experimental data are available, the contribution of the single particle effective charge to the total B value is calculated. The Hamiltonian describing the α -nucleus interaction contains two terms, a spherically symmetric potential given by the double-folding of the M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle and a quadrupole-quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The α -decaying state is identified as a narrow outgoing resonance in this potential. The intensity of the transition to the first excited state is reproduced by the QQ coupling strength. It depends linearly both on the nuclear deformation and the square of the reduced width for the decay to the band head, respectively. Predicted intensities for transitions to higher excited states are in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. This formalism offers a unified description of energy levels, electromagnetic and favored α transitions for known heavy odd-mass α emitters.
α -decay half-lives of odd-mass nuclei with differences between neutron and proton distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou
2016-05-01
Effects of differences between neutron and proton distributions on α decay are investigated for odd-mass nuclei within the generalized density-dependent cluster model. The neutron skin thickness is employed to gauge the differences and it is considered in numerically computing the double-folding α -nucleus potentials. In terms of the characteristic of odd-mass α emitters, special attention is paid to the α decays from ground or isomeric states which end in the ground states of daughter nuclei and furthermore belong to favored α decays. The calculations with the neutron skin thickness yield shorter half-lives, suggesting a smaller preformation factor. This is quite consistent with the conclusions for even-even α emitters. Moreover, α -decay calculations are extended for odd-mass isomers and superheavy nuclei. The calculated α -decay half-lives are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
Dipole strength distributions of the stable odd-mass N=82 isotones {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr
Scheck, M.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Linnemann, A.; Muecher, D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholl, C.; Werner, V.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Pitz, H. H.; Stedile, F.; Walter, S.; Yates, S. W.
2007-04-15
The low-lying dipole strength distributions of the odd-mass isotopes {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using bremsstrahlung beams. Excited states were observed at excitation energies up to 4 MeV. Spectroscopic information was obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The states belonging to the [[2{sup +}(multiply-in-circle sign)3{sup -}](multiply-in-circle sign)particle/hole] coupling were a special focus, and the results are compared with other stable odd-mass nuclei at or near the N=82 shell closure.
Precursor directed biosynthesis of odd-numbered fatty acids by different yeasts.
Řezanka, Tomáš; Kolouchová, Irena; Sigler, Karel
2015-09-01
Precursor-directed biosynthesis was used for directed preparation of positional isomers of heptadecanoic acid (17:1), which have convenient pharmacological properties. Cultivation of Candida sp., Kluyveromyces polysporus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Yarrowia lipolytica on 20 g/L glucose, 4 g/L acetic, or 4 g/L propionic acids yielded different proportions of 17:1. Cultivation on carbon sources with even numbers of carbon atoms (glucose and acetic acid) produced preferentially 8Z- and 10Z-heptadecenoic acids in about equal amounts, in agreement with the proposed biosynthesis of fatty acids, whereas cultivation on propionic acid as the only carbon source produced over 90 % of total fatty acids of 9-17:1 out of all possible positional isomers. The structures of positional isomers of 17:1 acid were determined using dimethyl disulfides of fatty acid methyl esters. In cultivation of Candida sp. on propionic acid, the yield of heptadecenoic acid reached 111 mg/L cultivation medium. Principal component analysis was used for identifying the effect of cultivation conditions on the production of the 17:1 acid by individual yeast strains. PMID:25813199
Mass-induced transition in fermion number
Aragao de Carvalho, C.; Pureza, J. M.
1989-05-15
We show that if we increase the mass of fermions in interaction with a topological (kink) scalar background in 1+1 dimensions, the fractional fermion number of the system will eventually vanish. The transition is sharp and corresponds to the disappearance of localized states from the spectrum of a Dirac operator which is exactly solvable. Possible applications to different physical systems are discussed.
Papadomichelakis, George; Karagiannidou, Areti; Anastasopoulos, Vasilios; Fegeros, Konstantinos
2010-10-01
The effect of dietary soybean oil (SO) inclusion (20g/kg) on the odd-numbered (ONFA) and branched-chain (BCFA) fatty acids (FA) of two muscles, differing in fatness (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris), was studied in 24 New ZealandxCalifornian rabbits. The increased muscle fatness in Biceps femoris (P<0.001) was related to higher saturated (P<0.01) and monounsaturated (P<0.01) fatty acids. Intramuscular ONFA and BCFA contents were not affected, but their proportions were reduced (P<0.01 and P<0.001) by SO addition, suggesting a dilution effect of the dietary polyunsaturates accumulated in both muscles, except for 17:0i which decreased only in Longissimus lumborum due to significant (P<0.05) soybean oilxmuscle interaction. The higher (P<0.05) BCFA contents and the FA profile in Biceps femoris were not affected by fatness, indicating an association with other muscle properties. The present study supplies new information on ONFA and BCFA in rabbit meat. PMID:20493641
Plachenov, A B; Radin, A M
2011-01-31
Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an odd number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (laser beams)
Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory
Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer
2005-03-01
We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.
Projected shell model study of yrast states of neutron-deficient odd-mass Pr nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez-Sandoval, A.; Ortiz, M. E.; Velázquez, V.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Hess, P. O.; Sun, Y.
2011-03-01
A wide variety of modern instruments allow us to study neutron-deficient nuclei in the A=130 mass region. Highly deformed nuclei have been found in this region, providing opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the Pr125,127,129,131,133 isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained and some characteristics are discussed, including the dynamic moment of inertia J(2), kinetic moment of inertia J(1), the crossing of rotational bands, and backbending effects.
Projected Shell Model Study of Yrast States of Neutron-Deficient Odd-Mass Pr Nuclei
Ibanes, A.; Ortiz, Mark E; Velazquez, V.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Hess, P. O.; Sun, Y.
2011-01-01
A wide variety of modern instruments allow us to study neutron-deficient nuclei in the A = 130 mass region. Highly deformed nuclei have been found in this region, providing opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the 125,127,129,131,133Pr isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained and some characteristics are discussed, including the dynamic moment of inertia J (2), kinetic moment of inertia J (1), the crossing of rotational bands, and backbending effects.
Projected shell model study of yrast states of neutron-deficient odd-mass Pr nuclei
Ibanez-Sandoval, A.; Ortiz, M. E.; Velazquez, V.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Hess, P. O.; Sun, Y.
2011-03-15
A wide variety of modern instruments allow us to study neutron-deficient nuclei in the A=130 mass region. Highly deformed nuclei have been found in this region, providing opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the {sup 125,127,129,131,133}Pr isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained and some characteristics are discussed, including the dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)}, kinetic moment of inertia J{sup (1)}, the crossing of rotational bands, and backbending effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meisel, Z.; George, S.; Ahn, S.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Carpino, J. F.; Chung, H.; Cole, A. L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Estradé, A.; Famiano, M.; Gade, A.; Langer, C.; Matoš, M.; Mittig, W.; Montes, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pereira, J.; Schatz, H.; Schatz, J.; Scott, M.; Shapira, D.; Smith, K.; Stevens, J.; Tan, W.; Tarasov, O.; Towers, S.; Wimmer, K.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Yurkon, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.
2015-10-01
We present the mass excesses of 52-57Sc, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The masses of 56Sc and 57Sc were determined for the first time with atomic mass excesses of -24.85 (59 )(-54+0) MeV and -21.0 (1.3 ) MeV , respectively, where the asymmetric uncertainty for 56Sc was included due to possible contamination from a long-lived isomer. The 56Sc mass indicates a small odd-even mass staggering in the A =56 mass chain towards the neutron drip line, significantly deviating from trends predicted by the global FRDM mass model and favoring trends predicted by the UNEDF0 and UNEDF1 density functional calculations. Together with new shell-model calculations of the electron-capture strength function of 56Sc, our results strongly reduce uncertainties in model calculations of the heating and cooling at the 56Ti electron-capture layer in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, neither strong neutrino cooling nor strong heating occurs in this layer. We conclude that Urca cooling in the outer crusts of accreting neutron stars that exhibit superbursts or high temperature steady-state burning, which are predicted to be rich in A ≈56 nuclei, is considerably weaker than predicted. Urca cooling must instead be dominated by electron capture on the small amounts of adjacent odd-A nuclei contained in the superburst and high temperature steady-state burning ashes. This may explain the absence of strong crust Urca cooling inferred from the observed cooling light curve of the transiently accreting x-ray source MAXI J0556-332.
Meisel, Z; George, S; Ahn, S; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Browne, J; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cole, A L; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T
2015-10-16
We present the mass excesses of (52-57)Sc, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The masses of 56Sc and 57Sc were determined for the first time with atomic mass excesses of -24.85(59)((-54)(+0)) MeV and -21.0(1.3) MeV, respectively, where the asymmetric uncertainty for 56Sc was included due to possible contamination from a long-lived isomer. The 56Sc mass indicates a small odd-even mass staggering in the A = 56 mass chain towards the neutron drip line, significantly deviating from trends predicted by the global FRDM mass model and favoring trends predicted by the UNEDF0 and UNEDF1 density functional calculations. Together with new shell-model calculations of the electron-capture strength function of 56Sc, our results strongly reduce uncertainties in model calculations of the heating and cooling at the 56Ti electron-capture layer in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, neither strong neutrino cooling nor strong heating occurs in this layer. We conclude that Urca cooling in the outer crusts of accreting neutron stars that exhibit superbursts or high temperature steady-state burning, which are predicted to be rich in A≈56 nuclei, is considerably weaker than predicted. Urca cooling must instead be dominated by electron capture on the small amounts of adjacent odd-A nuclei contained in the superburst and high temperature steady-state burning ashes. This may explain the absence of strong crust Urca cooling inferred from the observed cooling light curve of the transiently accreting x-ray source MAXI J0556-332. PMID:26550869
Ternary logic and mass quantum numbers
Sheppeard, M. D.
2010-06-15
Koide's prediction of the tau mass may be formulated as a condition on the three eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been found for neutrino and hadron masses [2]. Assuming these parameters arise from quantum gravity, one would like to understand them from the more abstract context of category theory. In particular, whereas the logic of lepton spin is a linear analogue of the ordinary Boolean logic of the category of sets, mass triplets suggest an analogous ternary logic, requiring higher dimensional categorical structures.
Shape-changing particle decays of 185 Bi and structure of the lightest odd-mass Bi isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreyev, A. N.; Ackermann, D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Heyde, K.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Karlgren, D.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Münzenberg, G.; Page, R. D.; van de Vel, K.; van Duppen, P.; Walters, W. B.; Wyss, R.
2004-05-01
Proton and α decay of the proton-rich nuclide 185 Bi has been restudied in more detail in the complete fusion reaction 93 Nb ( 95 Mo ,3n ) 185 Bi at the velocity filter SHIP. The observed decay pattern of 185 Bi and of the heavier odd-mass isotopes 187,189,191,193 Bi are interpreted based on potential-energy surface calculations. It is shown that the experimental systematics of the particle decays and of the excited states in these nuclei (where known) can be explained by the prolate-oblate shape co-existence at low excitation energy. The observed state in 185 Bi is proposed to be of prolate nature, which is in contrast with the previously proposed oblate interpretation.
Martin, S.; Chen, L.; Bernard, J.; Buchet-Poulizac, M. C.; Wei, B.; Bredy, R.
2006-01-15
We report on measurements of the branching ratios of emission of small C{sub n}{sup +} fragments in asymmetrical fission of highly charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions (r=4-6). For the channels corresponding to the emission of one fragment, only small fragments with an even number of carbon atoms are observed. For the channels with the emission of two fragments, successive emission of small fragments with an odd number of carbon atoms has been observed with a surprisingly high branching ratio (30%). In order to reproduce the experimental branching ratios in the framework of a statistical evaporation model, the height of fission barriers for the emission of one odd numbered fragment has to be reduced at higher temperature in order to allow the opening of these channels that are forbidden at lower temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrysos, Michael
2016-03-01
Relying on a simple analytic two-atom model in which the anisotropy of the interaction dipole polarizability obeys an inverse power law as a function of separation, we offer mathematical and numerical evidence that, in a monoatomic gas, the free-free Raman spectrum for a collisional pair of two different isotopes, a-a', may vastly differ from that for a-a. This result is obtained even if a and a' are assumed to have the same mass and zero nuclear spin and even if a-a and a-a' are subject to the same interaction polarizability and potential. The mechanism responsible for this effect is inherent in the parity of the partial-wave rotational quantum number J: given that the contribution of each partial wave to the Raman cross section is controlled by a polarizability-transition matrix-element and that each of those matrix-elements has a radial component with a magnitude slightly smaller than that of the preceding partial wave, a deficit which disfavors the odd-numbered waves is accumulated upon summing over J. In the far high-frequency wing, this deficit tends to generate spectral intensities for a-a' about half as great as the a-a ones, a tendency which becomes all the more effective as temperature is decreased. We show for instance that, for the spectral branch ΔJ = 2, the fractional difference between the free-free differential cross sections for a-a and a-a' is /1 2 /( 1 - x2 ) 3 1 + 3 x 4 , with x = √{ E / E ' } (E (E') being the initial (final) state energy of the pair and E' - E = hcν (ν > 0)). Remarkably, this quantity is zero at ν ≈ 0 but goes to /1 2 for ν ≫ 0. For ΔJ = 0, analogous conclusions may be drawn from the expression ( 1 + /ln ( 1+x/1-x ) 2 arctan x ) - 1 .
Liu, Feng-Ling; Jalbout, Abraham F
2008-06-01
Density functional calculations and minimization techniques have been employed to characterize the structural and electronic properties of [5,6]-heterofullerene-C(58)Si-C(2v). Since it has odd number of atoms and a near planar tetracoordinate Si atom on the skeleton of the cage, it has odd number of atoms assembling a cage and is a novel molecule. Vibrational frequencies of the molecule have been calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. The absence of imaginary vibrational frequency confirms that the molecule corresponds to a true minimum on the potential energy hypersurface. Sixteen (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral signals of C(58)Si are characterized, and its heat of formation was estimated in this work. PMID:18328755
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.
2016-09-01
The present paper proposes a modeling of the local even-odd effect based on the number of configurations in a nucleus undergoing fission at two stages along its fission path. One is the fissioning nucleus stage just after passing through the outer saddle point when the fragments are considered as pre-formed and the intrinsic energy is not yet shared. The other stage is at the end of the fission path when the scission is imminent. Then the intrinsic energy is already partitioned and the fragments are completely formed. The probability that a pre-formed fragmentation arrives at the end of the fission path (i.e. at scission) when the fragmentation is completely formed is expressed by the ratio of the number of configurations of the formed fragmentation to the one of pre-formed fragmentation. The local even-odd effect is defined as half of the difference between these normalized ratios corresponding to even-Z and odd-Z fragmentations. Both numbers of configurations in the fissioning nucleus, in which the fragments are pre-formed and completely formed, are calculated using level densities described by the constant temperature function (justified by the small values of the intrinsic energy before scission). The obtained local even-odd effect results describe well the experimental data, including the increase at asymmetry values corresponding to fragmentations in which one of the fragments is magic or double magic (i.e. fragmentations in which ZH = 50 and/or NH = 82 and very asymmetric fragmentations in which ZL = 28).
Chrysos, Michael
2016-03-21
Relying on a simple analytic two-atom model in which the anisotropy of the interaction dipole polarizability obeys an inverse power law as a function of separation, we offer mathematical and numerical evidence that, in a monoatomic gas, the free-free Raman spectrum for a collisional pair of two different isotopes, a-a', may vastly differ from that for a-a. This result is obtained even if a and a' are assumed to have the same mass and zero nuclear spin and even if a-a and a-a' are subject to the same interaction polarizability and potential. The mechanism responsible for this effect is inherent in the parity of the partial-wave rotational quantum number J: given that the contribution of each partial wave to the Raman cross section is controlled by a polarizability-transition matrix-element and that each of those matrix-elements has a radial component with a magnitude slightly smaller than that of the preceding partial wave, a deficit which disfavors the odd-numbered waves is accumulated upon summing over J. In the far high-frequency wing, this deficit tends to generate spectral intensities for a-a' about half as great as the a-a ones, a tendency which becomes all the more effective as temperature is decreased. We show for instance that, for the spectral branch ΔJ = 2, the fractional difference between the free-free differential cross sections for a-a and a-a' is 12(1-x(2))(3)1+3x(4), with x=√[E/E(')] (E (E') being the initial (final) state energy of the pair and E' - E = hcν (ν > 0)). Remarkably, this quantity is zero at ν ≈ 0 but goes to 12 for ν ≫ 0. For ΔJ = 0, analogous conclusions may be drawn from the expression (1+ln(1+x1-x)2arctanx)(-1). PMID:27004860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bing-Huan; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Lei, Yi-An
2013-01-01
Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-K four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd174,176 Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for174,176, Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-A Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-A Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-K (K=|Ω1-Ω2|) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the Ω=1/2 orbital is analyzed.
Woolfson, Robert J; Timco, Grigore A; Chiesa, Alessandro; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Inigo J; Tuna, Floriana; Guidi, Tatiana; Pavarini, Eva; Santini, Paolo; Carretta, Stefano; Winpenny, Richard E P
2016-07-25
The first regular homometallic ring containing an odd number of metal centers is reported. The ring was synthesized by means of amine-templated self-assembly. Extensive physical characterization studies, including magnetic measurements, powder inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and DFT calculations, show that the molecule has a near perfect match to the expected behavior for a frustrated system with the lowest energy pair of S=1/2 spin states separated by only 0.1 meV (0.8 cm(-1) ). PMID:27294807
Phase transition studies of the odd-mass 123‑135Xe isotopes based on SU(1,1) algebra in IBFM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.; Fathi, H.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we have investigated the positive-parity states in the odd-mass transitional 123‑135Xe isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Two solvable extended transitional Hamiltonians which are based on SU(1,1) algebra are employed to provide an investigation of quantum phase transition (QPT) between the spherical and deformed gamma — unstable shapes along the chain of Xe isotopes. The low-states energy spectra and B(E2) values for these nuclei have been calculated and compared with the experimental data. The predicted excitation energies and B(E2) transition rates of the odd isotopes are found to agree well with the experimental data. We have also analyzed the critical behavior of even-odd Xe isotopes via Catastrophe Theory in combination with a coherent state formalism to generate energy surfaces and special isotopes which are the best candidates for the critical point are identified.
Mohd Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam
2016-01-01
The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C. PMID:25643814
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.
2011-01-01
A new sequence of gamma rays with energies of 572, 499, 585, and 674 keV has been identified in 67Cu populating the 7/2- level at 2362 keV. Owing to the strong population of the 2362-keV level via an ell = 3 proton pickup reaction, that level is assigned to be an f7/2-1 2-particle-1-hole "intruder" proton configuration, and the new levels are found to form a sequence consistent with intruder sequences in the adjacent odd-mass Cu isotopes and in the odd-mass Sb isotopes. The changing position of the intruder sequence in the odd-mass Cu isotopes is discussed and related to the onset of collectivity associated with the presence of g9/2 neutrons beyond N = 40. The increase in collectivity is also discussed for a number of isotonic and isotopic chains as more protons or neutrons, respectively, are added beyond an oscillator shell boundary. For most of these systems, the ell -1/2 levels show a systematic "hockey-stick-like" behaviour with a sharp decrease in energy with the addition of the first protons or neutrons, owing to both the added collectivity and the tensor interaction, and then a lower slope when collectivity changes are diminished and only the tensor interaction is influencing the changes in level positions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, ZhenHua
2016-07-01
The high-spin rotational properties of two-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 166Ta are analyzed using the cranked shell model with pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency hω are reproduced very well by the particle-number conserving calculations, which provides a reliable support to the configuration assignments in previous works for these bands. The backbendings in these two-quasiparticle bands are analyzed by the calculated occupation probabilities and the contributions of each orbital to the total angular momentum alignments. The moments of inertia and alignments for the Gallagher-Moszkowski partners of these observed two-quasiparticle rotational bands are also predicted.
Powell, Jacob; Kalakewich, Keyton; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Harper, James K
2016-05-14
For nearly 140 years n-alkyl monocarboxylic acids have been known to exhibit unusual non-monotonic melting between odd and even numbered acids. This behavior has been rationalized in terms of packing density at the hydrocarbon tails, with COOH hydrogen bonding considered to be invariant among different acids. A recent ambiguity involving the COOH conformation between two crystal structures of lauric acid suggests that COOH structure and hydrogen bonding may play a role in these differences. Here, the two conflicting lauric acid crystal structures are further refined using lattice-including DFT refinement methods. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) (13)C chemical shift tensor data are employed to monitor refinement quality by comparing experimental and computed tensors. This comparison provides a more sensitive measure of structure than X-ray data due to SSNMR's ability to accurately locate hydrogens. Neither diffraction structure agrees with SSNMR data and an alternative is proposed involving a hydrogen disordered COOH moiety. The disordered hydrogen dynamically samples two most probable positions on the NMR timescale with O-H bond lengths of 1.16 and 1.46 Å. This disordered structure is consistent with SSNMR, IR and X-ray C-O and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths. The hydrogen disorder appears to be restricted to even numbered acids based on undecanoic acid's (13)COOH tensor data and C-O and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths for other n-alkyl acids. This disorder in even numbered acids results in stronger hydrogen bonds than are found in odd acids and invites a reevaluation of the melting behavior of n-alkyl acids that includes these differences in hydrogen bonding. PMID:27087051
Occupation-number-based energy functional for nuclear masses
Bertolli, Michael G.; Papenbrock, Thomas F; Wild, S. M.
2012-01-01
We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of =1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.
Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses.
Bertolli, M.; Papenbrock, T.; Wild, S. M.
2012-01-01
We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of {chi} = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.
Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong
2016-03-01
Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.
Global Civil Aviation Black Carbon Particle Mass and Number Emissions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stettler, M. E. J.
2015-12-01
Black carbon (BC) is a product of incomplete combustion emitted by aircraft engines. In the atmosphere, BC particles strongly absorb incoming solar radiation and influence cloud formation processes leading to highly uncertain, but likely net positive warming of the earth's atmosphere. At cruise altitude, BC particle number emissions can influence the concentration of ice nuclei that can lead to contrail formation, with significant and highly uncertainty climate impacts. BC particles emitted by aircraft engines also degrade air quality in the vicinity of airports and globally. A significant contribution to the uncertainty in environmental impacts of aviation BC emissions is the uncertainty in emissions inventories. Previous work has shown that global aviation BC mass emissions are likely to have been underestimated by a factor of three. In this study, we present an updated global BC particle number inventory and evaluate parameters that contribute to uncertainty using global sensitivity analysis techniques. The method of calculating particle number from mass utilises a description of the mobility of fractal aggregates and uses the geometric mean diameter, geometric standard deviation, mass-mobility exponent, primary particle diameter and material density to relate the particle number concentration to the total mass concentration. Model results show good agreement with existing measurements of aircraft BC emissions at ground level and at cruise altitude. It is hoped that the results of this study can be applied to estimate direct and indirect climate impacts of aviation BC emissions in future studies.
Measurement of Chern numbers through center-of-mass responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, H. M.; Zilberberg, O.; Ozawa, T.; Carusotto, I.; Goldman, N.
2016-06-01
Probing the center-of-mass of an ultracold atomic cloud can be used to measure Chern numbers, the topological invariants underlying the quantum Hall effects. In this work, we show how such center-of-mass observables can have a much richer dependence on topological invariants than previously discussed. In fact, the response of the center of mass depends not only on the current density, typically measured in a solid-state system, but also on the particle density, which itself can be sensitive to the topology of the band structure. We apply a semiclassical approach, supported by numerical simulations, to highlight the key differences between center-of-mass responses and more standard conductivity measurements. We illustrate this by analyzing both the two- and four-dimensional quantum Hall effects. These results have important implications for experiments in engineered topological systems, such as ultracold gases and photonics.
Light nuclei of even mass number in the Skyrme model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battye, R. A.; Manton, N. S.; Sutcliffe, P. M.; Wood, S. W.
2009-09-01
We consider the semiclassical rigid-body quantization of Skyrmion solutions of mass numbers B=4,6,8,10, and 12. We determine the allowed quantum states for each Skyrmion and find that they often match the observed states of nuclei. The spin and isospin inertia tensors of these Skyrmions are accurately calculated for the first time and are used to determine the excitation energies of the quantum states. We calculate the energy level splittings, using a suitably chosen parameter set for each mass number. We find good qualitative and encouraging quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, the rotational bands of beryllium-8 and carbon-12, along with isospin 1 triplets and isospin 2 quintets, are especially well reproduced. We also predict the existence of states that have not yet been observed and make predictions for the unknown quantum numbers of some observed states.
Comment on "Improved ray tracing air mass numbers model"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Werf, Siebren Y.
2008-01-01
Air mass numbers have traditionally been obtained by techniques that use height as the integration variable. This introduces an inherent singularity at the horizon, and ad hoc solutions have been invented to cope with it. A survey of the possible options including integration by height, zenith angle, and horizontal distance or path length is presented. Ray tracing by path length is shown to avoid singularities both at the horizon and in the zenith. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme is presented, which treats refraction and air mass as path integrals. The latter may optionally be split out into separate contributions of the atmosphere's constituents.
Neutrino masses in lepton number violating mSUGRA
Kom, Steve C. H.
2008-11-23
In SUSY models which violate R-parity, there exist trilinear lepton number violating (LNV) operators which can lead to neutrino masses. If these operators are defined at the unification scale, the renormalization group flow becomes important and generally leads to one neutrino mass much heavier than the others. We study, in a minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) set-up with two trilinear LNV operators and three charged lepton mixing angles, numerically how these parameters may be arranged to be compatible with neutrino oscillation data, and discuss some phenomenological observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar
2016-07-01
The ground state magnetic moments and the low-lying magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions from the ground to excited states in heavy deformed odd-mass 181Ta have been microscopically investigated on the basis of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPNM). The problem of the spurious state mixing in M1 excitations is overcome by a restoration method allowing a self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces. Due to the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data, the agreement being reasonably satisfactory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markovits, Alexis; Calatayud, Monica; Fernandez, Sébastien; Minot, Christian
2009-03-01
The adsorption of electropositive atoms with an odd number of electrons (H, K, Au) on a perfect TiO2(110) rutile surface is investigated using periodic DFT calculations (VASP code). The rutile surface, a closed shell system when uncovered, becomes an open-shell system when covered by one of these adsorbates. One possibility for adsorption is to transfer electrons from the adsorbate Aṡ to the rutile-surface, (the rutile is reduced): Aṡ→A++e-. The cationic A+ moiety will then adsorb on basic O2- surface sites forming OA groups. This is the best adsorption mode for H, K and Au. Another solution is to couple two adsorbates A to give A+ and A-: 2Aṡ→A+ and A- and subsequent adsorption on basic and acidic surface sites respectively regenerating the closed-shell system. This is the best adsorption mode for the coadsorption of Au with H or K. Then, Au- adsorbs on the surface acidic site, Ti+4, while H+ (or K+) does on the surface basic sites, O-2. Our results confirm that K coadsorption should have a significant effect on the binding of Au particles on TiO2 surfaces and hence on the growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou
2015-09-01
The deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions is extended for the β- decay of odd-mass neutron-rich Kr, Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes, from their longest-lived isotopes to the experimentally unknown nuclei. The particle-particle and particle-hole channels of residual interactions are handled in large single-particle model spaces, based on the Brückner G matrix with charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon forces. Both allowed Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions are considered and different treatments for odd-mass systems are emphasized. The sensitivity of the calculated results to the single-particle level scheme and the particle-particle strength is discussed. The calculated Gamow-Teller strengths are analyzed, together with the contributions from first-forbidden transitions. The calculated half-lives are found to agree well with the experimental data over the orders of magnitude from 10-2 to 103 s.
Quantifying Particle Numbers and Mass Flux in Drifting Snow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivelli, Philip; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Lehning, Michael
2016-06-01
We compare two of the most common methods of quantifying mass flux, particle numbers and particle-size distribution for drifting snow events, the snow-particle counter (SPC), a laser-diode-based particle detector, and particle tracking velocimetry based on digital shadowgraphic imaging. The two methods were correlated for mass flux and particle number flux. For the SPC measurements, the device was calibrated by the manufacturer beforehand. The shadowgrapic imaging method measures particle size and velocity directly from consecutive images, and before each new test the image pixel length is newly calibrated. A calibration study with artificially scattered sand particles and glass beads provides suitable settings for the shadowgraphical imaging as well as obtaining a first correlation of the two methods in a controlled environment. In addition, using snow collected in trays during snowfall, several experiments were performed to observe drifting snow events in a cold wind tunnel. The results demonstrate a high correlation between the mass flux obtained for the calibration studies (r ≥slant 0.93 ) and good correlation for the drifting snow experiments (r ≥slant 0.81 ). The impact of measurement settings is discussed in order to reliably quantify particle numbers and mass flux in drifting snow. The study was designed and performed to optimize the settings of the digital shadowgraphic imaging system for both the acquisition and the processing of particles in a drifting snow event. Our results suggest that these optimal settings can be transferred to different imaging set-ups to investigate sediment transport processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yu-Chun; He, Xiao-Tao
2016-07-01
Experimentally observed ground state band based on the 1/2-[521] Nilsson state and the first exited band based on the 7/2-[514] Nilsson state of the odd- Z nucleus 255Lr are studied by the cranked shell model (CSM) with the paring correlations treated by the particle-number-conserving (PNC) method. This is the first time the detailed theoretical investigations are performed on these rotational bands. Both experimental kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia ( J (1) and J (2)) versus rotational frequency are reproduced quite well by the PNC-CSM calculations. By comparing the theoretical kinematic moment of inertia J (1) with the experimental ones extracted from different spin assignments, the spin 17/2- → 13/2- is assigned to the lowest-lying 196.6(5) keV transition of the 1/2-[521] band, and 15/2- → 11/2- to the 189(1) keV transition of the 7/2-[514] band, respectively. The proton N = 7 major shell is included in the calculations. The intruder of the high- j low-Ω 1 j 15/2 (1/2-[770]) orbital at the high spin leads to band-crossings at ħω ≈ 0.20 ( ħω ≈ 0.25) MeV for the 7/2-[514] α = -1/2 ( α = +1/2) band, and at ħω ≈ 0.175 MeV for the 1/2-[521] α = -1/2 band, respectively. Further investigations show that the band-crossing frequencies are quadrupole deformation dependent.
SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES
Riemer-Sorensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris
2013-02-15
Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N {sub eff} = 3.58{sup +0.15} {sub -0.16}(68% CL){sup +0.55} {sub -0.53}(95% CL) and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.60 eV(95% CL), which are currently the strongest constraints on N {sub eff} and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N {sub eff} >3 is at the 2{sigma} level.
Aryaeinejad, R.; Chou, W.; McHarris, W.C. )
1989-09-01
The interacting-boson-fermion-approximation and triaxial models were used to calculate excitation energies and mixing ratios for the {ital N}=80 nuclei, {sup 139}Pr, {sup 141}Pm, and {sup 143}Eu. For low-lying negative- and positive-parity states both models yield roughly the same numbers, in good agreement with experimental results. For high-lying states we find that the interacting-boson-fermion-approximation model describes the level structure considerably better than the triaxial model. On the other hand, the triaxial model gives more satisfactory results in predicting the mixing ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taha, M. M.
2015-11-01
The anomalous negative-parity bands of odd-mass nuclei W/Os/Pt for N = 103 isotones are studied within the framework of particle rotor model (PRM). The phenomenon of Δ I = 1 staggering or signature splitting in energies occurs as one plots the gamma transitional energy over spin (EGOS) versus spin for the 1/2-[521] band originating from N = 5 single particle orbital. The rotational band with K = 1/2 separates into two signature partners. The levels with I = 1/2, 5/2, 9/2,… are displaced relatively to the levels with I = 3/2,7/2,11/2,…. The deviations of the level energies from the rigid rotor values is described by Coriolis coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim
2016-04-01
LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1985-01-15
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1984-09-07
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Meng-Hock; Duy Duc, Dao; Nhan Hao, T. V.; Thuy Long, Ha; Quentin, P.; Bonneau, L.
2016-01-01
In four well-deformed heavy odd nuclei, the energies of low-lying rotational band heads have been determined microscopically within a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-plus-BCS approach with blocking. A Skyrme nucleon-nucleon effective interaction has been used together with a seniority force to describe pairing correlations. Only such states which are phenomenologically deemed to be related to single-particle excitations have been considered. The polarization effects, including those associated with the genuine time-reversal symmetry breaking have been fully taken into account within our model assumptions. The calculated spectra are in reasonably good qualitative agreement with available data for the considered odd-neutron nuclei. This is not so much the case for the odd-proton nuclei. A potential explanation for such a difference in behavior is proposed.
Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications
2011-01-01
Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977
Mass number identification by Alfvén wave diagnostics in hydrogen and helium plasmas in TCABR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puglia, P. G. P.; Elfimov, A. G.; Andriati, A. V.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Ronchi, G.; Ruchko, L. F.
2016-03-01
The mass number is obtained through the identification of the Global Alfvén (GA) wave resonances in ohmic plasma discharges in the TCABR tokamak. By comparing hydrogen and helium discharges, the composition of carbon, oxygen, and iron impurities is determined. The non-perturbative Alfvén diagnostic is used that is based on the excitation of GA waves by an external antenna fed by a low power generator, in the frequency band swept just below the minimum of the Alfvén wave continuum. Odd or even toroidal modes are excited by selecting the current phase in the two antenna modules separated by 180 degrees in the toroidal direction. The density profile, determined from cross analysis of reflectometer and interferometer data, shows impurity accumulation in the plasma core.
Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin
2009-01-01
Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.
Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.
2013-04-01
The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.
A Guide to Mass Communication Sources. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Four.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, M. Gilbert; Cooper, Douglas W.
Designed to assist social scientists interested in conducting mass communication research, this report describes a number of sources of mass communication data and information. The sources are grouped in two categories: print media (primarily newspapers and magazines) and electronic media (radio, television, and motion pictures). These categories…
Source and Health Implication of Diurnal Atmospheric PM Mass and Number Concentrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, W.; Olvera, H. A.; Garcia, J. H.; Pingitore, N. E.
2007-12-01
Exposure to atmospheric PM has been known to be associated with adverse health effects, decreased heart-rate variability, and respiratory and cardiopulmonary related morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that physical characteristics (mass, size, number, surface area, and morphology) of particles are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity through acute exposure. In particular, as reported in the literature, fine or ultrafine particles are more toxic than coarse particles on an equivalent mass basis while particles of less than 30 nm or greater than 2.5 um in diameter deposit more effectively (approximately 80 percent) in lung versus approximately 18 percent for particles in the range of 100 nm and 1 um. In addition, positive association has been observed between day to day variation in PM2.5 and hospital admissions, mortality and particle surface area, or particle number concentration and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. This presentation shows the results of a study characterizing the physical properties of PM in El Paso, Texas. Diurnal PM mass concentration peaks previously observed at several other cities along the U.S.-Mexico border and elsewhere in the world were observed in El Paso. The hourly PM particle count varied from less than 10,000 particles/cm3 to greater than 80,000 particles/cm3 during the diurnal PM mass peaks. The total number of PM particles peaked in the morning and in the evening while the mode of the particle size changed from 20 nm to 50 nm, indicating different PM sources may be responsible for the mass and number concentrations and agglomeration of particles in the atmosphere during the day may possibly plays a role. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate the PM mass and number concentrations to environmental variables. Real- time wind statistics were used in conjunction with traffic data at a nearby highway for identifying sources of the PM mass and number concentration peaks. Evaluation of
Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei
Hoff, R.W.
1985-04-04
The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.
Against the Odds Exhibition Opens
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...
Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Beverly S.
The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…
Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M
2009-01-01
This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation. PMID:18982535
Mean residence time of leaf number, area, mass, and nitrogen in canopy photosynthesis.
Hirose, Tadaki; Oikawa, Shimpei
2012-08-01
Mean residence time (MRT) of plant nitrogen (N), which is an indicator of the expected length of time N newly taken up is retained before being lost, is an important component in plant nitrogen use. Here we extend the concept MRT to cover such variables as leaf number, leaf area, leaf dry mass, and nitrogen in the canopy. MRT was calculated from leaf duration (i.e., time integral of standing amount) divided by the total production of leaf variables. We determined MRT in a Xanthium canadense stand established with high or low N availability. The MRT of leaf number may imply longevity of leaves in the canopy. We found that the MRT of leaf area and dry mass were shorter than that of leaf number, while the MRT of leaf N was longer. The relatively longer MRT of leaf N was due to N resorption before leaf shedding. The MRT of all variables was longer at low N availability. Leaf productivity is the rate of canopy photosynthesis per unit amount of leaf variables, and multiplication of leaf productivity by MRT gives the leaf photosynthetic efficiency (canopy photosynthesis per unit production of leaf variables). The photosynthetic efficiency of leaf number implies the lifetime carbon gain of a leaf in the canopy. The analysis of plant-level N use efficiency by evaluating the N productivity and MRT is a well-established approach. Extension of these concepts to leaf number, area, mass, and N in the canopy will clarify the underlying logic in the study of leaf life span, leaf area development, and dry mass and N use in canopy photosynthesis. PMID:22349752
Finite Number of Kaluza-Klein Modes, all with Zero Masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdem, Recai
Kaluza-Klein modes of fermions in a five-dimensional toy model are considered. The number of Kaluza-Klein modes that survive after integration over extra dimensions is finite in this space. Moreover, the extra dimensional piece of the kinetic part of the Lagrangian in this space induces no mass for the higher Kaluza-Klein modes on contrary to the standard lore.
Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites
Polisensky, Emil; Ricotti, Massimo
2011-02-15
We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.
Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm
Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.
1996-12-31
Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
1972-01-01
The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.
Mass and wire number effects of long implosion time Aluminum Z-pinches on Saturn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.; Lepell, P. D.; Sze, H.; Failor, B.; Coleman, P.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Schneider, R.
1999-11-01
Aluminum K-shell emissions from long implosion time Z-pinches have been studied on the 7 MA Saturn accelerator. These experiments, motivated in part by the need to develop Z-pinch sources for the DECADE-Quad pulsed power driver, were designed to investigate the effects of wire number and mass on the Al K-shell radiation. The wire arrays were 40 mm in diameter and the wire number was varied from 32 to 282, holding the mass constant. In a separate scan, the load mass was varied from 400 to 2000 μg/cm, resulting in implosion times of 130 to 180 ns. K-shell yields greater than 60 kJ were measured with pulsewidths as short as 8 ns. These results will be compared with calculations and discussed within the context of K-shell scaling laws. Comparisons will also be made to short implosion time Al experiments performed on Saturn. *This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Department of Energy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94Al85000.
Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.
1995-05-01
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun
2016-09-01
The Schechter-Valle theorem states that a positive observation of neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decays implies a finite Majorana mass term for neutrinos when any unlikely fine-tuning or cancellation is absent. In this note, we reexamine the quantitative impact of the Schechter-Valle theorem, and find that current experimental lower limits on the half-lives of 0 νββ-decaying nuclei have placed a restrictive upper bound on the Majorana neutrino mass | δ mνee | < 7.43 ×10-29 eV radiatively generated at the four-loop level. Furthermore, we generalize this quantitative analysis of 0 νββ decays to that of the lepton-number-violating (LNV) meson decays M- →M‧+ + ℓα- + ℓβ- (for α , β = e or μ). Given the present upper limits on these rare LNV decays, we have derived the loop-induced Majorana neutrino masses | δ mνee | < 9.7 ×10-18 eV, | δ mνeμ | < 1.6 ×10-15 eV and | δ mνμμ | < 1.0 ×10-12 eV from K- →π+ +e- +e-, K- →π+ +e- +μ- and K- →π+ +μ- +μ-, respectively. A partial list of radiative neutrino masses from the LNV decays of D, Ds and B mesons is also given.
Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys
Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro
2016-01-01
Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670
Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.
2007-05-01
Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (μ), mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), total atomic cross-section (σ_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (σ_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of γ-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive γ-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of μ/ρ and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.
Ku, Bon Ki; Evans, Douglas E.
2015-01-01
For nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, e.g., open agglomerates or fibrous particles, it is expected that the actual density of agglomerates may be significantly different from the bulk material density. It is further expected that using the material density may upset the relationship between surface area and mass when a method for estimating aerosol surface area from number and mass concentrations (referred to as “Maynard’s estimation method”) is used. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate how much the Maynard’s estimation method depends on particle morphology and density. In this study, aerosol surface area estimated from number and mass concentration measurements was evaluated and compared with values from two reference methods: a method proposed by Lall and Friedlander for agglomerates and a mobility based method for compact nonspherical particles using well-defined polydisperse aerosols with known particle densities. Polydisperse silver aerosol particles were generated by an aerosol generation facility. Generated aerosols had a range of morphologies, count median diameters (CMD) between 25 and 50 nm, and geometric standard deviations (GSD) between 1.5 and 1.8. The surface area estimates from number and mass concentration measurements correlated well with the two reference values when gravimetric mass was used. The aerosol surface area estimates from the Maynard’s estimation method were comparable to the reference method for all particle morphologies within the surface area ratios of 3.31 and 0.19 for assumed GSDs 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, when the bulk material density of silver was used. The difference between the Maynard’s estimation method and surface area measured by the reference method for fractal-like agglomerates decreased from 79% to 23% when the measured effective particle density was used, while the difference for nearly spherical particles decreased from 30% to 24%. The results indicate that the use of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi
2010-01-01
At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…
Low Mass-Damping Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Single Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Number.
Jus, Y; Longatte, E; Chassaing, J-C; Sagaut, P
2014-10-01
The feasibility and accuracy of large eddy simulation is investigated for the case of three-dimensional unsteady flows past an elastically mounted cylinder at moderate Reynolds number. Although these flow problems are unconfined, complex wake flow patterns may be observed depending on the elastic properties of the structure. An iterative procedure is used to solve the structural dynamic equation to be coupled with the Navier-Stokes system formulated in a pseudo-Eulerian way. A moving mesh method is involved to deform the computational domain according to the motion of the fluid structure interface. Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations are performed for a freely vibrating cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 in the subcritical regime under two low mass-damping conditions. A detailed physical analysis is provided for a wide range of reduced velocities, and the typical three-branch response of the amplitude behavior usually reported in the experiments is exhibited and reproduced by numerical simulation. PMID:25278637
Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei
Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.
1997-09-01
Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy
Hoff, R.W.
1993-09-14
In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.
Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birrell, Jeremiah; Rafelski, Johann
2014-03-01
It is well known that the effective number of cosmic neutrinos, Nν, is larger than the standard model number of neutrino flavors Nνf = 3 due a small flow of entropy into neutrinos from e +/- annihilation. Observational bounds from both BBN and the CMB suggest a value of Nν that is larger than the current theoretical prediction of Nν = 3 . 046 . We show in a model independent way how Nν relates to the neutrino kinetic freeze-out temperature, Tk, which we treat as parameter. We derive the relations that must hold between Nν, the photon to neutrino temperature ratio, the neutrino fugacity, and Tk. Our results imply that measurement of neutrino reheating, as characterized by Nν, amounts to the determination of Tk. We follow the free streaming neutrinos down to a temperature on the order of the neutrino mass and determine how the cosmic neutrino properties i.e. energy density, pressure, particle density, depend in a physically consistent way on both neutrino mass and Nν. We continue down to the present day temperature and characterize the neutrino distribution in this regime as well. See arXiv:1212.6943, PRD in press. This work has been supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, No. DE-FG02-04ER41318 and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Externally driven global Alfvén eigenmodes applied for effective mass number measurement on TCABR
Puglia, P. G. P. P.; Elfimov, A. G.; Ruchko, L. F.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Guimarães-Filho, Z.; Ronchi, G.
2014-12-15
The excitation and detection of Global Alfvén Eigenmodes on TCABR for diagnostic purposes are presented. The modes can be excited with one or two in-vessel antennae, with up to 15 A of current in each, in the frequency range from 2 to 4 MHz. This scheme allows the estimation of the effective mass number at the plasma center, which value is affected by impurity concentration in the core. An amplifier based on MOSFETs is used to excite the waves driven by low power, in order to not change the basic plasma parameters. The variation of the GAE with density is verified and the location of the mode resonance at the plasma center is confirmed by the sawtooth beating, so that the correspondingly beating phase inversion improves the precision on the resonant condition determination. The toroidal parity of the modes N = 1,2 is determined by use of two opposite located antennae with different phase of the RF current. Knowledge of toroidal mode number is important as it identifies GAE location and defines the estimated effective mass value. The estimated value for A{sub eff} is ∼1.4–1.5, corresponding to 5–7% of carbon impurity concentration. The measured value of A{sub eff} is used to estimate Z{sub eff}, which is compared to older TCA experiments and the value obtained by the Spitzer conductivity.
Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.
Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David
2005-07-01
While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur. PMID:15986054
Trap-assisted studies of odd, neutron-rich isotopes from Tc to Pd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurpeta, J.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilä, H.; Płochocki, A.; Rissanen, J.; Urban, W.; Äystö, J.
2014-01-01
We review the present and future of trap-assisted structure studies of odd, neutron-rich Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd isotopes at the limits of present experimental techniques. These nuclei of refractory elements are produced in light-particle induced fission and filtered by their mass number with the IGISOL mass separator. Further mass separation with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap system provides a clean, monoisotopic beam perfectly suited for precise nuclear spectroscopy. Connecting the IGISOL and the JYFLTRAP facilities to the recently installed MCC30/15 cyclotron opens new prospects for post-trap spectroscopy of very exotic, neutron-rich nuclei.
Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saouter, Y.
1998-04-01
Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).
Quantification of particle number and mass emission factors from combustion of Queensland trees.
Wardoyo, Arinto Y P; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D; Marsh, Jack
2006-09-15
The quantification of particle emission factors under controlled laboratory conditions for burning of the following five common tree species found in South East Queensland forests has been studied: Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora), Blue Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Bloodwood (Eucalyptus intermedia), Iron Bark (Eucalyptus crebra), and Stringybark (Eucalyptus umbra). The results of the study show that the particle number emission factors and PM2.5 mass emission factors depend on the type of tree and the burning rate. For fast burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 3.3-5.7 x 10(15) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-6.9 x 10(15) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emission factors are in the range of 140-210 mg/kg for woods and 450-4700 mg/kg for leaves and branches. For slow burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 2.8-44.8 x 10(13) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-9.3 x 10(13) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emissions factors are in the range of 120-480 mg/kg for woods and 3300-4900 mg/kg for leaves and branches. PMID:17007128
Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and the Mass-to-number Ratio of Galaxy Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinker, Jeremy L.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Busha, Michael T.; Koester, Benjamin P.
2012-01-01
We place constraints on the average density (Ω m ) and clustering amplitude (σ8) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, wp (rp ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our wp (rp ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both wp (rp ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Ω m or σ8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using wp (rp ) and M/N alone, we find Ω0.5 m σ8 = 0.465 ± 0.026, with individual constraints of Ω m = 0.29 ± 0.03 and σ8 = 0.85 ± 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are Ω m = 0.290 ± 0.016 and σ8 = 0.826 ± 0.020. All errors are 1σ. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.
Un, Adem; Demir, Faruk
2013-10-01
Total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers values for different 16 heavy-weight and normal-weight concretes are calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The values of mass attenuation coefficients used in calculations are taken from the WinXCom computer program. The obtained results for heavy-weight concretes are compared with the results for normal-weight concretes. The results of heavy-weight concretes fairly differ from results for normal-weight concretes. PMID:23838359
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, I.; Demir, L.; Şahin, M.
2009-09-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ m) for SiO 2 {Quartz (1 1 0 1), Quartz (1 1 0 0) and Quartz (0 0 0 1)}, KAlSi 3O 8 {Orthoclase (0 1 0), Orthoclase (1 0 0)}, CaSO 4·2H 2O (gypsum), FeS 2 (pyrite) and Mg 2Si 2O 6 (pyroxene) natural minerals were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The γ- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Atomic and electronic cross sections ( σ t and σ e), the effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities ( Z eff and N eff) were determined using the obtained μ m values for investigated samples.
Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers
Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2014-01-01
Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.
2014-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.
Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters
Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.
2011-11-30
We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.
Grimes, S.M.; Anderson, J.D.; Bauer, R.W.
2000-07-15
A recent paper discussed fits of the nuclear Ramsauer model to total neutron cross sections for mass numbers A > 40 and for neutron energies between 6 and 60 MeV. These results are extended to nuclei of mass <40. A reasonably simple parameterization is found that gives a good representation of a recent set of precision data in this mass range. Particular emphasis is placed on the elements of biological importance: carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
Mass, number and size of lung fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestosis in sheep.
Sébastien, P.; Bégin, R.; Masse, S.
1990-01-01
After long-term asbestos inhalation, the lung tissue burden is much less for chrysotile (CHRY) than for crocidolite (CRO) exposure. Nonetheless CHRY does not appear to be less fibrogenic. To study mechanisms responsible for the low retention of CHRY and the relationships with fibrogenesis, 15 sheep received a single intratracheal injection of either CHRY or CRO. Exposures in 100 ml saline consisted of 100 mg of 1-micron latex beads for the five control sheep, 100 mg UICC CRO fibres for the five CRO sheep and 100 mg UICC B CHRY fibres for the five CHRY sheep. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was carried out at months 2, 4, 6 and 8 after exposure and necropsy at month 8. BAL and tissue samples were analysed for fibres by transmission electron microscopy. At month 2, mass concentration in BAL was 108 +/- 30 ng/ml for CRO and 0.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml for CHRY. BAL CRO decreased afterward but BAL CHRY did not. The mass concentration in the lung at month 8 was 40.6 +/- 8.7 ng/mg dry tissue for CRO and 11.5 +/- 7.0 ng/mg for CHRY. BAL fibrogenic activity at month 8 assessed by macrophage fibronectin production was less than 0.2 ng/10(6) cells/24 h in control sheep, 5 +/- 2 in CRO sheep and 11 +/- 2 in CHRY sheep (P less than 0.05 CRO vs CHRY). Histologic score of tissue injury fibrosis was 0 in control sheep, 1.9 +/- 0.3 in CRO sheep and 2.8 +/- 0.1 in CHRY sheep (P less than 0.05). At necropsy, the number size distribution of fibres per microgram of tissue from the (CRO)/(CHRY) sheep was respectively: (127 +/- 54)/(15 +/- 14) for fibres less than 5 microns, (18 +/- 17)/(32 +/- 14) for fibres greater than 5 microns, (1.6 +/- 8)/(7 +/- 13) for fibres greater than 20 microns. This study documented that the low pulmonary retention of CHRY was largely related to the faster alveolar clearance rate of CHRY mass. Fibrogenicity of CHRY remained higher and appeared to be related at least in part to the preferential retention of long and very long CHRY fibres. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2155635
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirsch, V. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Bildukevich, A. V.
A method for calculating the external mass transfer in a contactor with a transverse confined flow of a viscous incompressible liquid (gas) past hollow fibers at low Reynolds numbers is proposed. The method is based on the concept of regular arrays of parallel fibers with a well-defined flowfield. As a simplest model system, a row of parallel fibers is considered, for which dependences of a drag force and an efficiency of a solute retention on the inter-fiber distance, membrane mass transfer coefficient, Peclet and Reynolds numbers are computed. The influence of the fluid inertia on the mass transport is studied. It is shown that a linear Stokes equations can be used for as higher Re numbers, as denser is the fiber array. In this case the flow field is independent on the Re number, and analytical solutions for the flowfield and fiber sorption efficiency (fiber Sherwood number) can be used.
Suzuki, Seizi
2011-01-01
The amount of parental provisioning is thought to reflect the need of offspring. This hypothesis was tested in the case of provisioning food mass to young with controlled clutch size using the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae). The female provisioned a constant mass of food to the young irrespective of the number of nymphs and the distance of food carrying. In addition, the survival rate of young did not change with adjusted clutch size. This study showed that A. maritima females appear to provide food mass to their nymphs independent of their number. PMID:22239204
Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Isitman, Nihat Ali
2013-01-01
In this study, the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ(m)) for some homo- and hetero-chain polymers, namely polyamide-6 (PA-6), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were measured at 59.5, 511, 661.6, 1173.2, 1274.5 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The samples were separately irradiated with (241)Am, (22)Na, (137)Cs and (60)Co (638 kBq) radioactive gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″×2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector having an energy resolution of 7 % at 662 keV gamma ray from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and the effective electron densities (N(eff)) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ(m) values for the investigated samples. Furthermore, Z(eff) and N(eff) of each polymer were computed for total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The experimental values of the selected polymers were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. PMID:22645382
Energy and Mass-Number Dependence of Hadron-Nucleus Total Reaction Cross Sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro
2016-09-01
We thoroughly investigate how proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections depend on the target mass number A and the proton incident energy. In doing so, we systematically analyze nuclear reaction data that are sensitive to nuclear size, namely, proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections and differential elastic cross sections, using a phenomenological black-sphere approximation of nuclei that we are developing. In this framework, the radius of the black sphere is found to be a useful length scale that simultaneously accounts for the observed proton-nucleus total reaction cross section and first diffraction peak in the proton elastic differential cross section. This framework, which is shown here to be applicable to antiprotons, is expected to be applicable to any kind of projectile that is strongly attenuated in the nucleus. On the basis of a cross-section formula constructed within this framework, we find that a less familiar A1/6 dependence plays a crucial role in describing the energy dependence of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections.
Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei
Ahmad, I.
1993-09-01
Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.
Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis
2014-01-01
We investigate the relation of the mass of the graviton to the number of information N in a flat universe. As a result we find that the mass of the graviton scales as [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we find that the number of gravitons contained inside the observable horizon is directly proportional to the number of information N; that is, N gr ∝ N. Similarly, the total mass of gravitons that exist in the universe is proportional to the number of information N; that is, [Formula: see text]. In an effort to establish a relation between the graviton mass and the basic parameters of the universe, we find that the mass of the graviton is simply twice the Hubble mass m H as it is defined by Gerstein et al. (2003), times the square root of the quantity q - 1/2, where q is the deceleration parameter of the universe. In relation to the geometry of the universe we find that the mass of the graviton varies according to the relation [Formula: see text], and therefore m gr obviously controls the geometry of the space time through a deviation of the geodesic spheres from the spheres of Euclidean metric. PMID:27433513
Gkigkitzis, Ioannis
2014-01-01
We investigate the relation of the mass of the graviton to the number of information N in a flat universe. As a result we find that the mass of the graviton scales as mgr∝1/N. Furthermore, we find that the number of gravitons contained inside the observable horizon is directly proportional to the number of information N; that is, Ngr ∝ N. Similarly, the total mass of gravitons that exist in the universe is proportional to the number of information N; that is, Mgr∝N. In an effort to establish a relation between the graviton mass and the basic parameters of the universe, we find that the mass of the graviton is simply twice the Hubble mass mH as it is defined by Gerstein et al. (2003), times the square root of the quantity q − 1/2, where q is the deceleration parameter of the universe. In relation to the geometry of the universe we find that the mass of the graviton varies according to the relation mgr∝Rsc, and therefore mgr obviously controls the geometry of the space time through a deviation of the geodesic spheres from the spheres of Euclidean metric. PMID:27433513
On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas
2016-09-01
Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle
2001-01-01
Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…
Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.
2016-05-01
The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.
Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.
Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V
2004-01-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994
Inclusive B-meson production at the LHC in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme
Kniehl, B. A.; Kramer, G.; Schienbein, I.
2011-11-01
We calculate the next-to-leading-order cross section for the inclusive production of B mesons in pp collisions in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach that takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e{sup +}e{sup -} data and compare our results for the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with recent data from the CMS Collaboration at the CERN LHC. We find good agreement, in particular, at large values of p{sub T}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Rouf, Rifat A.; Sarker, M. M. A.
2016-07-01
The performance of mass recovery for solar adsorption cooling system has been investigated numerically. Solar adsorption cooling appears to have a prospect in tropical region. Though it has a huge installation cost, its long term payback could be a considerable fact. Mass recovery scheme increases Average Cooling Capacity (ACC) and Coefficient of Performance (COP) values of the adsorption cooling system. In intension to reduce cost and maximize system performance, a two bed solar driven conventional cooling system run by silica gel and water along with mass recovery process has been investigated mathematically.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.
2002-01-01
Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)
Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.
2016-02-01
A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.
Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada; Nováková, Alena; Sigler, Karel
2015-08-01
Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS/APCI) with reversed- and chiral phases was used for separation of triacylglycerols (TAG) from protozoan and mold. This study describes the separation and identification of odd numbered chains of regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols from different natural sources, i.e., the protozoan Khawkinea quartana and the mold Mortierella alpina. Using the above-mentioned separation methods and the synthesis of appropriate standards of TAG, we identified regioisomers and enantiomers of both even and odd numbered TAG. The biosynthesis of odd numbered TAG was found to be strictly stereospecific and to depend on the production microorganism, one enantiomer predominating in the protozoan and the other in the mold. It was proved that even numbered TAG are synthesized in a higher optical purity, which can be explained by a higher affinity of acyltransferases to the respective substrate, i.e., to even chain PUFA. PMID:26123693
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, Robert G
1955-01-01
The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.
Han, I; Demir, L
2010-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) for pure Au and Au99Be1, Au88Ge12, Au95Zn5 alloys were measured at 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 241Am and 109Cd radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The gamma- rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections (sigmat and sigmae), effective atomic and electron densities (Zeff and Nel) were determined using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated Au alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule. PMID:20421703
W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.
2014-08-13
We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.
W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.
2014-08-13
We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less
It Would Be Nineteen if Ten Was an Odd Number
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ball, Derek
2009-01-01
The author provides an account of launching a new branch at the Institute of Education at Reading University, a joint branch with the Mathematics Association. In the inaugural meeting, teachers had gathered to explore the theme of creativity in learning mathematics. The workshop provides some indication of the creative spirit these teachers…
Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd
2013-10-15
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936
Projected quasiparticle calculations for the N =82 odd-proton isotones
Losano, L. ); Dias, H. )
1991-12-01
The structure of low-lying states in odd-mass {ital N}=82 isotones (135{le}{ital A}{le}145) is investigated in terms of a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticles Tamm-Dancoff approximation. A surface-delta interaction is taken as the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. Excitation energies, dipole and quadrupole moments, and {ital B}({ital M}1) and {ital B}({ital E}2) values are calculated and compared with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar
2012-09-01
The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apaydın, G.; Cengiz, E.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Aylıkcı, V.; Bakkaloğlu, Ö. F.
2009-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients for the elements Co, Cu and Ag and a thin film of CoCuAg alloy were measured in the energy range 4.029-38.729 keV. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities were calculated by using these coefficients. The energies were obtained by using secondary targets that were irradiated with gamma-ray photons of 241Am. The x-rays were counted by using a Canberra Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The results were compared with theoretical calculated values and fairly good agreement was found between them within an average experimental error. The mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities were plotted versus photon energy.
Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan
2016-01-01
Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure. PMID:26771771
General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2014-05-01
We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.
Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew
2012-01-01
Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407
Mass-number and excitation-energy dependence of the spin cutoff parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimes, S. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Massey, T. N.
2016-07-01
The spin cutoff parameter determining the nuclear level density spin distribution ρ (J ) is defined through the spin projection as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.
2014-08-01
This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.
2014-09-01
This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.
Roussakis, Arkadios; Baras, Panagiotis; Seimenis, Ioannis; Andreou, John; Danias, Peter G
2004-01-01
In cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, for any preset imaging parameters the number of phases per cardiac cycle for a single slice is proportional to breath-hold duration. We investigated the relationship between the accuracy of measurement of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV and ESV, respectively), mass and ejection fraction (EF), and the number of phases acquired per cardiac cycle. Twelve adult volunteers underwent cardiac MRI and five complete LV functional studies were obtained with 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 phases per cardiac cycle. We calculated LV volumes, EF, and mass for each acquisition, and compared them using the 20-phase acquisition as the reference standard. The scan duration was proportional to the number of phases acquired. There was a systematic underestimation of LV, EDV, and EF, with decreasing number of phases. Differences from the reference standard became significant for the 8-phase acquisition (p<0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that only those with slower heart rates (<65/min) had significant differences in EDV, but not in EF, for the 8-phase acquisition. For those with faster heart rates, no differences were detected between the different acquisitions. There were no significant differences between all acquisitions for the LV ESV and mass. We conclude that at least 11 phases per cardiac cycle are needed to maintain accuracy for cine cardiac MRI studies. Decreasing the number of phases per cardiac cycle beyond this cutoff may introduce significant error of measurement, particularly for the left ventricular EDV and EF and especially for those with bradycardia, and should be avoided. PMID:15646887
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.
2015-08-01
The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.
Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Sham S.
2016-07-01
A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.
Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale
As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.
Odds of observing the multiverse
Dahlen, A.
2010-03-15
Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Graeme L.
2009-03-01
Let tau(n) denote the number of positive divisors of a natural number n>1 and let sigma(n) denote their sum. Then n is superharmonic if sigma(n)mid n^ktau(n) for some positive integer k . We deduce numerous properties of superharmonic numbers and show in particular that the set of all superharmonic numbers is the first nontrivial example that has been given of an infinite set that contains all perfect numbers but for which it is difficult to determine whether there is an odd member.
Indoor and outdoor PM mass and number concentrations at schools in the Athens area.
Diapouli, E; Chaloulakou, A; Mihalopoulos, N; Spyrellis, N
2008-01-01
Simultaneous indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentration measurements were conducted in seven primary schools in the Athens area. Both gravimetric samplers and continuous monitors were used. Filters were subsequently analyzed for anion species. Moreover ultrafine particles number concentration was monitored continuously indoors and outdoors. Mean 8-hr PM10 concentration was measured equal to 229 +/- 182 microg/m3 indoors and 166 +/- 133 microg/m3 outdoors. The respective PM2.5 concentrations were 82 +/- 56 microg/m3 indoors and 56 +/- 26 microg/m3 outdoors. Ultrafine particles 8-h mean number concentration was measured equal to 24,000 +/- 17,900 particles/cm3 indoors and 32,000 +/- 14,200 particles/cm3 outdoors. PM10 outdoor concentrations exhibited a greater spatial variability than the corresponding PM2.5 ones. I/O ratios were close or above 1.00 for PM10 and PM2.5 and smaller than 1.00 for ultrafine particles. Very high I/O ratios were observed when intense activities took place. The initial results of the chemical analysis showed that SO4(-2) accounts for the 6.6 +/- 3.5% of the PM10 and NO3(1) for the 3.1 +/- 1.4%.The corresponding results for PM2.5 are 12.0 +/- 7.7% for SO4(-2) and 3.1 +/- 1.9% for NO3-. PM2.5 SO4(-2) indoor concentrations were highly correlated with outdoor ones and the regression line had the largest slope and a very low intercept, indicative of no indoor sources of fine particulate SO4(-2). The results of the statistical analysis of indoor and outdoor concentration data support the use of SO4(-2) as a proper surrogate for indoor PM of outdoor origin. PMID:17458512
Evaluation of filter media for particle number, surface area and mass penetrations.
Li, Lin; Zuo, Zhili; Japuntich, Daniel A; Pui, David Y H
2012-07-01
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a standard for respirator certification under 42 CFR Part 84, using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester with photometers. A recent study showed that photometric detection methods may not be sensitive for measuring engineered nanoparticles. Present NIOSH standards for penetration measurement are mass-based; however, the threshold limit value/permissible exposure limit for an engineered nanoparticle worker exposure is not yet clear. There is lack of standardized filter test development for engineered nanoparticles, and development of a simple nanoparticle filter test is indicated. To better understand the filter performance against engineered nanoparticles and correlations among different tests, initial penetration levels of one fiberglass and two electret filter media were measured using a series of polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol test methods at two different laboratories (University of Minnesota Particle Technology Laboratory and 3M Company). Monodisperse aerosol penetrations were measured by a TSI 8160 using NaCl particles from 20 to 300 nm. Particle penetration curves and overall penetrations were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM), and TSI 8130 at two face velocities and three layer thicknesses. Results showed that reproducible, comparable filtration data were achieved between two laboratories, with proper control of test conditions and calibration procedures. For particle penetration curves, the experimental results of monodisperse testing agreed well with polydisperse SMPS measurements. The most penetrating particle sizes (MPPSs) of electret and fiberglass filter media were ~50 and 160 nm, respectively. For overall penetrations, the CPC and NSAM results of polydisperse aerosols were close to the penetration at the corresponding median particle sizes. For each filter type, power
Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2015-01-01
Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmaz, Demet; Boydaş, Elif; Cömert, Esra
2016-08-01
In this study, we aimed to determine mass attenuation coefficient (μm) and effective atomic number (Zeff) for some compounds of the 3d transition elements such as CoO, CoF2, CoF3, Cr2O3, CrF2, CrF3, FeO, Fe2O3, MnO2, TiO2, V2O3, VF3, V2O5, VF4 and ZnO at 19.63 and 22.10 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The experimental results of μm are compared with the theoretical results. Also, effective atomic numbers of compounds of the 3d transition elements have been determined by using experimental and theoretical mass attenuation coefficients. The agreement of measured values of effective atomic numbers with theoretical calculations is quite satisfactory.
Ochota, M; Wojtasik, B; Niżański, W
2016-06-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental kinetics of cats' blastocysts in connection with their morphology and blastomeres allocation to trophoblast or embryoblast cells. We examined gross blastocyst morphology and the total number of blastomeres together with its allocation to inner cell mass (ICM) or trophectoderm (TE) cells in pre-implantation feline embryos obtained from 6th to 9th day of in vitro culture. From all the investigated embryos, 61.8% developed to early blastocyst, 37.4% to full and 7.6% to hatching blastocyst stage. The total cell number (TCN) varied form 58 cells in early day 6 to 245 in hatching day 8 blastocyst, with the mean 84.9 cells in early, 156.7 in full, and 204.4 in hatching ones. Day 8 blastocyst had the highest number of total cells, together with the highest mean number of ICM regardless of its morphological assessment. Early blastocyst (apart from day 6) had the highest number of arrested cells, while dead cells were the highest in full day 9 blastocyst. More data about the relationship between blastocyst development and morphology would facilitate the selection of optimal blastocysts for further procedures. PMID:26991408
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal
2016-05-01
Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi2O3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.
Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R
2015-07-01
The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612
Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés
2011-01-01
Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Helen
2000-03-01
The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical
Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.
Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam
2016-02-01
Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models. PMID:26986411
Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis
... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...
Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.
1996-05-01
Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing
2014-12-01
Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 μm were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.
2015-09-01
Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.
The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations
Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.
1988-06-06
Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.
Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
2011-01-01
This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…
Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.
2016-03-01
Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .
Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.
2016-04-01
We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.
Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios
Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius
2006-01-01
Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385
CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments
Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi
2005-10-01
We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, I.; Demir, L.
2009-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ m), for Cr, Fe, Ni and Fe xNi 1-x ( x = 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.2), Fe xCr yNi 1-(x+y) ( x = 0.7, y = 0.1; x = 0.5, y = 0.2; x = 0.4, y = 0.3; x = 0.3, y = 0.3; x = 0.2, y = 0.2 and x = 0.1, y = 0.2) and Ni xCr 1-x ( x = 0.8, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.2) alloys were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 10 mCi Cd-109 and 100 mCi Am-241 radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The γ- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections ( σ t and σ e), effective atomic and electron numbers ( Z eff and N eff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated 3d alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule. The experimental values were compared with the calculated values for all samples.
Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco
2016-07-01
The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known. PMID:27086011
Johnsen, Jacob; Pryds, Kasper; Salman, Rasha; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Bøtker, Hans Erik
2016-03-01
Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion (IR), is cardioprotective. The optimal rIPC-algorithm is not established. We investigated the effect of cycle numbers and ischemia duration within each rIPC-cycle and the influence of effector organ mass on the efficacy of cardioprotection. Furthermore, the duration of the early phase of protection by rIPC was investigated. Using a tourniquet tightened at the inguinal level, we subjected C57Bl/6NTac mice to intermittent hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. The rIPC-protocols consisted of (I) two, four, six or eight cycles, (II) 2, 5 or 10 min of ischemia in each cycle, (III) single or two hind-limb occlusions and (IV) 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 h intervals from rIPC to index cardiac ischemia. All rIPC algorithms were followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were subsequently exposed to 25 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in an ex vivo Langendorff model. Cardioprotection was evaluated by infarct size and post-ischemic hemodynamic recovery. Four to six rIPC cycles yielded significant cardioprotection with no further protection by eight cycles. Ischemic cycles lasting 2 min offered the same protection as cycles of 5 min ischemia, whereas prolonged cycles lasting 10 min abrogated protection. One and two hind-limb preconditioning were equally protective. In our mouse model, the duration of protection by rIPC was 1.5 h. These findings indicate that the number and duration of cycles rather than the tissue mass exposed to rIPC determines the efficacy of rIPC. PMID:26768477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar
2014-08-01
Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treiman, Sam
2003-07-01
This is an enjoyable book by a particle physicist of some distinction, who wrote several books on the theoretical aspects of his subject. He died soon after the book was finished. This book would seem a splendid tribute to his memory. The first five chapters are an excellent introduction to quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of a particle physicist. (A solid state physicist might include some other topics.) The next three chapters give some feeling for the excitement of particle physics and describe some of the zoo of curious creatures discovered in the depths of particle accelerators, and the forces between them: strong, electromagnetic and weak. The final chapter, 'Quantum Fields', is a tour de force. The author has a light touch and a pleasant sense of humour. He does not attempt to explain everything he mentions, but he makes it very clear when he does not. These points are beautifully illustrated by the following extract from the final chapter (p 245). 'It was said above that virtual particles come into play when the real collision ingredients are all close together. In fact, virtual particles are always in play. Even a single real particle, moving along in isolation, can emit and reabsorb virtual particles over and over again. This has the effect of shifting the physical mass of the particle away from the 'bare' value that entered into the Hamiltonian. That shift inevitably turns out to be slightly infinite, and there is a whole technology for isolating and redefining away this and a few other infinities that are characteristic of renormalisable quantum field theories. But we forebear to pursue these delicacies any further here.' I particularly like 'slightly infinite'. The publisher's blurb describes this book as being suitable for popular science readers. It is not. Its level of mathematics would make it very heavy going for anyone who had not taken at least one course in mathematics at university. This is a book which can be strongly recommended as a
Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H
2003-10-01
An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329
Shukla, Anil K.; Bogdanov, Bogdan
2015-02-10
Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry. Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed with the general formulae, (HCOOLi)nLi+, (HCOOLi)nLimm+, (HCOOLi)nHCOO- and (HCOOLi)n(HCOO)mm-. Several magic number cluster ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi)3Li+ being the most abundant and stable cluster ions. Fragmentations of singly charged clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi)2) followed by sequential loss of monomer units (HCOOLi). In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi)3Li+ at higher collision energies which later fragments to dimer and monomer ions in lower abundance. Quantum mechanical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability.
Xu, Peng
2014-12-01
In ancient China, water has been regarded as one of the five vital components of life. It has been observed that water has many fascinating properties: water is ‘soft’ yet it can penetrate a hard rock; water is ‘pure’ yet it can tolerate other beings. Because of its unique properties, water is often associated with good quality and has been given the highest praise by Laozi in his book Tao Te Ching saying: the highest/best quality that one can have is being like water. However, little did people understand why and how water possesses such fascinating properties. Modern scientific developments made people realize that the macroscopic liquid water is made of a large number of water molecules held together via a network of hydrogen bonds. And those wonderful properties of water are merely the macroscopic manifestations of the interactions between water molecules and other molecules. For example, the dissolving ability of water is due to the fact that the interaction between a water molecule and the other molecular species is stronger than the interactions among their own molecular species. In fact the interactions between any two molecules are governed by the same physics and are termed intermolecular interaction (or intermolecular forces in some literature, although technically ‘force’ is incorrect usage here). Although the very existence of the intermolecular interactions is easily proved, e.g. the mere presence of the solid phase of matter, and scientists today have recognized that the seemingly weak intermolecular interactions essentially hold the world together through a delicate and cooperative process, the theoretical understanding of various intermolecular interactions is still far from satisfactory. On the practical side, theoreticians need to balance computational cost and accuracy. Because of the relatively small magnitudes of the intermolecular interactions, errors that appear tiny compared to the usual chemical (covalent) bonding may change
The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godfrey, Mark Jonathan
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.
Chris Quigg
2007-12-05
In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.
Taiwo, Adewale M; Beddows, David C S; Shi, Zongbo; Harrison, Roy M
2014-03-15
Size-resolved composition of particulate matter (PM) sampled in the industrial town of Port Talbot (PT), UK was determined in comparison to a typical urban background site in Birmingham (EROS). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) sampler was deployed for two separate sampling campaigns with the addition of a Grimm optical spectrometer at the PT site. MOUDI samples were analysed for water-soluble anions (Cl(-), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-)) and cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and trace metals (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba and Pb). The PM mass distribution showed a predominance of fine particle (PM₂.₅) mass at EROS whereas the PT samples were dominated by the coarse fraction (PM₂.₅₋₁₀). SO₄(2-), Cl(-), NH4(+), Na(+), NO₃(-), and Ca(2+) were the predominant ionic species at both sites while Al and Fe were the metals with highest concentrations at both sites. Mean concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher at PT than EROS due to industrial and marine influences. The contribution of regional pollution by sulphate, ammonium and nitrate was greater at EROS relative to PT. The traffic signatures of Cu, Sb, Ba and Pb were particularly prominent at EROS. Overall, PM at EROS was dominated by secondary aerosol and traffic-related particles while PT was heavily influenced by industrial activities and marine aerosol. Profound influences of wind direction are seen in the 72-hour data, especially in relation to the PT local sources. Measurements of particle number in 14 separate size bins plotted as a function of wind direction and speed are highly indicative of contributing sources, with local traffic dominant below 0.5 μm, steelworks emissions from 0.5 to 15 μm, and marine aerosol above 15 μm. PMID:24419284
Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating
Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles
2016-01-01
We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
2012-01-01
We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…
Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana
2016-03-01
The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.
Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl
Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.
1995-08-01
The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.
Shukla, Anil; Bogdanov, Bogdan
2015-02-14
Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (collision-induced dissociation with N{sub 2}). Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed in both positive and negative ion modes with the general formulae, (HCOOLi){sub n}Li{sup +}, (HCOOLi){sub n}Li{sub m}{sup m+}, (HCOOLi){sub n}HCOO{sup −}, and (HCOOLi){sub n}(HCOO){sub m}{sup m−}. Several magic number cluster (MNC) ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi){sub 3}Li{sup +} being the most abundant and stable cluster ion. Fragmentations of singly charged positive clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi){sub 2}) followed by the loss of monomer units (HCOOLi) although the former remains the dominant dissociation process. In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi){sub 3}Li{sup +} as the most abundant fragment ion at higher collision energies which then fragments further to dimer and monomer ions at lower abundances. In the negative ion mode, however, singly charged clusters dissociated via sequential loss of monomer units. Multiply charged clusters in both positive and negative ion modes dissociated mainly via Coulomb repulsion. Quantum chemical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the central lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Anil; Bogdanov, Bogdan
2015-02-01
Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (collision-induced dissociation with N2). Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed in both positive and negative ion modes with the general formulae, (HCOOLi)nLi+, (HCOOLi)nLimm+, (HCOOLi)nHCOO-, and (HCOOLi)n(HCOO)mm-. Several magic number cluster (MNC) ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi)3Li+ being the most abundant and stable cluster ion. Fragmentations of singly charged positive clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi)2) followed by the loss of monomer units (HCOOLi) although the former remains the dominant dissociation process. In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi)3Li+ as the most abundant fragment ion at higher collision energies which then fragments further to dimer and monomer ions at lower abundances. In the negative ion mode, however, singly charged clusters dissociated via sequential loss of monomer units. Multiply charged clusters in both positive and negative ion modes dissociated mainly via Coulomb repulsion. Quantum chemical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the central lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability.
G.J. Kramer; S.E. Sharapov; R. Nazikian; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; JET-EFDA contributors
2003-01-15
Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd Torodicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAEs) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high field side to excite the TAEs in the weak magnetic shear region. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs.
Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.
Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin
2015-05-01
Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521
Pirjola, Liisa; Dittrich, Aleš; Niemi, Jarkko V; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Järvinen, Anssi; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto
2016-01-01
Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 10(14) # (kg fuel)(-1), 6-40 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)(-1), for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions. PMID:26682775
Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander
We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.
Majorana mass, time reversal symmetry, and the dimension of space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbut, Igor F.
2013-04-01
The Weyl fermions with a well defined chirality are known to demand that the dimension of space which they inhabit must be odd. It is shown here, however, that not all odd dimensional spaces are equally good hosts: in particular, an arbitrary number of chiral Weyl fermions can acquire a Majorana type of mass only in three (modulo eight) dimensions. The argument utilizes (a) the precise analogy between the Majorana mass term and the coupling of time-reversed Weyl fermions, and (b) the conditions on the requisite time reversal operator, which are implied by the real representations of Clifford algebras. In particular, it is shown that the latter allows only an even number of Majorana-massive Weyl fermions in seven (modulo eight) spatial dimensions. The theorem connects the observed odd number of neutrino flavors, the time reversal symmetry, and the dimension of our space and strengthens the argument for the possible violation of the lepton number conservation law.
Band structure of odd-mass lanthanum nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Deepti; Verma, Preeti; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.
2014-04-01
Negative parity energy states in 121-131La have been studied using Projected Shell Model (PSM). Some nuclear structure properties like yrast spectra, back-bending in moment of inertia, reduced transition probabilities and band diagrams have been described. The experimental feature of the co-existence of prolate-oblate shapes in 125-131La isotopes has been satisfactorily explained by PSM results. Comparison of the theoretical data with their experimental counterparts has also been made. From the calculations, it is found that the yrast states arise because of multi-quasiparticle states.
Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.
Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S
2016-07-01
Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118
Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.
2016-07-01
Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.
Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints
Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.
2014-01-01
Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kane, R. P.
2008-06-01
The 12-month running means of the conventional sunspot number Rz, the sunspot group numbers (SGN) and the frequency of occurrence of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) were examined for cycle 23 (1996 - 2006). For the whole disc, the SGN and Rz plots were almost identical. Hence, SGN could be used as a proxy for Rz, for which latitude data are not available. SGN values were used for 5° latitude belts 0° - 5°, 5° - 10°, 10° - 15°, 15° - 20°, 20° - 25°, 25° - 30° and > 30°, separately in each hemisphere north and south. Roughly, from latitudes 25° - 30° N to 20° - 25° N, the peaks seem to have occurred later for lower latitudes, from latitudes 20° - 25° N to 15° - 20° N, the peaks are stagnant or occur slightly earlier, and then from latitudes 15° - 20° N to 0° - 5° N, the peaks seem to have occurred again later for lower latitudes. Thus, some latitudinal migration is suggested, clearly in the northern hemisphere, not very clearly in the southern hemisphere, first to the equator in 1998, stagnant or slightly poleward in 1999, and then to the equator again from 2000 onwards, the latter reminiscent of the Maunder butterfly diagrams. Similar plots for CME occurrence frequency also showed multiple peaks (two or three) in almost all latitude belts, but the peaks were almost simultaneous at all latitudes, indicating no latitudinal migration. For similar latitude belts, SGN and CME plots were dissimilar in almost all latitude belts except 10° - 20° S. The CME plots had in general more peaks than the SGN plots, and the peaks of SGN often did not match with those of CME. In the CME data, it was noticed that whereas the values declined from 2002 to 2003, there was no further decline during 2003 - 2006 as one would have expected to occur during the declining phase of sunspots, where 2007 is almost a year of sunspot minimum. An inquiry at GSFC-NASA revealed that the person who creates the preliminary list was changed in 2004 and the new person picks out
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias
2015-01-01
This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a
The even-odd systematics in R-process nuclide abundances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marti, K.; Suess, H. E.
1988-01-01
The paper reports and discusses solar system N(R) abundances for nuclides A greater than 70, obtained as differences between measured solar system abundances and calculated S-process contributions. The abundance peak at A of about 163 in the rare earth element region reveals properties which are similar to those of the R-process peaks corresponding to magic neutron numbers N = 82 and N = 126. Systematic differences in the N(R) abundances of even-A and odd-A nuclides are restricted to specific mass regions. It is concluded that these differences are most probably related to the properties of nuclear species during beta(-) decay to the stability valley.
Hwang, Minki; Park, Junbeum; Lee, Young-Seon; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Sung Hwan; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam
2015-02-01
The heart characteristic length, the inverse of conduction velocity (CV), and the inverse of the refractory period are known to determine vulnerability to cardiac fibrillation (fibrillation number, FibN) in in silico or ex vivo models. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of FibN through in silico atrial modeling and to evaluate its clinical application in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who had undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation. We compared the maintenance duration of AF at various FibNAF values using in silico bidomain atrial modeling. Among 60 patients (72% male, 54±13 years old, 82% with paroxysmal AF) who underwent circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) for AF rhythm control, we examined the relationship between FibN AF and postprocedural AF inducibility or induction pacing cycle length (iPCL). Clinical FibNAF was calculated using left atrium (LA) dimension (echocardiogram), the inverse of CV, and the inverse of the atrial effective refractory periods measured at proximal and distal coronary sinus. In silico simulation found a positive correlation between AF maintenance duration and FibNAF ( R = 0.90, ). After clinical CPVI, FibNAF ( 0.296±0.038 versus 0.192±0.028, ) was significantly higher in patients with postprocedural AF inducibility ( n = 41) than in those without ( n = 19 ). Among 41 patients with postprocedural AF inducibility, FibNAF ( P = 0.935, ) had excellent correlations with induction pacing cycle length. FibNAF, based on LA mass and wavelength, correlates well with AF maintenance in computational modeling and clinical AF inducibility after CPVI. PMID:25343755
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan
1994-01-01
The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)
The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marietta, Don E., Jr.
1977-01-01
There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)
Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer
2012-01-01
This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…
2014-01-01
Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xing; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Xu, Hu-Shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-Lin; Yuri, A. Litvinov; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Bao-Hua; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Klaus, Blaum; Chen, Rui-Jiu; Chen, Xiang-Cheng; Fu, Chao-Yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Huang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Da-Wei; Lam, Yi-Hua; Ma, Xin-Wen; Mao, Rui-Shi; Uesaka, T.; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xing, Yuan-Ming; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-Long
2015-10-01
In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of 52-54Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, 53Sc and 54Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number N=32 in Sc isotopes. Supported by 973 Program of China (2013CB834401), the NSFC (U1232208, U1432125, 11205205, 11035007) and the Helmholtz-CAS Joint Research Group (HCJRG-108)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.
2015-12-01
Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.
Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.
2013-04-01
Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smeltzer, D. B.; Sorensen, N. E.
1972-01-01
A 38.8-cm (15.28-in.) capture diameter model of a mixed-compression axisymmetric inlet system with a translating cowl was designed and tested. The internal contours, designed for Mach number 2.65, provided a throat area of 59 percent of the capture area when the cowl was retracted for transonic operation. Other model features included a boundary-layer removal system, vortex generators, an engine airflow bypass system, cowl support struts, and rotating rakes at the engine face. All tunnel testing was conducted at a tunnel total pressure of about 1 atm (a unit Reynolds number of about 8.53 million/m at Mach number 2.65) at angles of attack from 0 deg to 4 deg. Results for the following were obtained: total-pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face as a function of bleed mass-flow ratio, the effect of bleed and vortex generator configurations on pressure recovery and distortion, inlet tolerance to unstart due to changes in angle of attack or Mach number, surface pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and transonic additive drag. At Mach number 2.65 and with the best bleed configurations, maximum total pressure recovery at the engine face ranged from 91 to 94.5 percent with bleed mass-flow ratios from 4 to 9 percent, respectively, and total-pressure distortion was less than 10 percent. At off-design supersonic Mach numbers above 1.70, maximum total-pressure recoveries and corresponding bleed mass flows were about the same as at Mach number 2.65, with about 10 to 15 percent distortion. In the transonic Mach number range, total pressure recovery was high (above 96 percent) and distortion was low (less than 15 percent) only when the inlet mass-flow ration was reduced 0.02 to 0.06 from the maximum theoretical value (0.590 at Mach number 1.0).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggi, S.; Parra, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Valiño, I.; Vázquez, R.; Zas, E.
2013-04-01
In the present work we carry out a study of the high energy cosmic rays mass identification capabilities of a hybrid detector employing both fluorescence telescopes and particle detectors at ground using simulated data. It involves the analysis of extensive showers with zenith angles above 60° making use of the joint distribution of the depth of maximum and muon size at ground level as mass discriminating parameters. The correlation and sensitivity to the primary mass are investigated. Two different techniques - clustering algorithms and neural networks - are adopted to classify the mass identity on an event-by-event basis. Typical results for the achieved performance of identification are reported and discussed. The analysis can be extended in a very straightforward way to vertical showers or can be complemented with additional discriminating observables coming from different types of detectors.
Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni
This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…
Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.
1975-01-01
A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.
Increasing the Odds of the Sweep
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-10-01
Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed the extrasolar planet status of two of the 16 candidates discovered by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. One of the two confirmed exoplanets has a mass a little below 10 Jupiter masses, while the other is less than 3.8 Jupiter masses. The 16 candidates were uncovered during an international Hubble survey, called the 'Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search', or SWEEPS [1]. Hubble looked at a large number of stars in the crowded central bulge of our Galaxy, covering a swath of sky that is no bigger than 1/50th the size of the full Moon. ESO PR Photo 38a/06 ESO PR Photo 38a/06 Transiting Exoplanet (Artist's Impression) This tally is consistent with the number of planets expected to be uncovered from such a distant survey, based on previous exoplanet detections made in our local solar neighbourhood. Extrapolated to the entire Galaxy, the Hubble result provides strong evidence for the existence of at least 6 billion Jupiter-sized planets in the Milky Way. Five of the newly discovered planets represent a new extreme type of planet not yet found in any nearby searches. Dubbed Ultra-Short-Period Planets (USPPs), these worlds whirl around their stars in less than a day. The shortest-duration orbit is just 10 hours. Hubble couldn't see the 16 newly found planet candidates directly. Instead, astronomers used Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys to search for planets by measuring the slight dimming of a star due to the passage of a planet in front of it. This event is called a transit. The planet would have to be about the size of Jupiter to block enough starlight, about 1 to 10 percent, to be measurable by Hubble. These planets are called 'candidates' because astronomers cannot be sure of their mass, hence of their status, without further spectroscopic measurements. ESO PR Photo 38b/06 ESO PR Photo 38b/06 Radial Velocities of SWEEPS-04 (UVES/VLT) Hubble monitored 180,000 stars for periodic, brief
Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM
Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.
2009-08-26
We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.
A set of exactly solvable Ising models with half-odd-integer spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S. M.
2009-03-01
We present a set of exactly solvable Ising models, with half-odd-integer spin- S on a square-type lattice including a quartic interaction term in the Hamiltonian. The particular properties of the mixed lattice, associated with mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) and only nearest-neighbor interaction, allow us to map this system either onto a purely spin-1/2 lattice or onto a purely spin- S lattice. By imposing the condition that the mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) lattice must have an exact solution, we found a set of exact solutions that satisfy the free fermion condition of the eight vertex model. The number of solutions for a general half-odd-integer spin- S is given by S+1/2. Therefore we conclude that this transformation is equivalent to a simple spin transformation which is independent of the coordination number.
ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...
Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun
2016-08-17
Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nord, David Paul
1984-01-01
It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…
Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M
2010-03-01
Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.
2013-02-01
A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 μm3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with the mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons of the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air mass from south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime of Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from south has been twice higher compared to the average of the previous years, these southerly air masses did however not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. This result implied that the air mass history was not the key factor, explaining reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified to local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbot, N.; Kubelova, L.; Makes, O.; Cusack, M.; Ondracek, J.; Vodička, P.; Schwarz, J.; Zdimal, V.
2016-04-01
This paper describes the use of a unique valve switching system that allowed for high temporal resolution indoor and outdoor data to be collected concurrently from online C-ToF-AMS, SMPS and OC/EC, and offline BLPI measurements. The results reveal near real-time dynamic aerosol behaviour along a migration path from an outdoor to indoor environment. An outdoor reduction in NR-PM1 mass concentration occurred daily from AM (06:00-12:00) to PM (12:00-18:00). SO4 (26%-37%) [AM/PM] increased proportionally during afternoons at the expense of NO3 (18%-7%). The influences of mixing height, temperature and solar radiation were considered against the mean mass concentration loss for each species. Losses were then calculated according to species via a basic input/output model. NO3 lost the most mass during afternoon periods, which we attribute to the accelerated dissociation of NH4NO3 through increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios varied from 0.46 for <40 nm to 0.65 for >100 nm. These ratios were calculated using average SMPS PNC measurements over the full campaign and corroborated using a novel technique of calculating I/O penetration ratios through the indoor migration of particles during a new particle formation event. This ratio was then used to observe changes in indoor composition relative to those outdoors. Indoor sampling was carried out in an undisturbed room with no known sources. Indoor concentrations were found to be proportional to those outdoors, with organic matter [2.7 μg/m3] and SO4 [1.7 μg/m3] being the most prominent species. These results are indicative of fairly rapid aerosol penetration, a source-free indoor environment and small afternoon I/O temperature gradients. Fine fraction NO3 was observed indoors in both real-time AMS PM1 and off-line BLPI measurements. Greater mass concentration losses were observed from filter measurements, highlighting an important time dependency factor when investigating semi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu
2016-06-01
Interfacial mass-transport and redistribution in the micro-scale liquid droplets are important in diverse fields of research interest. The role of the "inflow" and the "outflow" type convective eddy-pairs in the entrainment of outer solute and internal relocation are examined for different homogeneous and heterogeneous water droplet pairs appearing in a tandem arrangement. Two micro-droplets of pure (rain) water interact with an oncoming outer air stream (Re ≤ 100) contaminated by uniformly distributed SO2. By virtue of separation/attachment induced non-uniform interfacial shear-stress gradient, the well-defined inflow/outflow type pairs of recirculating eddy-based convective motion quickly develops, and the eddies effectively attract/repel the accumulated outer solute and control the physical process of mass-transport in the droplet-pair. The non-uniformly shear-driven flow interaction and bifurcation of the circulatory internal flow lead to growth of important micro-scale "secondary" eddies which suitably regroup with the adjacent "primary" one to create the sustained inflow/outflow type convective dynamics. The presently derived flow characteristics and in-depth analysis help to significantly improve our understanding of the micro-droplet based transport phenomena in a wider context. By tuning "Re" (defined in terms of the droplet diameter and the average oncoming velocity of the outer air) and gap-ratio "α," the internal convective forcing and the solute entrainment efficiency could be considerably enhanced. The quantitative estimates for mass entrainment, convective strength, and saturation characteristics for different coupled micro-droplet pairs are extensively examined here for 0.2 ≤ α ≤ 2.0 and 30 ≤ Re ≤ 100. Interestingly, for the compound droplets, with suitably tuned radius-ratio "B" (of upstream droplet with respect to downstream one) the generated "inflow" type coherent convective dynamics helped to significantly augment the centre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbusch, M.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barbieri, C.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cipollone, A.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Navrátil, P.; Neidherr, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Somà, V.; Stanja, J.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.
2015-05-01
The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N =32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z =20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes K,5352 , the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N =32 , slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, G.; Spiesberger, H.
2016-02-01
We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e+e- data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.
THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 2.2
Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R.; Rudnick, G.
2011-09-20
We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of {approx}27, 000 galaxies with K < 22.8 at 0.4 < z < 2.2. We first show that star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies can be robustly separated with a two-color criterion over this entire redshift range. We then study the evolution of the number density and mass density of quiescent and star-forming galaxies, extending the results of the COMBO-17, DEEP2, and other surveys to z = 2.2. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} increases by a factor of {approx}10 from z {approx} 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of {approx}2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies ({approx}10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.
Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.
2016-04-01
In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.
Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Katsufumi
2001-10-01
We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.
Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds
David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.
2011-01-01
Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 251–259 (odd)
Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.
2013-08-15
The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies for all known nuclei with mass numbers A = 251, 253, 255, 257, and 259.
Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei
Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.
2007-10-26
The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1989-01-01
A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.
Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.
2016-01-01
Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.
Zhao, C.; Muehlaus, H.B.; Hobbs, B.E.
1998-03-01
A parametric study is carried out to investigate how geological inhomogeneity affects the pore-fluid convective flow field, the temperature distribution, and the mass concentration distribution in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The related numerical results have demonstrated that (1) the effects of both medium permeability inhomogeneity and medium thermal conductivity inhomogeneity are significant on the pore-fluid convective flow and the species concentration distribution in the porous medium; (2) the effect of medium thermal conductivity inhomogeneity is dramatic on the temperature distribution in the porous medium, but the effect of medium permeability inhomogeneity on the temperature distribution may be considerable, depending on the Rayleigh number involved in the analysis; (3) if the coupling effect between pore-fluid flow and mass transport is weak, the effect of the Lewis number is negligible on the pore-fluid convective flow and temperature distribution, but it is significant on the species concentration distribution in the medium.
Effective atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient of PbO-BaO-B2O3 glass system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Issa, Shams A. M.
2016-03-01
Gamma-rays attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, mean free path, effective atomic number and electron density have been measured in glass system of xPbO-(50-x) BaO-50B2O3 (where 5≤x≤45 mol%) for gamma ray photon energies of 0.356, 0.662, 1.173 and 1.33 MeV. The emitted gamma ray was detected by 3×3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma ray spectrometers. The results were found in good agreement with the theoretical values which calculated from WinXcom.
Isomers in three doubly odd Fr-At-Bi. alpha. -decay chains
Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Wauters, J. )
1992-10-01
The {sup 206}Fr{r arrow}{sup 202}At{r arrow}{sup 198}Bi, {sup 204}Fr{r arrow}{sup 200}At{r arrow}{sup 196}Bi, and {sup 202}Fr{r arrow}{sup 198}At{r arrow}{sup 194}Bi {ital a}-decay chains have been studied by standard spectroscopic techniques using an on-line isotope separator. All the studied doubly odd isotopes have at least two isomers, which decay by a combination of the following decay modes: {ital a} emission, {beta}{sup +}/EC (electron capture) decay, and internal transition (IT). The internal transition, a highly retarded {ital E}3, is the {ital j}-forbidden transition between the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}){sub 10}{sup {minus}} and the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}){sub 7}{sup +} states. The {ital B}({ital E}3) values of these IT's together with their energy behavior as a function of the neutron and proton number, compared to the energy difference between the 13/2{sup +}({nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}) and 5/2{sup {minus}}({nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}) states in the odd-mass Pb isotones, indicate that these proton-neutron-coupled states have a rather pure shell-model character.
Valley-valve effect and even-odd chain parity in p-n graphene junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori
2008-06-01
We address the current blocking by a p-n junction in a zigzag graphene ribbon by means of numerical and analytic investigations. Ribbons with superimposed gate potentials perfectly block the current in the energy range, where a single energy band is active in both the n and the p regions, if the number of carbon chains is even. In the same conditions, an odd number of chains allows current transmission. We interpret this even-odd valley-valve effect in terms of the underlying honeycomb topology and crystal structure symmetry.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-15
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.