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Sample records for oddball task measured

  1. Do Rare Stimuli Evoke Large P3s by Being Unexpected? A Comparison of Oddball Effects Between Standard-Oddball and Prediction-Oddball Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Verleger, Rolf; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The P3 component of event-related potentials increases when stimuli are rarely presented. It has been assumed that this oddball effect (rare-frequent difference) reflects the unexpectedness of rare stimuli. The assumption of unexpectedness and its link to P3 amplitude were tested here. A standard- oddball task requiring alternative key-press responses to frequent and rare stimuli was compared with an oddball-prediction task where stimuli had to be first predicted and then confirmed by key-pressing. Oddball effects in the prediction task depended on whether the frequent or the rare stimulus had been predicted. Oddball effects on P3 amplitudes and error rates in the standard oddball task closely resembled effects after frequent predictions. This corroborates the notion that these effects occur because frequent stimuli are expected and rare stimuli are unexpected. However, a closer look at the prediction task put this notion into doubt because the modifications of oddball effects on P3 by expectancies were entirely due to effects on frequent stimuli, whereas the large P3 amplitudes evoked by rare stimuli were insensitive to predictions (unlike response times and error rates). Therefore, rare stimuli cannot be said to evoke large P3 amplitudes because they are unexpected. We discuss these diverging effects of frequency and expectancy, as well as general differences between tasks, with respect to concepts and hypotheses about P3b’s function and conclude that each discussed concept or hypothesis encounters some problems, with a conception in terms of subjective relevance assigned to stimuli offering the most consistent account of these basic effects. PMID:27512527

  2. Evidence for a new late positive ERP component in an attended novelty oddball task.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Craig G; Gabbay, Frances H; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Duncan, Connie C

    2010-09-01

    In attended novelty oddball tasks, rare nontarget stimuli can elicit two late positive ERP components: P3a and P300. In passive oddball tasks, P300 is not elicited by these stimuli. In passive tasks, however, P3a is accompanied by another positive component, termed eP3a, which may have evaded detection in attended oddball tasks because of its spatiotemporal overlap with P300. To address this, temporal-spatial principal components analysis was used to quantify ERPs recorded in attended three-tone and novelty oddball tasks. As expected, novel stimuli elicited both P3a and P300. The analysis also identified a third component, evident in novelty ERPs as an inflection on the leading edge of P3a. This component has the same antecedent conditions as P3a, but is earlier and more centrally distributed. Its spatiotemporal characteristics suggest that it may be the eP3a component recently described in passive oddball tasks. PMID:20230498

  3. The Cognitive Locus of Distraction by Acoustic Novelty in the Cross-Modal Oddball Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elford, Gregory; Escera, Carles; Andres, Pilar; San Miguel, Iria

    2008-01-01

    Unexpected stimuli are often able to distract us away from a task at hand. The present study seeks to explore some of the mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. Studies of involuntary attention capture using the oddball task have repeatedly shown that infrequent auditory changes in a series of otherwise repeating sounds trigger an automatic…

  4. A comparative study of event-related coupling patterns during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.

  5. Affective ERP Processing in a Visual Oddball Task: Arousal, Valence, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess affective event-related brain potentials (ERPs) using visual pictures that were highly distinct on arousal level/valence category ratings and a response task. Methods Images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) were selected to obtain distinct affective arousal (low, high) and valence (negative, positive) rating levels. The pictures were used as target stimuli in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern as the standard stimulus. Participants were instructed to press a button whenever a picture occurred and to ignore the standard. Task performance and response time did not differ across conditions. Results High-arousal compared to low-arousal stimuli produced larger amplitudes for the N2, P3, early slow wave, and late slow wave components. Valence amplitude effects were weak overall and originated primarily from the later waveform components and interactions with electrode position. Gender differences were negligible. Conclusion The findings suggest that arousal level is the primary determinant of affective oddball processing, and valence minimally influences ERP amplitude. Significance Affective processing engages selective attentional mechanisms that are primarily sensitive to the arousal properties of emotional stimuli. The application and nature of task demands are important considerations for interpreting these effects. PMID:18783987

  6. Genetic effects on source level evoked and induced oscillatory brain responses in a visual oddball task.

    PubMed

    Antonakakis, Marios; Zervakis, Michalis; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Smit, Dirk J A

    2016-02-01

    Stimuli in simple oddball target detection paradigms cause evoked responses in brain potential. These responses are heritable traits, and potential endophenotypes for clinical phenotypes. These stimuli also cause responses in oscillatory activity, both evoked responses phase-locked to stimulus presentation and phase-independent induced responses. Here, we investigate whether phase-locked and phase-independent oscillatory responses are heritable traits. Oscillatory responses were examined in EEG recordings from 213 twin pairs (91 monozygotic and 122 dizygotic twins) performing a visual oddball task. After group Independent Component Analysis (group-ICA) and time-frequency decomposition, individual differences in evoked and induced oscillatory responses were compared between MZ and DZ twin pairs. Induced (phase-independent) oscillatory responses consistently showed the highest heritability (24-55%) compared to evoked (phase-locked) oscillatory responses and spectral energy, which revealed lower heritability at 1-35.6% and 4.5-32.3%, respectively. Since the phase-independent induced response encodes functional aspects of the brain response to target stimuli different from evoked responses, we conclude that the modulation of ongoing oscillatory activity may serve as an additional endophenotype for behavioral phenotypes and psychiatric genetics. PMID:26744236

  7. Changes in Event-Related Desynchronization and Synchronization during the Auditory Oddball Task in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Takeuchi, Kouzou; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Otsubo, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Katsumi; Sekine, Masaki; Kamiya, Shinichiro; Higashi, Yuji; Tsuji, Miwa; Shimooki, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We studied differences in the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical oscillation across brain regions of patients with schizophrenia and normal subjects during the auditory oddball task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: Ten right-handed male schizophrenia patients were studied. We used a newly developed adaptive spatial filtering algorithm optimized for robust source time-frequency reconstruction of MEG and EEG data, and obtained consecutive images in functional maps of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and synchronization (ERS) in theta, lower alpha (8–10 Hz), upper alpha (10–13 Hz), and beta bands. Results: Beta ERD power at 750–1000 ms in patients was significantly increased in large right upper temporal and parietal regions and small upper portions of bilateral dorsal frontal and dorsal-medial parietal regions. Theta ERS power in schizophrenic patients during the oddball task was significantly increased in the left temporal pole at 250–500 ms, and was significantly increased in dorsal, medial frontal, and anterior portions of the anterior cingulate cortex in both hemispheres, and the left portion of lateral temporal regions at 500–750 ms, compared to the control group (family-wise error correction p<0.05). Lower alpha ERS power was significantly decreased in the right occipital region at 500–750 ms and in the right midline parietal and bilateral occipital regions at 750–1000 ms. Upper alpha ERS power was significantly decreased in right midline parietal and left occipital regions at 750–1000 ms. Conclusions: ERD/ERS changes were noted in the left temporal pole and midline frontal and anterior cingulate cortex in theta ERS, occipital lobe in alpha ERS, and right temporal-frontal-parietal, midline frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex in beta ERD. These findings may reflect disturbances in interaction among active large neuronal groups and their communication with each other that may be

  8. Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. PMID:25265320

  9. Altered Small-World Brain Networks in Temporal Lobe in Patients with Schizophrenia Performing an Auditory Oddball Task

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; He, Hao; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2011-01-01

    The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of complex networks characterized by efficient small-world features. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found altered small-world topological properties of brain functional networks in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) during the resting state. However, little is known about the small-world properties of brain networks in the context of a task. In this study, we investigated the topological properties of human brain functional networks derived from fMRI during an auditory oddball (AOD) task. Data were obtained from 20 healthy controls and 20 SZ; A left and a right task-related network which consisted of the top activated voxels in temporal lobe of each hemisphere were analyzed separately. All voxels were detected by group independent component analysis. Connectivity of the left and right task-related networks were estimated by partial correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. The small-worldness values were decreased in both hemispheres in SZ. In addition, SZ showed longer shortest path length and lower global efficiency only in the left task-related networks. These results suggested small-world attributes are altered during the AOD task-related networks in SZ which provided further evidences for brain dysfunction of connectivity in SZ. PMID:21369355

  10. Nicotine effects on brain function during a visual oddball task: a comparison between conventional and EEG-informed fMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Warbrick, Tracy; Mobascher, Arian; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Musso, Francesco; Stoecker, Tony; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Winterer, Georg

    2012-08-01

    In a previous oddball task study, it was shown that the inclusion of electrophysiology (EEG), that is, single-trial P3 ERP parameters, in the analysis of fMRI responses can detect activation that is not apparent with conventional fMRI data modeling strategies [Warbrick, T., Mobascher, A., Brinkmeyer, J., Musso, F., Richter, N., Stoecker, T., et al. Single-trial P3 amplitude and latency informed event-related fMRI models yield different BOLD response patterns to a target detection task. Neuroimage, 47, 1532-1544, 2009]. Given that P3 is modulated by nicotine, including P3 parameters in the fMRI analysis might provide additional information about nicotine effects on brain function. A 1-mg nasal nicotine spray (0.5 mg each nostril) or placebo (pepper) spray was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI and behavioral data were recorded from 19 current smokers in response to an oddball-type visual choice RT task. Conventional general linear model analysis and single-trial P3 amplitude informed general linear model analysis of the fMRI data were performed. Comparing the nicotine with the placebo condition, reduced RTs in the nicotine condition were related to decreased BOLD responses in the conventional analysis encompassing the superior parietal lobule, the precuneus, and the lateral occipital cortex. On the other hand, reduced RTs were related to increased BOLD responses in the precentral and postcentral gyri, and ACC in the EEG-informed fMRI analysis. Our results show how integrated analyses of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data can be used to detect nicotine effects that would not have been revealed through conventional analysis of either measure in isolation. This emphasizes the significance of applying multimodal imaging methods to pharmacoimaging. PMID:22452559

  11. The enhanced processing of visual novel events in females: ERP correlates from two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Li, Chengqiang; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong; Yuan, Yin; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect and cope with unpredictable novel events is fundamental for adapting to a rapidly changing environment and ensuring the survival of the organism. Despite knowledge of gender differences in emotional processing, little is currently known about the impact of gender on neural processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. Using two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the impact of sex on brain processing of novel events and the associated neurophysiological correlates. With novel and non-novel control stimuli used as task-irrelevant distracters, Experiment 1 showed higher novelty rating scores and larger size of novelty effects in brain potentials at 200-300 ms and 300-430 ms time intervals in females compared to males. After excluding the contribution of stimulus probability, Experiment 2 continued to display significant novelty effects in the response times and the amplitudes of the 130-500 ms time windows. Most importantly, females displayed a sustained novelty effect in the late positive component (LPC) amplitudes of the 500-600 ms interval, which was not observed in males. Therefore, Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrated that females are equipped with enhanced brain processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. This phenomenon is independent of the established gender difference in infrequent stimulus processing. We suggest that our findings reflect the differential adaptive demands on females and males during evolution. PMID:22230670

  12. Event related potentials from closed head injury patients in an auditory "oddball" task: evidence of dysfunction in stimulus categorisation.

    PubMed Central

    Rugg, M D; Cowan, C P; Nagy, M E; Milner, A D; Jacobson, I; Brooks, D N

    1988-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 19 closed head injury (CHI) patients, at least 6 months after injury, and an equal number of control subjects, during a task requiring the covert counting of rare auditory "target" stimuli against a background of frequent "non-targets". In both groups, ERPs to targets contained enhanced frontal N2 and parietal P3 components. N2 was larger in amplitude in the CHI patients than in the controls, and its peak latency was delayed. P3 amplitude was smaller in the patients, but its latency was not significantly different from that of the control group. The delay in N2 latency is interpreted as evidence of an increase in the time needed to achieve stimulus categorisation in CHI patients. The larger N2s in this group are thought to reflect the additional cognitive effort required after CHI to cope with the task. The negative findings with respect to P3 latency suggest that this may be a less sensitive measure of information-processing efficiency in this task than the latency of N2. PMID:3404166

  13. Brain Dynamics of Aging: Multiscale Variability of EEG Signals at Rest and during an Auditory Oddball Task1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Perdikis, Dionysios; Müller, Viktor; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Huys, Raoul; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present work focused on the study of fluctuations of cortical activity across time scales in young and older healthy adults. The main objective was to offer a comprehensive characterization of the changes of brain (cortical) signal variability during aging, and to make the link with known underlying structural, neurophysiological, and functional modifications, as well as aging theories. We analyzed electroencephalogram (EEG) data of young and elderly adults, which were collected at resting state and during an auditory oddball task. We used a wide battery of metrics that typically are separately applied in the literature, and we compared them with more specific ones that address their limits. Our procedure aimed to overcome some of the methodological limitations of earlier studies and verify whether previous findings can be reproduced and extended to different experimental conditions. In both rest and task conditions, our results mainly revealed that EEG signals presented systematic age-related changes that were time-scale-dependent with regard to the structure of fluctuations (complexity) but not with regard to their magnitude. Namely, compared with young adults, the cortical fluctuations of the elderly were more complex at shorter time scales, but less complex at longer scales, although always showing a lower variance. Additionally, the elderly showed signs of spatial, as well as between, experimental conditions dedifferentiation. By integrating these so far isolated findings across time scales, metrics, and conditions, the present study offers an overview of age-related changes in the fluctuation electrocortical activity while making the link with underlying brain dynamics. PMID:26464983

  14. Brain Dynamics of Aging: Multiscale Variability of EEG Signals at Rest and during an Auditory Oddball Task(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Perdikis, Dionysios; Müller, Viktor; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Huys, Raoul; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-01-01

    The present work focused on the study of fluctuations of cortical activity across time scales in young and older healthy adults. The main objective was to offer a comprehensive characterization of the changes of brain (cortical) signal variability during aging, and to make the link with known underlying structural, neurophysiological, and functional modifications, as well as aging theories. We analyzed electroencephalogram (EEG) data of young and elderly adults, which were collected at resting state and during an auditory oddball task. We used a wide battery of metrics that typically are separately applied in the literature, and we compared them with more specific ones that address their limits. Our procedure aimed to overcome some of the methodological limitations of earlier studies and verify whether previous findings can be reproduced and extended to different experimental conditions. In both rest and task conditions, our results mainly revealed that EEG signals presented systematic age-related changes that were time-scale-dependent with regard to the structure of fluctuations (complexity) but not with regard to their magnitude. Namely, compared with young adults, the cortical fluctuations of the elderly were more complex at shorter time scales, but less complex at longer scales, although always showing a lower variance. Additionally, the elderly showed signs of spatial, as well as between, experimental conditions dedifferentiation. By integrating these so far isolated findings across time scales, metrics, and conditions, the present study offers an overview of age-related changes in the fluctuation electrocortical activity while making the link with underlying brain dynamics. PMID:26464983

  15. Effects of semantic relatedness on recall of stimuli preceding emotional oddballs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan M; Beversdorf, David Q

    2008-07-01

    Semantic and episodic memory networks function as highly interconnected systems, both relying on the hippocampal/medial temporal lobe complex (HC/MTL). Episodic memory encoding triggers the retrieval of semantic information, serving to incorporate contextual relationships between the newly acquired memory and existing semantic representations. While emotional material augments episodic memory encoding at the time of stimulus presentation, interactions between emotion and semantic memory that contribute to subsequent episodic recall are not well understood. Using a modified oddball task, we examined the modulatory effects of negative emotion on semantic interactions with episodic memory by measuring the free-recall of serially presented neutral or negative words varying in semantic relatedness. We found increased free-recall for words related to and preceding emotionally negative oddballs, suggesting that negative emotion can indirectly facilitate episodic free-recall by enhancing semantic contributions during encoding. Our findings demonstrate the ability of emotion and semantic memory to interact to mutually enhance free-recall. PMID:18577291

  16. Selective adaptation to "oddball" sounds by the human auditory system.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew J R; Harper, Nicol S; Reiss, Joshua D; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-29

    Adaptation to both common and rare sounds has been independently reported in neurophysiological studies using probabilistic stimulus paradigms in small mammals. However, the apparent sensitivity of the mammalian auditory system to the statistics of incoming sound has not yet been generalized to task-related human auditory perception. Here, we show that human listeners selectively adapt to novel sounds within scenes unfolding over minutes. Listeners' performance in an auditory discrimination task remains steady for the most common elements within the scene but, after the first minute, performance improves for distinct and rare (oddball) sound elements, at the expense of rare sounds that are relatively less distinct. Our data provide the first evidence of enhanced coding of oddball sounds in a human auditory discrimination task and suggest the existence of an adaptive mechanism that tracks the long-term statistics of sounds and deploys coding resources accordingly. PMID:24478375

  17. Oddballs and a Low Odderon Intercept

    SciTech Connect

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Bicudo, Pedro; Cotanch, Stephen R.; /North Carolina State U.

    2005-07-27

    The authors report an odderon Regge trajectory emerging from a field theoretical Coulomb gauge QCD model for the odd signature J{sup PC} (P = C = -1) glueball states (oddballs). The trajectory intercept is clearly smaller than the pomeron and even the {omega} trajectory's intercept which provides an explanation for the nonobservation of the odderon in high energy scattering data. To further support this result we compare to glueball lattice data and also perform calculations with an alternative model based upon an exact Hamiltonian diagonalization for three constituent gluons.

  18. Electrical mapping in bipolar disorder patients during the oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Cartier, Consuelo; Cheniaux, Elie; Novis, Fernanda; Silveira, Luciana Angélica; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Batista, Washington Adolfo; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression--Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies. PMID:26551764

  19. Anterior insular cortex activity to emotional salience of voices in a passive oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chenyi; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Cheng, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    The human voice, which has a pivotal role in communication, is processed in specialized brain regions. Although a general consensus holds that the anterior insular cortex (AIC) plays a critical role in negative emotional experience, previous studies have not observed AIC activation in response to hearing disgust in voices. We used magnetoencephalography to measure the magnetic counterparts of mismatch negativity (MMNm) and P3a (P3am) in healthy adults while the emotionally meaningless syllables dada, spoken as neutral, happy, or disgusted prosodies, along with acoustically matched simple and complex tones, were presented in a passive oddball paradigm. The results revealed that disgusted relative to happy syllables elicited stronger MMNm-related cortical activities in the right AIC and precentral gyrus along with the left posterior insular cortex, supramarginal cortex, transverse temporal cortex, and upper bank of superior temporal cortex. The AIC activity specific to disgusted syllables (corrected p < 0.05) was associated with the hit rate of the emotional categorization task. These findings may clarify the neural correlates of emotional MMNm and lend support to the role of AIC in the processing of emotional salience already at the preattentive level. PMID:25346670

  20. Transmitter Signal Measurements, Task 5C Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Eppic, Brian; Huffman, Mitch; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Signal Measurements were obtained on four (4) different airport systems. Systems measured were Localizer (LOC), Very High Frequency Communication, (VHF), Glideslope, (G/S), and Global Positioning System (GPS). The task calls for path loss measurements to be taken at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL) and one smaller airport which was Greenville/ Spartanburg Airport (GSP) to determine relative signal strengths on the airport properties.

  1. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    PubMed

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. PMID:26638762

  2. Posterior EEG alpha at rest and during task performance: Comparison of current source density and field potential measures

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Abraham, Karen; Alvarenga, Jorge E.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2015-01-01

    Resting and task-related EEG alpha are used in studies of cognition and psychopathogy. Although Laplacian methods have been applied, apprehensions about loss of global activity dissuade researchers from greater use except as a supplement to reference-dependent measures. The unfortunate result has been continued reliance on reference strategies that differ across labs, and a systemic preference for a montage-dependent average reference over true reference-free measures. We addressed these concerns by comparing resting- and task-related EEG alpha using three EEG transformations: nose- (NR) and average-referenced (AR) EEG, and the corresponding CSD. Amplitude spectra of resting and prestimulus task-related EEG (novelty oddball) and event-related spectral perturbations were scaled to equate each transformation. Alpha measures quantified for 8-12 Hz bands were: 1) net amplitude (eyes-closed minus eyes-open) and 2) overall amplitude (eyes-closed plus eyes-open); 3) task amplitude (prestimulus baseline) and 4) task event-related desynchronization (ERD). Mean topographies unambiguously represented posterior alpha for overall, net and task, as well as poststimulus alpha ERD. Topographies were similar for the three transformations, but differed in dispersion, CSD being sharpest and NR most broadly distributed. Transformations also differed in scale, AR showing less attenuation or spurious secondary maxima at anterior sites, consistent with simulations of distributed posterior generators. Posterior task alpha and alpha ERD were positively correlated with overall alpha, but not with net alpha. CSD topographies consistently and appropriately represented posterior EEG alpha for all measures. PMID:26026372

  3. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP) is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG) and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS) was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection. PMID:22114868

  4. Optimal Measurement Tasks and Their Physical Realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerokhin, Vadim

    This thesis reflects works previously published by the author and materials hitherto unpublished on the subject of quantum information theory. Particularly, results in optimal discrimination, cloning, and separation of quantum states, and their relationships, are discussed. Our interest lies in the scenario where we are given one of two quantum states prepared with a known a-priori probability. We are given full information about the states and are assigned the task of performing an optimal measurement on the incoming state. Given that none of these tasks is in general possible to perform perfectly we must choose a figure of merit to optimize, and as we shall see there is always a trade-off between competing figures of merit, such as the likelihood of getting the desired result versus the quality of the result. For state discrimination the competing figures of merit are the success rate of the measurement, the errors involved, and the inconclusiveness. Similarly increasing the separation between states comes at a cost of less frequent successful applications of the separation protocol. For cloning, aside from successfully producing clones we are also interested in the fidelity of the clones compared to the original state, which is a measure of the quality of the clones. Because all quantum operations obey the same set of conditions for evolution one may expect similar restrictions on disparate measurement strategies, and our work shows a deep connection between all three branches, with cloning and separation asymptotically converging to state discrimination. Via Neumark's theorem, our description of these unitary processes can be implemented using single-photon interferometry with linear optical devices. Amazingly any quantum mechanical evolution may be decomposed as an experiment involving only lasers, beamsplitters, phase-shifters and mirrors. Such readily available tools allow for verification of the aforementioned protocols and we build upon existing results to

  5. Single-subject classification of schizophrenia using event-related potentials obtained during auditory and visual oddball paradigms.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Popescu, Florin C; Bates, John A; Goldberg, Terry E; Malhotra, Anil K

    2013-04-01

    In the search for the biomarkers of schizophrenia, event-related potential (ERP) deficits obtained by applying the classic oddball paradigm are among the most consistent findings. However, the single-subject classification rate based on these parameters remains to be determined. Here, we present a data-driven approach by applying machine learning classifiers to relevant oddball ERPs. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients and 24 matched healthy controls finished auditory and visual oddball tasks while high-density electrophysiological recordings were applied. The N1 component in response to standards and target as well as the P3 component following targets were submitted to different machine learning algorithms and the resulting ERP features were submitted to further correlation analyses. We obtained a classification accuracy of 72.4 % using only two ERP components. Latencies of parietal N1 components to visual standard stimuli at electrode positions Pz and P1 were sufficient for classification. Further analysis revealed a high correlation of these features in controls and an intermediate correlation in schizophrenia patients. These data exemplarily show how automated inference may be applied to classify a pathological state in single subjects without prior knowledge of their diagnoses and illustrate the potential of machine learning algorithms for the identification of potential biomarkers. Moreover, this approach assesses the discriminative accuracy of one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia research by means of single-subject classification. PMID:22584805

  6. Two Approaches to Measuring Task Interdependence in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, W. W., Jr.

    This report compares two approaches to measuring task interdependence, a theoretically fruitful concept for analyzing an organization's technical system. Task interdependence exists among operating personnel in the degree that task performance of one operative constrains, augments, or otherwise poses contingencies for the performance of another.…

  7. Utilizing Electroencephalography Measurements for Comparison of Task-Specific Neural Efficiencies: Spatial Intelligence Tasks.

    PubMed

    Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow. PMID:27584838

  8. Sentence Repetition: What Does the Task Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition is gaining increasing attention as a source of information about children's sentence-level abilities in clinical assessment, and as a clinical marker of specific language impairment. However, it is widely debated what the task is testing and therefore how informative it is. Aims: (1) To evaluate the effects of…

  9. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C

    2015-10-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module. PMID:26265553

  10. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X.; Yi, Zan X.; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  11. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  12. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: "ball possession") and non-target (Cyberball: "ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects-especially in the P3 range-in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed. PMID:27100787

  13. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: “ball possession”) and non-target (Cyberball: “ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects–especially in the P3 range–in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed. PMID:27100787

  14. Report of the Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    The Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures was formed by the State Board of Directors for Community Colleges of Arizona to develop a statewide plan for systematically demonstrating the degree to which community colleges accomplish their diverse missions. Two subgroups were formed in the Task Force on transfer and college programs and…

  15. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  16. One-year developmental stability and covariance among oddball, novelty, go/no-go, and flanker event-related potentials in adolescence: A monozygotic twin study.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Scott J; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2016-07-01

    ERP measures may index genetic risk for psychopathology before disorder onset in adolescence, but little is known about their developmental rank-order stability during this period of significant brain maturation. We studied ERP stability in 48 pairs of identical twins (age 14-16 years) tested 1 year apart. Trial-averaged voltage waveforms were extracted from electroencephalographic recordings from oddball/novelty, go/no-go, and flanker tasks, and 16 amplitude measures were examined. Members of twin pairs were highly similar, whether based on ERP amplitude measures (intraclass correlation [ICC] median = .64, range = .44-.86) or three factor scores (all ICCs ≥ .69) derived from them. Stability was high overall, with 69% of the 16 individual measures generating stability coefficients exceeding .70 and all factor scores showing stability above .75. Measures from 10 difference waveforms calculated from paired conditions within tasks were also examined, and were associated with lower twin similarity (ICC median = .52, .38-.64) and developmental stability (only 30% exceeding .70). In a supplemental analysis, we found significant developmental stability for error-related negativity (range = .45-.55) and positivity (.56-.70) measures when average waveforms were based on one or more trials, and that these values were equivalent to those derived from averages using the current field recommendation, which requires six or more trials. Overall, we conclude that the studied brain measures are largely stable over 1 year of mid- to late adolescence, likely reflecting familial etiologic influences on brain functions pertaining to cognitive control and salience recognition. PMID:26997525

  17. Frontal-parietal responses to "oddball" stimuli depicting "fattened" faces are increased in successful dieters: an electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Marzano, Nicola; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Here we tested the hypothesis that compared with normal weight non dieting (control) subjects, normal weight successful dieters submitted to a rigorous and continuous monitoring of body weight (i.e. karate athletes) are characterized by an increase of cortical responses to oddball visual stimuli depicting the enlargement of faces or foods, as neural underpinning of attention processes related to the control of weight and eating. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 18 successful dieters (5 females) and 24 non dieting subjects (9 females). The subjects were given frequent (70%) and rare (30%) stimuli depicting faces (FACE), food (FOOD), and landscapes (CONTROL). The task was to click the mouse after the rare stimuli. The rare stimuli depicted the frequent stimuli graphically dilated by 25% along the horizontal axis. Cortical responses accompanying attention processes were probed by the difference between positive event-related potentials peaking around 400-500ms post-stimulus for the rare minus frequent stimuli (P300). The popular freeware LORETA estimated P300 cortical sources. The results showed that in the FACE condition, the amplitude of left frontal (BA 6) and medial parietal (BA 5) P300 sources was higher in the successful dieters (karate athletes) than non dieting subjects. These results disclose that frontal-parietal responses to "oddball" stimuli depicting enlarged faces (i.e. representing face fattening) are enhanced in successful dieters (karate athletes). Future studies should evaluate this effect in other populations of successful dieters (i.e. boxers, top models etc.). PMID:21854815

  18. Pain-reduction strategies in hypnotic context and hypnosis: ERPs and SCRs during a secondary auditory task.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bellusci, Anna; Gallo, Carlo; Magurano, Maria Rosaria; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-10-01

    Pain-rating scores were obtained from 10 high, 10 medium, and 10 low hypnotizable subjects who were holding a painful cold bottle in their left hands and were exposed to pain reduction treatments while they were performing a secondary oddball task. All subjects received suggestions of dissociative imagery and focused analgesia as cognitive strategies for pain reduction. The following measures were obtained for tone targets of the auditory oddball task: (a) reaction time; (b) P300 peak amplitude of the event-related potentials; (c) skin conductance levels and skin conductance responses. Focused analgesia produced the most pain reduction in high, but not medium or low, hypnotizable subjects who showed shorter reaction times, higher central and parietal P300 peaks, and higher skin conductance responses. These findings were discussed vis-a-vis the dissociated-control model assuming that capacity demands of hypnotic suggestion are low. PMID:15590503

  19. Measurement of operator workload in an information processing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenney, L. L.; Older, H. J.; Cameron, B. J.

    1972-01-01

    This was an experimental study to develop an improved methodology for measuring workload in an information processing task and to assess the effects of shift length and communication density (rate of information flow) on the ability to process and classify verbal messages. Each of twelve subjects was exposed to combinations of three shift lengths and two communication densities in a counterbalanced, repeated measurements experimental design. Results indicated no systematic variation in task performance measures or in other dependent measures as a function of shift length or communication density. This is attributed to the absence of a secondary loading task, an insufficiently taxing work schedule, and the lack of psychological stress. Subjective magnitude estimates of workload showed fatigue (and to a lesser degree, tension) to be a power function of shift length. Estimates of task difficulty and fatigue were initially lower but increased more sharply over time under low density than under high density conditions. An interpretation of findings and recommedations for furture research are included. This research has major implications to human workload problems in information processing of air traffic control verbal data.

  20. Experimental measurements of motion cue effects on STOL approach tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Stapleford, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate the effects of motion cues on STOL approach is presented. The simulator used was the Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Motion Simulator (S.01) at Ames Research Center of NASA which has ?2.7 m travel longitudinally and laterally and ?2.5 m travel vertically. Three major experiments, characterized as tracking tasks, were conducted under fixed and moving base conditions: (1) A simulated IFR approach of the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), (2) a simulated VFR task with the same aircraft, and (3) a single-axis task having only linear acceleration as the motion cue. Tracking performance was measured in terms of the variances of several motion variables, pilot vehicle describing functions, and pilot commentary.

  1. Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcomes: Clinical Measures of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Shana; Gilchrist, Laura; Sander, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is one of the most commonly reported impairments after breast cancer treatment affecting anywhere from 16-73% of breast cancer survivors Despite the high reported incidence of pain from cancer and its treatments, the ability to evaluate cancer pain continues to be difficult due to the complexity of the disease and the subjective experience of pain. The Oncology Section Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force was created to evaluate the evidence behind clinical outcome measures of pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods The authors systematically reviewed the literature for pain outcome measures published in the research involving women diagnosed with breast cancer. The goal was to examine the reported psychometric properties that are reported in the literature in order to determine clinical utility. Results Visual Analog Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, Pressure Pain Threshold, McGill Pain Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Brief Pain Inventory and Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form were highly recommended by the Task Force. The Task Force was unable to recommend two measures for use in the breast cancer population at the present time. Conclusions A variety of outcome measures were used to measure pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. When assessing pain in women with breast cancer, researchers and clinicians need to determine whether a unidimensional or multidimensional tool is most appropriate as well as whether the tool has strong psychometric properties. PMID:25346950

  2. Event-related desynchronization of frontal-midline theta rhythm during preconscious auditory oddball processing.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Masaru; Kirino, Eiji; Inoue, Reiichi; Arai, Heii

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the frontal-midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) generation mechanism employing event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis in relation to task-irrelevant external stimuli. A dual paradigm was employed: a videogame and the simultaneous presentation of passive auditory oddball stimuli. We analyzed the data concerning ERD/ERS using both Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and wavelet transform (WT). In the FFT data, during the periods with appearance of Fm theta, apparent ERD of the theta band was observed at Fz and Cz. ERD when Fm theta was present was much more prominent than when Fm theta was absent. In the WT data, as in the FFT data, ERD was seen again, but in this case the ERD was preceded by ERS during both the periods with and without Fm theta. Furthermore, the WT analysis indicated that ERD was followed by ERS during the periods without Fm theta. However, during Fm theta, no apparent ERS following ERD was seen. In our study, Fm theta was desynchronized by the auditory stimuli that were independent of the video game task used to evoke the Fm theta. The ERD of Fm theta might be reflecting the mechanism of "positive suppression" to process external auditory stimuli automatically and preventing attentional resources from being unnecessarily allocated to those stimuli. Another possibility is that Fm theta induced by our dual paradigm may reflect information processing modeled by multi-item working memory requirements for playing the videogame and the simultaneous auditory processing using a memory trace. ERS in the WT data without Fm theta might indicate further processing of the auditory information free from "positive suppression" control reflected by Fm theta. PMID:17993201

  3. Metrics and Measures for Intelligence Analysis Task Difficulty

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Allwein, Kelcy M.

    2005-05-02

    Recent workshops and conferences supporting the intelligence community (IC) have highlighted the need to characterize the difficulty or complexity of intelligence analysis (IA) tasks in order to facilitate assessments of the impact or effectiveness of IA tools that are being considered for introduction into the IC. Some fundamental issues are: (a) how to employ rigorous methodologies in evaluating tools, given a host of problems such as controlling for task difficulty, effects of time or learning, small-sample size limitations; (b) how to measure the difficulty/complexity of IA tasks in order to establish valid experimental/quasi-experimental designs aimed to support evaluation of tools; and (c) development of more rigorous (summative), performance-based measures of human performance during the conduct of IA tasks, beyond the more traditional reliance on formative assessments (e.g., subjective ratings). Invited discussants will be asked to comment on one or more of these issues, with the aim of bringing the most salient issues and research needs into focus

  4. Transferring cognitive tasks between brain imaging modalities: implications for task design and results interpretation in FMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Warbrick, Tracy; Reske, Martina; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    As cognitive neuroscience methods develop, established experimental tasks are used with emerging brain imaging modalities. Here transferring a paradigm (the visual oddball task) with a long history of behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment is considered. The aims of this paper are to briefly describe fMRI and when its use is appropriate in cognitive neuroscience; illustrate how task design can influence the results of an fMRI experiment, particularly when that task is borrowed from another imaging modality; explain the practical aspects of performing an fMRI experiment. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task results in different patterns of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. The nature of the fMRI BOLD measure means that many brain regions are found to be active in a particular task. Determining the functions of these areas of activation is very much dependent on task design and analysis. The complex nature of many fMRI tasks means that the details of the task and its requirements need careful consideration when interpreting data. The data show that this is particularly important in those tasks relying on a motor response as well as cognitive elements and that covert and overt responses should be considered where possible. Furthermore, the data show that transferring an EEG paradigm to an fMRI experiment needs careful consideration and it cannot be assumed that the same paradigm will work equally well across imaging modalities. It is therefore recommended that the design of an fMRI study is pilot tested behaviorally to establish the effects of interest and then pilot tested in the fMRI environment to ensure appropriate design, implementation and analysis for the effects of interest. PMID:25285453

  5. Phase Measurement of Galvanneal Task JPL Task Order Number: RF-152 Amendment Number: 543

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Lowry; Beverly Tai

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique which would measure the phase composition of galvanneal coatings of sheet steel rapidly and non-destructively with an accuracy of 0.5%. This data acquisition and analysis method would be implemented as an on-line process control input. The AISI sample matrix evaluated for this study is shown in Appendix I. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Data Measurement Corporation (DMC) measured iron and zinc XRF responses from these samples. In addition, JPL performed metallograph, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the samples' galvanneal phase morphology. This data was correlated with the XRF experimental results and then compared to phase composition models, which were generated using a Fundamental Parameters Method (FPM) approach.

  6. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  7. Unique sensor fusion system for coordinate-measuring machine tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashman, Marilyn; Yoshimi, Billibon; Hong, Tsai Hong; Rippey, William G.; Herman, Martin

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a real-time hierarchical system that fuses data from vision and touch sensors to improve the performance of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) used for dimensional inspection tasks. The system consists of sensory processing, world modeling, and task decomposition modules. It uses the strengths of each sensor -- the precision of the CMM scales and the analog touch probe and the global information provided by the low resolution camera -- to improve the speed and flexibility of the inspection task. In the experiment described, the vision module performs all computations in image coordinate space. The part's boundaries are extracted during an initialization process and then the probe's position is continuously updated as it scans and measures the part surface. The system fuses the estimated probe velocity and distance to the part boundary in image coordinates with the estimated velocity and probe position provided by the CMM controller. The fused information provides feedback to the monitor controller as it guides the touch probe to scan the part. We also discuss integrating information from the vision system and the probe to autonomously collect data for 2-D to 3-D calibration, and work to register computer aided design (CAD) models with images of parts in the workplace.

  8. Hand microscopes and image processing for measurement tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Rolf-Juergen; Knappe, Bernard

    1997-08-01

    Very often in industry and medical applications we meet tasks, where small microscopic structures have to be inspected. The task is not just related to visualization it is also necessary to inspect and measure features of an imaged object in an automated image processing based system. One newly developed handmicroscope, called MESOP, is presented that allows for a high quality optical inspection of workpieces and objects. Due to the concrete realization with a laptop based image processing and computing environment the handmicroscope can be applied in a mobile manner. It is positioned in front of the object. The optical head, supplied with telecentric optics and a small camera, captures the image, transfers it into the PCMCIA-based frame grabber. There the images are stored and further processed due to the necessity of the operator.

  9. Can the Task-Cuing Paradigm Measure an Endogenous Task-Set Reconfiguration Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsell, Stephen; Mizon, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    In 6 task-cuing experiments, with 2 cues per task, the authors varied cue-stimulus interval to investigate G. D. Logan and C. Bundesen's (2003) claim that when cue repetition is controlled for, task-switch cost and its reduction with preparation are largely eliminated and hence cannot index an endogenous control process. Experiment 1 replicates…

  10. Measurement of participation: intersecting person, task, and environment.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Trudy; Hammel, Joy

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this article are to describe participation as a transaction and issues involved in measuring and intervening using this transactional approach; describe ecologic and systems-based theoretic approaches for conceptualizing person-task-environment transactions; and illustrate examples of an exploratory strategy, radar plots, as a clinical tool for rehabilitation professionals to show this interaction and use it to inform participation-focused interventions with people with disabilities in rehabilitation settings. Participation necessarily occurs at the intersection of what the person can do, wants to do, has the opportunity to do, and is not prevented from doing. It is a transaction that occurs at the nexus of the person-task-environment. Measurement of participation should capture this transactive nature. Radar plots are part of a group of graphic displays frequently referred to as exploratory data analysis. In situations in which theory is not well developed, exploratory techniques such as radar plots may hold promise as ways to explore better the relationship among variables. This article describes strengths and limitations of radar plots and presents an example with data from the Community Participation Database. PMID:20801276

  11. Investigating a Novel Measure of Brain Networking Following Sports Concussion.

    PubMed

    Broglio, S P; Rettmann, A; Greer, J; Brimacombe, S; Moore, B; Narisetty, N; He, X; Eckner, J

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians managing sports-related concussions are left to their clinical judgment in making diagnoses and return-to-play decisions. This study was designed to evaluate the utility of a novel measure of functional brain networking for concussion management. 24 athletes with acutely diagnosed concussion and 21 control participants were evaluated in a research laboratory. At each of the 4 post-injury time points, participants completed the Axon assessment of neurocognitive function, a self-report symptom inventory, and the auditory oddball and go/no-go tasks while electroencephalogram (EEG) readings were recorded. Brain Network Activation (BNA) scores were calculated from EEG data related to the auditory oddball and go/no-go tasks. BNA scores were unable to differentiate between the concussed and control groups or by self-report symptom severity. These findings conflict with previous work implementing electrophysiological assessments in concussed athletes, suggesting that BNA requires additional investigation and refinement before clinical implementation. PMID:27286176

  12. Lifespan Differences in Nonlinear Dynamics during Rest and Auditory Oddball Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) were used to assess age-associated differences in nonlinear brain dynamics during both rest and auditory oddball performance in children aged 9.0-12.8 years, younger adults, and older adults. We computed nonlinear coupling dynamics and dimensional complexity, and also determined spectral alpha power as an…

  13. Does the Iowa Gambling Task Measure Executive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Gansler, David A.; Jerram, Matthew W.; Vannorsdall, Tracy D.; Schretlen, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is assumed to measure executive functioning, but this has not been empirically tested by means of both convergent and discriminant validity. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test whether the IGT is an executive function (EF) task (convergent validity) and whether it is not related to other neuropsychological domains (discriminant validity). Healthy community-dwelling participants (N = 214) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. We analyzed the conventional IGT metric and three alternative metrics based on the overall difference of advantageous minus disadvantageous choices made during the last 60 IGT responses and advantageous minus disadvantageous choices based on two specific decks of cards (D minus A). An a priori six-factor hierarchical model of neuropsychological functioning was confirmed with SEM. Attention and processing speed were grouped as “non-associative” factors. Fluency, executive functioning, visual learning/memory, and verbal learning/memory were grouped as higher-level “associative” factors. Of the non-associative factors, attention, but not speed, predicted IGT performance. When each associative factor was entered along with attention, only EF improved the model fit and that was only for metrics based on trials 41–100. SEM indicates metrics based on trails 1–100 are influenced by attention, and metrics based on trails 41–100 are influenced by attention and EF. Its associative strength with attention is twice that of EF. Conceptually, the IGT is a multi-trait task involving novel problem-solving and attentional domains to a greater extent, and executive functioning to a lesser extent. PMID:22015855

  14. Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Masako; Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Mizutani, Tsutomu; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Momoi, Mariko Y.; Watanabe, Eiju; Yamagata, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for methylphenidate effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more easily than conventional neuroimaging modalities. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 22 ADHD children (6 to 14 years old) performing an oddball task before and 1.5 h after methylphenidate or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty-two age- and gender-matched normal controls without methylphenidate administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the oddball task recruited the right prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices, and this activation was absent in premedicated ADHD children. The reduced right prefrontal activation was normalized after methylphenidate but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are consistent with the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to upregulate the dopamine system in the prefrontal cortex innervating from the ventral tegmentum (mesocortical pathway), but not the noradrenergic system from the parietal cortex to the locus coeruleus. Thus, right prefrontal activation would serve as an objective neurofunctional biomarker to indicate the effectiveness of methylphenidate on ADHD children in attentional control. fNIRS monitoring enhances early clinical diagnosis and the treatment of ADHD children, especially those with an inattention phenotype. PMID:26157971

  15. Neuropharmacological effect of atomoxetine on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Masako; Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Mizutani, Tsutomu; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Hirano, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takamichi; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Momoi, Mariko Y.; Yamagata, Takanori; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for atomoxetine effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more easily than conventional neuroimaging modalities. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 15 ADHD children (6 to 14 years old) performing an oddball task before and 1.5 h after atomoxetine or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Fifteen age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched normal controls without atomoxetine administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the oddball task recruited the right prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices. The right prefrontal and parietal activation was normalized after atomoxetine administration in ADHD children. This was in contrast to our previous study using a similar protocol showing methylphenidate-induced normalization of only the right prefrontal function. fNIRS allows the detection of differential neuropharmacological profiles of both substances in the attentional network: the neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine to upregulate the noradrenergic system reflected in the right prefrontal and inferior parietal activations and those of methylphenidate to upregulate the dopamine system reflected in the prefrontal cortex activation. PMID:26157979

  16. Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Masako; Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Mizutani, Tsutomu; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Momoi, Mariko Y; Watanabe, Eiju; Yamagata, Takanori

    2014-07-01

    The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for methylphenidate effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more easily than conventional neuroimaging modalities. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 22 ADHD children (6 to 14 years old) performing an oddball task before and 1.5 h after methylphenidate or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty-two age- and gender-matched normal controls without methylphenidate administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the oddball task recruited the right prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices, and this activation was absent in premedicated ADHD children. The reduced right prefrontal activation was normalized after methylphenidate but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are consistent with the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to upregulate the dopamine system in the prefrontal cortex innervating from the ventral tegmentum (mesocortical pathway), but not the noradrenergic system from the parietal cortex to the locus coeruleus. Thus, right prefrontal activation would serve as an objective neurofunctional biomarker to indicate the effectiveness of methylphenidate on ADHD children in attentional control. fNIRS monitoring enhances early clinical diagnosis and the treatment of ADHD children, especially those with an inattention phenotype. PMID:26157971

  17. The intervening task method: implications for measuring mediation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    To study mediation, investigators sometimes examine the effect of an independent variable on an unrelated filler task that precedes the focal task. This approach assumes that the same psychological process drives performance on both tasks. The authors tested this assumption in a stereotype threat paradigm by manipulating whether or not the intervening task was described as relevant to the gender-math stereotype. When performance was relevant to the stereotype, females outperformed controls on an intervening Stroop task, but not when it was irrelevant (Experiment 1). In fact, females anticipating taking a math test under threat withdrew effort and performed more poorly on the intervening task when performance was irrelevant (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that different processes may drive performance on irrelevant and relevant intervening tasks. As a result, performance on irrelevant filler tasks may actually tell scholars little about mediating mechanisms. PMID:21393614

  18. Cortical potentials in an auditory oddball task reflect individual differences in working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yurgil, Kate A.; Golob, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined whether auditory cortical responses associated with mechanisms of attention vary with individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and perceptual load. The operation span test defined subjects with low vs. high WMC, who then discriminated target/nontarget tones while EEG was recorded. Infrequent white noise distracters were presented at midline or ±90° locations, and perceptual load was manipulated by varying nontarget frequency. Amplitude of the N100 to distracters was negatively correlated with WMC. Relative to targets, only high WMC subjects showed attenuated N100 amplitudes to nontargets. In the higher WMC group, increased perceptual load was associated with decreased P3a amplitudes to distracters and longer-lasting negative slow wave to nontargets. Results show that auditory cortical processing is associated with multiple facets of attention control related to WMC and possibly higher-level cognition. PMID:24016201

  19. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    PubMed

    Mill, Robert; Coath, Martin; Wennekers, Thomas; Denham, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential), and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron model that accounts for SSA in terms of the convergence of depressing synapses that convey feature-specific inputs. The model is anatomically plausible, comprising just a few homogeneously connected populations, and does not require organised feature maps. The model is calibrated to match the SSA measured in the cortex of the awake rat, as reported in one study. The effect of frequency separation, deviant probability, repetition rate and duration upon SSA are investigated. With the same parameter set, the model generates responses consistent with a wide range of published data obtained in other auditory regions using other stimulus configurations, such as block, sequential and random stimuli. A new stimulus paradigm is introduced, which generalises the oddball concept to Markov chains, allowing the experimenter to vary the tone probabilities and the rate of switching independently. The model predicts greater SSA for higher rates of switching. Finally, the issue of whether rarity or novelty elicits SSA is addressed by comparing the responses of the model to deviants in the context of a sequence of a single standard or many standards. The results support the view that synaptic adaptation alone can explain almost all aspects of SSA reported to date, including its purported novelty component, and that non-trivial networks of depressing synapses can intensify this novelty response. PMID:21876661

  20. 5-Month-Olds' Categorization of Novel Objects: Task and Measure Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Clay; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    To examine key parameters of the initial conditions in early category learning, two studies compared 5-month-olds' object categorization between tasks involving previously unseen novel objects, and between measures within tasks. Infants in Experiment 1 participated in a visual familiarization-novelty preference (VFNP) task with two-dimensional…

  1. Robust Long-Range Optical Tracking for Tunneling Measurement Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossel, Annette; Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Chmelina, Klaus; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, automation for tunnel construction and mining activities increased rapidly. To allow for enhanced tunneling measurement, monitoring of workers and remote control of machines, systems are required that are capable of real-time positioning of several static as well as moving targets. Such a system must provide continuous and precise 3D position estimation in large volumes and must be capable to be installed and work correctly during on-going tunneling or mining tasks. Tracking systems are a fundamental component of a VR system to determine the 3D-position and orientation of a target in 3D space. Infrared optical tracking systems use infrared light to track several static or moving targets simultaneously with low latency in small tracking volumes. To benefit from the capabilities of infrared optical tracking, a system is proposed to track static as well as moving optical targets in large tracking volumes with a maximum depth extend of 70 meters. Our system needs a minimal hardware setup consisting out of two high quality machine vision cameras, which are mounted on both walls of the tunnel, and a standard (portable) workstation for data processing. Targets are equipped with infrared LEDs and can be either carried by workers or attached to a machine. The two cameras form a stereo rig and face into the measurement volume to allow for continuous tracking. Using image processing techniques, the LEDs of the target(s) are detected in both 2D camera images and are back-projected into 3D using projective reconstruction algorithms. Thereby, the 3D position estimate of the target is determined. Using image filtering techniques, fitting methods based on target's geometric constraints and prediction heuristics, the system allows for unique target identification during calibration and tracking even in environments with heavy interferences such as vibrations, tunnel illumination or machine lights. We extensively tested the system to (1) determine optimal

  2. Measuring Attention in Rodents: Comparison of a Modified Signal Detection Task and the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Karly M.; Peak, James; Burne, Thomas H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric research has utilized cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT) based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified SDT with a traditional test for measuring attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the 5CSRTT or the SDT. Briefly, the 5CSRTT required rodents to pay attention to a spatial array of five apertures and respond with a nose poke when an aperture was illuminated. The SDT required the rat to attend to a light panel and respond either left or right to indicate the presence of a signal. In addition, modifications were made to the reward delivery, timing, control of body positioning, and the self-initiation of trials. It was found that less training time was required for the SDT, with both sessions to criteria and daily session duration significantly reduced. Rats performed with a high level of accuracy (>87%) on both tasks, however omissions were far more frequent on the 5CSRTT. The signal duration was reduced on both tasks as a manipulation of task difficulty relevant to attention and a similar pattern of decreasing accuracy was observed on both tasks. These results demonstrate some of the advantages of the SDT over the traditional 5CSRTT as being higher throughput with reduced training time, fewer omission responses and their body position was controlled at stimulus onset. In addition, rats performing the SDT had comparable high levels of accuracy. These results highlight the differences and similarities between the 5CSRTT and a modified SDT as tools for assessing attention in preclinical animal models. PMID

  3. Objective Assessment of Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Cochlear Implant Listeners Using Cortical Evoked Responses to an Oddball Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Valdes, Alejandro; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Viani, Laura; Walshe, Peter; Smith, Jaclyn; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Reilly, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can partially restore functional hearing in deaf individuals. However, multiple factors affect CI listener's speech perception, resulting in large performance differences. Non-speech based tests, such as spectral ripple discrimination, measure acoustic processing capabilities that are highly correlated with speech perception. Currently spectral ripple discrimination is measured using standard psychoacoustic methods, which require attentive listening and active response that can be difficult or even impossible in special patient populations. Here, a completely objective cortical evoked potential based method is developed and validated to assess spectral ripple discrimination in CI listeners. In 19 CI listeners, using an oddball paradigm, cortical evoked potential responses to standard and inverted spectrally rippled stimuli were measured. In the same subjects, psychoacoustic spectral ripple discrimination thresholds were also measured. A neural discrimination threshold was determined by systematically increasing the number of ripples per octave and determining the point at which there was no longer a significant difference between the evoked potential response to the standard and inverted stimuli. A correlation was found between the neural and the psychoacoustic discrimination thresholds (R2 = 0.60, p<0.01). This method can objectively assess CI spectral resolution performance, providing a potential tool for the evaluation and follow-up of CI listeners who have difficulty performing psychoacoustic tests, such as pediatric or new users. PMID:24599314

  4. Objective assessment of spectral ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners using cortical evoked responses to an oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lopez Valdes, Alejandro; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Viani, Laura; Walshe, Peter; Smith, Jaclyn; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Reilly, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can partially restore functional hearing in deaf individuals. However, multiple factors affect CI listener's speech perception, resulting in large performance differences. Non-speech based tests, such as spectral ripple discrimination, measure acoustic processing capabilities that are highly correlated with speech perception. Currently spectral ripple discrimination is measured using standard psychoacoustic methods, which require attentive listening and active response that can be difficult or even impossible in special patient populations. Here, a completely objective cortical evoked potential based method is developed and validated to assess spectral ripple discrimination in CI listeners. In 19 CI listeners, using an oddball paradigm, cortical evoked potential responses to standard and inverted spectrally rippled stimuli were measured. In the same subjects, psychoacoustic spectral ripple discrimination thresholds were also measured. A neural discrimination threshold was determined by systematically increasing the number of ripples per octave and determining the point at which there was no longer a significant difference between the evoked potential response to the standard and inverted stimuli. A correlation was found between the neural and the psychoacoustic discrimination thresholds (R2=0.60, p<0.01). This method can objectively assess CI spectral resolution performance, providing a potential tool for the evaluation and follow-up of CI listeners who have difficulty performing psychoacoustic tests, such as pediatric or new users. PMID:24599314

  5. Task Listings Resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. Memorandum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    This memorandum report consists of 14 task listings resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. (The Vocational Competency Measures Project was a test development project that involved the writing and verification of task listings for 14 vocational occupational areas through over 225 interviews conducted in 27 states.) Provided in…

  6. Comparison of Psychophysiological and Dual-Task Measures of Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Scott; Sims, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We wished to make a comparison of psychophysiological measures of listening effort with subjective and dual-task measures of listening effort for a diotic-dichotic-digits and a sentences-in-noise task. Method: Three groups of young adults (18-38 years old) with normal hearing participated in three experiments: two psychophysiological…

  7. Do the Adjusting- and Increasing-Delay Tasks Measure the Same Construct – Delay Discounting?

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Maxfield, Adam D.; Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting- and increasing-delay tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from adjusting- and increasing-delay procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the adjusting-and increasing-delay tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e., individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies. PMID:24978484

  8. Evaluation of 16 measures of mental workload using a simulated flight task emphasizing mediational activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Rahimi, M.; Casali, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    As aircraft and other systems become more automated, a shift is occurring in human operator participation in these systems. This shift is away from manual control and toward activities that tap the higher mental functioning of human operators. Therefore, an experiment was performed in a moving-base flight simulator to assess mediational (cognitive) workload measurement. Specifically, 16 workload estimation techniques were evaluated as to their sensitivity and intrusion in a flight task emphasizing mediational behavior. Task loading, using navigation problems presented on a display, was treated as an independent variable, and workload-measure values were treated as dependent variables. Results indicate that two mediational task measures, two rating scale measures, time estimation, and two eye behavior measures were reliably sensitive to mediational loading. The time estimation measure did, however, intrude on mediational task performance. Several of the remaining measures were completely insensitive to mediational load.

  9. Decrease of theta response in euthymic bipolar patients during an oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Atagün, M İ; Güntekin, B; Ozerdem, A; Tülay, E; Başar, E

    2013-06-01

    Theta oscillations are related to cognitive functions and reflect functional integration of frontal and medial temporal structures into coherent neurocognitive networks. This study assessed event-related theta oscillations in medication-free, euthymic patients with bipolar disorder upon auditory oddball paradigm. Twenty-two DSM-IV euthymic bipolar I (n = 19) and II (n = 3) patients and twenty-two healthy subjects were included. Patients were euthymic for at least 6 months, and psychotropic-free for at least 2 weeks. EEG was recorded at 30 electrode sites. Auditory oddball paradigm and sensory stimuli were used. Event-related Oscillations were analyzed using adaptive filtering in two different theta frequency bands (4-6 Hz, 6-8 Hz). In healthy subjects, slow theta (4-6 Hz) responses were significantly higher than those of euthymic patients upon target, non-target and sensory stimuli (p < 0.05). Fast theta (6-8 Hz) responses of healthy subjects were significantly higher than those of euthymic patients upon target-only stimuli (p < 0.05). Reduced theta oscillations during auditory processing provide strong quantitative evidence of activation deficits in related networks in bipolar disorder. Fast theta responses are related to cognitive functions, whereas slow theta responses are related to sensory processes more than cognitive processes. PMID:24427202

  10. The measurement of driver describing functions in simulated steering control tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, D. H.; Wojcik, C. K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of driver describing functions in steering control tasks have been made using a driving simulator. The task was to regulate against a random crosswind gust input on a straight roadway, in order to stay in the center of the lane. Although driving is a multiloop task in general, the forcing function and situation were configured so that an inner-loop visual cue feedback of heading angle of heading rate would dominate, and the driver's response was interpreted to be primarily single-loop. The driver describing functions were measured using an STI describing function analyzer. Three replications for each subject showed good repeatability within a subject. There were some intersubject differences as expected, but the crossover frequencies, effective time delays, and stability margins were generally consistent with the prior data and models for similar manual control tasks. The results further confirm the feasibility of measuring human operator response properties in nominal control tasks with full (real-world) visual field displays.

  11. Appendix to a Measure of Scientific Reasoning: The Springs Task (Details for Construction, Administration, and Scoring).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Rice, Marian R.

    The Springs Task measures the ability to conduct controlled experiments, name variables, and criticize variables which are demonstrated to the subject. It provides an operational definition of formal thought. Subjects aged ten to adult can be tested with this instrument, an apparatus-based task administered individually in a 15-minute interview.…

  12. Measuring Grammatical Development in Bilingual Mandarin-English Speaking Children with a Sentence Repetition Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woon, Chai Ping; Yap, Ngee Thai; Lim, Hui Woan; Wong, Bee Eng

    2014-01-01

    Sentence repetition (SR) tasks have been used to measure children's expressive language skills in normal and abnormal language development, and to examine the development of the speaking skills in second language acquisition, as well as to survey the proficiency of bilingual language development. Recently, SR tasks have been recognized as a…

  13. Assessing Measurement Invariance for Spanish Sentence Repetition and Morphology Elicitation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gray, Shelley; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence supporting the construct validity of two grammatical tasks (sentence repetition, morphology elicitation) included in the Spanish Screener for Language Impairment in Children (Restrepo, Gorin, & Gray, 2013). We evaluated if the tasks measured the targeted grammatical skills in the same…

  14. Heritability of Cognitive Abilities as Measured by Mental Chronometric Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to meta-analyze the published studies that measure the performance differences in mental chronometric tasks using a behavioral genetic research design. Because chronometric tasks are so simple, individual differences in the time it takes to complete them are largely due to underlying biological and physiological…

  15. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons with Other Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Shiu, Julie Li-Ju; Tomita, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on research investigating the construct validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of implicit second language (L2) grammatical knowledge. It differs from previous studies in that the EI task focuses on a single grammatical feature and time on task is strictly controlled. Seventy-three EFL learners and 20 native English…

  16. A measure of inspection time in 4-year-old children: the Benny Bee IT task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R

    2009-09-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool children. N = 71 4-year-old children completed the new IT task and standardized measures of fluid ability, visuospatial ability, and speed of processing. N = 50 adults completed the same tasks and, additionally, a standard IT task. Results showed that the new IT task is a stable, reliable measure of IT in 4-year-old children. The new task had reasonable concurrent validity with the standard IT task in adults and the relationships between cognitive abilities, particularly general cognitive ability, and IT are sufficiently similar in young children and adults to suggest that the new IT task may be a useful tool for research in populations where IT was previously not measurable. PMID:19994574

  17. Intra- and Inter-Task Reliability of Spatial Attention Measures in Pseudoneglect

    PubMed Central

    Learmonth, Gemma; Gallagher, Aodhan; Gibson, Jamie; Thut, Gregor; Harvey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy young adults display a leftward asymmetry of spatial attention (“pseudoneglect”) that has been measured with a wide range of different tasks. Yet at present there is a lack of systematic evidence that the tasks commonly used in research today are i) stable measures over time and ii) provide similar measures of spatial bias. Fifty right-handed young adults were tested on five tasks (manual line bisection, landmark, greyscales, gratingscales and lateralised visual detection) on two different days. All five tasks were found to be stable measures of bias over the two testing sessions, indicating that each is a reliable measure in itself. Surprisingly, no strongly significant inter-task correlations were found. However, principal component analysis revealed left-right asymmetries to be subdivided in 4 main components, namely asymmetries in size judgements (manual line bisection and landmark), luminance judgements (greyscales), stimulus detection (lateralised visual detection) and judgements of global/local features (manual line bisection and grating scales). The results align with recent research on hemispatial neglect which conceptualises the condition as multi-component rather than a single pathological deficit of spatial attention. We conclude that spatial biases in judgment of visual stimulus features in healthy adults (e.g., pseudoneglect) is also a multi-component phenomenon that may be captured by variations in task demands which engage task-dependent patterns of activation within the attention network. PMID:26378925

  18. Critical Tasks to Measure Teacher Performance: A Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve

    2006-01-01

    NCATE (2002) requires the measurement of knowledge, skills, and dispositions as part of its accreditation requirements for teacher education programs (Standard 1) and the use of unit assessment systems to aggregate and analyse data with a view toward program improvement (Standard 2). Data must indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and…

  19. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  20. Measuring listening effort: driving simulator vs. simple dual-task paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dual-task paradigm has been widely used to measure listening effort. The primary objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the effect of hearing aid amplification and a hearing aid directional technology on listening effort measured by a complicated, more real world dual-task paradigm, and (2) compare the results obtained with this paradigm to a simpler laboratory-style dual-task paradigm. Design The listening effort of adults with hearing impairment was measured using two dual-task paradigms, wherein participants performed a speech recognition task simultaneously with either a driving task in a simulator or a visual reaction-time task in a sound-treated booth. The speech materials and road noises for the speech recognition task were recorded in a van traveling on the highway in three hearing aid conditions: unaided, aided with omni directional processing (OMNI), and aided with directional processing (DIR). The change in the driving task or the visual reaction-time task performance across the conditions quantified the change in listening effort. Results Compared to the driving-only condition, driving performance declined significantly with the addition of the speech recognition task. Although the speech recognition score was higher in the OMNI and DIR conditions than in the unaided condition, driving performance was similar across these three conditions, suggesting that listening effort was not affected by amplification and directional processing. Results from the simple dual-task paradigm showed a similar trend: hearing aid technologies improved speech recognition performance, but did not affect performance in the visual reaction-time task (i.e., reduce listening effort). The correlation between listening effort measured using the driving paradigm and the visual reaction-time task paradigm was significant. The finding showing that our older (56 to 85 years old) participants’ better speech recognition performance did not result in reduced

  1. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Variation in the length of time productions and verbal estimates of duration was investigated to determine the influence of concurrent activity on operator time perception. The length of 10-, 20-, and 30-sec intervals produced while performing six different compensatory tracking tasks was significantly longer, 23% on the average, than those produced while performing no other task. Verbal estimates of session duration, taken at the end of each of 27 experimental sessions, reflected a parallel increase in subjective underestimation of the passage of time as the difficulty of the task performed increased. These data suggest that estimates of duration made while performing a manual control task provide stable and sensitive measures of the workload imposed by the primary task, with minimal interference.

  2. Students' Coordination of Geometric Reasoning and Measuring Strategies on a Fixed Perimeter Task: Developing Mathematical Understanding of Linear Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Clements, Douglas H.; Klanderman, David; Pennisi, Sarah-Jean; Polaki, Mokaeane V.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines students' development of levels of understanding for measurement by describing the coordination of geometric reasoning with measurement and numerical strategies. In analyzing the reasoning and argumentation of 38 Grade 2 through Grade 10 students on linear measure tasks, we found support for the application and elaboration of…

  3. Measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescents using the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. PMID:23907659

  4. Measuring pilot workload in a moving-base simulator. I Asynchronous secondary choice-reaction task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.; Bortolussi, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The de facto method for measuring airplane pilot workload is based upon subjective ratings. While researchers agree that such subjective data should be bolstered by using objective behavioral measures, results to date have been mixed. No clear objective technique has surfaced as the metric of choice. It is believed that this difficulty is in part due to neglect of theoretical work in psychology that predicts some of the difficulties that are inherent in a futile search for 'the one and only' best secondary task to measure workload. An initial study that used both subjective ratings and an asynchronous choice-reaction secondary task was conducted to determine if such a secondary task could indeed meet the methodological constraints imposed by current theories of attention. Two variants of a flight scenario were combined with two levels of the secondary task. Appropriate single-task control conditions were also included. Results give grounds for cautious optimism but indicate that future research should use synchronous secondary tasks where possible.

  5. Does the letter number sequencing task measure anything more than digit span?

    PubMed

    Crowe, S F

    2000-06-01

    A total of 102 undergraduate students performed the Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) task in addition to a series of other measures of reading, working memory, motor execution, visuo-spatial memory, and executive functions. Performance on the LNS was uniquely contributed to by reading level, digit span forward and backward, arithmetic, visual spatial learning, and by performance on the Symbol Search subtest of the WAIS-III. The results indicate that while much of the variance on the LNS task is explained by performance on the traditional measures of digit span, additional unique contributions to prediction of LNS performance are provided by measures of processing speed and visual spatial working memory. PMID:10868248

  6. Simultaneous measurement of time-domain fNIRS and physiological signals during a cognitive task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelzow, A.; Tachtsidis, I.; Kirilina, E.; Niessing, M.; Brühl, R.; Wabnitz, H.; Heine, A.; Ittermann, B.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a commonly used technique to measure the cerebral vascular response related to brain activation. It is known that systemic physiological processes, either independent or correlated with the stimulation task, can influence the optical signal making its interpretation challenging. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of task-evoked changes in the systemic physiology on fNIRS measurements for a cognitive paradigm. For this purpose we carried out simultaneous measurements of time-domain fNIRS on the forehead and systemic physiological signals, i.e. mean blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response, scalp blood flow (flux) and red blood cell (RBC) concentration changes. We performed measurements on 15 healthy volunteers during a semantic continuous performance task (CPT). The optical data was analyzed in terms of depth-selective moments of distributions of times of flight of photons through the tissue. In addition, cerebral activation was localized by a subsequent fMRI experiment on the same subject population using the same task. We observed strong non-cerebral task-evoked changes in concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin in the forehead. We investigated the temporal behavior and mutual correlations between hemoglobin changes and the systemic processes. Mean blood pressure (BP), galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate exhibited significant changes during the activation period, whereby BP and GSR showed the highest correlation with optical measurements.

  7. Construct Validity for a Measure of Generalized Expectancy of Task Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motowidlo, Stephan J.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is evidence bearing on the construct validity of the Estimate of Self-Competence (ESC) Scale, which was designed to measure generalized expectancy of task success. The results of correlational analyses of relationships between the ESC, expectancies of successful performance, and other measures are reported. (Author/AL)

  8. What Does Rapid Automatized Naming Measure? A New RAN Task Compared to Naming and Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wile, Tammy L.; Borowsky, Ron

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigated the relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) performance, letter-string reading measures of sight vocabulary (SV) and phonetic decoding (PD), and lexical decision. Criterion-based naming rates were obtained from three types of RAN tasks: digits, letters, and letter sounds. Latency measures were obtained…

  9. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  10. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  11. Comparison of task-based estimates with full-shift measurements of noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Noah S; Sheppard, Lianne; Neitzel, Rick

    2003-01-01

    Using a large data set of noise exposure measurements on construction workers, task-based (TB) and full-shift (FS) exposure levels were compared and analyzed for the sources and magnitudes of the error associated with this methodology. Data-logging dosimeters recorded A-weighted sound pressure levels in decibels using Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria for every minute of monitoring and were combined with information from task cards completed by subjects. Task-related information included trade, construction site type, location, activity, and tool. A total of 502 FS measurements were made, including 248,677 min of exposure on five construction trades. Six TB models of varying degrees of specificity were fit to the minute-level data and the results used to obtain TB estimates of the daily FS exposure levels. The TB estimates were derived using the predictions alone and also including subject and shift-specific residual means and variances. The predictions alone, which ignore within-task variability, produced a significant negative bias that was corrected by incorporation of the residual variance. This bias is only an issue in this setting in which the exposure of interest is noise, which follows a nonlinear averaging relationship. These estimates explained 10 to 60% of the variability in FS measures; adding the residual mean produced estimates that explained about 90% of the variability. In summary, TB estimates are important for exposure estimation when task time varies substantially. However, TB estimates include a substantial degree of error when there is large interindividual or intershift variability in exposure levels for a given task. Methods to improve the prediction of task-associated exposure, or adjusting for individual and shift differences, are needed. PMID:14674795

  12. The utility of brief, spectrally rich, dynamic sounds in the passive oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Horváth, János; Roeber, Urte; Schröger, Erich

    2009-09-25

    Experiments investigating auditory processing often utilize spectrally rich, dynamic stimuli to simulate an ecologically valid auditory environment in the laboratory. Often, however, these stimuli do not allow for a strict control of the timing of auditory sensory information which may be distributed over the whole duration of a given sound. In the present study, brief (20 ms long), dynamic, spectrally rich sounds were presented in the context of a passive oddball paradigm to young adults. The short duration made certain that the sensory information was delivered entirely within a 20 ms interval. Two sounds were presented as standards (45-45% probability), other two as deviants (5-5% probability) in random sequences, with a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 1500 ms. Deviants elicited the mismatch negativity and late difference negativity (LDN) event-related potential components. No N1-effect was produced by deviants, which suggests that the acoustic energy is spread over many different features due to the dynamic spectral properties, which, combined with the brief duration, causes insignificant refractoriness-effects at the present SOA. These results support the usefulness of brief natural sounds in auditory research. The elicitation of LDN in an adult group was an unexpected finding, because LDN is mostly found in children, but not in adults. This result might indicate that LDN elicitation depends on stimulation complexity: stimulus settings in which an LDN is registered in children but not in adults may be perceived as more complex by children than by adults. PMID:19545606

  13. Estimation of Temporary Change of Brain Activities in Auditory Oddball Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Koyanagi, Yusuke; Tanno, Yukinori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In this research, we estimated temporary change of brain activities in auditory oddball paradigm by moving an analysis time window. An advantage of this method is that it can acquire rough changes of activated areas even with data having low time resolution. Eight normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of a random series of 30 target and 70 nontarget stimuli. We investigated the activated area in three kinds of analysis time sections, from stimulus onset to 5 seconds after the stimulus (time section A), from 2 to 7 seconds after (B) and from 4 to 9 seconds after (C). In time section A, representative activated areas were regions including superior temporal gyrus centered around inferior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus corresponding to Broadmann area 6 (BA 6), right fusiform gyrus corresponding to BA 20, bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus were activated. In B, we could see the activations in bilatelally cerebellum, inferior frontal gyrus, and region including left motor area. In C, bilatelally postcentral gyrus, left cingulate gyrus , right cerebellum and right insula were activated. Most activations were consistent with previous studies.

  14. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non–biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non–biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise. PMID:24297290

  15. A Comparative Test of Locus on Control Measures and IQ as Predictors of Children's Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.; Adams, Gerald R.

    In this study, locus of control and IQ were compared to assess the power of each as a predictor of performance on academic and non-academic tasks. Four locus of control scales: the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale, the Academic Achievement Accountability Questionnaire, the Rotter I-E scale, the Origin-Pawn measure and the Iowa Tests…

  16. The Development of an Individuals-within-Dyads Multilevel Performance Measure for an Interactive Cheerleading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Christine M.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male-female cheerleading paired-stunt task,…

  17. Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task…

  18. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task,…

  19. Preschool Executive Control on the Shape School Task: Measurement Considerations and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) necessary for purposeful goal-directed activities undergo rapid change and development during the preschool years. However, of the few psychometrically valid measures of EF suitable for use with preschoolers, information on task sensitivity and predictive validity is scant. The neurodevelopmental correlates of early…

  20. Teacher Analysis of Student Knowledge (TASK): A Measure of Learning Trajectory-Oriented Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan; Ebby, Caroline B.; Sirinides, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This interactive electronic report provides an overview of an innovative new instrument developed by researchers at the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to authentically measure teachers' formative assessment practices in mathematics. The Teacher Analysis of Student Knowledge, or TASK, instrument assesses mathematics…

  1. Stimulus, Task, and Learning Effects on Measures of Temporal Resolution: Implications for Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.; Gray, Kellie; Plantinga, Judy A.; Shore, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Some studies find that temporal processing ability predicts language outcome whereas other studies do not. Resolution of this debate is hindered by the variety of temporal measures used, nonsensory loading of the tasks, and differential amounts of practice across studies. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of stimulus…

  2. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  3. GUTI: a measure of urgent task involvement among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Glickman, M M; Dodd, D K

    1998-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed to represent adaptive responding to highly urgent situations as in primitive hunting. In the present study, 31 adults with self-reported ADHD were compared with 33 normal adults on a newly developed, 10-item measure of urgent task involvement. The internal consistency of the scale was suitable, and the group with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group, as predicted. Validation and further development of this scale is required for it to become a tool for the study of performance of highly urgent tasks. PMID:9621734

  4. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning. PMID:26253223

  5. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality. PMID:25564960

  6. Two measures of performance in a peg-in-hole manipulation task with force feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results are described from two manipulators on a peg-in-hole task, which is part of a continued effort to develop models for human performance with remote manipulators. Task difficulty is varied by changing the diameter of the peg to be inserted in a 50 mm diameter hole. An automatic measuring system records the distance between the tool being held by the manipulator and the receptacle into which it is to be inserted. The data from repeated insertions are processed by computer to determine task times, accumulated distances, and trajectories. Experiments with both the MA-11 cable-connected master-slave manipulator common to hot cell work and the MA-23 servo-controlled manipulator (with and without force feedback) are described. Comparison of these results with previous results of the Ames Manipulator shows that force feedback provides a consistent advantage.

  7. The Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task: An Individual Level Betrayal Aversion Measure

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, Jason; Ball, Sheryl; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Research on betrayal aversion shows that individuals’ response to risk depends not only on probabilities and payoffs, but also on whether the risk includes a betrayal of trust. While previous studies focus on measuring aggregate levels of betrayal aversion, the connection between an individual’s own betrayal aversion and other individually varying factors, including risk preferences, are currently unexplored. This paper develops a new task to elicit an individual’s level of betrayal aversion that can then be compared to individual characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of our new task and show that our aggregate individual results are consistent with previous studies. We then use this classification to ask whether betrayal aversion is correlated with risk aversion. While we find risk aversion and betrayal aversion have no significant relationship, we do observe that risk aversion is correlated with non-social risk preferences, but not the social, betrayal related, risk component of the new task. PMID:26331944

  8. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality.

  9. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A; Little, Mark P

    2015-01-21

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality. PMID:25564960

  10. Silica exposure during construction activities: statistical modeling of task-based measurements from the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Beaudry, Charles; Bégin, Denis; Dion, Chantal; Gérin, Michel; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Many construction activities can put workers at risk of breathing silica containing dusts, and there is an important body of literature documenting exposure levels using a task-based strategy. In this study, statistical modeling was used to analyze a data set containing 1466 task-based, personal respirable crystalline silica (RCS) measurements gathered from 46 sources to estimate exposure levels during construction tasks and the effects of determinants of exposure. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to recreate individual exposures from summary parameters, and the statistical modeling involved multimodel inference with Tobit models containing combinations of the following exposure variables: sampling year, sampling duration, construction sector, project type, workspace, ventilation, and controls. Exposure levels by task were predicted based on the median reported duration by activity, the year 1998, absence of source control methods, and an equal distribution of the other determinants of exposure. The model containing all the variables explained 60% of the variability and was identified as the best approximating model. Of the 27 tasks contained in the data set, abrasive blasting, masonry chipping, scabbling concrete, tuck pointing, and tunnel boring had estimated geometric means above 0.1mg m(-3) based on the exposure scenario developed. Water-fed tools and local exhaust ventilation were associated with a reduction of 71 and 69% in exposure levels compared with no controls, respectively. The predictive model developed can be used to estimate RCS concentrations for many construction activities in a wide range of circumstances. PMID:23223272

  11. Clinical complexity in medicine: A measurement model of task and patient complexity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, R.; Weir, C.; Fiol, G. Del

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Complexity in medicine needs to be reduced to simple components in a way that is comprehensible to researchers and clinicians. Few studies in the current literature propose a measurement model that addresses both task and patient complexity in medicine. Objective The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to understand and measure clinical complexity by incorporating both task and patient complexity components focusing on infectious disease domain. The measurement model was adapted and modified to healthcare domain. Methods Three clinical Infectious Disease teams were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed. Each team included an Infectious Diseases expert, one Infectious Diseases fellow, one physician assistant and one pharmacy resident fellow. The transcripts were parsed and the authors independently coded complexity attributes. This baseline measurement model of clinical complexity was modified in an initial set of coding process and further validated in a consensus-based iterative process that included several meetings and email discussions by three clinical experts from diverse backgrounds from the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. Results The proposed clinical complexity model consists of two separate components. The first is a clinical task complexity model with 13 clinical complexity-contributing factors and 7 dimensions. The second is the patient complexity model with 11 complexity-contributing factors and 5 dimensions. Conclusion The measurement model for complexity encompassing both task and patient complexity will be a valuable resource for future researchers and industry to measure and understand complexity in healthcare. PMID:26404626

  12. On the Need of Objective Vigilance Monitoring: Effects of Sleep Loss on Target Detection and Task-Negative Activity Using Combined EEG/fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A.; Wetter, Thomas C.; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.; Drummond, Sean P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SDalert) or reduced (SDsleepy) vigilance. In the SDalert condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SDsleepy condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992

  13. On the Need of Objective Vigilance Monitoring: Effects of Sleep Loss on Target Detection and Task-Negative Activity Using Combined EEG/fMRI.

    PubMed

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Drummond, Sean P A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SD(alert)) or reduced (SD(sleepy)) vigilance. In the SD(alert) condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SD(sleepy) condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992

  14. Acoustic Oddball during NREM Sleep: A Combined EEG/fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Stiegler, Andrea; Peters, Henning; Andrade, Katia; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.

    2009-01-01

    Background A condition vital for the consolidation and maintenance of sleep is generally reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Despite this, the sleeper maintains a level of stimulus processing that allows to respond to potentially dangerous environmental signals. The mechanisms that subserve these contradictory functions are only incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using combined EEG/fMRI we investigated the neural substrate of sleep protection by applying an acoustic oddball paradigm during light NREM sleep. Further, we studied the role of evoked K-complexes (KCs), an electroencephalographic hallmark of NREM sleep with a still unknown role for sleep protection. Our main results were: (1) Other than in wakefulness, rare tones did not induce a blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase in the auditory pathway but a strong negative BOLD response in motor areas and the amygdala. (2) Stratification of rare tones by the presence of evoked KCs detected activation of the auditory cortex, hippocampus, superior and middle frontal gyri and posterior cingulate only for rare tones followed by a KC. (3) The typical high frontocentral EEG deflections of KCs were not paralleled by a BOLD equivalent. Conclusions/Significance We observed that rare tones lead to transient disengagement of motor and amygdala responses during light NREM sleep. We interpret this as a sleep protective mechanism to delimit motor responses and to reduce the sensitivity of the amygdala towards further incoming stimuli. Evoked KCs are suggested to originate from a brain state with relatively increased stimulus processing, revealing an activity pattern resembling novelty processing as previously reported during wakefulness. The KC itself is not reflected by increased metabolic demand in BOLD based imaging, arguing that evoked KCs result from increased neural synchronicity without altered metabolic demand. PMID:19707599

  15. Measuring working memory is all fun and games: a four-dimensional spatial game predicts cognitive task performance.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Sharona M; Sprenger, Amber M; Colflesh, Gregory J H; Briner, Timothy L; Buchanan, Jacob B; Chavis, Sydnee E; Chen, Sy-Yu; Iannuzzi, Gregory L; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Dowling, Eamon; Harbison, J Isaiah; Bolger, Donald J; Bunting, Michael F; Dougherty, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel four-dimensional spatial task called Shapebuilder and used it to predict performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. In six experiments, we illustrate that Shapebuilder: (1) Loads on a common factor with complex working memory (WM) span tasks and that it predicts performance on quantitative reasoning tasks and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Experiment 1), (2) Correlates well with traditional complex WM span tasks (Experiment 2), predicts performance on the conditional go/no go task (Experiment 3) and N-back (Experiment 4), and showed weak or nonsignificant correlations with the Attention Networks Task (Experiment 5), and task switching (Experiment 6). Shapebuilder shows that it exhibits minimal skew and kurtosis, and shows good reliability. We argue that Shapebuilder has many advantages over existing measures of WM, including the fact that it is largely language independent, is not prone to ceiling effects, and take less than 6 min to complete on average. PMID:24962121

  16. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  17. Neural Substrates for Processing Task-Irrelevant Sad Images in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihong; Huettel, Scott; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing were examined in adolescents using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy adolescents performed an emotional oddball task. Subjects detected infrequent circles (targets) within a continual stream of phase-scrambled images (standards). Sad and neutral…

  18. Quantitative projections of a quality measure: Performance of a complex task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, K.; Kleppe, Gisle; Vold, Martin; Frette, Vidar

    2014-12-01

    Complex data series that arise during interaction between humans (operators) and advanced technology in a controlled and realistic setting have been explored. The purpose is to obtain quantitative measures that reflect quality in task performance: on a ship simulator, nine crews have solved the same exercise, and detailed maneuvering histories have been logged. There are many degrees of freedom, some of them connected to the fact that the vessels may be freely moved in any direction. To compare maneuvering histories, several measures were used: the time needed to reach the position of operation, the integrated angle between the hull direction and the direction of motion, and the extent of movement when the vessel is to be manually kept in a fixed position. These measures are expected to reflect quality in performance. We have also obtained expert quality evaluations of the crews. The quantitative measures and the expert evaluations, taken together, allow a ranking of crew performance. However, except for time and integrated angle, there is no correlation between the individual measures. This may indicate that complex situations with social and man-machine interactions need complex measures of quality in task performance. In general terms, we have established a context-dependent and flexible framework with quantitative measures in contact with a social-science concept that is hard to define. This approach may be useful for other (qualitative) concepts in social science that contain important information on the society.

  19. Complexity Measures, Task Type, and Analytic Evaluations of Speaking Proficiency in a School-Based Assessment Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    This study, which is part of a large-scale study of using objective measures to validate assessment rating scales and assessment tasks in a high-profile school-based assessment initiative in Hong Kong, examined how grammatical complexity measures relate to task type and analytic evaluations of students' speaking proficiency in a classroom-based…

  20. The precision of visual memory for a complex contour shape measured by a freehand drawing task.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Takayuki; Takeda, Yuji

    2013-03-01

    Contour information is an important source for object perception and memory. Three experiments examined the precision of visual short-term memory for complex contour shapes. All used a new procedure that assessed recall memory for holistic information in complex contour shapes: Participants studied, then reproduced (without cues), a contoured shape by freehand drawing. In Experiment 1 memory precision was measured by comparing Fourier descriptors for studied and reproduced contours. Results indicated survival of lower (holistic) frequency information (i.e., ⩽5cycles/perimeter) and loss of higher (detail) frequency information. Secondary tasks placed demands on either verbal memory (Experiment 2) or visual spatial memory (Experiment 3). Neither secondary task interfered with recall of complex contour shapes, suggesting that the memory system maintaining holistic shape information was independent of both the verbal memory system and the visual spatial memory subsystem of visual short-term memory. The nature of memory for complex contour shape is discussed. PMID:23296198

  1. Evaluation of TASTEX task H: measurement of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Young poor sleepers mobilize extra effort in an easy memory task: evidence from cardiovascular measures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ralph E; Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Insomniacs often complain of memory deficits, yet objective measures have not consistently corroborated their subjective impressions. A possible explanation for the partial gap between self-report and behavioral measures of memory impairment is that insomniacs recruit extra effort to compensate for the consequences of poor sleep. The present study investigated whether subjective insomnia severity would predict objective effort mobilization, as indexed by cardiovascular measures, in an easy memory task. Seventy-seven university students, mostly women, with a mean age of 22 years were asked to memorize four strings of four random letters in 5 min while cardiovascular measures were obtained. After taking an immediate recall test, participants completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, and a questionnaire on last night's sleep and today's fatigue. Finally, they were given a surprise delayed recall test. Analyses indicated that self-reported insomnia severity was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure during the learning phase. Regarding memory performance, insomnia severity was unrelated to immediate recall but related to a decrement in delayed recall. These findings reveal for the first time that subjective insomnia severity predicts objective effort mobilization in an easy memory task, suggesting that young poor sleepers recruit extra resources to cope with everyday cognitive challenges. PMID:20408924

  3. Analysis of the time-varying energy of brain responses to an oddball paradigm using short-term smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution.

    PubMed

    Tağluk, M E; Cakmak, E D; Karakaş, S

    2005-04-30

    Cognitive brain responses to external stimuli, as measured by event related potentials (ERPs), have been analyzed from a variety of perspectives to investigate brain dynamics. Here, the brain responses of healthy subjects to auditory oddball paradigms, standard and deviant stimuli, recorded on an Fz electrode site were studied using a short-term version of the smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution (STSW) method. A smoothing kernel was designed to preserve the auto energy of the signal with maximum time and frequency resolutions. Analysis was conducted mainly on the time-frequency distributions (TFDs) of sweeps recorded during successive trials including the TFD of averaged single sweeps as the evoked time-frequency (ETF) brain response and the average of TFDs of single sweeps as the time-frequency (TF) brain response. Also the power entropy and the phase angles of the signal at frequency f and time t locked to the stimulus onset were studied across single trials as the TF power-locked and the TF phase-locked brain responses, respectively. TFDs represented in this way demonstrated the ERP spectro-temporal characteristics from multiple perspectives. The time-varying energy of the individual components manifested interesting TF structures in the form of amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) energy bursts. The TF power-locked and phase-locked brain responses provoked ERP energies in a manner modulated by cognitive functions, an observation requiring further investigation. These results may lead to a better understanding of integrative brain dynamics. PMID:15814152

  4. Measurement of Brain Activation During an Upright Stepping Reaction Task Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Theodore; Schmidt, Benjamin; Beluk, Nancy; Furman, Joseph; Sparto, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive brain imaging technology that uses light to measure changes in cortical hemoglobin concentrations. FNIRS measurements are recorded through fiber optic cables, which allow the participant to wear the fNIRS sensors while standing upright. Thus, fNIRS technology is well suited to study cortical brain activity during upright balance, stepping, and gait tasks. In this study, fNIRS was used to measure changes in brain activation from the frontal, motor, and premotor brain regions during an upright step task that required subjects to step laterally in response to visual cues that required executive function control. We hypothesized that cognitive processing during complex stepping cues would elicit brain activation of the frontal cortex in areas involved in cognition. Our results show increased prefrontal activation associated with the processing of the stepping cues. Moreover, these results demonstrate the potential to use fNIRS to investigate cognitive processing during cognitively demanding balance and gait studies. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2817–2828, 2013. VC 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23161494

  5. The Switch Task for Children: Measuring Mental Flexibility in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer

    2006-01-01

    Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…

  6. Measurement of energy expenditure of daily tasks among mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Brown, W; Ringuet, C; Trost, S G; Jenkins, D

    2001-12-01

    There is currently some debate about whether the energy expenditure of domestic tasks is sufficient to confer health benefits. The aim of this study was therefore to measure the energy cost of five activities commonly undertaken by mothers of young children. Seven women with at least one child younger than five years of age spent 15 minutes in each of the following activities: sitting quietly, vacuum cleaning, washing windows, walking at moderate pace (approx 5km/hour), walking with a stroller and grocery shopping in a supermarket. Each of the six 'trials' was completed on the same day, in random order. A carefully calibrated portable gas analyser was used to measure oxygen uptake during each activity, and data were converted to units of energy expenditure (METS). Vacuum cleaning, washing windows and walking with and without a stroller were found to be 'moderate intensity activities' (3 to 6 METs), but supermarket shopping did not reach this criterion. The MET values for these activities were similar to those reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (Ainsworth et al., 2000). However, the energy expenditures of walking, both with and without a stroller, were higher than those reported in the Compendium. The findings suggest that some of the tasks associated with domestic caring duties are conducted at an intensity which is sufficient to confer some health benefit. Such benefits will only accrue however if the daily duration of these activities is sufficient to meet current guidelines. PMID:11905932

  7. Gait Measurement System for the Multi-Target Stepping Task Using a Laser Range Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    For the prevention of falling in the elderly, gait training has been proposed using tasks such as the multi-target stepping task (MTST), in which participants step on assigned colored targets. This study presents a gait measurement system using a laser range sensor for the MTST to evaluate the risk of falling. The system tracks both legs and measures general walking parameters such as stride length and walking speed. Additionally, it judges whether the participant steps on the assigned colored targets and detects cross steps to evaluate cognitive function. However, situations in which one leg is hidden from the sensor or the legs are close occur and are likely to lead to losing track of the legs or false tracking. To solve these problems, we propose a novel leg detection method with five observed leg patterns and global nearest neighbor-based data association with a variable validation region based on the state of each leg. In addition, methods to judge target steps and detect cross steps based on leg trajectory are proposed. From the experimental results with the elderly, it is confirmed that the proposed system can improve leg-tracking performance, judge target steps and detect cross steps with high accuracy. PMID:25985161

  8. Gait measurement system for the multi-target stepping task using a laser range sensor.

    PubMed

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    For the prevention of falling in the elderly, gait training has been proposed using tasks such as the multi-target stepping task (MTST), in which participants step on assigned colored targets. This study presents a gait measurement system using a laser range sensor for the MTST to evaluate the risk of falling. The system tracks both legs and measures general walking parameters such as stride length and walking speed. Additionally, it judges whether the participant steps on the assigned colored targets and detects cross steps to evaluate cognitive function. However, situations in which one leg is hidden from the sensor or the legs are close occur and are likely to lead to losing track of the legs or false tracking. To solve these problems, we propose a novel leg detection method with five observed leg patterns and global nearest neighbor-based data association with a variable validation region based on the state of each leg. In addition, methods to judge target steps and detect cross steps based on leg trajectory are proposed. From the experimental results with the elderly, it is confirmed that the proposed system can improve leg-tracking performance, judge target steps and detect cross steps with high accuracy. PMID:25985161

  9. Can Simulation Measure Differences in Task-Switching Ability Between Junior and Senior Emergency Medicine Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dustin; Miller, Daniel G.; Cukor, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Work interruptions during patient care have been correlated with error. Task-switching is identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) as a core competency for emergency medicine (EM). Simulation has been suggested as a means of assessing EM core competencies. We assumed that senior EM residents had better task-switching abilities than junior EM residents. We hypothesized that this difference could be measured by observing the execution of patient care tasks in the simulation environment when a patient with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interrupted the ongoing management of a septic shock case. Methods This was a multi-site, prospective, observational, cohort study. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of EM residents in their first three years of training. Each subject performed a standardized simulated encounter by evaluating and treating a patient in septic shock. At a predetermined point in every sepsis case, the subject was given a STEMI electrocardiogram (ECG) for a separate chest pain patient in triage and required to verbalize an interpretation and action. We scored learner performance using a dichotomous checklist of critical actions covering sepsis care, ECG interpretation and triaging of the STEMI patient. Results Ninety-one subjects participated (30 postgraduate year [PGY]1s, 32 PGY2s, and 29 PGY3s). Of those, 87 properly managed the patient with septic shock (90.0% PGY1s, 100% PGY2, 96.6% PGY 3s; p=0.22). Of the 87 who successfully managed the septic shock, 80 correctly identified STEMI on the simulated STEMI patient (86.7% PGY1s, 96.9% PGY2s, 93.1% PGY3s; p=0.35). Of the 80 who successfully managed the septic shock patient and correctly identified the STEMI, 79 provided appropriate interventions for the STEMI patient (73.3% PGY1s, 93.8% PGY2s, 93.8% PGY3s; p=0.07). Conclusion When management of a septic shock patient was interrupted with a STEMI ECG in a simulated

  10. A higher illuminance induces alertness even during office hours: findings on subjective measures, task performance and heart rate measures.

    PubMed

    Smolders, K C H J; de Kort, Y A W; Cluitmans, P J M

    2012-08-20

    Nocturnal white light exposure has shown marked results on subjective and objective indicators of alertness, vitality and mood, yet effects of white light during daytime and under usual office work conditions have not been investigated extensively. The current study employed a mixed-group design (N=32), testing effects of two illuminance levels (200lx or 1000lx at eye level, 4000K) during one hour of morning versus afternoon exposure. In four repeated blocks, subjective reports, objective performance and physiological arousal were measured. Results showed effects of illuminance on subjective alertness and vitality, sustained attention in tasks, and heart rate and heart rate variability. Participants felt less sleepy and more energetic in the high versus the low lighting condition, had shorter reaction times on the psychomotor vigilance task and increased physiological arousal. Effects of illuminance on the subjective measures, as well as those on heart rate were not dependent on time of day or duration of exposure. Performance effects were most pronounced in the morning sessions and towards the end of the one-hour exposure period. The effect on heart rate variability was also most pronounced at the end of the one-hour exposure. The results demonstrate that even under normal, i.e., neither sleep nor light deprived conditions, more intense light can improve feelings of alertness and vitality, as well as objective performance and physiological arousal. PMID:22564492

  11. Frequency analysis of a task-evoked pupillary response: Luminance-independent measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Causse, Mickaël; Scannella, Sébastien; Dehais, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Pupil diameter is a widely-studied cognitive load measure, which, despite its convenience for non-intrusive operator state monitoring in complex environments, is still not available for in situ measurements because of numerous methodological limitations. The most important of these limitations is the influence of pupillary light reflex. Hence, there is the need of providing a pupil-based cognitive load measure that is independent of light conditions. In this paper, we present a promising technique of pupillary signal analysis resulting in luminance-independent measure of mental effort that could be used in real-time without a priori on luminous conditions. Twenty-two participants performed a short-term memory task under different screen luminance conditions. Our results showed that the amplitude of pupillary dilation due to load on memory was luminance-dependent with higher amplitude corresponding to lower-luminance condition. Furthermore, our experimentation showed that load on memory and luminance factors express themselves differently according to frequency. Therefore, as our statistical analysis revealed, the ratio between low (0-1.6 Hz) and high frequency (1.6-4 Hz) bands (LF/HF ratio) of power spectral densities of pupillary signal is sensitive to the cognitive load but not to luminance. Our results are promising for the measurement of load on memory in ecological settings. PMID:25941013

  12. Stimulus rate increases lateralisation in linguistic and non-linguistic tasks measured by functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Heather; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Subik, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-01-01

    Studies to date that have used fTCD to examine language lateralisation have predominantly used word or sentence generation tasks. Here we sought to further assess the sensitivity of fTCD to language lateralisation by using a metalinguistic task which does not involve novel speech generation: rhyme judgement in response to written words. Line array judgement was included as a non-linguistic visuospatial task to examine the relative strength of left and right hemisphere lateralisation within the same individuals when output requirements of the tasks are matched. These externally paced tasks allowed us to manipulate the number of stimuli presented to participants and thus assess the influence of pace on the strength of lateralisation. In Experiment 1, 28 right-handed adults participated in rhyme and line array judgement tasks and showed reliable left and right lateralisation at the group level for each task, respectively. In Experiment 2 we increased the pace of the tasks, presenting more stimuli per trial. We measured laterality indices (LIs) from 18 participants who performed both linguistic and non-linguistic judgement tasks during the original ‘slow’ presentation rate (5 judgements per trial) and a fast presentation rate (10 judgements per trial). The increase in pace led to increased strength of lateralisation in both the rhyme and line conditions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that fTCD is sensitive to the left lateralised processes involved in metalinguistic judgements. Our data also suggest that changes in the strength of language lateralisation, as measured by fTCD, are not driven by articulatory demands alone. The current results suggest that at least one aspect of task difficulty, the pace of stimulus presentation, influences the strength of lateralisation during both linguistic and non-linguistic tasks. PMID:25908491

  13. Conditioning-induced attentional bias for face stimuli measured with the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lim, Seung-Lark; Lee, Kanghee; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Choi, June-Seek

    2009-02-01

    People with anxiety disorder display attentional bias toward threat-related objects. Using classical fear conditioning, the authors investigated the possible source of such bias in normal participants. Following differential fear conditioning in which an angry face of either male or female (conditioned stimulus: CS+) was paired with mild electric fingershock (unconditioned stimulus: US) but the angry face of the other gender and all other facial expressions unpaired (CS-), an emotional Stroop task was administered. In the Stroop task, participants were required to identify the color of the facial stimuli (red, green, blue, or yellow). Response latency was significantly longer for the CS+ angry face than the other unpaired facial stimuli (CS-). Furthermore, this acquired attentional bias was positively correlated with the level of trait-anxiety measured before the conditioning and the degree of self-reported aversiveness of the US. Our results demonstrated that attentional bias could be induced in normal individuals through a simple associative learning procedure, and the acquisition is modulated by the level of trait anxiety and the level of perceived fear of the aversive US. PMID:19186927

  14. The Build-Up and Transfer of Sensorimotor Temporal Recalibration Measured via a Synchronization Task

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Yoshimori; Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The timing relation between a motor action and the sensory consequences of that action can be adapted by exposing participants to artificially delayed feedback (temporal recalibration). Here, we demonstrate that a sensorimotor synchronization task (i.e., tapping the index finger in synchrony with a pacing signal) can be used as a measure of temporal recalibration. Participants were first exposed to a constant delay (~150 ms) between a voluntary action (a finger tap) and an external feedback stimulus of that action (a visual flash or auditory tone). A subjective “no-delay” condition (~50 ms) served as baseline. After a short exposure phase to delayed feedback participants performed the tapping task in which they tapped their finger in synchrony with a flash or tone. Temporal recalibration manifested itself in that taps were given ~20 ms earlier after exposure to 150 ms delays than in the case of 50 ms delays. This effect quickly built up (within 60 taps) and was bigger for auditory than visual adapters. In Experiment 2, we tested whether temporal recalibration would transfer across modalities by switching the modality of the adapter and pacing signal. Temporal recalibration transferred from visual adapter to auditory test, but not from auditory adapter to visual test. This asymmetric transfer suggests that sensory-specific effects are at play. PMID:22807921

  15. Expansion and Compression of Time Correlate with Information Processing in an Enumeration Task

    PubMed Central

    Wutz, Andreas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S.; Melcher, David

    2015-01-01

    Perception of temporal duration is subjective and is influenced by factors such as attention and context. For example, unexpected or emotional events are often experienced as if time subjectively expands, suggesting that the amount of information processed in a unit of time can be increased. Time dilation effects have been measured with an oddball paradigm in which an infrequent stimulus is perceived to last longer than standard stimuli in the rest of the sequence. Likewise, time compression for the oddball occurs when the duration of the standard items is relatively brief. Here, we investigated whether the amount of information processing changes when time is perceived as distorted. On each trial, an oddball stimulus of varying numerosity (1–14 items) and duration was presented along with standard items that were either short (70 ms) or long (1050 ms). Observers were instructed to count the number of dots within the oddball stimulus and to judge its relative duration with respect to the standards on that trial. Consistent with previous results, oddballs were reliably perceived as temporally distorted: expanded for longer standard stimuli blocks and compressed for shorter standards. The occurrence of these distortions of time perception correlated with perceptual processing; i.e. enumeration accuracy increased when time was perceived as expanded and decreased with temporal compression. These results suggest that subjective time distortions are not epiphenomenal, but reflect real changes in sensory processing. Such short-term plasticity in information processing rate could be evolutionarily advantageous in optimizing perception and action during critical moments. PMID:26308546

  16. Comparative evaluation of twenty pilot workload assessment measure using a psychomotor task in a moving base aircraft simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, S. A.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of the sensitivity and intrusion of twenty pilot workload assessment techniques was conducted using a psychomotor loading task in a three degree of freedom moving base aircraft simulator. The twenty techniques included opinion measures, spare mental capacity measures, physiological measures, eye behavior measures, and primary task performance measures. The primary task was an instrument landing system (ILS) approach and landing. All measures were recorded between the outer marker and the middle marker on the approach. Three levels (low, medium, and high) of psychomotor load were obtained by the combined manipulation of windgust disturbance level and simulated aircraft pitch stability. Six instrument rated pilots participated in four seasons lasting approximately three hours each.

  17. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  18. Indirect Measurement of Sexual Orientation: Comparison of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, Viewing Time, and Choice Reaction Time Tasks.

    PubMed

    Rönspies, Jelena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Melnikova, Anna; Krumova, Rosina; Zolfagari, Asadeh; Banse, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and criterion validity of the IRAP were compared to two established indirect measures of sexual orientation: a Choice Reaction Time task (CRT) and a Viewing Time (VT) task. A sample of 87 heterosexual and 35 gay men completed all three indirect measures in an online study. The IRAP and the VT predicted sexual orientation nearly perfectly. Both measures also showed a considerable amount of convergent validity. Reliabilities (internal consistencies) reached satisfactory levels. In contrast, the CRT did not tap into sexual orientation in the present study. In sum, the VT measure performed best, with the IRAP showing only slightly lower reliability and criterion validity, whereas the CRT did not yield any evidence of reliability or criterion validity in the present research. The results were discussed in the light of specific task properties of the indirect latency-based measures (task-relevance vs. task-irrelevance). PMID:25690445

  19. Heartfelt empathy? No association between interoceptive awareness, questionnaire measures of empathy, reading the mind in the eyes task or the director task.

    PubMed

    Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-01-01

    Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the 'self.' However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish 'self' from 'other' in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the 'simulationist' account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task' for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the 'Director Task' but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715

  20. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-05-01

    We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they can only proceed when the errors are corrected. Traditionally, the tasks are presented without giving this feedback and thus the speed and accuracy are treated separately. The method was examined in a subjective experiment with thermal environment as the prototypical example. During exposure in an office, 12 subjects performed tasks under two thermal conditions (neutral & warm) repeatedly. The tasks were presented with and without feedback on errors committed, as outlined above. The results indicate that there was a greater decrease in task performance due to thermal discomfort when feedback was given, compared to the performance of tasks presented without feedback. PMID:23871091

  1. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tompuri, Tuomo T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor. PMID:26321958

  2. Measurement of attention during movement: acquisition of ambulatory EEG and cognitive performance from healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Killane, Isabelle; Browett, Glen; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive methods of recording human electro-cortical brain dynamics during normal daily activities would have far-reaching clinical benefits. The literature suggests a strong link between gait and cognition, where attention is seen to play a central role. This study investigated if clinically useful electrophysiological measures of attention can be collected using an auditory oddball task in ecological/non-clinic environments through analysis of the amplitude and latency of auditory P3 event related potentials (ERPs). Electrophysiological (EEG, EOG, EMG) recordings were taken for 7 healthy subjects while presented with an auditory oddball task. Data was recorded in control, static (seated) and dynamic (fixed cycling) experimental conditions. Recordings were also taken for two subjects during treadmill walking. P3 ERPs were calculated and data analysis showed that peak amplitude and component latency remained stable across all experimental conditions. For the Cz electrode position there were 0.2-2% P3 amplitude and 3-9% P3 latency differences. P3 amplitude and latency also remained stable between experimental conditions for all electrode locations. This result opens up the possibility to quantitatively investigate the interaction between gait and attention during the ageing process but also in movement disorders such as freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24111205

  3. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

  4. Stop Signal and Conners' Continuous Performance Tasks: Test-Retest Reliability of Two Inhibition Measures in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure test-retest reliability of the Stop-Signal Task (SST) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in children with ADHD. Methods: 12 children with ADHD (age 11.46 plus or minus 1.66) participated in the study. Primary outcome measures were stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) for the SST and CPT's commission errors (%FP).…

  5. Use of the Hayling Task to Measure Inhibition of Prepotent Responses in Normal Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Sylvie; Rouleau, Nancie; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    This study measures the effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal aging on the inhibition of prepotent responses. AD patients, normal aged controls, and young subjects were tested with the Hayling task, which measures the ability to inhibit a semantically constrained response, and with the Stroop procedure. AD patients showed a severe deficit…

  6. Examining methodological variation in response inhibition: The effects of outcome measures and task characteristics on age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Klenberg, Liisa; Närhi, Vesa; Korkman, Marit; Hokkanen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed methodological issues common to developmental studies on response inhibition. Age-related differences were investigated using two Stroop-like tasks with different levels of complexity and comparing different outcome measures in a sample of 340 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years. First, speed and accuracy of task performance were examined; the results showing that improvement in speed continued until age 13 in both the basic naming task and the two inhibition tasks. Improvement in accuracy was less consistent and continued until age 9 or 13 years. Second, two different algorithms were employed to control for the effects of basic processes in inhibition tasks. The difference algorithm indicated age-related differences similar to those for speed. The ratio algorithm, however, suggested earlier deceleration of development of response inhibition at 9 or 11 years of age. Factors related to the cognitive requirements and presented stimuli also had an effect on the results. The present findings shed light on the inconsistencies in the developmental studies of response inhibition and demonstrated that the selection of outcome measures and task characteristics are critical because they affect the way development is depicted. PMID:25175830

  7. Optical measures of changes in cerebral vascular tone during voluntary breath holding and a Sternberg memory task.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chin Hong; Low, Kathy A; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Fletcher, Mark A; Maclin, Edward L; Chiarelli, Antonio M; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-07-01

    The human cerebral vasculature responds to changes in blood pressure and demands for oxygenation via cerebral autoregulation. Changes in cerebrovascular tone (vasoconstriction and vasodilation) also mediate the changes in blood flow measured by the BOLD fMRI signal. This cerebrovascular reactivity is known to vary with age. In two experiments, we demonstrate that cerebral pulse parameters measured using optical imaging can quantify changes in cerebral vascular tone, both globally and locally. In experiment 1, 51 older adults (age range=55-87) performed a voluntary breath-holding task while cerebral pulse amplitude measures were taken. We found significant pulse amplitude variations across breath-holding periods, indicating vasodilation during, and vasoconstriction after breath holding. The breath-holding index (BHI), a measure of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was derived and found to correlate with age. BHI was also correlated with performance in the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination, even after controlling for age and education. In experiment 2, the same participants performed a Sternberg task, and changes in regional pulse amplitude between high (set-size 6) and low (set-size 2) task loads were compared. Only task-related areas in the fronto-parietal network (FPN) showed significant reduction in pulse amplitude, indicating vasodilation. Non-task-related areas such as the somatosensory and auditory cortices did not show such reductions. Taken together, these experiments suggest that optical pulse parameters can index changes in brain vascular tone both globally and locally, using both physiological and cognitive load manipulations. PMID:27235126

  8. A method for measuring the potential dermal exposure to methyl methacrylate during two different dental technical work tasks.

    PubMed

    Liljelind, Ingrid E; Eriksson, Kare A; Nilsson, Leif O; Jonsson, I Birgitta M; Burstrom, Ylva I

    2005-05-01

    Dental technicians are exposed on a daily basis to undiluted methyl methacrylate (MMA) when performing various routine tasks. Although the clinical effects of this chemical have been known for decades, no previous studies have been performed to estimate the potential dermal exposure to it. In this study we describe a patch-sampling technique to intercept the MMA that would otherwise have contaminated the skin on different parts of the hand and lower arm. Two different work tasks, making an orthodontic splint and denture preparation, were both performed under simulated workplace conditions twice by two recent graduated dental technicians. Air measurements were collected simultaneously. The results indicate that the exposure patterns associated with producing an orthodontic splint and denture preparation differed. We found work task-dependent differences in the amounts of MMA collected at the different parts of each hand, and differences between the right and left hands. There was also an interaction between hand and work task, especially for the right hand. The air measurements were positively correlated with the dermal exposure. This study highlights the importance of using a measurement strategy that takes the variability within the hand/arm body parts into account when measuring potential exposure during these kinds of work tasks. In order to establish future dermal exposure limits, more workplace and experimental studies are required. PMID:15877176

  9. Role of Dual Task Design When Measuring Cognitive Load during Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria; Brunken, Roland

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the role different kinds of secondary tasks play for researching the modality effect of cognitive load theory. Ninety-six university students worked with a computer-based training program for approximately 13 min and had to fulfill an additional secondary task. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, modality of information presentation…

  10. Measurement and Evidence of Computer-Based Task Switching and Multitasking by "Net Generation" Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Logs of on-campus computer and Internet usage were used to conduct a study of computer-based task switching and multitasking by undergraduate medical students. A detailed analysis of over 6000 individual sessions revealed that while a majority of students engaged in both task switching and multitasking behaviours, they did so less frequently than…

  11. Measuring Task Posing Cycles: Mathematical Letter Writing between Algebra Students and Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Rutledge, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    In a secondary school mathematics teaching methods course, a research team engaged 22 preservice secondary teachers (PSTs) in designing and posing tasks to algebra students through weekly letter writing. The goal of the tasks was for PSTs to elicit responses that would indicate student engagement in the mathematical processes described by NCTM…

  12. Face puzzle—two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kliemann, Dorit; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Bölte, Sven; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing others' emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge. Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks' sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n = 24) and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24). Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks' external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social cognitive

  13. Face puzzle-two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Kliemann, Dorit; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Bölte, Sven; Heekeren, Hauke R; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing others' emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge. Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks' sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n = 24) and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24). Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks' external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social cognitive

  14. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects. PMID:27243611

  15. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Reveals a Temporal Cascade of Task-Related and Default-Mode Activations During a Simple Target Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Jennifer M.; Goldman, Robin I.; Carapezza, Michael; Muraskin, Jordan; Brown, Truman R.; Sajda, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Focused attention continuously and inevitably fluctuates, and to completely understand the mechanisms responsible for these modulations it is necessary to localize the brain regions involved. During a simple visual oddball task, neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG) modulate primarily with attention, but source localization of the correlates is a challenge. In this study we use single-trial analysis of simultaneously-acquired scalp EEG and functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) data to investigate the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlates of modulations in task-related attention, and we unravel the temporal cascade of these transient activations. We hypothesize that activity in brain regions associated with various task-related cognitive processes modulates with attention, and that their involvements occur transiently in a specific order. We analyze the fMRI BOLD signal by first regressing out the variance linked to observed stimulus and behavioral events. We then correlate the residual variance with the trial-to-trial variation of EEG discriminating components for identical stimuli, estimated at a sequence of times during a trial. Post-stimulus and early in the trial, we find activations in right-lateralized frontal regions and lateral occipital cortex, areas that are often linked to task-dependent processes, such as attentional orienting, and decision certainty. After the behavioral response we see correlates in areas often associated with the default-mode network and introspective processing, including precuneus, angular gyri, and posterior cingulate cortex. Our results demonstrate that during simple tasks both task-dependent and default-mode networks are transiently engaged, with a distinct temporal ordering and millisecond timescale. PMID:23962956

  16. Proprioceptive ability at the lips and jaw measured using the same psychophysical discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    In the human face, the muscles and joints that generate movement have different properties. Whereas the jaw is a conventional condyle joint, the facial musculature has neither distinct origin nor insertion points, and the muscles do not contain muscle spindle proprioceptors. This current study aims to compare the proprioceptive ability at the orofacial muscles with that of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 21 neuro-typical people aged between 18 and 65 years. A novel psychophysical task was devised for use with both structures that involved a fixed 30.5 mm start separation followed by closure onto stimuli of 5, 6, 7, 8 mm diameter. The mean proprioceptive score when using the lips was 0.84 compared to 0.79 at the jaw (p < 0.001), and response error was lower by 0.1 mm. The greater accuracy in discrimination of lip movement is significant because, unlike the muscles controlling the TMJ, the orbicularis oris muscle controlling the lips inserts on to connective tissue and other muscle, and contains no muscle spindles, implying a different more effective, proprioceptive mechanism. Additionally, unlike the lack of correlation previously observed between joints in the upper and lower limbs, at the face the scores from performing the task with the two different structures were significantly correlated (r = 0.5, p = 0.018). These data extend the understanding of proprioception being correlated for the same left and right joints and correlated within the same structure (e.g. ankle dorsiflexion and inversion), to include use-dependant proprioception, with performance in different structures being correlated through extended coordinated use. At the lips and jaw, it is likely that this arises from extensive coordinated use. This informs clinical assessment and suggests a potential for coordinated post-injury training of the lips and jaw, as well as having the potential to predict premorbid function via measurement of the uninjured structure, when monitoring

  17. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p < 0.001; SRME 7.75 vs. 2.80, p < 0.001). Similarly, secondary task performance deteriorated from baseline to dual-task among novices (RRT 0.63 vs. 1.76 s, p < 0.006 and SDR 1.00 vs. 0.27, p < 0.001), but not experts (RRT 0.63 vs. 0.73 s, p = 0.124 and SDR 1.00 vs. 0.97, p = 0.178). In phase 2, novices practiced surgical knot-tying on the bench top simulator during consecutive dual-task trials. A significant increase in SDR (F(9,63) = 6.63, p < 0.001, f = 0.97) and decrease in SRME (F(9,63) = 9.39, p < 0.001, f = 1.04) was observed during simulation training, while RRT did not change significantly (F(9,63) = 1.18, p < 0.32, f = 0.41). The results suggest subjective ratings and dual-task performance can be used to track changes in CL among novices, particularly in early phases of simulation-based skills training. The implications for measuring CL in simulation instructional design research are discussed. PMID:25761454

  18. Measuring theory of mind across middle childhood: Reliability and validity of the Silent Films and Strange Stories tasks.

    PubMed

    Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growth of research on the development of children's ability to reason about others' mental states (or "theory of mind") beyond the narrow confines of the preschool period. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a task battery composed of items from Happé's Strange Stories task and Devine and Hughes' Silent Film task. A sample of 460 ethnically and socially diverse children (211 boys) between 7 and 13years of age completed the task battery at two time points separated by 1month. The Strange Stories and Silent Film tasks were strongly correlated even when verbal ability and narrative comprehension were taken into account, and all items loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. The theory-of-mind latent factor provided reliable estimates of performance across a wide range of theory-of-mind ability and showed no evidence of differential item functioning across gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The theory-of-mind latent factor also exhibited strong 1-month test-retest reliability, and this stability did not vary as a function of child characteristics. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Strange Stories and Silent Film task battery as a measure of individual differences in theory of mind suitable for use across middle childhood. We consider the methodological and conceptual implications of these findings for research on theory of mind beyond the preschool years. PMID:26255713

  19. Generalization and discrimination tasks yield concordant measures of perceived distance between odours and their binary mixtures in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-chun; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Similarity between odours is notoriously difficult to measure. Widely used behavioural approaches in insect olfaction research are cross-adaptation, masking, as well as associative tasks based on olfactory learning and the subsequent testing for how specific the established memory is. A concern with such memory-based approaches is that the learning process required to establish an odour memory may alter the way the odour is processed, such that measures of perception taken at the test are distorted. The present study was therefore designed to see whether behavioural judgements of perceptual distance are different for two different memory-based tasks, namely generalization and discrimination. We used odour–reward learning in larval Drosophila as a study case. In order to challenge the larvae's olfactory system, we chose to work with binary mixtures and their elements (1-octanol, n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, benzaldehyde and hexyl acetate). We determined the perceptual distance between each mixture and its elements, first in a generalization task, and then in a discrimination task. It turns out that scores of perceptual distance are correlated between both tasks. A re-analysis of published studies looking at element-to-element perceptual distances in larval reward learning and in adult punishment learning confirms this result. We therefore suggest that across a given set of olfactory stimuli, associative training does not grossly alter the pattern of perceptual distances. PMID:24920835

  20. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  1. ERP measures of math anxiety: how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Klados, Manousos A.; Simos, Panagiotis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.

    2015-01-01

    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180–320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380–420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks. PMID:26578912

  2. The reliability of a VISION COACH task as a measure of psychomotor skills.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yubin; Rosopa, Patrick J; Mossey, Mary; Crisler, Matthew C; Drouin, Nathalie; Kopera, Kevin; Brooks, Johnell O

    2014-10-01

    The VISION COACH™ interactive light board is designed to test and enhance participants' psychomotor skills. The primary goal of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Full Field 120 VISION COACH task. One hundred eleven male and 131 female adult participants completed six trials where they responded to 120 randomly distributed lights displayed on the VISION COACH interactive light board. The mean time required for a participant to complete a trial was 101 seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.962 to 0.987 suggest the VISION COACH Full Field 120 task was a reliable task. Cohen's d's of adjacent pairs of trials suggest learning effects did not negatively affect reliability after the third trial. PMID:25181563

  3. Optometric measurements predict performance but not comfort on a virtual object placement task with a stereoscopic three-dimensional display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Wright, Steve T.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Havig, Paul R.; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heft, Eric L.

    2014-06-01

    Twelve participants were tested on a simple virtual object precision placement task while viewing a stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3-D) display. Inclusion criteria included uncorrected or best corrected vision of 20/20 or better in each eye and stereopsis of at least 40 arc sec using the Titmus stereotest. Additionally, binocular function was assessed, including measurements of distant and near phoria (horizontal and vertical) and distant and near horizontal fusion ranges using standard optometric clinical techniques. Before each of six 30 min experimental sessions, measurements of phoria and fusion ranges were repeated using a Keystone View Telebinocular and an S3-D display, respectively. All participants completed experimental sessions in which the task required the precision placement of a virtual object in depth at the same location as a target object. Subjective discomfort was assessed using the simulator sickness questionnaire. Individual placement accuracy in S3-D trials was significantly correlated with several of the binocular screening outcomes: viewers with larger convergent fusion ranges (measured at near distance), larger total fusion ranges (convergent plus divergent ranges, measured at near distance), and/or lower (better) stereoscopic acuity thresholds were more accurate on the placement task. No screening measures were predictive of subjective discomfort, perhaps due to the low levels of discomfort induced.

  4. fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task.

    PubMed

    Noah, J Adam; Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Zhang, Xian; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to compare brain activity recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a dance video game task to that recorded in a reduced version of the task using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Recently, it has been shown that fNIRS can accurately record functional brain activities equivalent to those concurrently recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging for classic psychophysical tasks and simple finger tapping paradigms. However, an often quoted benefit of fNIRS is that the technique allows for studying neural mechanisms of complex, naturalistic behaviors that are not possible using the constrained environment of fMRI. Our goal was to extend the findings of previous studies that have shown high correlation between concurrently recorded fNIRS and fMRI signals to compare neural recordings obtained in fMRI procedures to those separately obtained in naturalistic fNIRS experiments. Specifically, we developed a modified version of the dance video game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) to be compatible with both fMRI and fNIRS imaging procedures. In this methodology we explain the modifications to the software and hardware for compatibility with each technique as well as the scanning and calibration procedures used to obtain representative results. The results of the study show a task-related increase in oxyhemoglobin in both modalities and demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the findings of fMRI using fNIRS in a naturalistic task. This technique represents a methodology to compare fMRI imaging paradigms which utilize a reduced-world environment to fNIRS in closer approximation to naturalistic, full-body activities and behaviors. Further development of this technique may apply to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, late states of dementia, or those with magnetic susceptibility which are contraindicated for fMRI scanning. PMID:26132365

  5. fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

    PubMed Central

    Noah, J. Adam; Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Zhang, Xian; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to compare brain activity recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a dance video game task to that recorded in a reduced version of the task using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Recently, it has been shown that fNIRS can accurately record functional brain activities equivalent to those concurrently recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging for classic psychophysical tasks and simple finger tapping paradigms. However, an often quoted benefit of fNIRS is that the technique allows for studying neural mechanisms of complex, naturalistic behaviors that are not possible using the constrained environment of fMRI. Our goal was to extend the findings of previous studies that have shown high correlation between concurrently recorded fNIRS and fMRI signals to compare neural recordings obtained in fMRI procedures to those separately obtained in naturalistic fNIRS experiments. Specifically, we developed a modified version of the dance video game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) to be compatible with both fMRI and fNIRS imaging procedures. In this methodology we explain the modifications to the software and hardware for compatibility with each technique as well as the scanning and calibration procedures used to obtain representative results. The results of the study show a task-related increase in oxyhemoglobin in both modalities and demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the findings of fMRI using fNIRS in a naturalistic task. This technique represents a methodology to compare fMRI imaging paradigms which utilize a reduced-world environment to fNIRS in closer approximation to naturalistic, full-body activities and behaviors. Further development of this technique may apply to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, late states of dementia, or those with magnetic susceptibility which are contraindicated for fMRI scanning. PMID:26132365

  6. Synchronous activity of two people's prefrontal cortices during a cooperative task measured by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Kiguchi, Masashi; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Sato, Hiroki; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-07-01

    The brain activity during cooperation as a form of social process is studied. We investigate the relationship between coinstantaneous brain-activation signals of multiple participants and their cooperative-task performance. A wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is used for simultaneously measuring the brain activities of two participants. Each pair of participants perform a cooperative task, and their relative changes in cerebral blood are measured with the NIRS system. As for the task, the participants are told to count 10 s in their mind after an auditory cue and press a button. They are also told to adjust the timing of their button presses to make them as synchronized as possible. Certain information, namely, the ``intertime interval'' between the two button presses of each participant pair and which of the participants was the faster, is fed back to the participants by a beep sound after each trial. When the spatiotemporal covariance between the activation patterns of the prefrontal cortices of each participant is higher, the intertime interval between their button-press times was shorter. This result suggests that the synchronized activation patterns of the two participants' brains are associated with their performance when they interact in a cooperative task.

  7. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  8. Heartfelt empathy? No association between interoceptive awareness, questionnaire measures of empathy, reading the mind in the eyes task or the director task

    PubMed Central

    Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-01-01

    Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self.’ However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715

  9. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload: Summary of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.; Mcpherson, D.; Loomis, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Actively produced intervals of time were found to increase in length and variability, whereas retrospectively produced intervals decreased in length although they also increased in variability with the addition of a variety of flight-related tasks. If pilots counted aloud while making a production, however, the impact of concurrent activity was minimized, at least for the moderately demanding primary tasks that were selected. The effects of feedback on estimation accuracy and consistency were greatly enhanced if a counting or tapping production technique was used. This compares with the minimal effect that feedback had when no overt timekeeping technique was used. Actively made verbal estimates of sessions filled with different activities performed during the interval were increased. Retrospectively made verbal estimates, however, increased in length as the amount and complexity of activities performed during the interval were increased.

  10. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  11. An Analysis on Lyapunov Spectrum of Hemodynamic Response in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement during Different Imaginary Motor Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Ni Ni; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the novel approach to evaluate the effects of different motor activation tasks of functional near infrared spectroscopy signal (fNIRS). Functional near infrared spectroscopy is a practical non-invasive optical technique to detect characteristic of hemodynamic response during functional activation of the cerebral cortex. In this paper, fNIRS measurements were made in the area of motor cortex. Three subjects, aged 23-30 years, participated in the experiment. The application of the Lyapunov analysis which is a method of nonlinear analysis to analyze and to quantify the chaotic property in the time series of the hemoglobin dynamics of the various motor imagery tasks of fNIRS signal was presented. The strength of chaos was estimated by the Kolmogorov entropy which is related to Lyapunov spectrum. Experimental results show that these nonlinear measures are good discriminators of NIRS signals. The Lyapunov spectra, Lyapunov dimension (DL), and Kolmogorov entropy (K) all indicated chaotic behavior.

  12. Investigating the predictive validity of implicit and explicit measures of motivation in problem-solving behavioural tasks.

    PubMed

    Keatley, David; Clarke, David D; Hagger, Martin S

    2013-09-01

    Research into the effects of individuals'autonomous motivation on behaviour has traditionally adopted explicit measures and self-reported outcome assessment. Recently, there has been increased interest in the effects of implicit motivational processes underlying behaviour from a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective. The aim of the present research was to provide support for the predictive validity of an implicit measure of autonomous motivation on behavioural persistence on two objectively measurable tasks. SDT and a dual-systems model were adopted as frameworks to explain the unique effects offered by explicit and implicit autonomous motivational constructs on behavioural persistence. In both studies, implicit autonomous motivation significantly predicted unique variance in time spent on each task. Several explicit measures of autonomous motivation also significantly predicted persistence. Results provide support for the proposed model and the inclusion of implicit measures in research on motivated behaviour. In addition, implicit measures of autonomous motivation appear to be better suited to explaining variance in behaviours that are more spontaneous or unplanned. Future implications for research examining implicit motivation from dual-systems models and SDT approaches are outlined. PMID:22639863

  13. Comparing Treatment Effect Measurements in Narcolepsy: The Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test

    PubMed Central

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Schie, Mojca K.M.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mayer, Geert; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Ding, Claire-Li; Lehert, Philippe; van Dijk, J. Gert

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To validate the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) as a treatment effect measure in narcolepsy, and to compare the SART with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Design: Validation of treatment effect measurements within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients: Ninety-five patients with narcolepsy with or without cataplexy. Interventions: The RCT comprised a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial comparing the effects of 8-w treatments with pitolisant (BF2.649), modafinil, or placebo (NCT01067222). MWT, ESS, and SART were administered at baseline and after an 8-w treatment period. The severity of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy was also assessed using the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-C). Measurements and Results: The SART, MWT, and ESS all had good reliability, obtained for the SART and MWT using two to three sessions in 1 day. The ability to distinguish responders from nonresponders, classified using the CGI-C score, was high for all measures, with a high performance for the SART (r = 0.61) and the ESS (r = 0.54). Conclusions: The Sustained Attention to Response Task is a valid and easy-to-administer measure to assess treatment effects in narcolepsy, enhanced by combining it with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Citation: van der Heide A, van Schie MK, Lammers GJ, Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mayer G, Bassetti CL, Ding CL, Lehert P, van Dijk JG. Comparing treatment effect measurements in narcolepsy: the Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1051–1058. PMID:25902810

  14. Psychophysiological Control of Acognitive Task Using Adaptive Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Frederick; Pope, Alan T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of the present proposal was to examine psychophysiological variables related to hazardous states of awareness induced by monitoring automated systems. With the increased use of automation in today's work environment, people's roles in the work place are being redefined from that of active participant to one of passive monitor. Although the introduction of automated systems has a number of benefits, there are also a number of disadvantages regarding worker performance. Byrne and Parasuraman have argued for the use of psychophysiological measures in the development and the implementation of adaptive automation. While both performance based and model based adaptive automation have been studied, the use of psychophysiological measures, especially EEG, offers the advantage of real time evaluation of the state of the subject. The current study used the closed-loop system, developed at NASA-Langley Research Center, to control the state of awareness of subjects while they performed a cognitive vigilance task. Previous research in our laboratory, supported by NASA, has demonstrated that, in an adaptive automation, closed-loop environment, subjects perform a tracking task better under a negative than a positive, feedback condition. In addition, this condition produces less subjective workload and larger P300 event related potentials to auditory stimuli presented in a concurrent oddball task. We have also recently shown that the closed-loop system used to control the level of automation in a tracking task can also be used to control the event rate of stimuli in a vigilance monitoring task. By changing the event rate based on the subject's index of arousal, we have been able to produce improved monitoring, relative to various control groups. We have demonstrated in our initial closed-loop experiments with the the vigilance paradigm that using a negative feedback contingency (i.e. increasing event rates when the EEG index is low and decreasing event rates when

  15. Measuring social integration in a pilot randomized controlled trial of critical time: intervention-task shifting in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; da Silva, Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro; Valencia, Eliecer; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Global mental health movements increasingly highlight the importance of social integration for individuals living with severe mental illnesses. However, this important individual-level outcome is rarely measured in programs. As part of RedeAmericas, a pilot regional randomized controlled trial of critical time intervention — task shifting — will be conducted, which includes social integration as an outcome measure. It is a time-limited care coordination model to enhance continuity of support for people with severe mental illness during critical periods of transition. Given the challenges of measuring social integration, particularly for a multi-country study with unique cultural contexts, this paper has described the measurement approach used to create a composite measure that uses items from disability and quality of life instruments in addition to other key items. PMID:24288454

  16. Measuring social integration in a pilot randomized controlled trial of critical time: intervention-task shifting in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; da Silva, Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro; Valencia, Eliecer; Susser, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Global mental health movements increasingly highlight the importance of social integration for individuals living with severe mental illnesses. However, this important individual-level outcome is rarely measured in programs. As part of RedeAmericas, a pilot regional randomized controlled trial of critical time intervention - task shifting - will be conducted, which includes social integration as an outcome measure. It is a time-limited care coordination model to enhance continuity of support for people with severe mental illness during critical periods of transition. Given the challenges of measuring social integration, particularly for a multi-country study with unique cultural contexts, this paper has described the measurement approach used to create a composite measure that uses items from disability and quality of life instruments in addition to other key items. PMID:24288454

  17. ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, Bea R H; Mennes, Maarten; Stevens, Veerle; van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert; Stiers, Peter; Marcoen, Alfons; Lagae, Lieven

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal maternal anxiety has been shown to be related to infant temperament, childhood disorders, and impulsivity in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated whether antenatal maternal anxiety is associated with performance on a continuous performance task. Sixty-four adolescents (mean age, 15 y; 34 boys, 30 girls) were examined with a computerized continuous performance task (CPT) measuring sustained attention. Results showed that the CPT performance of boys of mothers with high levels of state anxiety during the 12th to 22nd postmenstrual week of pregnancy declined as the task progressed: their processing speed became slower and the variability in their reaction times increased. The study controlled for the possible confounding influences of postnatal maternal anxiety, the parents' educational level, and intelligence. Establishing a link between antenatal maternal anxiety and an objective measure of sustained attention/self-regulation, our results extend the growing evidence for an association between antenatal maternal anxiety and the neurobehavioral development of the offspring up into adolescence. PMID:16327007

  18. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  19. Measuring novices' field mapping abilities using an in-class exercise based on expert task analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulkins, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We are interested in developing a model of expert-like behavior for improving the teaching methods of undergraduate field geology. Our aim is to assist students in mastering the process of field mapping more efficiently and effectively and to improve their ability to think creatively in the field. To examine expert-mapping behavior, a cognitive task analysis was conducted with expert geologic mappers in an attempt to define the process of geologic mapping (i.e. to understand how experts carry out geological mapping). The task analysis indicates that expert mappers have a wealth of geologic scenarios at their disposal that they compare against examples seen in the field, experiences that most undergraduate mappers will not have had. While presenting students with many geological examples in class may increase their understanding of geologic processes, novices still struggle when presented with a novel field situation. Based on the task analysis, a short (45-minute) paper-map-based exercise was designed and tested with 14 pairs of 3rd year geology students. The exercise asks students to generate probable geologic models based on a series of four (4) data sets. Each data set represents a day’s worth of data; after the first “day,” new sheets simply include current and previously collected data (e.g. “Day 2” data set includes data from “Day 1” plus the new “Day 2” data). As the geologic complexity increases, students must adapt, reject or generate new geologic models in order to fit the growing data set. Preliminary results of the exercise indicate that students who produced more probable geologic models, and produced higher ratios of probable to improbable models, tended to go on to do better on the mapping exercises at the 3rd year field school. These results suggest that those students with more cognitively available geologic models may be more able to use these models in field settings than those who are unable to draw on these models for whatever

  20. Towards neural correlates of auditory stimulus processing: A simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance study using an odd-ball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Rafał; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Ganc, Małgorzata; Piątkowska-Janko, Ewa; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background The neural underpinnings of auditory information processing have often been investigated using the odd-ball paradigm, in which infrequent sounds (deviants) are presented within a regular train of frequent stimuli (standards). Traditionally, this paradigm has been applied using either high temporal resolution (EEG) or high spatial resolution (fMRI, PET). However, used separately, these techniques cannot provide information on both the location and time course of particular neural processes. The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of auditory processes with a fine spatio-temporal resolution. A simultaneous auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique (AEP-fMRI), together with an odd-ball paradigm, were used. Material/Methods Six healthy volunteers, aged 20–35 years, participated in an odd-ball simultaneous AEP-fMRI experiment. AEP in response to acoustic stimuli were used to model bioelectric intracerebral generators, and electrophysiological results were integrated with fMRI data. Results fMRI activation evoked by standard stimuli was found to occur mainly in the primary auditory cortex. Activity in these regions overlapped with intracerebral bioelectric sources (dipoles) of the N1 component. Dipoles of the N1/P2 complex in response to standard stimuli were also found in the auditory pathway between the thalamus and the auditory cortex. Deviant stimuli induced fMRI activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, and parietal lobes. Conclusions The present study showed that neural processes evoked by standard stimuli occur predominantly in subcortical and cortical structures of the auditory pathway. Deviants activate areas non-specific for auditory information processing. PMID:24413019

  1. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  2. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory. PMID:27022928

  3. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory. PMID:27022928

  4. Mid-Task Break Improves Global Integration of Functional Connectivity in Lower Alpha Band

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junhua; Lim, Julian; Chen, Yu; Wong, Kianfoong; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been devoted to revealing neurophysiological mechanisms of mental fatigue, aiming to find an effective way to reduce the undesirable fatigue-related outcomes. Until recently, mental fatigue is thought to be related to functional dysconnectivity among brain regions. However, the topological representation of brain functional connectivity altered by mental fatigue is only beginning to be revealed. In the current study, we applied a graph theoretical approach to analyse such topological alterations in the lower alpha band (8~10 Hz) of EEG data from 20 subjects undergoing a two-session experiment, in which one session includes four successive blocks with visual oddball tasks (session 1) whereas a mid-task break was introduced in the middle of four task blocks in the other session (session 2). Phase lag index (PLI) was then employed to measure functional connectivity strengths for all pairs of EEG channels. Behavior and connectivity maps were compared between the first and last task blocks in both sessions. Inverse efficiency scores (IES = reaction time/response accuracy) were significantly increased in the last task block, showing a clear effect of time-on-task in participants. Furthermore, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in the IES, suggesting the effectiveness of the mid-task break on maintaining task performance. More importantly, a significant session-independent deficit of global integration and an increase of local segregation were found in the last task block across both sessions, providing further support for the presence of a reshaped topology in functional brain connectivity networks under fatigue state. Moreover, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in the characteristic path length, small-worldness, and global efficiency, attributing to the significantly disrupted network topology in session 1 in comparison of the maintained network structure in session 2. Specifically, we found increased

  5. A time estimation task as a possible measure of emotions: difference depending on the nature of the stimulus used

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Auriane; Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick; Rouaud, Olivier; Guillemin, Sophie; Aboa Eboulé, Corine; Manera, Valeria; Daumas, Anaïs; Lemesle Martin, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Time perception is fundamental for human experience. A topic which has attracted the attention of researchers for long time is how the stimulus sensory modality (e.g., images vs. sounds) affects time judgments. However, so far, no study has directly compared the effect of two sensory modalities using emotional stimuli on time judgments. Methods: In the present two studies, healthy participants were asked to estimate the duration of a pure sound preceded by the presentation of odors vs. emotional videos as priming stimuli (implicit emotion-eliciting task). During the task, skin conductance (SC) was measured as an index of arousal. Results: Olfactory stimuli resulted in an increase in SC and in a constant time overestimation. Video stimuli resulted in an increase in SC (emotional arousal), which decreased linearly overtime. Critically, video stimuli resulted in an initial time underestimation, which shifted progressively towards a time overestimation. These results suggest that video stimuli recruited both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms, and that the role played by these mechanisms changed overtime. Conclusions: These pilot studies highlight the importance of comparing the effect of different kinds on temporal estimation tasks, and suggests that odors are well suited to investigate arousal-related temporal distortions, while videos are ideal to investigate both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms. PMID:26124711

  6. The Reliability and Validity of Tasks Measuring Perception of Rapid Sequences in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Steve M.; Hogben, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Claims that children with reading and oral language deficits have impaired perception of sequential sounds are usually based on psychophysical measures of auditory temporal processing (ATP) designed to characterise group performance. If we are to use these measures (e.g., the Tallal, 1980, Repetition Test) as the basis for intervention…

  7. The Attentional Set Shifting Task: A Measure of Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Jillian M.; Morales, Juan; Donegan, Jennifer J.; Jett, Julianne D.; Redus, Laney; O'Connor, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly involving dysfunction of circuitry within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), represents a core feature of many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Deficits in cognitive function also represent the most difficult symptom domain to successfully treat, as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants have only modest effects. Functional neuroimaging studies and postmortem analysis of human brain tissue implicate the PFC as being a primary region of dysregulation in patients with these disorders. However, preclinical behavioral assays used to assess these deficits in mouse models which can be readily manipulated genetically and could provide the basis for studies of new treatment avenues have been underutilized. Here we describe the adaptation of a behavioral assay, the attentional set shifting task (AST), to be performed in mice to assess prefrontal cortex mediated cognitive deficits. The neural circuits underlying behavior during the AST are highly conserved across humans, nonhuman primates and rodents, providing excellent face, construct and predictive validity. PMID:25741905

  8. Deep abdominal muscle thickness measured under sitting conditions during different stability tasks

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hideyuki; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Sawada, Yutaka; Okubo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate ultrasonically determined changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles during different sitting conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy men volunteered to participate in this study. Four different sitting conditions including (A) sitting, (B) sitting with left hip flexion, (C) sitting with an abdominal hollowing maneuver (AHM), and (D) sitting with an AHM and left hip flexion, were used. Subjective exercise difficulty was evaluated. [Results] Transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle thicknesses significantly differed between conditions, with significantly greater thickness between positions from (A) to (D). Stability of the surface when sitting had no effect on the muscle thickness of the transversus abdominis. By contrast, sitting on an unstable surface caused an increase in muscle thickness of the internal oblique in each condition. The subjects reported progressively increasing difficulty in performing each exercise in a stable position from (A) to (D), while the difficulty in an unstable position was significantly different between (A) and (B), and between (C) and (D). [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that task (B) on a stable surface should be chosen for maximal activation of transversus abdominis without inducing overactivation of the internal oblique muscle. PMID:27134381

  9. The attentional set shifting task: a measure of cognitive flexibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Jillian M; Morales, Juan; Donegan, Jennifer J; Jett, Julianne D; Redus, Laney; O'Connor, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly involving dysfunction of circuitry within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), represents a core feature of many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Deficits in cognitive function also represent the most difficult symptom domain to successfully treat, as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants have only modest effects. Functional neuroimaging studies and postmortem analysis of human brain tissue implicate the PFC as being a primary region of dysregulation in patients with these disorders. However, preclinical behavioral assays used to assess these deficits in mouse models which can be readily manipulated genetically and could provide the basis for studies of new treatment avenues have been underutilized. Here we describe the adaptation of a behavioral assay, the attentional set shifting task (AST), to be performed in mice to assess prefrontal cortex mediated cognitive deficits. The neural circuits underlying behavior during the AST are highly conserved across humans, nonhuman primates and rodents, providing excellent face, construct and predictive validity. PMID:25741905

  10. The effect of age and vocal task on cepstral/spectral measures of vocal function in adult males.

    PubMed

    Watts, Christopher R; Ronshaugen, Rachelle; Saenz, Daniella

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cepstral/spectral acoustic measures calculated from clinical stimuli (vowels and sentences from the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice). Thirty younger adult males (20-49 years of age) and thirty older males (50-79 years of age) produced sustained vowels and read a connected speech stimulus which were applied to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses to derive the multiparametric measure of Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID). Results indicated that older males exhibited significantly greater CSID measures than younger males in connected speech (p=0.001; d=0.98), but not the vowel. Linear regression revealed a moderate correlation between age and CSID in connected speech. These results further inform our understanding of how aging influences voice production in varied contexts and how commonly utilised clinical voice tasks subjected to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses might differentially inform our knowledge of underlying vocal physiology. PMID:25651197

  11. A Cognition Analysis of QUASAR's Mathematics Performance Assessment Tasks and Their Sensitivity to Measuring Changes in Middle School Students' Thinking and Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa, And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students' mathematical understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and communication. Analyses of student responses indicated that the tasks appear to measure the complex thinking and reasoning processes that they were designed to assess. Concludes that the QUASAR assessment tasks can capture changes in…

  12. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

  13. Measurements of the dose delivered during CT exams using AAPM Task Group Report No. 111.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Caroline; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Garrigo, Edgardo; Germanier, Alejandro; Venencia, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) measured with a 10 cm long pencil ionization chamber placed in a 14 cm long PMMA phantom is typically used to evaluate the doses delivered during CT procedure. For the new generation of CT scanners, the efficiency of this methodology is low because it excludes the contribution of radiation scattered beyond the 100 mm range of integration along z. The AAPM TG111 Report proposes a new measurement modality using a small volume ionization chamber positioned in a phantom long enough to establish dose equilibrium at the location of the chamber. In this work, the AAPM report was implemented. The minimum scanning length needed to obtain cumulative dose equilibrium was evaluated. The equilibrium dose was determined and compared to CTDI values informed by the CT scanner, and the dose values were confirmed with TLD measurements. The difference between doses measured with TLD and with the ionization chamber (IC) was below 1% and the repeatability of the measurements' setup was 0.4%. The measurements showed that the scanning lengths needed to reach the cumulated dose equilibrium were 450 mm and 380 mm for the central and peripheral axes, respectively, which justifies the phantom length. For the studied clinical protocols, the doses measured were about 30% higher than those informed by the CT scanner. For the new generation of CT systems with wider longitudinal detector size or cone-beam technology, the current CTDI measurements may no longer be adequate, and the informed CTDI tends to undervalue the dose delivered. It is therefore important to evaluate CT radiation doses following the AAPM TG111 methodology. PMID:23149785

  14. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment. PMID:24892726

  15. MEASURING WORKLOAD OF ICU NURSES WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY: THE NASA TASK LOAD INDEX (TLX)

    PubMed Central

    Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M.

    2012-01-01

    High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses’ workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX. We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses’ workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs. Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs. PMID:22773941

  16. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  17. Measuring the Elongational Properties of Polymer Melts—a Simple Task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschta, Joachim; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-07-01

    Elongational flow measurements were performed on a number of samples under similar conditions using two different elongational rheometers, a Münstedt type oil bath rheometer (MTR) and the elongational viscosity fixture (EVF) of TA Instruments in an ARES rheometer. Deviations of several degrees from the set temperature are found in the case of the EVF/ARES and had to be corrected before comparing results. Inhomogeneous deformation, e.g. due to sagging, leads to an artificial strain-hardening of the EVF. For strain-hardening and/or high viscous materials a good agreement between measurements from both rheometers is found. The strain hardening measured in the EVF/ARES starts at smaller strains compared the MTR. This effect is more pronounced for weakly strain-hardening materials. The possibility of creep and creep-recovery experiments performed by the MTR demonstrates its wide application range.

  18. Reply to Humphreys' and Parsons'"Piagetian Tasks Measure Intelligence and Intelligence Tests Assess Cognitive Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Stephens, Beth

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among Piagetian reasoning assessments and standard measures of intelligence and achievement were determined in 1972 by Stephens, McLaughlin, Miller, and Glass (EJ 055 112). The data were reanalyzed by Humphreys and Parsons in 1979 (EJ 218 642). In reply, Glass and Stephens note fallacies in Humphreys' and Parsons' reasoning.…

  19. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  20. Using Mean Absolute Relative Phase, Deviation Phase and Point-Estimation Relative Phase to Measure Postural Coordination in a Serial Reaching Task

    PubMed Central

    Galgon, Anne K.; Shewokis, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this communication are to present the methods used to calculate mean absolute relative phase (MARP), deviation phase (DP) and point estimate relative phase (PRP) and compare their utility in measuring postural coordination during the performance of a serial reaching task. MARP and DP are derived from continuous relative phase time series representing the relationship between two body segments or joints during movements. MARP is a single measure used to quantify the coordination pattern and DP measures the stability of the coordination pattern. PRP also quantifies coordination patterns by measuring the relationship between the timing of maximal or minimal angular displacements of two segments within cycles of movement. Seven young adults practiced a bilateral serial reaching task 300 times over 3 days. Relative phase measures were used to evaluate inter-joint relationships for shoulder-hip (proximal) and hip-ankle (distal) postural coordination at early and late learning. MARP, PRP and DP distinguished between proximal and distal postural coordination. There was no effect of practice on any of the relative phase measures for the group, but individual differences were seen over practice. Combined, MARP and DP estimated stability of in-phase and anti-phase postural coordination patterns, however additional qualitative movement analyses may be needed to interpret findings in a serial task. We discuss the strengths and limitations of using MARP and DP and compare MARP and DP to PRP measures in assessing coordination patterns in the context of various types of skillful tasks. Key points MARP, DP and PRP measures coordination between segments or joint angles Advantages and disadvantages of each measure should be considered in relationship to the performance task MARP and DP may capture coordination patterns and stability of the patterns during discrete tasks or phases of movements within a task PRP and SD or PRP may capture coordination patterns and

  1. Analysis of operational comfort in manual tasks using human force manipulability measure.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Naoki; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for human force manipulability (HFM) based on the use of isometric joint torque properties to simulate the spatial characteristics of human operation forces at an end-point of a limb with feasible magnitudes for a specified limb posture. This is also applied to the evaluation/prediction of operational comfort (OC) when manually operating a human-machine interface. The effectiveness of HFM is investigated through two experiments and computer simulations of humans generating forces by using their upper extremities. Operation force generation with maximum isometric effort can be roughly estimated with an HFM measure computed from information on the arm posture during a maintained posture. The layout of a human-machine interface is then discussed based on the results of operational experiments using an electric gear-shifting system originally developed for robotic devices. The results indicate a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of the HFM and OC levels when shifting, and the OC is predicted by using a multiple regression model with HFM measures. PMID:25415990

  2. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kappenman, Emily S; Farrens, Jaclyn L; Luck, Steven J; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations. PMID:25538644

  3. The complex task of measuring intestinal permeability in basic and clinical science.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, H J; Verdu, E F

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal permeability is a key feature of intestinal barrier function. Altered intestinal permeability is described in many chronic diseases and may be a risk factor for disease development and a target for emerging therapeutics. Thus, reliable and sensitive methods to measure intestinal permeability in both the clinical and preclinical setting are needed. There is currently a large array of tests to choose from, each with advantages and disadvantages. When possible, a combination of methods should be used. The choice of tests should be based on a deep understanding of intestinal barrier physiology and the recognition of their limitations. This mini-review will highlight the advantages and limitations associated with intestinal permeability tests and will identify current problems in the field and how they can be addressed in the future. PMID:27339216

  4. The measurement and facilitation of cooperative task performance. [reactions of humans to stress exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine under what conditions jaw clenching will occur in humans as a response to stress exposure. The method for measuring reactions to stress involves a series of electrical recordings of the masseter and temporalis muscles. A high fixed-ratio response requirement in the first series of experiments shows that jaw clenching in humans occurs in situations analogous to those which produce biting in infrahuman subjects. In the second series, reduction in the amounts of money recieved by subjects is shown to cause increases in the jaw clench response and other negative effect motor behaviors. The third series demonstrates that perception of more favorable conditions existing for another person can increase anger and hostility in the subject.

  5. Quantum Tasks with Non-maximally Quantum Channels via Positive Operator-Valued Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Luo, Ming-Xing; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    By using a proper positive operator-valued measure (POVM), we present two new schemes for probabilistic transmission with non-maximally four-particle cluster states. In the first scheme, we demonstrate that two non-maximally four-particle cluster states can be used to realize probabilistically sharing an unknown three-particle GHZ-type state within either distant agent's place. In the second protocol, we demonstrate that a non-maximally four-particle cluster state can be used to teleport an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state in a probabilistic manner with appropriate unitary operations and POVM. Moreover the total success probability of these two schemes are also worked out.

  6. Impact on soot control measures on MCFC powerplants. Task report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, D.P.

    1980-12-12

    Physical Sciences Inc. has performed a preliminary evaluation of the effects of soot control measures on the molten carbonate fuel cell powerplant. Soot control measures are required because of the temperature and humidity restrictions imposed on the system by the low temperature gas cleanup system. The system configuration chosen is the General Electric System 1 configuration. This system uses a Texaco, oxygen blown gasifier and a low temperature (Selexol) gas cleanup system. The pressure of this portion of the system is about 600 psi which drops to 500 psi at the exit of the gas cleanup system. The gas which at this point has dew point of 100/sup 0/F is expanded to about 105 psi. At this point, steam is injected. The function of this steam is to suppress soot formation both in the anode inlet preheater and in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode. GE alludes that the function of the steam may also be to optimize the output of the steam turbines. Upon leaving the anode, the sensible heat in the anode exhaust is used to regeneratively preheat the anode inlet gas. Finally, the anode exhaust is fed to a catalytic combustor via a compressor. The combustor effluent is mixed with fresh cathode inlet air. This stream is then mixed with cathode exhaust recycle. The resulting mixture is fed to the MCFC cathode. The cathode exhaust is split into recycle and system exhaust streams. About 77% of the cathode exhaust is recycled. The system exhaust is expanded through a gas turbine, a regenerative heat exchanger and an economizer. Results of the study are reported. (WHK)

  7. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion

  8. The development of the N1 and N2 components in auditory oddball paradigms: a systematic review with narrative analysis and suggested normative values.

    PubMed

    Tomé, David; Barbosa, Fernando; Nowak, Kamila; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2015-03-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) are widely used in diverse fields of today's neuroscience, concerning auditory processing, speech perception, language acquisition, neurodevelopment, attention and cognition in normal aging, gender, developmental, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. However, its transposition to clinical practice has remained minimal. Mainly due to scarce literature on normative data across age, wide spectrum of results, variety of auditory stimuli used and to different neuropsychological meanings of AERPs components between authors. One of the most prominent AERP components studied in last decades was N1, which reflects auditory detection and discrimination. Subsequently, N2 indicates attention allocation and phonological analysis. The simultaneous analysis of N1 and N2 elicited by feasible novelty experimental paradigms, such as auditory oddball, seems an objective method to assess central auditory processing. The aim of this systematic review was to bring forward normative values for auditory oddball N1 and N2 components across age. EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies that elicited N1 and/or N2 by auditory oddball paradigm. A total of 2,764 papers were initially identified in the database, of which 19 resulted from hand search and additional references, between 1988 and 2013, last 25 years. A final total of 68 studies met the eligibility criteria with a total of 2,406 participants from control groups for N1 (age range 6.6-85 years; mean 34.42) and 1,507 for N2 (age range 9-85 years; mean 36.13). Polynomial regression analysis revealed that N1 latency decreases with aging at Fz and Cz, N1 amplitude at Cz decreases from childhood to adolescence and stabilizes after 30-40 years and at Fz the decrement finishes by 60 years and highly increases after this age. Regarding N2, latency did not covary with age but amplitude showed a significant decrement for both Cz and Fz. Results

  9. Targeted brain activation using an MR-compatible wrist torque measurement device and isometric motor tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Vlaar, Martijn P; Mugge, Winfred; Groot, Paul F C; Sharifi, Sarvi; Bour, Lo J; van der Helm, Frans C T; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Schouten, Alfred C

    2016-07-01

    Dedicated pairs of isometric wrist flexion tasks, with and without visual feedback of the exerted torque, were designed to target activation of the CBL and BG in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Selective activation of the cerebellum (CBL) and basal ganglia (BG), often implicated in movement disorders such as tremor and dystonia, may help identify pathological changes and expedite diagnosis. A prototyped MR-compatible wrist torque measurement device, free of magnetic and conductive materials, allowed safe execution of tasks during fMRI without causing artifacts. A significant increase of activity in CBL and BG was found in healthy volunteers during a constant torque task with visual feedback compared to a constant torque task without visual feedback. This study shows that specific pairs of motor tasks using MR-compatible equipment at the wrist allow for targeted activation of CBL and BG, paving a new way for research into the pathophysiology of movement disorders. PMID:26968144

  10. The Virtual Tray of Objects Task as a novel method to electrophysiologically measure visuo-spatial recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Amico, Francesco; Ambrosini, Ettore; Guillem, François; Mento, Giovanni; Power, Dermot; Pergola, Giulio; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-12-01

    We explored a novel method to electrophysiologically measure visuo-spatial recognition memory using a modified version of the Virtual Tray of Objects Task (VTOT). Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 18 healthy volunteers during performance in the VTOT. Participants were required to detect random repetitions of three-dimensional visual stimuli (OLD) and to refrain from responding to non-repeated stimuli (NEW). Differences in ERP between the NEW and OLD conditions were tested for statistical significance using assumption-free non-parametric analyses. Further, a correlation between ERP and behavioral measures was sought. Significant OLD-NEW effects were found for four ERP components showing distinct spatio-temporal characteristics: a posterior positive component appearing at 100 ms (P100), a left-lateralized negative component peaking at ≈250 ms (N250), a frontal negative component at ≈300-450 ms (FN400), and a right late frontal negativity (rLFN) at ≈500-720 ms. Moreover, individual differences in the OLD-NEW effect computed for the rLFN positively correlated with repeated stimulus recognition efficiency. However, there were no late left parietal P600 old/new effects. These findings suggest that the P100 component might reflect early visual perception processes taking place during performance in the task, whereas the N250 and FN400 components could be linked to stimulus-dependent access to visual memory representations and familiarity-related processes, respectively. In contrast, we propose that the rLFN component could be associated with higher-level cognitive functions, such as attention and monitoring processes. Altogether, our results suggest that the ERP version of the VTOT could play a role in the electrophysiological assessment of visuo-spatial memory and related sub-processes. PMID:26546862

  11. Effects of nicotine on electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural measures of visual working memory in non-smokers during a dual-task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Knobelsdorf, Amy; Jaworska, Natalia; Daniels, Richelle; Knott, Verner J

    2013-01-01

    Research in smokers has shown that nicotine may have the ability to improve certain aspects of cognitive performance, including working memory and attention, processes which implicate frontal and frontal-parietal brain networks. There is limited research on the cognitive effects of nicotine and their associated neural underpinnings in non-smokers. This study examined the effects of acute nicotine on a working memory task alone or combined with a visual detection task (single- and dual-task conditions) using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and behavioural performance measures. Twenty non-smokers (13 females; 7 males) received nicotine gum (6 mg) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design. Spectral EEG, together with response speed and accuracy measures, were obtained while participants completed a series of N-Back tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Nicotine failed to exert any significant effects on performance measures, however, EEG changes were observed, primarily in frontal recordings, which varied with memory load, task condition and hemisphere. These findings, discussed in relation to previous studies in smokers, support the notion that nicotine may modulate central executive systems and contribute to smoking behaviour. PMID:23026057

  12. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, E.P.

    1993-11-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  13. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  14. Effects of Reliability and Global Context on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Sensed Hand Position in Cursor-Control Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Miya K.; Heuer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In a cursor-control task in which the motion of the cursor is rotated randomly relative to the movement of the hand, the sensed directions of hand and cursor are mutually biased. In our previous study, we used implicit and explicit measures of the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor and found different characteristics. The present study serves to explore further differences and commonalities of these measures. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of different relative reliabilities of visual and proprioceptive information on the explicitly and implicitly assessed bias of sensed hand direction. In two conditions, participants made an aiming movement and returned to the start position immediately or after a delay of 6 s during which the cursor was no longer visible. The unimodal proprioceptive information on final hand position in the delayed condition served to increase its relative reliability. As a result, the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor was reduced for the explicit measure, with a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction, but unchanged for the implicit measure. In Experiment 2, we examined the influence of global context, specifically of the across-trial sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction. Both explicitly and implicitly assessed biases of sensed hand direction did not significantly differ between the alternated condition (trial-to-trial alternations of judgments of hand and cursor direction) and the blocked condition (judgments of hand or cursor directions in all trials). They both substantially decreased from the alternated to the randomized condition (random sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction), without a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction. We conclude that our explicit and implicit measures are equally sensitive to variations of coupling strength as induced by the variation of global context in Experiment 2, but

  15. Optogenetics in Mice Performing a Visual Discrimination Task: Measurement and Suppression of Retinal Activation and the Resulting Behavioral Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Danskin, Bethanny; Denman, Daniel; Valley, Matthew; Ollerenshaw, Douglas; Williams, Derric; Groblewski, Peter; Reid, Clay; Olsen, Shawn; Waters, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided discrimination task. Compared with blue (473 nm) and yellow (589 nm) illumination, red (640 nm) illumination evoked a greater behavioral artifact and more activity in the retina, the latter measured with electrical recordings. In the mouse, the sensitivity of retinal opsins declines steeply with wavelength across the visible spectrum, but propagation of light through brain tissue increases with wavelength. Our results suggest that poor retinal sensitivity to red light was overcome by relatively robust propagation of red light through brain tissue and stronger illumination of the retina by red than by blue or yellow light. Light adaptation of the retina, via an external source of illumination, suppressed retinal activation and the behavioral artifact without otherwise impacting behavioral performance. In summary, long wavelength optogenetic stimuli are particularly prone to evoke behavioral artifacts via activation of retinal opsins in the mouse, but light adaptation of the retina can provide a simple and effective mitigation of the artifact. PMID:26657323

  16. Measuring soccer technique with easy-to-administer field tasks in female soccer players from four different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Lorås, Håvard; Norvang, Ole Petter; Asplund, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Soccer is a multidimensional sport that requires skills in many different domains. Reports from competitions at the highest levels around the world suggest that a particularly decisive performance factor is a team's technical execution. Testing of technical skills in soccer has been infrequent compared with testing of physiological variables, and there has been a lack of consensus as to which tasks should be included in test batteries. In this study, the validity of four field tasks (heading, long pass, juggling, and hit-the-post) was examined by testing 108 female soccer players from four different competitive levels, representing a hierarchy of skill levels. Correlation analysis indicated that the tasks' results appeared statistically unrelated (Spearman's ρ ≤ .36). Statistical comparisons across competitive levels showed that task performance was closely correlated with players' competition level, with regression analysis indicating that 92% of the variance in mean rankings across tasks could be explained by competitive level. As the easily administered and low-cost tasks identified differences in technical skills across competitive levels, such tasks appear valid for inclusion in tests of technical skills. PMID:25456249

  17. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. PMID:22216305

  18. Analysis of schizophrenia-related genes and electrophysiological measures reveals ZNF804A association with amplitude of P300b elicited by novel sounds

    PubMed Central

    del Re, E C; Bergen, S E; Mesholam-Gately, R I; Niznikiewicz, M A; Goldstein, J M; Woo, T U; Shenton, M E; Seidman, L J; McCarley, R W; Petryshen, T L

    2014-01-01

    Several genes have recently been identified as risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including ZNF804A which is thought to function in transcriptional regulation. However, the downstream pathophysiological changes that these genes confer remain to be elucidated. In 143 subjects (68 clinical high risk, first episode or chronic cases; 75 controls), we examined the association between 21 genetic markers previously identified by SZ GWAS or associated with putative intermediate phenotypes of SZ against three event-related potential (ERP) measures: mismatch negativity (MMN), amplitude of P300 during an auditory oddball task, and P300 amplitude during an auditory novelty oddball task. Controlling for age and sex, significant genetic association surpassing Bonferroni correction was detected between ZNF804A marker rs1344706 and P300 amplitude elicited by novel sounds (beta=4.38, P=1.03 × 10−4), which is thought to index orienting of attention to unexpected, salient stimuli. Subsequent analyses revealed that the association was driven by the control subjects (beta=6.35, P=9.08 × 10−5), and that the risk allele was correlated with higher novel P300b amplitude, in contrast to the significantly lower amplitude observed in cases compared to controls. Novel P300b amplitude was significantly correlated with a neurocognitive measure of auditory attention under interference conditions, suggesting a relationship between novel P300b amplitude and higher-order attentional processes. Our results suggest pleiotropic effects of ZNF804A on risk for SZ and neural mechanisms that are indexed by the novel P300b ERP component. PMID:24424392

  19. Resting and Task-Modulated High-Frequency Brain Rhythms Measured by Scalp Encephalography in Infants with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide frequency range. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these frequencies in TSC are currently unknown. Using a novel signal decomposition approach this study investigated dominant cortical frequencies in 10 infants with TSC, in the age range 18–30 months, and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Distinct spectral characteristics were estimated in the two groups. High-frequency (in the high-gamma (>50 Hz) and ripple (>80 Hz) ranges), non-random EEG components were identified in both TSC and healthy infants at 18 months. Additional components in the lower gamma (30–50 Hz) ranges were also identified, with higher characteristic frequencies in TSC than in controls. Lower frequencies were statistically identical in both sub-groups. A significant shift in the high-frequency spectral content of the EEG was observed as a function of age, independently of task performance, possibly reflecting an overall maturation of developing neural circuits. This shift occurred earlier in healthy infants than in TSC, i.e., by age 20 months the highest dominant frequencies were in the high gamma range, whereas in TSC dominant frequencies above 100 Hz were still measurable. At age 28–30 months a statistically significant decrease in dominant high frequencies was observed in both TSC and healthy infants, possibly reflecting increased myelination and neuronal connection strengthening with age. Although based on small samples, and thus preliminary, the findings in this study suggest that dominant cortical rhythms, a fundamental aspect of neurodynamics, may be affected in TSC, possibly leading to impaired information processing in the brain. PMID:23838730

  20. Resting and task-modulated high-frequency brain rhythms measured by scalp encephalography in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide frequency range. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these frequencies in TSC are currently unknown. Using a novel signal decomposition approach this study investigated dominant cortical frequencies in 10 infants with TSC, in the age range 18-30 months, and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Distinct spectral characteristics were estimated in the two groups. High-frequency [in the high-gamma (>50 Hz) and ripple (>80 Hz) ranges], non-random EEG components were identified in both TSC and healthy infants at 18 months. Additional components in the lower gamma (30-50 Hz) ranges were also identified, with higher characteristic frequencies in TSC than in controls. Lower frequencies were statistically identical in both sub-groups. A significant shift in the high-frequency spectral content of the EEG was observed as a function of age, independently of task performance, possibly reflecting an overall maturation of developing neural circuits. This shift occurred earlier in healthy infants than in TSC, i.e., by age 20 months the highest dominant frequencies were in the high gamma range, whereas in TSC dominant frequencies above 100 Hz were still measurable. At age 28-30 months a statistically significant decrease in dominant high frequencies was observed in both TSC and healthy infants, possibly reflecting increased myelination and neuronal connection strengthening with age. Although based on small samples, and thus preliminary, the findings in this study suggest that dominant cortical rhythms, a fundamental aspect of neurodynamics, may be affected in TSC, possibly leading to impaired information processing in the brain. PMID:23838730

  1. Older Women's Development: A Comparison of Women in Their 60s and 80s on a Measure of Erikson's Developmental Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Suzanne M.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen; Ashcraft, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Compares women from two ages groups in order to understand their development across the life span. Measures of Psychosocial Development, which assesses Erikson's developmental stages, were administered to 41 women in 2 cohorts (ages 60-70, ages 80-90). Age group differences in the resolution of Erikson's identity and trust developmental tasks were…

  2. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  3. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Hirosawa, Rikuei; Narumoto, Jin; Sakai, Yuki; Nishida, Seiji; Ishida, Takuya; Nakamae, Takashi; Takei, Yuichi; Fukui, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:23874098

  4. Calculations of two new dose metrics proposed by AAPM Task Group 111 using the measurements with standard CT dosimetry phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the equilibrium dose-pitch product D-caret{sub eq} for scan modes involving table translation and the midpoint dose D{sub L}(0) for stationary-table modes on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long (e.g., at least 40 cm) phantoms. This paper presents an alternative approach to calculate both metrics using the measurements of scanning the standard computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry phantoms on CT scanners.Methods: D-caret{sub eq} was calculated from CTDI{sub 100} and ε(CTDI{sub 100}) (CTDI{sub 100} efficiency), and D{sub L}(0) was calculated from D-caret{sub eq} and the approach to equilibrium function H(L) =D{sub L}(0)/D{sub eq}, where D{sub eq} was the equilibrium dose. CTDI{sub 100} may be directly obtained from several sources (such as medical physicist's CT scanner performance evaluation or the IMPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator), or be derived from CTDI{sub Vol} using the central to peripheral CTDI{sub 100} ratio (R{sub 100}). The authors have provided the required ε(CTDI{sub 100}) and H(L) data in two previous papers [X. Li, D. Zhang, and B. Liu, Med. Phys. 39, 901–905 (2012); and ibid. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)]. R{sub 100} was assessed for a series of GE, Siemens, Philips, and Toshiba CT scanners with multiple settings of scan field of view, tube voltage, and bowtie filter.Results: The calculated D{sub L}(0) and D{sub L}(0)/D{sub eq} in PMMA and water cylinders were consistent with the measurements on two GE CT scanners (LightSpeed 16 and VCT) by Dixon and Ballard [Med. Phys. 34, 3399–3413 (2007)], the measurements on a Siemens CT scanner (SOMATOM Spirit Power) by Descamps et al. [J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 13, 293–302 (2012)], and the Monte Carlo simulations by Boone [Med. Phys. 36, 4547–4554 (2009)].Conclusions: D-caret{sub eq} and D{sub L}(0) can be calculated using the alternative approach. The authors have provided the required ε(CTDI{sub 100}) and H(L) data in two previous

  5. Novel Modeling of Task vs. Rest Brain State Predictability Using a Dynamic Time Warping Spectrum: Comparisons and Contrasts with Other Standard Measures of Brain Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Martin; Lorenz, Romy; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J; Fagerholm, Erik D; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT) are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches, and the sum squared error (SSE) from a multilayer perceptron (MLP) prediction of the EEG time series, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach. PMID:27242502

  6. Novel Modeling of Task vs. Rest Brain State Predictability Using a Dynamic Time Warping Spectrum: Comparisons and Contrasts with Other Standard Measures of Brain Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Martin; Lorenz, Romy; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J.; Fagerholm, Erik D.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT) are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches, and the sum squared error (SSE) from a multilayer perceptron (MLP) prediction of the EEG time series, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach. PMID:27242502

  7. Dual-Task Processing as a Measure of Executive Function: A Comparison between Adults with Williams and Down Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral phenotypes of individuals with Williams syndrome and individuals with Down syndrome have been contrasted in relation to short-term memory. People with Down syndrome are stronger visuospatially and those with Williams syndrome are stronger verbally. We examined short-term memory, then explored whether dual-task processing further…

  8. Knowledge on Accelerated Motion as Measured by Implicit and Explicit Tasks in 5 to 16 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating children's and adolescents' understanding of constant and accelerated motions. The main objectives were (1) to investigate whether different task formats would affect the performance and (2) to track developmental changes in this domain. Five to 16 year olds (N = 157) predicted the distances of a moving…

  9. The Measurement of Executive Function at Age 3 Years: Psychometric Properties and Criterion Validity of a New Battery of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Blair, Clancy B.; Wirth, R. J.; Greenberg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the psychometric properties and criterion validity of a newly developed battery of tasks that were designed to assess executive function (EF) abilities in early childhood. The battery was included in the 36-month assessment of the Family Life Project (FLP), a prospective longitudinal study of 1,292 children…

  10. REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE BY RATS PERFORMING A SIGNAL DETECTION TASK LEADS TO BEHVIORAL TOLERANCE ON SOME PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work showed that trichloroethylene (TCE) impairs sustained attention as evidenced by a reduction in accuracy and elevation of response latencies in rats trained to perform a visual signal detection task (SDT). This work also showed that these effects abate during repeat...

  11. Effect of Posttraumatic Stress on Study Time in a Task Measuring Four Component Processes Underlying Text-Level Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael P.; Griffiths, Gina G.; Sohlberg, Mckay Moore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on 4 components underlying text-level reading comprehension. Method: A group of 17 veterans with PTSD and 17 matched control participants took part. An experimental task required participants to read and study 3-sentence paragraphs describing semantic…

  12. In vivo measurements of limbic glutamate and GABA concentrations in epileptic patients during affective and cognitive tasks: A microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Modur, Pradeep; Meier, Kevin T; Nadasdy, Zoltan; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Limbic system structures such as the amygdala (AMG) and the hippocampus (HIPP) are involved in affective and cognitive processing. However, because of the limitations in noninvasive technology, absolute concentrations of the neurotransmitters underlying limbic system engagement are not known. Here, we report changes in the concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the HIPP and the AMG of patients with nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing surgery for intracranial subdural and depth electrode implantation. We utilized an in-vivo microdialysis technique while subjects were engaged in cognitive tasks with or without emotional content. The performance of an emotion learning task (EmoLearn) was associated with a significant increase in the concentration of glutamate in the HIPP when images with high valence content were processed, as compared to its concentration while processing images with low valence. In addition, significantly decreased levels of glutamate were found in the AMG when images with predominantly low valence content were processed, as compared to its concentration at baseline. The processing of face stimuli with anger/fear content (FaceMatch task) was accompanied with significantly decreased concentrations of GABA in the AMG and HIPP compared to its levels at the baseline. The processing of shapes on the other hand was accompanied with a significantly decreased concentration of the glutamate in the AMG as well as in the HIPP compared to the baseline. Finally, the performance of a nondeclarative memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with relatively large and opposite changes in the GABA levels compared to the baseline in the AMG (decrease) and the HIPP (increase). These data are relevant for showing an involvement of the amygdala and the hippocampus in emotional processing and provide additional neurochemical clues towards a more refined model of the functional circuitry of the

  13. EEG delta oscillations index inhibitory control of contextual novelty to both irrelevant distracters and relevant task-switch cues.

    PubMed

    Prada, Laura; Barceló, Francisco; Herrmann, Christoph S; Escera, Carles

    2014-07-01

    Delta oscillations contribute to the human P300 event-related potential evoked by oddball targets, although it is unclear whether they index contextual novelty (event oddballness, novelty P3, nP3), or target-related processes (event targetness, target P3b). To examine this question, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during a cued task-switching version of the Wisconsin card-sorting test. Each target card was announced by a tone cueing either to switch or repeat the task. Novel sound distracters were interspersed among trials. Time-frequency EEG analyses revealed bursts of delta (2-4 Hz) power associated with enhanced nP3 amplitudes to both task-switch cues and novel distracters-but no association with target P3b. These findings indicate that the P300-delta response indexes contextual novelty regardless of whether novelty emanates from endogenous (new task rules) or exogenous (novel distracters) sources of information. PMID:24673586

  14. Spatial release of cognitive load measured in a dual-task paradigm in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Nooraei, Nazanin; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated whether spatial separation between talkers helps reduce cognitive processing load, and how hearing impairment interacts with the cognitive load of individuals listening in multi-talker environments. A dual-task paradigm was used in which performance on a secondary task (visual tracking) served as a measure of the cognitive load imposed by a speech recognition task. Visual tracking performance was measured under four conditions in which the target and the interferers were distinguished by (1) gender and spatial location, (2) gender only, (3) spatial location only, and (4) neither gender nor spatial location. Results showed that when gender cues were available, a 15° spatial separation between talkers reduced the cognitive load of listening even though it did not provide further improvement in speech recognition (Experiment I). Compared to normal-hearing listeners, large individual variability in spatial release of cognitive load was observed among hearing-impaired listeners. Cognitive load was lower when talkers were spatially separated by 60° than when talkers were of different genders, even though speech recognition was comparable in these two conditions (Experiment II). These results suggest that a measure of cognitive load might provide valuable insight into the benefit of spatial cues in multi-talker environments. PMID:25920841

  15. What is the specificity of the response to the own first-name when presented as a novel in a passive oddball paradigm? An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Ruby, Perrine; Morlet, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    One's own first-name is a special stimulus: one's attention is more likely captured by hearing one's own first-name than by hearing another first-name. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies demonstrated that this special stimulus produces differential responses both in active and in passive condition. Such results suggest that passively hearing one's own first-name triggers processing levels generally activated by the explicit detection of stimuli. This questions about the particular power of the own first-name to automatically orient attention, but no study investigated the specific response to this special stimulus in a paradigm designed to study automatic attention orienting. In this ERP study, we compared the responses elicited by the own first-name (OWN) and one unfamiliar first-name (OTHER) presented, rarely, randomly and at the same frequency among repetitive tones (i.e., as novel stimuli in an oddball paradigm) while subjects (N=36) were watching a silent movie with subtitles. We tested at what latency the responses to OWN and OTHER diverge, and whether OWN modulates the brain orienting response (novelty P3). Data analysis showed specific responses to OWN after 300 ms. OWN only evoked a central negativity (320 ms) and a parietal positivity (550 ms). However, OWN had no significant effect on the brain orienting response (260 ms). Our results confirm that the own first-name does elicit a late specific brain response. However, they challenge the idea that in passive condition, the own first-name is systematically more powerful than another first-name to orient attention when it is heard unexpectedly. PMID:22361115

  16. On the Time Course of Synchronization Patterns of Neuronal Discharges in the Human Brain during Cognitive Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Brázdil, Milan; Janeček, Jiří; Klimeš, Petr; Mareček, Radek; Roman, Robert; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, Pavel; Rektor, Ivan; Halámek, Josef; Plešinger, Filip; Jirsa, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Using intracerebral EEG recordings in a large cohort of human subjects, we investigate the time course of neural cross-talk during a simple cognitive task. Our results show that human brain dynamics undergo a characteristic sequence of synchronization patterns across different frequency bands following a visual oddball stimulus. In particular, an initial global reorganization in the delta and theta bands (2–8 Hz) is followed by gamma (20–95 Hz) and then beta band (12–20 Hz) synchrony. PMID:23696809

  17. National Task Force on a Uniform Measurement Unit for the Recognition of Continuing Education: Working Papers; and The Continuing Education Unit: A Uniform Unit of Measure for Non-Credit Continuing Education Programs (An Interim Statement of the National Task Force).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Univ. Extension Association, Washington, DC.

    In 1968, a national planning conference, under the joint sponsorship of 34 organizations responsing to continuing education needs, created the National Task Force to determine the feasibility of a uniform unit of measurement and develop a proposal for field testing the concept. Stressing that continuing education units should supplement, not…

  18. Time-Frequency Theta and Delta Measures Index Separable Components of Feedback Processing in a Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Edward M.; Nelson, Lindsay D.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work using gambling tasks indicate that the feedback negativity (FN) reflects primary or salient stimulus attributes (often gain vs. loss), whereas the feedback-P300 appears sensitive to secondary stimulus information. A recent time-frequency approach has characterized separable theta (3–7 Hz) and delta (0–3 Hz) feedback processes, independently sensitive to primary feedback attributes, specifically loss and gain outcomes respectively (Bernat et al., 2011). The current study extends this time-frequency work to evaluate both primary and secondary (relative outcome and outcome magnitude) feedback attributes. Consistent with previous reports, theta indexed an initial, lower-level response sensitive to the primary (most salient) feedback attributes (specifically losses), while delta was sensitive to both primary attributes (specifically gains) and assessed secondary stimulus features. PMID:25581491

  19. Activation and measurement of threat associations in fear of spiders: an application of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task.

    PubMed

    Ellwart, Thomas; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (DeHouwer, EAST; Experimental Psychol. 50 (2003) 77) was used to assess how different context conditions lead to differential activation of cognitive schemata in anxiety. Participants completed two identical EASTs, in which ambiguous target words (e.g., legs, net) were categorized together with pleasant words and unpleasant, fear-related words. Each EAST was preceded by the presentation of pictures, activating either a 'human' concept or a 'spider' concept. Results indicated that spider fearful participants showed threat associations towards the target words, but only when the spider concept was primed. Non-fearful participants did not show threat associations with either type of priming. We conclude that impact of threat associations depends on the activated context, and that the EAST is suitable for the assessment of fear associations and their current activation level. PMID:16153389

  20. Informational Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners Measured in a Nonspeech Pattern Identification Task.

    PubMed

    Roverud, Elin; Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often experience more difficulty with listening in multisource environments than do normal-hearing (NH) listeners. While the peripheral effects of sensorineural hearing loss certainly contribute to this difficulty, differences in central processing of auditory information may also contribute. To explore this issue, it is important to account for peripheral differences between NH and these hearing-impaired (HI) listeners so that central effects in multisource listening can be examined. In the present study, NH and HI listeners performed a tonal pattern identification task at two distant center frequencies (CFs), 850 and 3500 Hz. In an attempt to control for differences in the peripheral representations of the stimuli, the patterns were presented at the same sensation level (15 dB SL), and the frequency deviation of the tones comprising the patterns was adjusted to obtain equal quiet pattern identification performance across all listeners at both CFs. Tonal sequences were then presented at both CFs simultaneously (informational masking conditions), and listeners were asked either to selectively attend to a source (CF) or to divide attention between CFs and identify the pattern at a CF designated after each trial. There were large differences between groups in the frequency deviations necessary to perform the pattern identification task. After compensating for these differences, there were small differences between NH and HI listeners in the informational masking conditions. HI listeners showed slightly greater performance asymmetry between the low and high CFs than did NH listeners, possibly due to central differences in frequency weighting between groups. PMID:27059627

  1. Informational Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners Measured in a Nonspeech Pattern Identification Task

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often experience more difficulty with listening in multisource environments than do normal-hearing (NH) listeners. While the peripheral effects of sensorineural hearing loss certainly contribute to this difficulty, differences in central processing of auditory information may also contribute. To explore this issue, it is important to account for peripheral differences between NH and these hearing-impaired (HI) listeners so that central effects in multisource listening can be examined. In the present study, NH and HI listeners performed a tonal pattern identification task at two distant center frequencies (CFs), 850 and 3500 Hz. In an attempt to control for differences in the peripheral representations of the stimuli, the patterns were presented at the same sensation level (15 dB SL), and the frequency deviation of the tones comprising the patterns was adjusted to obtain equal quiet pattern identification performance across all listeners at both CFs. Tonal sequences were then presented at both CFs simultaneously (informational masking conditions), and listeners were asked either to selectively attend to a source (CF) or to divide attention between CFs and identify the pattern at a CF designated after each trial. There were large differences between groups in the frequency deviations necessary to perform the pattern identification task. After compensating for these differences, there were small differences between NH and HI listeners in the informational masking conditions. HI listeners showed slightly greater performance asymmetry between the low and high CFs than did NH listeners, possibly due to central differences in frequency weighting between groups. PMID:27059627

  2. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  3. Oncology Section EDGE Task Force on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Outcome Measures for Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Shana; Lee, Jeannette; Colon, Genevieve; Alappattu, Meryl

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is multidimensional and subjective, encompassing occupational and physical function, psychological state, social interaction, and somatic sensation. Because of the wide scope of HRQOL and its implications for the medical management of prostate cancer survivors, clinicians and researchers need to know the most reliable and valid measures currently available for addressing this clinical construct in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Purpose To identify and evaluate patient-reported outcome measures used to assess HRQOL in men diagnosed with prostate cancer and make recommendations for the use of these patient-reported outcome measures in both the research and clinic settings. Methods The literature was systematically reviewed for patient-reported outcome measures used in peer-reviewed, published research to assess HRQOL in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The goals were to examine the psychometric properties of commonly used HRQOL measures in order to determine their clinical utility. Results The following patient-reported outcome measures are highly recommended by the Task Force to assess HRQOL in men diagnosed with prostate cancer: EORTC QLQ-P25 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Prostate 25), EPIC (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite), FACT-P (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Prostate), UCLA-PCI (UCLA–Prostate Cancer Index), EORTC QLQ-C30 (EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire–Cancer 30), FACT-G (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General), and SF (Short-Form) 36, 12, and 8. Conclusions A variety of patient-reported outcome measures have been reported in the literature to assess HRQOL in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Seven measures were found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, as well as good clinical utility, and are recommended for use by the researchers on this Task Force. PMID:27134804

  4. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  5. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  6. Using Time-on-Task Measurements to Understand Student Performance in a Physics Class: A Four-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay; Taylor, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Student use of out-of-class time was measured for four years in the introductory second-semester calculus-based physics course at the University of Arkansas. Two versions of the course were presented during the time of the measurement. In both versions, the total out-of-class time a student invested in the course explained less than 1% of the…

  7. The use of EEG to measure cerebral changes during computer-based motion-sickness-inducing tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strychacz, Christopher; Viirre, Erik; Wing, Shawn

    2005-05-01

    Motion sickness (MS) is a stressor commonly attributed with causing serious navigational and performance errors. The distinct nature of MS suggests this state may have distinct neural markers distinguishable from other states known to affect performance (e.g., stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, high workload). This pilot study used new high-resolution electro-encephalograph (EEG) technologies to identify distinct neuronal activation changes that occur during MS. Brain EEG activity was monitored while subjects performed a ball-tracking task and viewed stimuli on a projection screen intended to induce motion sickness/spatial disorientation. Results show the presence of EEG spectral changes in all subjects who developed motion sickness when compared to baseline levels. These changes included: 1) low frequency (1 to 10 Hz) changes that may reflect oculomotor movements rather than intra-cerebral sources; 2) increased spectral power across all frequencies (attributable to increased scalp conductivity related to sweating), 3) local increases of power spectra in the 20-50 Hz range (likely attributable to external muscles on the skull) and; 4) a central posterior (occipital) independent component that shows suppression of a 20 Hz peak in the MS condition when compared to baseline. Further research is necessary to refine neural markers, characterize their origin and physiology, to distinguish between motion sickness and other states and to enable markers to be used for operator state monitoring and the designing of interventions for motion sickness.

  8. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, Task 1 -- Annotated bibliography and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    For Task 1 of the flammable refrigerant methods development contract, NMERI performed a literature search to identify references on the flammability of refrigerants. A database to store a bibliographic record of the literature search was then developed. This database is contained in the Microsoft Access{reg_sign} relational database management system for Windows{trademark}. Searches for applicable sources were made on-line using the STN{reg_sign} scientific and technical network; off-line using the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) database; WorldCat CD-rom database; the University of New Mexico library search; the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration institute (ARI) Refrigerant Database; and personal contacts. Three specific areas were searched: refrigerant properties, flammability test methods, and ignition technology. Many of the articles retrieved fall into multiple categories. Ignition technology was included as a separate category because of the importance of the ignition process to flammability and the vast amount of information available on ignition of gaseous fuels, especially hydrocarbons. Over 90 separate references have been entered into the database. Two separate report formats have been developed to display the results of the literature search. Appendix B is the short report format--without abstract, while Appendix C is the long format--with abstract.

  9. Measuring the cognitive resources consumed per second for real-time lie-production and recollection: a dual-tasking paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Huang, Kun; Hu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yanshuo; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Qiandong; Fu, Genyue

    2015-01-01

    This research report presents a novel method of dual-tasking lie-detection. Novel software "Follow Me" was invented for a concurrent eye-hand coordination task during truth-telling/lying. Undergraduate participants were instructed to tell truths on questions about undergraduate school whereas they were instructed to tell lies on interview questions about graduate school, pretending they were graduate students. Throughout the experiment, they operated the "Follow Me" software: moving the mouse pointer to follow a randomly-moving dot on a computer screen. The distance between the mouse pointer tip and the dot center was measured by the software every 50 ms. Frequency of distance fluctuation was analyzed as the index of cognitive effort consumed per second (i.e., "degree of cognitive effort"). The results revealed that the dominant frequency of distance fluctuation was significantly lower during encoding than during retrieving responses; and lower during lying than truth-telling. Thus, dominant frequency of distance fluctuation may be an effective index of cognitive effort. Moreover, both encoding and retrieving bald-faced lies were more cognitively effortful than truth-telling. This novel definition and measurement of degree of cognitive effort may contribute to the research field of deception as well as to many other fields in social cognition. PMID:25999903

  10. Measuring the cognitive resources consumed per second for real-time lie-production and recollection: a dual-tasking paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao; Huang, Kun; Hu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yanshuo; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Qiandong; Fu, Genyue

    2015-01-01

    This research report presents a novel method of dual-tasking lie-detection. Novel software “Follow Me” was invented for a concurrent eye-hand coordination task during truth-telling/lying. Undergraduate participants were instructed to tell truths on questions about undergraduate school whereas they were instructed to tell lies on interview questions about graduate school, pretending they were graduate students. Throughout the experiment, they operated the “Follow Me” software: moving the mouse pointer to follow a randomly-moving dot on a computer screen. The distance between the mouse pointer tip and the dot center was measured by the software every 50 ms. Frequency of distance fluctuation was analyzed as the index of cognitive effort consumed per second (i.e., “degree of cognitive effort”). The results revealed that the dominant frequency of distance fluctuation was significantly lower during encoding than during retrieving responses; and lower during lying than truth-telling. Thus, dominant frequency of distance fluctuation may be an effective index of cognitive effort. Moreover, both encoding and retrieving bald-faced lies were more cognitively effortful than truth-telling. This novel definition and measurement of degree of cognitive effort may contribute to the research field of deception as well as to many other fields in social cognition. PMID:25999903