Science.gov

Sample records for oecd mcmsdrw

  1. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8) Public…

  2. Education Today 2010: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single…

  3. Education Today 2013: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single…

  4. The OECD and International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  5. Implementing Inclusive Education. OECD Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains 25 papers presented at 1993 and 1995 conferences convened as part of a 7-year international project concerned with the integration of children with special educational needs into mainstream schools. The papers are: (1) "The OECD Project: Integrating Students with Special Needs into Mainstream Schools" (Peter Evans and Don…

  6. Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2008 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  7. Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, governments are having to work with shrinking public budgets while designing policies to make education more effective and responsive to growing demand. The 2011 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of…

  8. The OECD and Global Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This review essay discusses the history, evolution and development of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and traces the growing impact of its education work. The essay is in four main sections. The first discusses Carrol and Kellow's "The OECD: A Study of Organizational Adaptation" (Edward Elgar) and…

  9. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    OECD Project 2.30 on a Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009, with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project are to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test Guidelines. ...

  10. Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in the OECD's 34 member countries, as well as a number of non-member G20 nations. Featuring more than 140…

  11. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  12. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in more than 40 countries, including OECD members and G20 partners. Featuring more than 100 charts, 200…

  13. Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2009 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  14. Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in the OECD's 34 member countries, as well as a number of non-member G20 nations. Featuring more than 140 charts,…

  15. OECD Nations Launch Youth Job Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lloyd

    1978-01-01

    Review of programs initiated by various western countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)--government-initiated public and private programs to cope with the youth unemployment problem. (JT)

  16. Integration of Immigrants in OECD Countries: Do Policies Matter? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 564

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causa, Orsetta; Jean, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    This working paper assesses the ease of immigrants' integration in OECD labour markets by estimating how an immigration background influences the probability of being active or employed and the expected hourly earnings, for given individual characteristics. Applying the same methodology to comparable data across twelve OECD countries, immigrants…

  17. Simulation Studies to Explore Biodegradation in Water-Sediment Systems: From OECD 308 to OECD 309.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prasit; Junker, Thomas; Fenner, Kathrin; Hahn, Stefan; Honti, Mark; Bakkour, Rani; Diaz, Cecilia; Hennecke, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Studies according to OECD 308 and OECD 309 are performed to simulate the biodegradation of chemicals in water-sediment systems in support of persistence assessment and exposure modeling. However, several shortcomings of OECD 308 have been identified that hamper data evaluation and interpretation, and its relation to OECD 309 is still unclear. The present study systematically compares OECD 308 and OECD 309 and two variants thereof to derive recommendations on how to experimentally address any shortcomings and improve data for persistence and risk assessment. To this end, four (14)C-labeled compounds with different biodegradation and sorption behavior were tested across standard OECD 308 and 309 test systems and two modified versions thereof. The well-degradable compounds showed slow equilibration and the least mineralization in OECD 308, whereas the modified systems provided the highest degree of mineralization. Different lines of evidence suggest that this was due to increased oxygenation of the sediment in the modified systems. Particularly for rapidly degrading compounds, non-extractable residue formation was in line with degradation and did not follow the sediment-water ratio. For the two more slowly degrading compounds, sorption in OECD 309 (standard and modified) increased with time beyond levels proposed by equilibrium partitioning, which could be attributed to the grinding of the sediment through the stirring of the sediment suspension. Overall, the large differences in degradation observed across the four test systems suggest that refined specifications in test guidelines are required to reduce variability in test outcomes. At the same time, the amount of sediment and its degree of oxygenation emerged as drivers across all test systems. This suggests that a unified description of the systems was possible and would pave the way toward a more consistent consideration of degradation in the water-sediment systems across different exposure situations and

  18. The Safety of Nanotechnologies at the Oecd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, P.; Gonzalez, M.; Oki, N.; Lee, K.; Rodriguez, F.

    . This paper introduces the work of OECD ' s Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. In particular, it describes its "sponsorship programme" through which OECD member countries and other stakeholders are collaborating to fund and manage the safety testing of 14 manufactured nanomaterials. The paper describes the endpoints which will be addressed during the safety testing which cover both human health and environmental safety. There is also reference to supporting work including a preliminary review of existing test guidelines as well as work on alterative test methods which ultimately aims to avoid the use of animal testing.

  19. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false OECD waste lists. 262.89 Section 262.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for Recovery Within the OECD § 262.89 OECD waste...

  20. OECD Social Indicators for 2001: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalimo, Esko

    2005-01-01

    The OECD social indicators for 2001 were critically reviewed by analysing their interrelationships across all OECD countries during the late 1990s. First, findings were provided covering the underlying structure of subsets of indicators by similarity in content as suggested by the OECD. Second, an analysis of the selected key indicators yielded…

  1. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  2. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  3. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  4. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  5. Education at OECD: Recent Themes and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the work of OECD in the field of education through its recent projects and reports. It makes no pretence to be exhaustive. It relies heavily on published results of international reviews and comparisons where relatively clear messages have been identified, rather than single country…

  6. Education Today 2009: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This book presents OECD's main messages regarding the current state of education. Organised into nine sections, this report examines early childhood, schooling, transitions beyond initial education, higher education, adult education, lifelong learning, outcomes and returns, equity, and innovation. Each section offers both key findings and…

  7. OECD Work on Future Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisens, Henno; Benavides, Francisco; Dumont, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Designing school buildings to respond to change is not a new idea. But perhaps what is different today is the kind and degree of change which we have to anticipate. The OECD is carrying out projects that can help in the planning and design of future educational facilities--exploring trends in education and studying innovative learning…

  8. Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in…

  9. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  10. Revision of the OECD Genetox Test Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Test Guidelines (TG) on genetic toxicology were initially prepared and adopted between 1981 and 1986. In 1997 the most commonly used guidelines were updated, and the in vivo UDS test (TG 486) was added. More recently, in 2010 and 2011, two new guidelines were adopted: th...

  11. OECD Educationtoday Crisis Survey 2010: The Impact of the Economic Recession and Fiscal Crisis on Education in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damme, Dirk V.; Karkkainen, Kiira

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Education surveyed the impact of the economic recession on education for the first time in June 2009. Responses were received from seventeen OECD member countries, the Flemish Community of Belgian and two Canadian provinces. The results of the survey reflect the…

  12. Health Expenditure Trends in OECD Countries, 1990-2001

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manfred; Orosz, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This article presents data on health care spending for 30 OECD countries from OECD Health Data 2003, the latest edition of OECD's annual data collection on health systems across industrialized countries. OECD data show health care expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product at an all-time high, due to both increased expenditures and overall economic slowdown. The article discusses similarities and differences across countries in how health care expenditures are funded and how the health care dollar is spent among types of services. PMID:14997690

  13. Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Franco; Devaux, Marion; Church, Jody; Cecchini, Michele; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of…

  14. The Supply of Physician Services in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoens, Steven; Hurst, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    The delivery of an appropriate quantity and quality of health care in an efficient way requires, among other things, matching the supply with the demand for the services of physicians, over time. Such matching has led to very different levels of physicians per million population across OECD countries--because of variations, among other things,…

  15. Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakharzadeh, Tala

    2016-01-01

    Recent demographic, economic and political trends have drawn attention to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources in the education sector. In the context of the renewed interest for the optimisation of resource use, this paper attempts to review the literature on budgeting and accounting in OECD education systems. The…

  16. Tackling Nurse Shortages in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoens, Steven; Villeneuve, Mike; Hurst, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    There are reports of current nurse shortages in all but a few OECD countries. With further increases in demand for nurses expected and nurse workforce ageing predicted to reduce the supply of nurses, shortages are likely to persist or even increase in the future, unless action is taken to increase flows into and reduce flows out of the workforce…

  17. Harmonizing and Optimizing Fish Testing Methods: The OECD Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) serves a key role in the international harmonization of testing of a wide variety of chemicals. An integrated fish testing framework project was initiated in mid-2009 through the OECD with the US as the lead country...

  18. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project: Summary of Workshop Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009 as OECD Project 2.30 with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project were to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test ...

  19. PISA--The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Developed jointly by OECD member countries through the OECD's Directorate for Education, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) aims to measure how far students approaching the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in the knowledge society. The assessment is…

  20. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  1. OECD, "Key Competencies" and the New Challenges of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a critique of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-based lifelong learning policy discourse with a particular focus on "key competencies" (KCs) and its equity implications for school curricular policies. First, I review the discussion of KCs in the writings by the OECD-affiliated…

  2. Shifting Themes in OECD Country Reviews of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Carrie P.

    2013-01-01

    There have been changes in the political economy since the 1980s, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has changed as well. Scholars have noted shifts in OECD discourse in some policy fields since that time: shifts away from what might be called classic neoliberal perspectives. This paper reflects on the changes in…

  3. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  4. 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananiadou, Katerina; Claro, Magdalean

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the teaching and assessment of 21st century skills and competencies in OECD countries drawing on the findings of a questionnaire study and other relevant background material such as white papers or curriculum documents. Although all OECD countries were invited to participate in the questionnaire survey,…

  5. Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassanini, Andrea; Duval, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/price-setting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD countries over the period 1982-2003. In the "average" OECD…

  6. School Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Violaine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current academic and policy literatures concerning school evaluation in primary and secondary education within the OECD countries. First, it provides a typology of the existing systems of school evaluation across the OECD. It encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to carry out schools evaluation, as…

  7. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  8. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  9. The OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    In many countries the process of toxicity testing of environmental chemicals is ruled by a framework of OECD guidelines. The present paper will give an overview over the relevant OECD guidelines and guidance documents and mainly focus on methodological issues related to the prenatal toxicity testing guideline. Relevant guideline text will be provided, and practical recommendations will be given both for critical issues of experimental methodology and data interpretation. PMID:23138894

  10. Latest findings from the OECD Rasplav Project

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V.

    1997-01-01

    During the late phase of a severe accident in a light water reactor (current and future designs of BWRs, PWRs and VVERs), a significant amount of core material may relocate downward to the lower head of the reactor vessel. If molten core materials were to relocate to the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), a molten pool consisting primarily of a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} and some combination of a metal would form on the lower head. A solid crust of material would form around the boundaries of the pool, but internal heat generation resulting from radioactive decay of fission products would assure that most of the pool remains molten. In fact, the molten pool would undergo significant internal natural convection which would reach steady state conditions in about a few hours. Detailed understanding of all aspects of this natural convection process, in conjunction with the thermal boundary conditions imposed on the outer surface, determines the fraction of the total heat dissipation that is transferred through the upper crust to the inside of the reactor vessel by radiative heat exchange and the fraction which must be conducted through the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. This distribution is critical in determining whether and under what conditions the molten material can be cooled and retained in the reactor pressure vessel. The OECD Rasplav Project was established in 1994 as a three year program to study molten pool behavior and its interactions with structural materials in the lower head. This paper reviews the establishment of the project, its initial studies and proposed experimental testing, and the construction, preparation, and actual testing of a chamber of corium heated to well above liquid temperature.

  11. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  12. Improving Education Outcomes in Germany. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 611

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David

    2008-01-01

    Improving education outcomes is important for Germany's long-term economic performance and social cohesion. While student achievement is above the OECD average in science and at the OECD average in reading and mathematics according to the 2006 OECD PISA study, weaker students tend to do badly by international comparison and socio-economic and/or…

  13. The OECD and the Expansion of PISA: New Global Modes of Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the expansion of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and associated growth in the influence of the OECD's education work. PISA has become one of the OECD's most successful "products" and has both strengthened the role of the Directorate for Education within the organization…

  14. The OECD International Education Indicators: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume contains some of the many studies undertaken during the initial phase of activity by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) concerning international education indicators. The studies trace the preparation of a set of international indicators as they…

  15. Educational Research and Development: Austria, Germany, Switzerland. OECD Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three joint international seminars on governmental roles in organizing and promoting educational research and development were held as part of a study conducted by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This document contains the proceedings of the third…

  16. The OECD Member Countries--1984 Edition--20th Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries with corresponding data on: area; agricultural area; population; labor force; unemployment rate; civilian employment; gross domestic produce; currency; imports; exports; consumer prices; industrial production change for 1983; infant mortality; public expenditure…

  17. Returns to ICT Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Oliver; Heimisch, Alexandra; Wiederhold, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How important is mastering information and communication technologies (ICT) in modern labour markets? We present the first evidence on this question, drawing on unique data that provide internationally comparable information on ICT skills in 19 countries from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Our…

  18. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  19. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  20. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…

  1. Child and Family: Demographic Developments in the OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bras, Herve

    This study of early childhood and the family in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) employs two statistical approaches to the problem of providing an accurate picture of modern conditions of family life. A classical demographic approach to population studies is initially used, then is critiqued,…

  2. Financial Inequity in Basic Education in Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Mizunoya, Suguru; You, You; Tsang, Mun

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of financial disparities in primary and secondary education in OECD countries that have a relatively large population and a school finance system with decentralized features. These countries include the United States, Britain, Australia, Spain, Canada, and Japan. There are two major research questions: What are the trends in…

  3. Perspective on OECD activities from a non-member country.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Nevena; Atanassov, Atanas

    2006-01-01

    The OECD Blue Book, "Recombinant DNA: Safety Considerations" was published in 1986. The developed principles and concepts on the stepwise and case-by-case approach for risk assessment in the Blue Book have been used as a foundation for building national biosafety frameworks and international instruments for the regulation of the products of modern biotechnology. Twenty years after the Blue Book was published, OECD continues its activities on unique identifier systems, information-sharing, consensus documents for the biology of crops, trees and microorganisms with respect to harmonization of regulatory oversight and those of novel food and feed safety. These activities benefit, without any doubt, the international community at large, including OECD non-member countries. In order to strengthen its position in the international arena and to better respond to the needs of the changing world, OECD would be encouraged to participate in a more active manner in the technology transfer process and co-existence debate, together with continuing the organization's efforts on information-sharing and harmonization in the field of biotechnology and biosafety. PMID:17640514

  4. ICTs and Gender. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Welsum, Desiree; Montagnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the gender distribution of ICT and ICT-related employment in OECD countries, and ICT employment patterns are contrasted with overall employment to highlight differences. The authors discuss participation in ICT-related education and training, and differences in ICT access and use by gender. Overall,…

  5. Labour Market Performance, Income Inequality and Poverty in OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 500

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burniaux, Jean-Marc; Padrini, Flavio; Brandt, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    There have been concerns that employment-enhancing reforms along the lines of the 1994 OECD Jobs Strategy could inadvertently lead to increased income inequality and poverty. This paper focuses on the impact of institutions and redistributive policies on inequality and poverty with the view of assessing whether a trade-off between better labour…

  6. Student Standardised Testing: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there are high-stakes for students, no-stakes implies that…

  7. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  8. The Wage Premium on Tertiary Education: New Estimates for 21 OECD Countries Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 589

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents cross-section estimates of gross hourly wage premia on tertiary education. They are based on a unified framework for 21 OECD countries from the 1990s to the early 2000s and use international household surveys to maximise international comparability. The results of the "augmented" Mincerian wage equations point to an average…

  9. International Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Surveys in the OECD Region. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, William

    2009-01-01

    Both within and beyond the OECD region, governments and other stakeholders are increasingly interested in the assessments of the skills of their adult populations in order to monitor how well prepared they are for the challenges of the knowledge based society. The current paper provides an overview of the two international assessments of adult…

  10. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  11. Student Learning Time: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromada, Anna; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines student learning time as a key educational resource. It presents an overview of how different OECD countries allocate instruction time. It also develops a model to understand the effective use of allocated instruction time and examines how different OECD countries compare on this. The paper confirms the value of sufficient…

  12. Classification of Educational Systems in OECD Member Countries: Australia, Luxembourg, Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume is one of a series intended to provide a comparative view of the education systems of all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Member countries. It complements an OECD handbook entitled Methods and Statistical Needs for Educational Planning (see ED 023 171). The document is based on the need to establish a…

  13. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  14. Too Eager to Comply? OECD Education Policies and the Finnish Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Risto; Kallo, Johanna; Hokka, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has strongly influenced European education policy and the entire global neo-liberally toned discourse that nowadays prevails in the implementation of national education policy and educational reforms. The educational policy governance of the OECD is based on overall and supranational…

  15. Fiscal Rules and the Composition of Government Expenditures in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Momi; Strawczynski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s many OECD countries have adopted fiscal rules. After the adoption of these rules, the ratio of social transfers to government consumption substantially declined, and it recovered following the global economic crisis. Using a sample of 22 OECD countries, we found a negative effect of fiscal rules on the ratio of social transfers to…

  16. A Framework for Monitoring Transition Systems. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Rolf K.; Wolbers, Maarten H.

    2008-01-01

    With its publication of the Thematic Review on the Transition from Initial Education to Working Life in 2000, OECD has laid the foundation for the development of indicators regarding the transition from education to work. One of the core activities of OECD's Network B in 2005 and 2006 was to further develop these indicators by establishing a…

  17. Classification of Educational Systems in OECD Member Countries: Finland, Germany, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume is one of a series intended to provide a comparative view of the education systems of all the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The purpose of this work is to assist OECD member countries in the development of their educational statistics so that published national data can be…

  18. Early Childhood, Major Challenges: Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policies in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John; Neuman, Michelle J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the most recent results of a comparative review of early childhood education and care carried out by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Founded in 1961 and based in Paris, OECD is one of the world's most important sources of statistical, economic, and social data. Based on reviews in the…

  19. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  20. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  1. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  2. Lay-Offs and Short-Time Working in Selected OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grais, Bernard; And Others

    This report, which includes the conclusions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, analyzes arrangements for compensating workers in the OECD countries who are temporarily laid-off or subject to short-time work. In introductory sections to part 1, the concepts of…

  3. Changing the Subject: The Challenge to Teacher Professionalism of Innovation in OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, John; James, Edwyn; Lang, Manfred

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) study, "Innovations in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (SMTE), documents 23 projects aimed at enhancing the appeal of science, mathematics, and technology education. The projects began in 13 OECD countries that believed that curricula must be more student-centered and…

  4. Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgan, Habib

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

  5. The OECD and the Local: PISA-Based Test for Schools in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David

    2015-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently piloted the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)-based Test for Schools in the USA. In this paper, I contend that by connecting directly with local school boards this new initiative has the potential to further promote the OECD's educational agenda in…

  6. OECD Work on Technology and Education: Innovative Learning Environments as an Integrating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David; Kools, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents in summary a selection of the work conducted by OECD in the field of technology and education, which has been an on-going focus of OECD work since the 1980s. Recently, much of this has been under the heading of "New Millennium Learners", but it has also included the widening of student achievement surveys towards digital…

  7. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in the United States of America. OECD Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This paper is the result of an intensive case study by an Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) review team, whose purpose was to investigate early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the United States, 1 of 12 countries participating in the OECD review between 1998 and 2000. The paper draws on information provided by a…

  8. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  9. PISA for Schools: Topological Rationality and New Spaces of the OECD's Global Educational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the OECD's new PISA-based Test for Schools ("PISA for Schools") program. PISA for Schools is part of the expanding education work of the OECD, building upon main PISA to enable school-to-schooling system comparisons. We examine the development of PISA for Schools, the nature of the instrument, and some initial…

  10. The Inclusion and Construction of the Worthy Citizen through Lifelong Learning: A Focus on the OECD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that underlying the OECD's promotion of inclusion in, for and through lifelong learning is the notion of an "active citizen" who establishes their worth through learning and, ultimately, competence. Through the critical examination of recent OECD policy documents on adult and lifelong learning, the paper also calls for a…

  11. Update of OECD DART guidelines with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints: Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; van Otterdijk, Francois; Wieland, Willemien; van Tuyl, Miranda; Rijcken, Robert Pels; Peter, Birgit; Emmen, Harry

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, the OECD initiated a high-priority project aimed at revising existing test guidelines and developing new test guidelines for screening of potential endocrine disruptors. In 2011, OECD 443 was adopted, and in 2015 OECD 421 and OECD 422 were updated with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. A feasibility study for the enhancement of OECD 414 with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints is currently ongoing. The addition of these endpoints is considered crucial for gaining more information on endocrine disruptor potency of tested chemicals, however it should be noted that these additions have a major impact on the study designs and give rise to several practical challenges. The aim of this review is to discuss important aspects of these challenging study designs and to share our knowledge on their implementation in our laboratory. Together, this review can be used as guidance for other laboratories, study monitors and registration officers. PMID:27063183

  12. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1...

  13. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1...

  14. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1...

  15. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1...

  16. Is health care a luxury? New evidence from OECD data.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anindya

    2005-06-01

    Most research using cross-country data find income elasticities equal to or exceeding unity with respect to health expenditure. These conclusions might be confounded due to omitted variables bias and the presence of unobserved country and year specific determinants of per capita health expenditures. I obtain results supporting these hypotheses using recent (1990-98) data from fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, OLS coefficient estimates drop by more than 50% with the use of two-way fixed effects models and the inclusion of various demand and supply based determinants of per capita health expenditures, implying income elasticities of between 0.21 and 0.51. Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Generalized Least Squares (GLS) and Instrumental Variables (IV) estimation yield similar results. PMID:15912314

  17. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  18. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time. PMID:21676345

  19. A statistical model to compare road mortality in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Page, Y

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare safety levels and trends in OECD countries from 1980 to 1994 with the help of a statistical model and to launch international discussion and further research about international comparisons. Between 1980 and 1994, the annual number of fatalities decreased drastically in all the selected countries except Japan (+ 12%), Greece (+ 56%) and ex-East Germany (+ 50%). The highest decreases were observed in ex-West Germany (- 48%), Switzerland (- 44%), Australia (- 40%), and UK (- 39%). In France, the decrease in fatalities over the same period reached 34%. The fatality rate, an indicator of risk, decreased in the selected countries from 1980 to 1994 except in the east-European countries during the motorization boom in the late 1980s. As fatality rates are not sufficient for international comparisons, a statistical multiple regression model is set up to compare road safety levels in 21 OECD countries over 15 years. Data were collected from IRTAD (International Road Traffic and Accident Database) and other OECD statistical sources. The number of fatalities is explained by seven exogenous (to road safety) variables. The model, pooling cross-sectional and time series data, supplies estimates of elasticity to the fatalities for each variable: 0.96 for the population; 0.28 for the vehicle fleet per capita; -0.16 for the percentage of buses and coaches in the motorised vehicle fleet; 0.83 for the percentage of youngsters in the population; - 0.41 for the percentage of urban population; 0.39 for alcohol consumption per capita; and 0.39 for the percentage of employed people. The model also supplies a rough estimate of the safety performance of a country: the regression residuals are supposed to contain the effects of essentially endogenous and unobserved variables, independent to the exogenous variables. These endogenous variables are safety performance variables (safety actions, traffic safety policy, network improvements and social

  20. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  1. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of OECD Benchmark Tests in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Gamble, Kyle; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on sensitivity analysis of a fuels performance benchmark problem. The benchmark problem was defined by the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling working group of the Nuclear Science Committee, part of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD ). The benchmark problem involv ed steady - state behavior of a fuel pin in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The problem was created in the BISON Fuels Performance code. Dakota was used to generate and analyze 300 samples of 17 input parameters defining core boundary conditions, manuf acturing tolerances , and fuel properties. There were 24 responses of interest, including fuel centerline temperatures at a variety of locations and burnup levels, fission gas released, axial elongation of the fuel pin, etc. Pearson and Spearman correlatio n coefficients and Sobol' variance - based indices were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. This report summarizes the process and presents results from this study.

  3. Does social policy matter? Poverty cycles in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kangas, O; Palme, J

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, poverty was linked to an individual's family phase. This article examines to what extent poverty cycles are still apparent in OECD countries. By combining data on social policy programs and data on income distribution, the authors compare trends between nations. The main question is, how successful have various sociopolitical solutions been in eliminating poverty? Here the focus is on family policy and pensions. Improvements in social policies have impacts on poverty cycles in all countries. In most countries poverty among the elderly has declined, and the young have replaced the old as the lowest income group. In many countries the poverty cycles have flattened out, and life phase is no longer as important as it used to be. Some differences between nations remain, however. High poverty rates among families continue to be an Anglo-American problem, and improvements in this area have been only marginal. Social policy provisions are important for explaining both cross-national variation in poverty and changes over time. The impact is clearest among pensioners. Family-related poverty is lowest in countries that have combined cash benefits with public child-care services that facilitate parents' participation in the labor market. PMID:10862379

  4. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  5. An Emerging Knowledge-Based Economy in China? Indicators from OECD Databases. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Martin, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this Working Paper is to show a set of indicators on the knowledge-based economy for China, mainly compiled from databases within EAS, although data from databases maintained by other parts of the OECD are included as well. These indicators are put in context by comparison with data for the United States, Japan and the EU (or…

  6. The Private Internal Rates of Return to Tertiary Education: New Estimates for 21 OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 591

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the private Internal Rates of Return (IRR) to tertiary education for women and men in 21 OECD countries, for the years between 1991 and 2005. IRR are computed by estimating labour market premia on cross-country comparable individual-level data. Labour market premia are then adjusted for fiscal factors and education…

  7. Bridging across OECD 308 and 309 Data in Search of a Robust Biotransformation Indicator.

    PubMed

    Honti, Mark; Hahn, Stefan; Hennecke, Dieter; Junker, Thomas; Shrestha, Prasit; Fenner, Kathrin

    2016-07-01

    The OECD guidelines 308 and 309 define simulation tests aimed at assessing biotransformation of chemicals in water-sediment systems. They should serve the estimation of persistence indicators for hazard assessment and half-lives for exposure modeling. Although dissipation half-lives of the parent compound are directly extractable from OECD 308 data, they are system-specific and mix up phase transfer with biotransformation. In contrast, aerobic biotransformation half-lives should be easier to extract from OECD 309 experiments with suspended sediments. Therefore, there is scope for OECD 309 tests with suspended sediment to serve as a proxy for degradation in the aerobic phase of the more complicated OECD 308 test, but that correspondence has remained untested so far. Our aim was to find a way to extract biotransformation rate constants that are universally valid across variants of water-sediment systems and, hence, provide a more general description of the compound's behavior in the environment. We developed a unified model that was able to simulate four experimental types (two variants of OECD 308 and two variants of OECD 309) for three compounds by using a biomass-corrected, generalized aerobic biotransformation parameter (k'bio). We used Bayesian calibration and uncertainty assessment to calibrate the models for individual experimental types separately and for combinations of experimental types. The results suggested that k'bio was a generally valid parameter for quantifying biotransformation across systems. However, its uncertainty remained significant when calibrated on individual systems alone. Using at least two different experimental types for the calibration of k'bio increased its robustness by clearly separating degradation from the phase-transfer processes taking place in the individual systems. Overall, k'bio has the potential to serve as a system-independent descriptor of aerobic biotransformation at the water-sediment interface that is equally and

  8. Improved estimates of Belgian private health expenditure can give important lessons to other OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Calcoen, Piet; Moens, Dirk; Verlinden, Pieter; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Pacolet, Jozef

    2015-03-01

    OECD Health Data are a well-known source for detailed information about health expenditure. These data enable us to analyze health policy issues over time and in comparison with other countries. However, current official Belgian estimates of private expenditure (as published in the OECD Health Data) have proven not to be reliable. We distinguish four potential major sources of problems with estimating private health spending: interpretation of definitions, formulation of assumptions, missing or incomplete data and incorrect data. Using alternative sources of billing information, we have reached more accurate estimates of private and out-of-pocket expenditure. For Belgium we found differences of more than 100% between our estimates and the official Belgian estimates of private health expenditure (as published in the OECD Health Data). For instance, according to OECD Health Data private expenditure on hospitals in Belgium amounts to €3.1 billion, while according to our alternative calculations these expenses represent only €1.1 billion. Total private expenditure differs only 1%, but this is a mere coincidence. This exercise may be of interest to other OECD countries looking to improve their estimates of private expenditure on health. PMID:25108312

  9. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E.

    2011-08-23

    benchmark data. The numerical scheme has a very small scheme diffusion and is the second and the first order accurate in space and time, correspondingly. We compare and contrast simulation results for three computational fluid dynamics codes CABARET, Conv3D, and Nek5000 for the T-junction thermal striping problem that was the focus of a recent OECD/NEA blind benchmark. The corresponding codes utilize finite-difference implicit large eddy simulation (ILES), finite-volume LES on fully staggered grids, and an LES spectral element method (SEM), respectively. The simulations results are in a good agreement with experimenatl data. We present results from a study of sensitivity to computational mesh and time integration interval, and discuss the next steps in the simulation of this problem.

  10. Benchmarking the Performance of Bhutanese Students with the Performance of the Students from the OECD's PISA Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshering, Gembo; Prain, Vaughan

    2011-01-01

    Setting international benchmarks for education systems of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries is one of the goals of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). However, some countries are not able to participate in PISA, despite their desire to set international benchmarks for their…

  11. Comparing the OECD's and Norway's Orientation to Equity in Their Teacher Education Policies--Teacher Autonomy under Attack?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2013-01-01

    More and more nations are losing the ability to control their education systems. OECD is an important premise provider for educational policymaking championing a neoliberal agenda. With the aim to investigate the impact the OECD may have on national policymaking, this paper compares their recent teacher education policies with those of Norway. The…

  12. Do Quasi-Markets Foster Innovation in Education?: A Comparative Perspective. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This report seeks to address critical issues such as these by synthesising the evidence on innovations in more market-driven education systems. The analysis draws on data from over 20 OECD and non-OECD countries, including both developed nations that seek to move beyond established systems of state-run schools, and developing nations where formal…

  13. What Works in Migrant Education? A Review of Evidence and Policy Options. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Education plays an essential role in preparing the children of immigrants for participation in the labour market and society. Giving these children opportunities to fully develop their potential is vital for future economic growth and social cohesion in OECD countries. But migrant students in most OECD countries tend to have lower education…

  14. Statistical Matching of PISA 2009 and TALIS 2008 Data in Iceland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 78

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Turner, Alyn

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) constitute two of the largest ongoing international student and teacher surveys presently underway. Data generated from these surveys offer researchers and policy-makers opportunities to identify particular educational…

  15. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  16. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  17. Measuring the Impacts of ICT Using Official Statistics. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sheridan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an OECD project examining ICT impact measurement and analyses based on official statistics. Both economic and social impacts are covered and some results are presented. It attempts to place ICT impacts measurement into an Information Society conceptual framework, provides some suggestions for standardising…

  18. Convergence of Educational Attainment Levels in the OECD: More Data, More Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    This note shows that the dynamics of the dispersion of educational attainment across OECD countries in the period 1960-1990 differ enormously depending on the dataset used, as do the results of the test of significance in the change of the cross-country standard deviation of schooling years between subperiods. The three datasets studied (the…

  19. Primary and Secondary Education in the United States. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulip, Peter; Wurzburg, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The average educational attainment of US students is weak by international comparison. For example, mean results of PISA test scores are below the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] average. This is despite substantial resources devoted to the schooling system. One partial explanation for this is that academic standards,…

  20. The Legitimation of OECD's Global Educational Governance: Examining PISA and AHELO Test Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Although international student assessments and the role of international organisations (IOs) in governing education via an evidence-based educational policy discourse are of growing interest to educational researchers, few have explored the complex ways in which an IO, such as the OECD, gains considerable influence in governing education during…

  1. Rethinking Universal Service for a Next Generation Network Environment. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    There is a clear need, in view of significant competitive, technological and service changes taking place in the telecommunications sector, to review universal service obligations, their coverage, how they are financed and who is responsible for providing them. In many OECD countries, a primary longer term issue is how to provide universal service…

  2. Financial impact of the GFC: health care spending across the OECD.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David; Astolfi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Since the onset of the global financial crisis (GFC), health spending has slowed markedly or fallen in many OECD countries after years of continuous growth. However, health spending patterns across the 34 countries of the OECD have been affected to varying degrees. This article examines in more detail the observed downturn in health expenditure growth, analysing which countries and which sectors of health spending have been most affected. In addition, using more recent preliminary data for a subset of countries, this article tries to shed light on the prospects for health spending trends. Given that public sources account for around three-quarters of total spending on health on average across the OECD, and, in an overall context of managing public deficits, the article focuses on the specific areas of public spending that have been most affected. This study also tries to link the observed trends with some of the main policy measures and instruments put in place by countries. The investigation finds that while nearly all OECD countries have seen health spending growth decrease since 2009, there is wide variation as to the extent of the slowdown, with some countries outside of Europe continuing to see significant growth in health spending. While all sectors of spending appear to have been affected, initial analysis appears to show the greatest decreases has been experienced in pharmaceutical spending and in areas of public health and prevention. PMID:25662194

  3. A Literature Review of School Practices to Overcome School Failure. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Brenton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the body of literature concerned with reducing school failure by improving equity in schools and classrooms. The literature review will be used to inform the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Project "Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work" and hopefully, future educational…

  4. Adult Literacy in OECD Countries: Technical Report on the First International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, T. Scott; Kirsch, Irwin S.; Jenkins, Lynn B.

    In December 1995, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and Statistics Canada jointly published the results of the first International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). For this survey, representative samples of adults aged 16 to 65 were interviewed and tested in their homes in Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands,…

  5. Educational Differentiation Policies and the Performance of Disadvantaged Students across OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castejón, Alba; Zancajo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the effect of educational differentiation policies of OECD educational systems on socioeconomically disadvantaged students, based on data from PISA 2009. The analysis is conducted on the basis of a definition of two subgroups of disadvantaged students: those that achieve high scores, and those obtaining scores…

  6. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  7. How Technology Changes Demands for Human Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper places the competencies to be measured by the OECD's Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) in the context of the technological developments which are reshaping the nature of the workplace and work in the 21st century. The largest technological force currently shaping work is the computer. Computers are…

  8. Comparing the Similarities and Differences of PISA 2003 and TIMSS. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an in-depth comparison of the PISA (OECD) and TIMSS (IEA) mathematics assessments conducted in 2003. First, a comparison of survey methodologies is presented, followed by an examination of the mathematics frameworks in the two studies. The methodologies and the frameworks in the two studies form the basis for providing…

  9. PROGRESS IN THE OECD WORK ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS TESTING AND ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Special Activity on endocrine disruptors testing and assessment (EDTA) started in 1996 at the request of member countries and industry with the objective to develop test methods for the detection and characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The purpose of the ...

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  11. School Funding Formulas: Review of Main Characteristics and Impacts. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a literature review on school funding formulas across OECD countries. It looks at three salient questions from a comparative perspective: i) What kind of school formula funding schemes exist and how are they used, particularly for promoting the needs of socially disadvantaged pupils?; ii) How do school formula funding regimes…

  12. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur within the…

  13. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  14. Alignment in Complex Education Systems: Achieving Balance and Coherence. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: "standards" defining the knowledge and skills--or "competences"--students are expected to have attained at different stages of their education;…

  15. Education and Labour Market in the OECD-CERI Educational Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Aurea

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-CERI) Educational Indicators Project (INES), initiated in 1988, is described in this paper, which focuses on the development of "Network B" to study education and labor market destinations (Network B is one of four networks set up by the project, each of which was assigned a different…

  16. School Segregation and Its Effects on Educational Equality and Efficiency in 16 OECD Comprehensive School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez-Balletbò, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Using PISA data for 16 Western OECD countries having comprehensive school systems, we explore the conditions under which the socioeconomic composition of schools affects educational efficiency and equality, to a greater or lesser extent. First, a multilevel analysis is applied to examine and compare the effect of school socioeconomic composition…

  17. Improving Education Outcomes in the Slovak Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 578

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David

    2007-01-01

    Improving education outcomes is vital for achieving convergence with GDP per capita levels in Western European countries and for reducing income inequality. While some education outcomes are favourable, such as the low secondary-school drop-out rate, others have room for improvement: education achievement is below the OECD average and strongly…

  18. Classification of Educational Systems in OECD Member Countries: Iceland, New Zealand, Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The present volume is one of a series intended to provide a comparative view of the educational systems of member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The purpose of the series is to assist OCCD member countries in the development of their educational statistics and to provide a basis for the collection of…

  19. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  20. The Role of the OECD in International Comparative Studies of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) underpins its extensive policy work with strong databases of comparable statistics and indicators with which it compares countries. In 2000, it extended its education database with its first collection of data on the performances of 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics and science…

  1. Patterns of Parental Involvement in Selected OECD Countries: Cross-National Analyses of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), patterns of parental involvement were examined in selected OECD countries. The findings showed that, irrespective of educational qualifications, parents were frequently involved in their children's learning at the start of primary school and at age 15. Cross-national…

  2. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  3. PIAAC Numeracy: A Conceptual Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Iddo; Alatorre, Silvia; Close, Sean; Evans, Jeff; Johansen, Lene; Maguire, Terry; Manly, Myrna; Tout, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Governments and other stakeholders have become increasingly interested in assessing the skills of their adult populations in order to monitor how well prepared they are to meet the challenges of the new information world. The current paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework for the assessment of numeracy developed for the OECD's…

  4. The OECD PISA Study as a Soft Power in Education? Lessons from Switzerland and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Tonia; Martens, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Although originally created for economic purposes, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) has increasingly gained weight in education policy in recent years and is now regarded as an international authority in the field, particularly through its "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA), which was highly…

  5. Higher Education and Economic Development in the OECD: Policy Lessons for Other Countries and Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy

    2016-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…

  6. Recurrent Education, Policy and Development in OECD Countries: Recurrent Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Hedwig; And Others

    This report, part of a series on the state of recurrent education in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, focuses on recurrent education in West Germany. The West German thrust for continuing adult education has come from business, industry, and the 1969 Labor Promotion Act which publicly funds…

  7. International Migration, Deindustrialization and Union Decline in 16 Affluent OECD Countries, 1962-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung

    2005-01-01

    This article, using unbalanced panel data on 16 affluent OECD countries, tests the effects of diverse aspects of globalization and deindustrialization on unionization trends. In contrast to the recent studies focusing on the conditional role of labor market institutions, this study underlines the role of two structural factors in transforming…

  8. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  9. The OECD 2012 Economic Survey of Canada and the Relationship between Higher Education and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The report entitled, "OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012," offers an exceptionally rigorous, in-depth, well-informed and well-documented review of policy and performance of Canada's economy and postsecondary system. The report is divided into three parts. The first part contains an overview of the Canadian economy, a summary of the rest of the…

  10. The OECD as Pivot of the Emerging Global Educational Accountability Regime: How Accountable Are the Accountants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has catapulted the OECD- an organization whose mission is the global growth of market economies-to a central role in international education policy making, rivaling and sometimes outdoing the various national governments in influence. While claiming scientific evidence as the basis for the accountability regime it…

  11. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Code of Federal Regulations. EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. HSWA..., 1996 (61 FR 16289). Since that time, the OECD has made a number of changes to the waste shipment regime... SLABs are managed, please see Sections II.B.1 and II.B.2 of the proposed rule (73 FR 58393). 2. How...

  12. Human Capital: How What You Know Shapes Your Life. OECD Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This first book in the new OECD Insights Series examines the increasing economic and social importance of human capital--our education, skills, competencies, and knowledge. As economies in developed countries shift away from manufacturing, economic success for individuals and national economies is increasingly reliant on the quality of human…

  13. New Approaches in International Guidelines for Genetic Toxicology Assays: Latest Updates on OECD Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In March 2010, the 22nd meeting of the Working Group of National Coordinators of the OECD Test Guidelines Programme (WNT) approved a project for updating the Test Guidelines on genotoxicity, with Canada, the Netherlands, France and the USA identified as lead countries for this wo...

  14. Adapting the Icelandic Education System to a Changing Environment. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppanz, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Iceland's performance in skills accumulation against the backdrop of a rapidly changing economic environment and discusses directions for further improvements. Since the late 1990s, the government has considerably raised expenditure on education, which is now among the highest in the OECD relative to GDP. Nonetheless, Iceland…

  15. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  16. Commentary on the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    Every three years the focus of the international education community shifts to the release of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). No other international study of education commands as much attention as PISA. In an age of intense global…

  17. MBA Effectiveness in Non-OECD Countries: Perceptions of Leadership and Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative comparative methods research was to compare the perceptions relative to 12 Master of Business Administration (MBA) skill sets of respondents situated in non-member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the findings of a prior study of United States situated respondents.…

  18. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CELE Exchange, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Public Facilities from 1 to 11 December…

  19. Benchmarking health IT among OECD countries: better data for better policy

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Ronchi, Elettra; Cohen, Genna R; Winn, Laura A Pannella; Jha, Ashish K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop benchmark measures of health information and communication technology (ICT) use to facilitate cross-country comparisons and learning. Materials and methods The effort is led by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Approaches to definition and measurement within four ICT domains were compared across seven OECD countries in order to identify functionalities in each domain. These informed a set of functionality-based benchmark measures, which were refined in collaboration with representatives from more than 20 OECD and non-OECD countries. We report on progress to date and remaining work to enable countries to begin to collect benchmark data. Results The four benchmarking domains include provider-centric electronic record, patient-centric electronic record, health information exchange, and tele-health. There was broad agreement on functionalities in the provider-centric electronic record domain (eg, entry of core patient data, decision support), and less agreement in the other three domains in which country representatives worked to select benchmark functionalities. Discussion Many countries are working to implement ICTs to improve healthcare system performance. Although many countries are looking to others as potential models, the lack of consistent terminology and approach has made cross-national comparisons and learning difficult. Conclusions As countries develop and implement strategies to increase the use of ICTs to promote health goals, there is a historic opportunity to enable cross-country learning. To facilitate this learning and reduce the chances that individual countries flounder, a common understanding of health ICT adoption and use is needed. The OECD-led benchmarking process is a crucial step towards achieving this. PMID:23721983

  20. OECD MCCI project final report, February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    -dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partitioning of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Thus, a second key aim of the current program was to provide the necessary data to help resolve these modeling differences. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory

  1. OECD/NEA study on the economics of the long-term operation of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhov, A.; Cameron, R.

    2012-07-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) established the Ad hoc expert group on the Economics of Long-term Operation (LTO) of Nuclear Power Plants. The primary aim of this group is to collect and analyse technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries, and to assess the likely applications for future extensions. This paper describes the key elements of the methodology of economic assessment of LTO and initial findings for selected NEA member countries. (authors)

  2. The redistributive effect of health care finance in twelve OECD countries.

    PubMed

    van Doorslaer, E; Wagstaff, A; van der Burg, H; Christiansen, T; Citoni, G; Di Biase, R; Gerdtham, U G; Gerfin, M; Gross, L; Häkinnen, U; John, J; Johnson, P; Klavus, J; Lachaud, C; Lauritsen, J; Leu, R; Nolan, B; Pereira, J; Propper, C; Puffer, F; Rochaix, L; Schellhorn, M; Sundberg, G; Winkelhake, O

    1999-06-01

    The OECD countries finance their health care through a mixture of taxes, social insurance contributions, private insurance premiums and out-of-pocket payments. The various payment sources have very different implications for both vertical and horizontal equity and on redistributive effect which is a function of both. This paper presents results on the income redistribution consequences of the health care financing mixes adopted in twelve OECD countries by decomposing the overall income redistributive effect into a progressivity, horizontal inequity and reranking component. The general finding of this study is that the vertical effect is much more important than horizontal inequity and reranking in determining the overall redistributive effect but that their relative importance varies by source of payment. Public finance sources tend to have small positive redistributive effects and less differential treatment while private financing sources generally have (larger) negative redistributive effects which are to a substantial degree caused by differential treatment. PMID:10537897

  3. In vitro genotoxicity testing strategy for nanomaterials and the adaptation of current OECD guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S.H.; Manshian, B.; Jenkins, G.J.S.; Singh, N.

    2012-01-01

    There is a pressing requirement to define a hazard identification and risk management strategy for nanomaterials due to the rapid growth in the nanotechnology industry and their promise of life-style revolutions through the development of wide-ranging nano-containing consumer products. Consequently, a battery of well defined and appropriate in vitro assays to assess a number of genotoxicity endpoints is required to minimise extensive and costly in vivo testing. However, the validity of the established protocols in current OECD recognised genotoxicity assays for nanomaterials is currently being questioned. In this report, we therefore consider the in vitro OECD genotoxicity test battery including the Ames, micronucleus and HPRT forward mutation assays, and their potential role in the safety assessment of nanomaterial induced DNA damage in vitro. PMID:21971291

  4. Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD fish toxicity testing framework.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Wheeler, James R; Gourmelon, Anne; Burden, Natalie

    2016-04-01

    Fish toxicity testing has been conducted since the 1860's in order to help define safe levels of chemical contaminants in lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The historical emphasis on acute lethality testing of chemicals has more recently focussed on long term sublethal effects of chemicals on fish and their prey species. Fish toxicity testing is now embedded in much environment legislation on chemical safety while it is recognized that animal use should be Replaced, Reduced and Refined (the 3Rs) where possible. The OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework provides a useful structure with which to address the needs of environmental safety assessment whilst implementing the 3Rs. This commentary aims to promote the implementation of the recommendations of the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. PMID:26873775

  5. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study. PMID:21920653

  6. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  7. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1997-02-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features.

  8. [The impact of the economic crisis on health systems of OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Paris, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes measures adopted by OECD countries in the health sector in response to the economic crisis which began in 2008: increase and diversification of revenues collected for health, increases in user charges, reductions in staff, salaries and prices of health goods and services; and policies aiming to increase health systems efficiency. It then reviews the impact of these policies on health spending trends. PMID:25311027

  9. Toward better teacher/nuclear energy interface: An overview of OECD experience

    SciTech Connect

    De La Frete, J.

    1994-12-31

    Teachers play a key role in forming the judgement of young generations on major issues facing modem society. For teachers to discuss nuclear energy at school in a broad and balanced context, they need proper training and information on methods and tools available. A multidisciplinary approach of the subject is desirable. A substantial experience in this field already exists in OECD countries, but access by teachers to information regarding training opportunities and material available should be improved.

  10. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  11. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000–2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  12. Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David Han-Min

    2007-07-01

    The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

  13. The OECD Blue Book on Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations: it's influence on ISBR and EFSA activities.

    PubMed

    Schiemann, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Biosafety regulatory frameworks are intended to serve as mechanisms for ensuring the safe use of biotechnology products without imposing unacceptable risk to human health or the environment, or unintended constraints to technology transfer. The OECD Blue Book on "Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations", setting out principles and concepts for handling genetically modified organisms safely outside of contained laboratory conditions, was a milestone in the history of biotechnology. The "Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations" definitively became the major resource for the formulation of national regulatory frameworks and international regulations, including the Cartagena Protocol. PMID:17640515

  14. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  15. Summary of the June 2009 Educationtoday Crisis Survey: Initial Reflections on the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economic crisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  17. Strengthening Innovation in the Netherlands: Making Better Use of Knowledge Creation in Innovation Activities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 479

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Theisens, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    Strengthening the innovation system in the Netherlands is a priority for raising productivity growth, which has been relatively weak in recent years. Knowledge creation in the Netherlands is strong -- scientific publications per capita are the sixth highest in the OECD -- but innovation activity is only around the average for OECD countries…

  18. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation's human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. PMID:26310501

  19. Oil conservation: permanent or reversible. The example of homes in the OECD

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Ketoff, A.

    1984-10-01

    This paper estimates the permanent and reversible components of changes in heating oil use in major OECD countries. We analyze and discuss changes in the share of oil in total final residential enegy consumption, the share of oil-based systems among all heating systems (both central systems and room stoves), the trends in unit consumption in homes with oil-based central heating, as well as the trends in heating oil prices. We reveal the components of the rise in oil use through the mid 1970s, and detail the components of the decline since that time. Finally we comment on some of the causes for these changes. It is found that for seven major OECD countries, residential oil use decreased by 32% between 1972/1973 and 1982, for a savings of about 1 million barrels per day (50 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MToe) per year). One fourth of these savings were caused by reductions in the number of homes heated with oil, the rest in reductions in oil use per oil heated home. During that time, however, the size and central heating penetration in these homes increased significantly, so these figures underestimated the real conservation efforts made to date. Of the total oil savings, 44% were found to be of a permanent nature, while the rest could be reversed with a continued slide in oil prices, although it is judged likely that most of these savings will remain and probably increase.

  20. Machines that Go 'Ping': Medical Technology and Health Expenditures in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Willemé, Peter; Dumont, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Technology is believed to be a major determinant of increasing health spending. The main difficulty to quantify its effect is to find suitable proxies to measure medical technological innovation. This paper's main contribution is the use of data on approved medical devices and drugs to proxy for medical technology. The effects of these variables on total real per capita health spending are estimated using a panel model for 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries covering the period 1981-2012. The results confirm the substantial cost-increasing effect of medical technology, which accounts for almost 50% of the explained historical growth of spending. Despite the overall net positive effect of technology, the effect of two subgroups of approvals on expenditure is significantly negative. These subgroups can be thought of as representing 'incremental medical innovation', whereas the positive effects are related to radically innovative pharmaceutical products and devices. A separate time series model was estimated for the USA because the FDA approval data in fact only apply to the USA, while they serve as proxies for the other OECD countries. Our empirical model includes an indicator of obesity, and estimations confirm the substantial contribution of this lifestyle variable to health spending growth in the countries studied. PMID:25070599

  1. The determinants of health expenditure in the OECD countries: a pooled data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B; MacFarlan, M; Oxley, H

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses international health expenditure and the latest OECD data to investigate the determinants of aggregate health expenditure. The study differs from most previous studies in two principal ways. First, it uses a somewhat larger sample for estimation, with pooled time-series, cross-section data for 22 OECD countries for a 20-year period. Most previous work has used a purely cross-section approach: in this case, the small sample size reduced the statistical reliability of results and limited the number of hypotheses that can be tested simultaneously. Second, and following from this, a more extensive range of hypotheses is tested, with particular emphasis on those relating to the contractual relations between payers, providers and patients. The findings show, for example, that the use of primary care "gatekeepers" seems to result in lower health expenditure and also that the way of remunerating physicians in the ambulatory care sector appears to influence health expenditure; capitation systems tend to lead to lower expenditure than fee-for-service systems. PMID:10662400

  2. Adapting OECD Aquatic Toxicity Tests for Use with Manufactured Nanomaterials: Key Issues and Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Elijah J; Diamond, Stephen A; Kennedy, Alan J; Goss, Greg G; Ho, Kay; Lead, Jamie; Hanna, Shannon K; Hartmann, Nanna B; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Mader, Brian; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Salinas, Edward R; Sayre, Phil

    2015-08-18

    The unique or enhanced properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) suggest that their use in nanoenabled products will continue to increase. This will result in increased potential for human and environmental exposure to MNs during manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanoenabled products. Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates the development of reproducible, standardized hazard testing methods such as those provided by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Currently, there is no comprehensive guidance on how best to address testing issues specific to MN particulate, fibrous, or colloidal properties. This paper summarizes the findings from an expert workshop convened to develop a guidance document that addresses the difficulties encountered when testing MNs using OECD aquatic and sediment test guidelines. Critical components were identified by workshop participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance in the consistency of nanoecotoxicology test results, we identify and discuss critical considerations where expert consensus recommendations were and were not achieved and provide specific research recommendations to resolve issues for which consensus was not reached. This process will enable the development of prescriptive testing guidance for MNs. Critically, we highlight the need to quantify and properly interpret and express exposure during the bioassays used to determine hazard values. PMID:26182079

  3. A pooled cross-section analysis of the health care expenditures of the OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Søgaard, J; Jönsson, B; Andersson, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper has two purposes. The first, empirical purpose is to estimate and evaluate the effects of aggregate income, institutional and socio-demographic factors on health care expenditures in the OECD countries. The second purpose is methodological, and comprises assessment of temporal instability, the choice of functional form, and misspecification of the estimated relationships. Data compiled over three years (1974, 1980 and 1987) from 19 OECD countries are used in a pooled cross-section regression analysis. Like previous studies, this one concludes that aggregate income measured by Gross Domestic Product per capita is the statistically most important factor in cross-national variation in health care expenditures, and that the aggregate income elasticity exceeds one. However, the data analyzed in this study also show some evidence that public financing of health care services is associated with lower expenditures per capita, and that countries with fee for service as the dominant form of remuneration have higher expenditures. The examined relationships appear to be temporally stable over the three years except for upward shifts, and there is no indication of statistical misspecification. This does not necessarily imply a correct specification, and we do note the presence of measurement errors in some of the variables. Moreover, the selected log-linear functional form appears to be non-optimal according to a likelihood criterion, and is rejected against a quadratic form. Based on the analyses from this study the results do not appear to be sensitive to use of the quadratic form specification. PMID:10172496

  4. Evaluation of OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; McCarthy, J.F.; Frank, M.L.; Singley, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The protocols in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms were evaluated for the following tests: (1) Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, (2) Bioaccumulation: Flow-through Fish Test, (3) Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test (including an Acute Immobilization Test), and (4) Alga, Growth Inhibition Test. The protocols were evaluated by conducting the tests with different classes of chemicals (i.e., water soluble, less water soluble requiring a chemical carrier, and volatile chemical). Flow-through and semistatic Fish, Acute Toxicity Tests were conducted with cupric chloride and acridine. The Bioaccumulation Flow-Through Fish Test was conducted with naphthalene and DDE. Three chemicals - cupric chloride, acridine, and di-n-butyl phthalate - were used to evaluate the Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test. The Alga, Growth Inhibition Test was evaluated with three chemicals: cupric chloride, acridine, and paradichlorobenzene. By following the OECD guidelines in conducting these tests, results were obtained that are comparable with literature data obtained with other methods. An evaluation of each test protocol is given with recommendations for the guidelines for conducting the tests.

  5. OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    On December 1 to 3, the city of Munich (Bavaria, Germany) will be the venue for a "Workshop on Large Scale Programmes and Projects in Astronomy and Astrophysics" organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum in co-operation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The Workshop will be chaired by Ian Corbett (ESO). The Global Science Forum brings together science policy officials from the OECD countries. The delegates, who meet twice a year, look at a range of generic issues in science funding and seek to identify and maximise opportunities for international co-operation in basic scientific research. This Workshop was proposed by Germany and agreed by the delegates to the Global Science Forum in June. Government officials and scientists will be able to review in detail the information and the observational and technological advances needed for major progress in the field during the next 15- 20 years. The research subjects reviewed will cover the full range from planets, solar systems, life in the Universe, stars, galaxies, extreme objects to cosmology. Related technological challenges, virtual observatories and other data handling issues will also be considered. The primary objective is to specify the policy issues relating to priority-setting, planning, funding and, above all, international co-ordination and co-operation. The Workshop will focus on issues relevant to the process through which astronomy advances, and will highlight means to enhance that process in light of longer-term scientific and political trends. There will probably be a follow-up meeting early in 2004, from which a policy level report will be prepared for consideration by the Global Science Forum and so transmitted to governments. Eighteen delegations, from non-OECD as well as OECD countries, will attend, each consisting of senior programme managers from the national ministry, funding agency or research council, and one or more senior

  6. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey. CELE Exchange 2009/7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake…

  7. Information Technology and the Performance of Higher Education and Training Systems: A Comparison between Canada and other OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyahia, H.

    2003-01-01

    This study shows that the enrolment rate for the Canadian university system, at 56%, is one of the highest among the member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This good quantitative performance, however, is not accompanied by a similar qualitative performance in science graduation: only 25% of all…

  8. Change Management in the Governance of Schooling: The Rise of Experts, Planners, and Statistics in the Early OECD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Based on archival material, the following paper analyzes the political strategies of the early OECD stakeholders in transforming schooling from a cultural to a technological system and how they were in need of standardizing different existing patterns of thoughts or institutional behaviors in the member countries. The European…

  9. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.529 Section 174.529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES...

  10. Coloniality and a Global Testing Regime in Higher Education: Unpacking the OECD's AHELO Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently engaging in a worldwide feasibility study entitled International Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO). This feasibility study seeks to develop measures that would assess student learning outcomes that would be valid across different languages,…

  11. The Education Challenge in Mexico: Delivering Good Quality Education to All. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 447

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    The growth of potential GDP in Mexico is not fast enough to narrow the income gap with other OECD countries at a sufficient pace. The persistent weakness in human capital development contributes to this situation. In particular, Mexicans spend comparatively few years in formal education, and the quality of the education they receive is lower than…

  12. Education in States and Nations: Indicators Comparing U.S. States with the OECD Countries in 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salganik, Laura Hersh; And Others

    This report is based on the first international education indicators produced by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The 16 indicators were chosen to take advantage of data available in "Education at a Glance," the most up-to-date set of international educational indicators. Indicators are grouped into categories of:…

  13. Linkages Between Performance and Institutions in the Primary and Secondary Education Sector. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 558

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Douglas; Price, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of schools diverges dramatically across countries in the OECD and can also vary markedly within countries. These differences in levels of efficiency can be traced to policy and institutional settings. As such, moving to best practice could boost educational attainment and reduce pressure on budgetary resources. This paper assesses…

  14. Future Digital Economy: Digital Content Creation, Distribution and Access--Conference Conclusions. OECD Digital Economy Papers No. 118

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This conference, jointly organised by OECD's Department for Science, Technology and Industry and the Italian Ministry for Innovation and Technology, was attended by approximately 350 representatives from industry, academia and government. Rapporteurs presented summaries in terms of issues and areas where there was agreement and/or convergence…

  15. From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

  16. PISA for Development Technical Strand A: Enhancement of PISA Cognitive Instruments. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ray; Cresswell, John

    2016-01-01

    The OECD is planning to enhance existing PISA assessment instruments in reading, mathematics and science so that they will be more suitable to the context of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main technical issues associated with this aim. The paper reports detailed analysis of the existing PISA item pool and…

  17. A Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected Desired/Learning Outcomes in Engineering. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines selected for the AEHLO Feasibility Study are engineering…

  18. Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected and Desired Learning Outcomes in Economics. OECD Education Working Papers No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines…

  19. Decision-Making in Educational Systems: The Experience in Three OECD Countries. Country Projects: Synthesis and Evaluation, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This publication analyzes results of studies of educational policy and planning problems in Greece, Portugal, and Turkey. It is part of a project sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to increase understanding of the way in which educational systems function. The project examined existing structures; policy-…

  20. Education and Civic Engagement: Review of Research and a Study on Norwegian Youths. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon; Oia, Tormod

    2007-01-01

    What difference does education make for young adults' engagement in politics and social issues? This study is part of the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on "Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning" (SOL). It discusses relevant international research, with special attention to studies in the Nordic countries,…

  1. Hong Kong Student Achievement in OECD-PISA Study: Gender Differences in Science Content, Literacy Skills, and Test Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan; Chiu, Ming Ming; Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in students' scientific literacy as measured by OECD-PISA. In particular, we focused on the 2437 students from 140 Hong Kong schools. Hong Kong boys' and girls' science scores did not differ overall. However, boys scored higher than girls at the higher percentiles (75th and above). Moreover, specific test…

  2. Competitive Comparison and PISA Bragging Rights: Sub-National Uses of the OECD's PISA in Canada and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Frizzell, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has continuously expanded: from 43 systems in 2000 to 65 systems in the 2012 cycle, with 71 signed up for PISA 2015. There also has been a growth in sub-national participation, expanding PISA's reach beyond the…

  3. Report to OECD/CERI Policy Group from Pacific Circle Consortium on Phase 1 Activities: 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Helen; Wells, Marguerite

    Established in 1977, the Pacific Circle Consortium is a group of national-level educational research and development agencies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific region countries engaged in cooperative projects intended to improve international understanding and relations. From 1977 to 1980 the Consortium…

  4. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know? OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    This report evaluates the evidence on how migration may promote or hinder development in countries of origin, and explores possible win-win solutions for both sending and receiving countries. The analysis of recent OECD data of foreign-born nationals into Europe documents the presence of multiple migration patterns and reveals that the EU lags…

  5. INL Results for Phases I and III of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Javier Ortensi; Sonat Sen; Hans Hammer

    2013-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Methods Core Simulation group led the construction of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) 350 MW benchmark for comparing and evaluating prismatic VHTR analysis codes. The benchmark is sponsored by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and the project will yield a set of reference steady-state, transient, and lattice depletion problems that can be used by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and vendors to assess their code suits. The Methods group is responsible for defining the benchmark specifications, leading the data collection and comparison activities, and chairing the annual technical workshops. This report summarizes the latest INL results for Phase I (steady state) and Phase III (lattice depletion) of the benchmark. The INSTANT, Pronghorn and RattleSnake codes were used for the standalone core neutronics modeling of Exercise 1, and the results obtained from these codes are compared in Section 4. Exercise 2 of Phase I requires the standalone steady-state thermal fluids modeling of the MHTGR-350 design, and the results for the systems code RELAP5-3D are discussed in Section 5. The coupled neutronics and thermal fluids steady-state solution for Exercise 3 are reported in Section 6, utilizing the newly developed Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS)/RELAP5-3D code suit. Finally, the lattice depletion models and results obtained for Phase III are compared in Section 7. The MHTGR-350 benchmark proved to be a challenging simulation set of problems to model accurately, and even with the simplifications introduced in the benchmark specification this activity is an important step in the code-to-code verification of modern prismatic VHTR codes. A final OECD/NEA comparison report will compare the Phase I and III results

  6. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  7. The distribution of "big ticket" medical technologies in OECD countries. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, P; Fitch, K

    1995-01-01

    Five "big ticket" medical technologies (BTTs) in 1990 were compared in the 24 OECD countries in relation to population, the number of physicians, gross domestic product (GDP), and health care expenditures (HCE). Wide variations were observed between and within countries for all measures. Regression analysis revealed that HCE explains part of the variation in the distribution of computed tomography scanners (excluding Japan), magnetic resonance imaging units, and radiation therapy units (R2 between 0.40 and 0.69), but not extracorporeal shock wave lithotripters. To a lesser extent, GDP was also found to correlate with the distribution of these technologies, but no correlation was found with number of physicians. Other factors affecting the diffusion of these technologies are proposed for study. PMID:7591552

  8. Analysis of an OECD/NEA high-temperature reactor benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, J. G.; Newton, T. D.; Koeberl, O.; Morris, P.; Goluoglu, S.; Tombakoglu, T.; Colak, U.; Sartori, E.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes analyses of the OECD/NEA HTR benchmark organized by the 'Working Party on the Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS)', formerly the 'Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles'. The benchmark was specifically designed to provide inter-comparisons for plutonium and thorium fuels when used in HTR systems. Calculations considering uranium fuel have also been included in the benchmark, in order to identify any increased uncertainties when using plutonium or thorium fuels. The benchmark consists of five phases, which include cell and whole-core calculations. Analysis of the benchmark has been performed by a number of international participants, who have used a range of deterministic and Monte Carlo code schemes. For each of the benchmark phases, neutronics parameters have been evaluated. Comparisons are made between the results of the benchmark participants, as well as comparisons between the predictions of the deterministic calculations and those from detailed Monte Carlo calculations. (authors)

  9. Thermal-hydraulic post-test analysis of OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, J.J. ); Enciso, S. ); Reventos, F. )

    1992-04-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 and SCDAP/MOD1 against the OECD LOFT experiment LP-FP-2 is presented. LP-FP-2 studies the hypothetical release of fission products and their transport following a large-break LOCA scenario. The report comprises a general description of the LP-FP-2 experiment, a summary of thermal-hydraulic data, a simulation of the LP-FP-2 experiment, results of the RELAP5/MOD2 base calculation, the RELAP5/MOD2 sensitivity analysis, the SCDAP/MOD1 nodalization for an LP-FP-2 experiment, the results of the SCDAP/MOD1 calculation, and the summary and conclusions.

  10. Results from the OECD report on international projections of electricity generating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenbarger, J.A.; Bertel, E.

    1998-07-01

    The International Energy Agency and Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have periodically undertaken a joint study on electricity generating costs in OECD Member countries and selected non-Member countries. This paper presents key results from the 1998 update of this study. Experts from 19 countries drawn from electric utility companies and government provided data on capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs from which levelized electricity generating costs (US cents/kWh) for baseload power plants were estimated in each country using a common set of economic assumptions. Light water nuclear power plants, pulverized coal plants, and natural gas-fired combined cycle gas turbines were the principal options evaluated. five and 10% discount rates, 40-year operating lifetime, and 75% annual load factor were the base assumptions, with sensitivity analyses on operating lifetime and load factor. Fuel costs and fuel escalation were provided individually by country, with a sensitivity case to evaluate costs assuming no real fuel price escalation over plant lifetimes. Of the three principal fuel/technology options, none is predominantly the cheapest option for all economic assumptions. However, fossil-fueled options are generally estimated to be the least expensive option. The study confirms that gas-fired combined cycles have improved their economic performance in most countries in recent years and are strong competitors to nuclear and coal-fired plants. Eleven out of the 18 countries with two or more options show gas-fired plants to be the cheapest option at 10% discount rate. Coal remains a strong competitor to gas when lower discount rates are used. Nuclear is the least expensive at both 5 and 10% discount rate in only two countries. Generally, with gas prices above 5 US$/GJ, nuclear plants constructed at overnight capital costs below 1 650 $/kWe have the potential to be competitive only at lower discount rates.

  11. The OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics transient benchmark: The PBMR-400 core design

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, F.; Ivanov, K.; Downar, T.; De Haas, H.; Gougar, H. D.

    2006-07-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept to be built in South Africa. As part of the verification and validation program the definition and execution of code-to-code benchmark exercises are important. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has accepted, through the Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the inclusion of the Pebble-Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics transient benchmark problem in its program. The OECD benchmark defines steady-state and transients cases, including reactivity insertion transients. It makes use of a common set of cross sections (to eliminate uncertainties between different codes) and includes specific simplifications to the design to limit the need for participants to introduce approximations in their models. In this paper the detailed specification is explained, including the test cases to be calculated and the results required from participants. (authors)

  12. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J; Neill, A P

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, cold leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3 using the best-estimate computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-3 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. Results of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation are found to be generally consistent with those reported, by members of the OECD LOFT Program Review Group, in the LP-SB-3 Comparison Report.'' Overall trends with respect to pressure histories, minimum primary system mass inventory and accumulator behaviour are reasonably well reproduced by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 17 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development. PMID:26603783

  14. RELAP/MOD2 post-test calculation of the OECD LOFT experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents the analysis of the OECD LOFT LP-SB-1 Experiment performed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear of Spain working group making use of RELAP5/MOD2 in the frame of the Spanish LOFT Project. LP-SB-1 experiment studies the effect of an early pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3-inch equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR.

  15. RELAP5/MOD2 post-test calculation of the OECD LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents the analysis of the OECD LOFT LP-SB-2 Experiment performed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear of Spain working group making use of RELAP5/MOD2 in the frame of the Spanish LOFT Project. LB-SB-2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3-inch equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR.

  16. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  17. In vitro OECD test methods applied to screen the estrogenic effect of chemicals, used in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Eun-Jung; Han, Songyi; Oh, Gyeong-Yong; Kim, Min-Hee; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Oh, Jae-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Moon, Guiim; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 27 chemicals found in household products, which became an issue in Korea were screened for the agonistoc and antagonistic effects against human estrogen receptor using official Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro assays, STTA assay using ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line and BG1Luc ER TA assay. In the case of human ER agonist screening by two assays, all tested chemicals did not show agonist effect against ER. In ER antagonist test by BG1Luc ER TA assay, five surfactants α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene), alcohols C16-18 ethoxylated, nonylphenol, ethoxylated, 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol, and α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)) were found to exhibit weak antagonistic activities. The agonist/antagonist effects against human estrogen receptor of various chemicals, used in Korea by OECD test guideline are reported in this study. These results indicated that two OECD in vitro assays will can be applied in Korea by screening of agonistic/antagonistic effects against human ER of various chemicals. PMID:27317829

  18. How does private finance affect public health care systems? Marshaling the evidence from OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes; Flood, Colleen M; Stabile, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The impact of private finance on publicly funded health care systems depends on how the relationship between public and private finance is structured. This essay first reviews the experience in five nations that exemplify different ways of drawing the public/private boundary to address the particular questions raised by each model. This review is then used to interpret aggregate empirical analyses of the dynamic effects between public and private finance in OECD nations over time. Our findings suggest that while increases in the private share of health spending substitute in part for public finance (and vice versa), this is the result of a complex mix of factors having as much to do with cross-sectoral shifts as with deliberate policy decisions within sectors and that these effects are mediated by the different dynamics of distinctive national models. On balance, we argue that a resort to private finance is more likely to harm than to help publicly financed systems, although the effects will vary depending on the form of private finance. PMID:15328871

  19. TRAB-3D/SMABRE Calculation of the OECD/NRC PWR MSLB Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Daavittila, A.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.

    2001-06-17

    All three exercises of the OECD/NRC Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark were calculated. The SMABRE thermal-hydraulics code was used for the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetics neutronics. The second exercise was calculated with the TRAB-3D three-dimensional reactor dynamics code. The third exercise was calculated with the combination TRAB-3D/SMABRE. The results of all the exercises agree reasonably well with those of the other participants; therefore, instead of reporting results, this paper concentrates on describing the computational aspects of the calculation with the above-mentioned codes and on some observations of the sensitivity of the results. The variations calculated with SMABRE with modifications in the upper head, steam generators, and steam lines affect mainly the time of recriticality. During the fourth workshop of the benchmark, a decision was made to extrapolate the cross sections if the fuel temperature or moderator density was out of the range of the given cross section tables. In the TRAB-3D calculation, this extrapolation made a significant difference for the first scenario; there is a low power maximum after the scram, which is not seen in the calculation without the extrapolation.

  20. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  1. Application of OECD Guideline 423 in assessing the acute oral toxicity of moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Martina; Jestoi, Marika; Nathanail, Alexis V; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Anttila, Marjukka; Koivisto, Pertti; Karhunen, Pirkko; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2013-03-01

    Moniliformin is a Fusarium mycotoxin highly prevalent in grains and grain-based products worldwide. In this study, the acute oral toxicity of moniliformin was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats according to OECD Guideline 423 with a single-dose exposure. Clinical observations and histopathological changes were recorded together with the excretion of moniliformin via urine and feces, utilizing a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. According to our study, moniliformin is acutely toxic to rats with a rather narrow range of toxicity. Moniliformin can be classified into category 2 (LD(50) cut-off value 25 mg/kg b.w.), according to the Globally Harmonized System for the classification of chemicals. The clinical observations included muscular weakness, respiratory distress and heart muscle damage. Pathological findings confirmed that heart is the main target tissue of acute moniliformin toxicity. A significant proportion (about 38%) of the administered moniliformin was rapidly excreted in urine in less than 6 h. However, the toxicokinetics of the majority of the administered dose still requires clarification, as the total excretion was only close to 42%. Considering the worldwide occurrence of moniliformin together with its high acute toxicity, research into the subchronic toxicity is of vital importance to identify the possible risk in human/animal health. PMID:23201451

  2. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  3. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  4. Comparison of Cramer classification between Toxtree, the OECD QSAR Toolbox and expert judgment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sneha; Schultz, Terry; Roberts, David; Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Marie Api, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a pragmatic approach in risk assessment. In the absence of data, it sets up levels of human exposure that are considered to have no appreciable risk to human health. The Cramer decision tree is used extensively to determine these exposure thresholds by categorizing non-carcinogenic chemicals into three different structural classes. Therefore, assigning an accurate Cramer class to a material is a crucial step to preserve the integrity of the risk assessment. In this study the Cramer class of over 1000 fragrance materials across diverse chemical classes were determined by using Toxtree (TT), the OECD QSAR Toolbox (TB), and expert judgment. Disconcordance was observed between TT and the TB. A total of 165 materials (16%) showed different results from the two programs. The overall concordance for Cramer classification between TT and expert judgment is 83%, while the concordance between the TB and expert judgment is 77%. Amines, lactones and heterocycles have the lowest percent agreement with expert judgment for TT and the TB. For amines, the expert judgment agreement is 45% for TT and 55% for the TB. For heterocycles, the expert judgment agreement is 55% for TT and the TB. For lactones, the expert judgment agreement is 56% for TT and 50% for the TB. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the concordance within various chemical classes. Critical checkpoints in the decision tree are identified. Strategies and guidance on determining the Cramer class for various chemical classes are discussed. PMID:25460032

  5. [The changing role of the state in health care systems in OECD countries--research questions, research design and first results].

    PubMed

    Helmert, U; Cacace, M; Grimmeisen, S; Wendt, C; Rothgang, H

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of the DFG-Research-Unit 597 "Transformation of the State" is Project C3 investigating the change of the role of the state in health care systems in OECD-countries between 1970 and 2000. The primary research hypothesis is, that a tendency of convergence exists regarding the role of the state for the three main dimensions of health care systems, namely service provision, financing and regulation. This is carried out firstly based on a quantitative oriented analysis for 23 OECD-countries, utilising the data set "OECD Health Data 2002", and secondly with qualitative oriented country-studies for England, Germany and the U.S. Findings for the qualitative country-studies give some hints of convergence regarding the "private-public-mix" between the health system types "social insurance" (Germany), "national health system" (England), and "market oriented health system" (USA). First quantitative results concerning the changing role of the state in relation to the health care systems in OECD-countries provide evidence for a convergence process between these states in the financing dimension. For the dependent variable "total health care costs in % of gross domestic product" a trend of convergence is observed for the members states of the European Union (n = 12), while in the remaining Non-EU countries (n = 11) a trend of divergence is identified. For the same parameter we found a convergence for OECD-countries of the type "national health system" (n = 14). For OECD-countries of the type "social insurance" (n = 8) this convergence process is observed only for the time period 1970 - 1980. Some results confirm the hypothesis of the "growth to limits" (Flora). But it appears to us that in future other significant factors like globalisation processes, the increasing potentials of the medical technology and demographic changes may play an important role for the overall health budget and specific needs of the population in the OECD-states. PMID:15747194

  6. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. Methods A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. Results According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p < 0.05). One percent increase in under-five mortality in the previous period resulted in a 0.83% increase in the mortality rate in the next period, and a 1% increase in total fertility rate, increased the under-five mortality rate by 0.09%. In addition, a 1% increase in GDP per capita decreased the under-five mortality rate by 0.07%, and a 1% improvement in control of corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate. PMID:26952194

  7. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  8. Mobility of coated and uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials in soil columns--Applicability of the tests methods of OECD TG 312 and 106 for nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Carmen; Gabsch, Stephan; Hellack, Bryan; Nogowski, Andre; Babick, Frank; Stintz, Michael; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2015-07-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly used in everyday life products and during their life cycle they can be released into the environment. Soils and sediments are estimated as significant sinks for those nanomaterials. To investigate and assess the behaviour of nanomaterials in soils and sediments standardized test methods are needed. In this study the applicability of two existing international standardized test guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials, OECD TG 106 "Adsorption/Desorption using a Bath Equilibrium Method" and the OECD TG 312 "Leaching in Soil Columns", were investigated. For the study one coated and two uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials were used, respectively. The results indicate that the OECD TG 106 is not applicable for nanomaterials. However, the test method according to OECD TG 312 was found to be applicable if nano-specific adaptations are applied. The mobility investigations of the OECD TG 312 indicated a material-dependent mobility of the nanomaterials, which in some cases may lead to an accumulation in the upper soil layers. Whereas no significant transport was observed for the uncoated materials for the double-coated material (coating with dimethicone and aluminiumoxide) a significant transport was detected and attributed to the coating. PMID:25910977

  9. Persistence assessment of cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones and their degradation products in different OECD screening tests.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; van Ginkel, C G; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Fantini, P; Tissot, E; Baroux, L; Merle, P; Chaintreau, A

    2015-07-01

    The persistence of synthetic cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones was assessed by using OECD 301F and 301D biodegradation tests. While cyclohexyl-derived ketones either reached or came close to the pass level (60%) after 60 d, the corresponding norbornyl derivatives yielded significantly less biodegradation (<40%). By analyzing extracts at 60 d, the key degradation products of four norbornyl derivatives were identified. Consistently, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane carboxylic acid was found as a principal degradation product with minor quantities of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid. When the three degradation products were re-synthesized and tested individually for biodegradability, the former two were found to be ultimately biodegradable after 60 d in OECD 301D tests, thus proving non-persistence. Similarly, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid was found to be degraded significantly, albeit with long lag phases exceeding 60 d in the case of freshwater inoculum, then ultimately reaching the pass level. On the other hand, norbornyl ketones were still only partially biodegradable in the same test. We conclude that despite the potential for ultimate biodegradation of norbornyl-derived ketones, current screening tests yield an incomplete picture of their biodegradability, particularly when applying strict OECD criteria. The appearance of long lag phases when re-testing norbornyl ketone degradation products underlines the importance of extending tests to well beyond 28 and even 60 d in the case of freshwater inocula. PMID:25769113

  10. TRAC-PF1 MOD1 post test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, hot leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1. using the best-estimate'' computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-1 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. 24 refs., 66 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Reconciliation of climate protection & development: the role of OECD & developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, J. P.; Costa, L.; Rybski, D.

    2012-04-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. We employ this empirical relation under consideration the parallel constraint of the 2°C target, extrapolations of the HDI, and using population scenarios to determine emission pathways for countries. We assume that developing countries will rely on fossil fuel use in the future, e.g. due to cost reasons (Development as Usual - DAU), but we also define as turning the 0.8 HDI threshold. Beyond this value a country is commonly considered as developed. We show if current demographic and development trends are maintained that around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) by 2050. In such a case 300 Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000 between 2000 and 2050. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO2 budgets limiting global warming to 2°C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair and equitable emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2°C target after a particular development threshold is reached. It can be shown that in such a case the pressure to the OECD countries could be higher than assumed. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with

  12. THE OECD PROGRAM TO VALIDATE THE RAT HERSHBERGER BIOASSAY TO SCREEN COMPOUNDS FOR IN VIVO ANDROGEN AND ANTIANDROGEN RESPONSES. PHASE 1: USE OF A POTENT AGONIST AND A POTENT ANTAGONIST TO TEST THE STANDARDIZED PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD has completed Phase-1 of the Hershberger validation intended to identify in vivo activity of

    suspected androgens and antiandrogens. 17 laboratories from 7 countries participated in Phase-1, and results

    were collated and evaluated by the OECD with the suppor...

  13. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability

  14. OECD's Brief Self-Report Measure of Educational Psychology's Most Useful Affective Constructs: Cross-Cultural, Psychometric Comparisons across 25 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Artelt, Cordula; Baumert, Jurgen; Peschar, Jules L.

    2006-01-01

    Through a rigorous process of selecting educational psychology's most useful affective constructs, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) constructed the Students' Approaches to Learning (SAL) instrument, which requires only 10 min to measure 14 factors that assess self-regulated learning strategies, self-beliefs,…

  15. Supporting the Contribution of Higher Education to Regional Development: Lessons Learned from an OECD Review of 14 Regions throughout 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmolejo, Francisco; Puukka, Jaana

    2006-01-01

    Following decades of expansion in higher education, policy attention in OECD countries has begun to focus on the outcomes of higher education including how universities and other higher education institutions contribute to regional development. With the processes of globalisation and localisation, the local availability of knowledge and skills and…

  16. Assessment for Qualification and Certification in Upper Secondary Education: A Review of Country Practices and Research Evidence. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufaux, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Within the policy field of student assessment, the assessment of students for qualification and certification in upper secondary education has special importance since key decisions for the progression of students may be taken on the basis of assessment results. Students in most OECD countries face increased specialisation in upper secondary…

  17. Effects of Tertiary Expansion: Crowding-Out Effects and Labour Market Matches for the Higher Educated. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines crowding-out effects and the labour market match for the tertiary educated in 26 OECD countries, using attainment data and data on labour market outcomes from Education at a Glance 2006. A first-difference approach is applied on a three-period, pooled country-panel to examine the effects of changes in tertiary attainment levels…

  18. The Efficiency of Italian Secondary Schools and the Potential Role of Competition: A Data Envelopment Analysis Using OECD-PISA2006 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute efficiency scores for a sample of Italian schools by employing OECD-PISA2006 data aggregated at school level. Efficiency has been defined as the ability to transform inputs (resources, student background, etc.) into outputs (student achievement). Different versions of the DEA models…

  19. HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE DEMAND FOR SCIENTIFIC MANPOWER IN THE UNITED STATES, OECD REVIEWS OF NATIONAL POLICIES FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COCKCROFT, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES IN RELATION TO FUTURE DEMANDS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL MANPOWER ARE CONSIDERED IN THIS 1963 REVIEW OF NATIONAL POLICIES CONDUCTED BY THE ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD). A DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM EMPHASIZES (1)…

  20. Taking on the Completion Challenge: A Literature Review on Policies to Prevent Dropout and Early School Leaving. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyche, Cecilia S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews international research in the field of dropout from upper secondary education and training in OECD countries in order to present possible solutions to policymakers faced with the completion challenge. The paper begins by presenting existing definitions of dropout and upper secondary completion and states that dropout must be…

  1. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  2. Evaluating Cross-National Metrics of Tertiary Graduation Rates for OECD Countries: A Case for Increasing Methodological Congruence and Data Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuser, Brian L.; Drake, Timothy A.; Owens, Taya L.

    2013-01-01

    By examining the different methods and processes by which national data gathering agencies compile and submit their findings to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the authors (1) assess the methodological challenges of accurately reporting tertiary completion and graduation rates cross-nationally; (2) to examine the…

  3. Labour Market Characteristics and International Mobility of Doctorate Holders: Results for Seven Countries. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auriol, Laudeline

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a project initiated in 2004 by the OECD in collaboration with Eurostat and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, and aimed at developing a regular and internationally comparable production system of indicators on the careers and mobility of doctorate holders. A first data collection was launched in September…

  4. Issues in Education in Asia and the Pacific: An International Perspective. OECD Documents. Conference Proceedings (Hiroshima, Japan, October 7-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Phillip; Renwick, William

    This document reports on the first international conference in Japan in October 1992 to open up a dialogue among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the Dynamic Asian Economies (DAEs) of Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Singapore. Experts from each of the DAEs attended the…

  5. A "Global Eye" for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Critical Policy Analysis of the OECD's AHELO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Torres, Lisette E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical policy analysis of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) international Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) project which is currently under way. It briefly describes the purpose, components and participants of the AHELO project. Informed by a…

  6. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68OECD test guidelines for invertebrates. The inter-laboratory reproducibility coefficient of variation (CV) for the Cd LC50-56d values was 8.19%. The inter-laboratory comparison of fecundity within the controls gave a CV of 29.12%, while exposure to Cd gave a CV of 25.49% based on the EC50-56d values. The OECD has acknowledged the success of this prevalidation exercise and a validation ring-test involving 14 laboratories in Europe, North- and South-America is currently being implemented using four chemicals (Cd, prochloraz, trenbolone

  7. The underestimated value of OECD 421 and 422 repro screening studies: putting it in the right perspective.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Zmarowski, Amy; van Otterdijk, Francois; Peter, Birgit; Emmen, Harry

    2014-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of reproduction/developmental screening studies (OECD 421 and 422), a retrospective evaluation of 134 studies was performed. The major findings were: (1) for up to half of the studies with developmental and reproductive toxicity, these effects would have been missed in other types of studies, which underscores that reproduction/developmental screening studies should not be waived by default based on negative 28-day and/or prenatal developmental data, (2) the required number of animals as stated in the guidelines, is appropriate for detecting developmental and reproductive toxicity, and (3) adding measurements like anogenital distance, internal sex determination and nipple retention, plus extending the postnatal period would add predictive value. Overall, the current reproduction/developmental screening studies are effective in providing unique data, especially considering the limited number of animals used. Some simple additions would enrich its value in risk assessment even further. PMID:24768663

  8. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C.; Dyrda, J.; Mennerdahl, D.; Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A.; Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W.; Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P.; Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B.; Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  9. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption.

  10. Differences in the interpretation of the GLP requirements by OECD monitoring authorities: the point of view from the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Lowing, Raymond K

    2008-01-01

    The need to harmonise the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP), their application and their monitoring has always been a preoccupation of the authorities. This can be seen by the very early publication of the set of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) documents, the training of the national inspectors, and the system of joint mutual visits. These aspects are now, for the most part, aligned. However, often the expectations of the inspectors and the interpretation behind the text are different and sometimes even opposite. In Sanofi-Aventis there is an almost unique position having 12 research and development sites in 7 different countries, all performing phases of studies which can be used by any of the other sites and all inspected by monitoring authorities (MAs) of the OECD GLP system. As with most international pharmaceutical companies a large majority of studies are multisite and even multicountry. This paper illustrates some of the challenges which are encountered when a global system of high quality is established to satisfy all the expectations of the multiple MAs, with particular reference to the diversity of origins of the requirements, specific guidance documents on GLP, question and answer sessions on GLP interpretations, annex requirements on specific areas (21 CFR Part 11, veterinary legislation etc.) and conference presentations by MAs. It is important to realize that even though there might be interpretations that the industry has some difficulty in understanding, the objective of this paper is not to complain or to criticize one or other of the MAs. Rather, the objective is to try to be constructive and to show where there are differences so that industry and the MAs can work together to establish systems which possess the level of quality necessary to ensure the safety of patients and the marketing of efficient products. PMID:19352003

  11. Report on the meetings of the small and medium size reactor (SMR) expert group of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD), Paris, France, June 15-16, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, W.J.

    1989-07-05

    The traveler attended the meeting of the Small and Medium Size Reactor (SMR) Expert Group of the OECD. The group agreed to identify the potential for SMRs in OECD countries and to document their views in a report. The group also developed and initiated a plan and schedule for this effort. This report describes significant activities that took place during the meeting and presents relevant information that has been collected in recent international studies.

  12. A SCALE 5.0 Reactor Physics Assessment using the Module TRITON against Mixed Oxide (MOX) OECD/NEA Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Saccheri, J.G.B.; Diamond, D.J.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor physics numerical benchmarks have been performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the software package SCALE 5.0 and its TRITON module to assess their capability to predict neutronics parameters for mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. The results of such calculations are herein presented. Specifically, BNL results for neutron multiplication factors (kINF), neutron fluxes and fuel burnup have been added to published OECD/NEA benchmarks for MOX fuels and particular emphasis has been given to the impact of cross-section libraries and their energy structure on the results. Among the OECD/NEA published benchmarks two have been considered here: the first one models a fuel pin surrounded by moderator, in which two different MOX fuels can be introduced, and for each one of them kINF and neutron fluxes as a function of burnup are calculated. The second one includes both a fuel pin case and a macro-cell case (a heterogeneous 30 by 30 configuration of fuel pins), for which the void coefficient is determined by calculating kINF at zero burnup as a function of moderation. The calculations are repeated for several combinations of MOX and uranium oxide fuels using several different cross-section libraries. The final results have been compared with each other. This study shows that SCALE 5.0 (with TRITON) overall performs in line with the other codes in the benchmark, but the results are dependent on the energy group structure of the cross section libraries used. For instance, when fissile plutonium is increased in the fuel, TRITON results become slightly divergent with burnup (with respect to the other codes in the benchmark) and if the standard 44-group library provided with SCALE 5.0 is used void coefficient calculations become inadequate for very low void (below 10% of the operating value of moderator density). Moreover, the prediction capabilities of the code are shown to be dependent on the MOX fuel enrichment and the MOX isotopic composition. (authors)

  13. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  14. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. PMID:26208968

  15. Exploring simple, transparent, interpretable and predictive QSAR models for classification and quantitative prediction of rat toxicity of ionic liquids using OECD recommended guidelines.

    PubMed

    Das, Rudra Narayan; Roy, Kunal; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-11-01

    The present study explores the chemical attributes of diverse ionic liquids responsible for their cytotoxicity in a rat leukemia cell line (IPC-81) by developing predictive classification as well as regression-based mathematical models. Simple and interpretable descriptors derived from a two-dimensional representation of the chemical structures along with quantum topological molecular similarity indices have been used for model development, employing unambiguous modeling strategies that strictly obey the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. The structure-toxicity relationships that emerged from both classification and regression-based models were in accordance with the findings of some previous studies. The models suggested that the cytotoxicity of ionic liquids is dependent on the cationic surfactant action, long alkyl side chains, cationic lipophilicity as well as aromaticity, the presence of a dialkylamino substituent at the 4-position of the pyridinium nucleus and a bulky anionic moiety. The models have been transparently presented in the form of equations, thus allowing their easy transferability in accordance with the OECD guidelines. The models have also been subjected to rigorous validation tests proving their predictive potential and can hence be used for designing novel and "greener" ionic liquids. The major strength of the present study lies in the use of a diverse and large dataset, use of simple reproducible descriptors and compliance with the OECD norms. PMID:26117201

  16. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  17. RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2012-06-01

    The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2.

  18. Elucidation of the upper pathway of alicyclic musk Romandolide degradation in OECD screening tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Ohleyer, E; Chaintreau, A

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of Romandolide ([1-(3',3'-dimethyl-1'-cyclohexyl)ethoxycarbonyl] methyl propanoate), a synthetic alicyclic musk, by activated sludge inocula was investigated using both the manometric respirometry test OECD 301F and the CO₂ evolution test. In addition to measuring its biodegradability, key steps of the upper part of the metabolic pathway responsible for Romandolide degradation were identified using extracts at different time points of incubation. Early metabolism of Romandolide yielded ester hydrolysis products, including Cyclademol (1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethanol). The principal metabolites after 31 days were identified as 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone and 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl acetate. Formation of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone from Cyclademol by sludge was confirmed in subsequent experiments using Cyclademol as a substrate, indicating the involvement of an oxygen insertion reminiscent of a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Further mineralization of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone was also confirmed in subsequent studies. Three steps were thus required for complete biodegradation of the alicyclic musk: (1) successive ester hydrolyses leading to the formation of Cyclademol with concomitant degradation of the resulting acids, (2) conversion of Cyclademol into 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone, and (3) further mineralization via ring cleavage. PMID:24277432

  19. Assessment of core damage models in SCDAP/RELAP5 during OECD LOFT LP-FP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored a program to apply the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to analysis of the transient and reflood phases of the OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. The principal objectives of the LP-FP-2 experiment were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during the early phases of a severe fuel damage scenario and to examine the phenomena controlling fission product transport in a vapor/aerosol environment. Calculations with the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, developed at the INEL with NRC support, have been performed to (1) examine the phenomena controlling the progression of both transient and reflood phases of the experiment, (2) enhance our understanding of the phenomena occurring during reflood and add credence to the postulated phenomenological sequence, (3) assess the ability of SCDAP/RELAP5 to examine severe fuel damage issues and phenomena, and (4) identify code strengths and deficiencies with the intent of prioritizing code improvements. Results indicate that the code is able to analyze the early phases of severe fuel damage reasonably well, with potential deficiencies in modelling interaction between molten control rod material and intact fuel.

  20. Assessment of core damadge models in SCDAP/RELAP5 during OECD LOFT LP-FP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored a program to apply the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to analysis of the transient and reflood phases of the OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. The principal objectives of the LP-FP-2 experiment were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during the early phases of a severe fuel damage scenario and to examine the phenomena controlling fission product transport in a vapor/aerosol environment. Calculations with the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, developed at the INEL with NRC support, have been performed to (1) examine the phenomena controlling the progression of both transient and reflood phases of the experiment, (2) enhance our understanding of the phenomena occurring during reflood and add credence to the postulated phenomenological sequence, (3) assess the ability of SCDAP/RELAP5 to examine severe fuel damage issues and phenomena, and (4) identify code strengths and deficiencies with the intent of prioritizing code improvements. Results indicate that the code is able to analyze the early phases of severe fuel damage reasonably well, with potential deficiencies in modelling interaction between molten control rod material and intact fuel.

  1. RELAP5-3D results for phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2. (authors)

  2. The Effects of Molecular Properties on Ready Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds in the OECD 301B CO2 Evolution Test.

    PubMed

    He, Mei; Mei, Cheng-Fang; Sun, Guo-Ping; Li, Hai-Bei; Liu, Lei; Xu, Mei-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Ready biodegradation is the primary biodegradability of a compound, which is used for discriminating whether a compound could be rapidly and readily biodegraded in the natural ecosystems in a short period and has been applied extensively in the environmental risk assessment of many chemicals. In this study, the effects of 24 molecular properties (including 2 physicochemical parameters, 10 geometrical parameters, 6 topological parameters, and 6 electronic parameters) on the ready biodegradation of 24 kinds of synthetic aromatic compounds were investigated using the OECD 301B CO2 Evolution test. The relationship between molecular properties and ready biodegradation of these aromatic compounds varied with molecular properties. A significant inverse correlation was found for the topological parameter TD, five geometrical parameters (Rad, CAA, CMA, CSEV, and N c), and the physicochemical parameter K ow, and a positive correlation for two topological parameters TC and TVC, whereas no significant correlation was observed for any of the electronic parameters. Based on the correlations between molecular properties and ready biodegradation of these aromatic compounds, the importance of molecular properties was demonstrated as follows: geometrical properties > topological properties > physicochemical properties > electronic properties. Our study first demonstrated the effects of molecular properties on ready biodegradation by a number of experiment data under the same experimental conditions, which should be taken into account to better guide the ready biodegradation tests and understand the mechanisms of the ready biodegradation of aromatic compounds. PMID:26498763

  3. REVIEW OF RESULTS FOR THE OECD/NEA PHASE VII BENCHMARK: STUDY OF SPENT FUEL COMPOSITIONS FOR LONG TERM DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the problem specification and compares participants results for the OECD/NEA/WPNCS Expert Group on Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Phase VII Benchmark Study of Spent Fuel Compositions for Long-Term Disposal. The Phase VII benchmark was developed to study the ability of relevant computer codes and associated nuclear data to predict spent fuel isotopic compositions and corresponding keff values in a cask configuration over the time duration relevant to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal. The benchmark was divided into two sets of calculations: (1) decay calculations out to 1,000,000 years for provided pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) UO2 discharged fuel compositions and (2) burnup credit criticality calculations for a representative cask model at selected time steps. Contributions from 15 organizations and companies in 10 countries were submitted to the Phase VII benchmark exercise. This paper provides a description of the Phase VII benchmark and detailed comparisons of the participants isotopic compositions and keff values that were calculated with a diversity of computer codes and nuclear data sets. Differences observed in the calculated time-dependent nuclide densities are attributed to different decay data or code-specific numerical approximations. The variability of the keff results is consistent with the evaluated uncertainty associated with cross-section data.

  4. OECD/NEA Data Bank Scientific and Intergral Experiments Databases in Support of Knowledge Preservation and Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Briggs; E. Sartori; J. Gado; A. Hasegawa; P. D'hondt; I. Kodeli; F. J. Mompean; W. Wiesenack; A. Zaetta

    2004-09-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: — Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications. — Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use. — Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: — IRPhE – International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, — SINBAD – a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), — IFPE – International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, — TDB – The Thermochemical Database Project, — ICSBE – International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations [1], — CCVM – CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients [2]. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB.

  5. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  6. Experiment Isotopic Data Compiled by the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-11-01

    can be easily accessed by code developers and analysts for validation. In response to the increased interest in fuel isotopic measurements and needs for consolidation and documentation of available data, an Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel (EGADSNF) was formed in 2007 as a working group of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS). Although the group was formed by the Expert Group on Burnup Credit to coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate collaboration between countries developing or implementing burnup credit in their nuclear criticality safety methodologies, the group recognized the need and value of assay data for a broad range of spent fuel applications, and the EGADSNF includes members representing not only the WPNCS, but also members from the standing technical Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations and the Integration Group for the Safety Case of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee. Member countries currently active in the EGADSNF include Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The experimental database of spent fuel measurements maintained by the OECD/NEA is web-accessible. SFCOMPO (database of Spent Fuel Compositions) contains measured isotopic data, mostly for light water reactor (LWR) fuels, for about 250 fuel samples. This paper summarizes the status of SFCOMPO and current activities to expand and improve the database.

  7. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo estrogenic responses: phase 1.

    PubMed

    Kanno, J; Onyon, L; Haseman, J; Fenner-Crisp, P; Ashby, J; Owens, W

    2001-08-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help prioritize positive compounds for further testing. Using draft protocols, we tested and compared two model systems, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat. Data from 19 participating laboratories using a high-potency reference agonist, ethinyl estradiol (EE), and an antagonist, ZM 189,154, indicate no substantive performance differences between models. All laboratories and all protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights using EE in phase 1. These significant uterine weight increases were achieved under a variety of experimental conditions (e.g., strain, diet, housing protocol, bedding, vehicle). For each protocol, there was generally good agreement among laboratories with regard to the actual EE doses both in producing the first significant increase in uterine weights and achieving the maximum uterine response. Furthermore, the Hill equation appears to model the dose response satisfactorily and indicates general agreement based on calculated effective dose (ED)(10) and ED(50) within and among laboratories. The feasibility of an antagonist assay was also successfully demonstrated. Therefore, both models appear robust, reproducible, and transferable across laboratories for high-potency estrogen agonists such as EE. For the next phase of the OECD validation program, both models will be tested against a battery of weak, partial estrogen agonists. PMID:11564613

  8. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-25

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning.

  9. An overview of the activities of the OECD/NEA Task Force on adapting computer codes in nuclear applications to parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, B.L.; Sartori, E.

    1997-06-01

    Subsequent to the introduction of High Performance Computing in the developed countries, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) created the Task Force on Adapting Computer Codes in Nuclear Applications to Parallel Architectures (under the guidance of the Nuclear Science Committee`s Working Party on Advanced Computing) to study the growth area in supercomputing and its applicability to the nuclear community`s computer codes. The result has been four years of investigation for the Task Force in different subject fields - deterministic and Monte Carlo radiation transport, computational mechanics and fluid dynamics, nuclear safety, atmospheric models and waste management.

  10. An assessment of biodegradability of quaternary carbon-containing fragrance compounds: comparison of experimental OECD screening test results and in silico prediction data.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Markus; Boschung, Alain

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of biodegradability was carried out for fragrance substances containing quaternary carbons by using data obtained from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301F screening tests for ready biodegradation and from Biowin and Catalogic prediction models. Despite an expected challenging profile, a relatively high percentage of common-use fragrance substances showed significant biodegradation under the stringent conditions applied in the OECD 301F test. Among 27 test compounds, 37% met the pass level criteria after 28 d, while another 26% indicated partial breakdown (≥20% biodegradation). For several compounds for which structural analogs were available, the authors found that structures that were rendered less water soluble by either the presence of an acetate ester or the absence of oxygen tended to degrade to a lesser extent compared to the primary alcohols or oxygenated counterparts under the test conditions applied. Difficulties were encountered when attempting to correlate experimental with in silico data. Whereas the Biowin model combinations currently recommended by regulatory agencies did not allow for a reliable discrimination between readily and nonbiodegradable compounds, only a comparably small proportion of the chemicals studied (30% and 63% depending on the model) fell within the applicability domain of Catalogic, a factor that critically reduced its predictive power. According to these results, currently neither Biowin nor Catalogic accurately reflects the potential for biodegradation of fragrance compounds containing quaternary carbons. PMID:24453060

  11. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, V; Noury, P; Tutundjian, R; Buronfosse, T; Garric, J; Gust, M

    2013-09-15

    Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μll(-1). As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μll(-1) acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies. PMID:23811024

  12. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pelayo, F. )

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures. PMID:27072031

  14. Enhanced OECD TG 407 in detection of endocrine-mediated effects of 4,4'-(octahydro-4,7-methano-5H-inden-5-ylidene)bisphenol.

    PubMed

    Umano, Takaaki; Miyata, Katsumi; Minobe, Yasushi; Yamasaki, Kanji

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the estrogenic effects were detected in the enhanced TG 407 if the estrogenic property was not so strong in the uterotrophic assay. The estrogenic property of 4,4'-(octahydro-4,7-methano-5H-inden-5-ylidene)bisphenol in the uterotrophic assay was slightly stronger than that of genistein or nonylphenol, but weaker than that of ethinyl estradiol. We performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study (enhanced OECD test guideline No. 407) on 4,4'-(octahydro-4,7-methano-5H-inden-5-ylidene)bisphenol based on the OECD draft protocol. The test chemical, administered orally at doses of 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg per day for at least 28 days, caused such estrogenic effects as abnormal estrous cycle, increased ovarian follicles, increased uterine epithelial height, and vaginal mucification in the 50 and/or 250 mg/kg groups. Moreover, follicular epithelial cell hyperplasia of the thyroid was detected in all male rats given the test chemical and in female rats in the 250 mg/kg group. It was concluded that the estrogenic effects were detected in growing rats given 4,4'-(octahydro-4,7-methano-5H-inden-5-ylidene)bisphenol, and thyroid dysfunction was also observed as the endocrine-mediated effects. PMID:19882337

  15. Science and Mathematics Education in the United States: Eight Innovations: Proceedings of the OECD International Conference on Science, Mathematics and Technology Education (Paris, France, November 5-7, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume is the first in a series emanating from the Center for Educational Research and Innovation's project on science, mathematics, and technology education in countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It contains eight case studies from the United States presented to an international conference. Four…

  16. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs. PMID:27350822

  17. Source convergence diagnostics using Boltzmann entropy criterion application to different OECD/NEA criticality benchmarks with the 3-D Monte Carlo code Tripoli-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dumonteil, E.; Le Peillet, A.; Lee, Y. K.; Petit, O.; Jouanne, C.; Mazzolo, A.

    2006-07-01

    The measurement of the stationarity of Monte Carlo fission source distributions in k{sub eff} calculations plays a central role in the ability to discriminate between fake and 'true' convergence (in the case of a high dominant ratio or in case of loosely coupled systems). Recent theoretical developments have been made in the study of source convergence diagnostics, using Shannon entropy. We will first recall those results, and we will then generalize them using the expression of Boltzmann entropy, highlighting the gain in terms of the various physical problems that we can treat. Finally we will present the results of several OECD/NEA benchmarks using the Tripoli-4 Monte Carlo code, enhanced with this new criterion. (authors)

  18. Analysis of the OECD Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Problem Using the Refined Core Thermal-Hydraulic Nodalization Feature of the MARS/MASTER Code

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Han Gyu; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Cho, Byung-Oh; Lee, Won Jae; Zee, Sung Quun

    2003-05-15

    The refined core thermal-hydraulics (T-H) nodalization feature of the MARS/MASTER code is used to generate a high-fidelity solution to the OECD main steam line break benchmark problem and to investigate the effects of core T-H nodalization. The MARS/MASTER coupling scheme is introduced first that enables efficient refined node core T-H calculations via the COBRA-III module. The base solution is generated using a fine T-H nodalization consisting of fuel assembly-sized radial nodes. Sensitivity studies are performed on core T-H nodalization to examine the impacts on core reactivity, power distribution, and transient behavior. The results indicate that the error in the peak local power can be very large (up to 25%) with a coarse T-H nodalization because of the inability to incorporate detailed thermal feedback. A demonstrative departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) calculation shows no occurrence of DNB in this problem.

  19. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  20. Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D ring and block model results for phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-12-02

    The PHISICS code system has been under development at INL since 2010. It consists of several modules providing improved coupled core simulation capability: INSTANT (3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and modules performing criticality searches, fuel shuffling and generalized perturbation. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D was finalized in 2013, and as part of the verification and validation effort the first phase of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark has now been completed. The theoretical basis and latest development status of the coupled PHISICS/RELAP5-3D tool are described in more detail in a concurrent paper. This paper provides an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark and presents the results of Exercises 2 and 3 defined for Phase I. Exercise 2 required the modelling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution at End of Equilibrium Cycle for the Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR). The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 required a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D code suite was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of results obtained with the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach against a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity that can be obtained by this “block” model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions. Furthermore, it is shown that the ring model leads to significantly lower fuel temperatures (up to 10%) when compared with the higher fidelity block model, and that the additional model development and run-time efforts are worth the gains obtained in the

  1. Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D ring and block model results for phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 benchmark

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-12-02

    The PHISICS code system has been under development at INL since 2010. It consists of several modules providing improved coupled core simulation capability: INSTANT (3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and modules performing criticality searches, fuel shuffling and generalized perturbation. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D was finalized in 2013, and as part of the verification and validation effort the first phase of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark has now been completed. The theoretical basis and latest development status of the coupled PHISICS/RELAP5-3D tool are described in more detailmore » in a concurrent paper. This paper provides an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark and presents the results of Exercises 2 and 3 defined for Phase I. Exercise 2 required the modelling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution at End of Equilibrium Cycle for the Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR). The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 required a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D code suite was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of results obtained with the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach against a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity that can be obtained by this “block” model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions. Furthermore, it is shown that the ring model leads to significantly lower fuel temperatures (up to 10%) when compared with the higher fidelity block model, and that the additional model development and run-time efforts are worth the gains obtained

  2. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  3. Correlation or causation? Income inequality and infant mortality in fixed effects models in the period 1960-2008 in 34 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Avendano, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Income inequality is strongly associated with infant mortality across countries, but whether this association is causal has not been established. In their commentary in this issue of Social Science & Medicine, Regidor et al. (2012) argue that this association has disappeared in recent years, and question the premise of a causal link. This paper empirically tests the impact of income inequality on infant mortality in a fixed effects model that exploits the evolution of income inequality over a 38-year period, controlling for all time-invariant differences across countries. Data came from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database, containing yearly estimates for the period 1960-2008 in 34 countries member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), linked to infant mortality data from the OECD Health database. Infant mortality was modelled as a function of income inequality in a country and year fixed effects model, incorporating controls for changing economic and labour conditions. In a model without country fixed effects, a one-point increase in the Gini coefficient was associated with a 7% increase in the infant mortality rate (Rate ratio[RR] = 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.09). Controlling for differences across countries in a country fixed effects model, however, income inequality was no longer associated with infant mortality (RR = 1.00, 0.98, 1.01). Similar results were obtained when using lagged values of income inequality for up to 15 years, and in models that controlled for changing labour and economic conditions. Findings suggest that in the short-run, changes in income inequality are not associated with changes in infant mortality. A possible interpretation of the discrepancy between cross-country correlations and fixed effects models is that social policies that reduce infant mortality cluster in countries with low income inequality, but their effects do not operate via income. Findings highlight the

  4. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-01

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. PMID:25732604

  5. A review of national-level adaptation planning with regards to the risks posed by climate change on infectious diseases in 14 OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Panic, Mirna; Ford, James D

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is likely to have significant implications for human health, particularly through alterations of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of infectious diseases. In the context of these risks, governments in high income nations have begun developing strategies to reduce potential climate change impacts and increase health system resilience (i.e., adaptation). In this paper, we review and evaluate national-level adaptation planning in relation to infectious disease risks in 14 OECD countries with respect to "best practices" for adaptation identified in peer-reviewed literature. We find a number of limitations to current planning, including negligible consideration of the needs of vulnerable population groups, limited emphasis on local risks, and inadequate attention to implementation logistics, such as available funding and timelines for evaluation. The nature of planning documents varies widely between nations, four of which currently lack adaptation plans. In those countries where planning documents were available, adaptations were mainstreamed into existing public health programs, and prioritized a sectoral, rather than multidisciplinary, approach. The findings are consistent with other scholarship examining adaptation planning indicating an ad hoc and fragmented process, and support the need for enhanced attention to adaptation to infectious disease risks in public health policy at a national level. PMID:24351735

  6. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity - The NTP Modified One generation study and OECD 443

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Paul M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The NTP has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation reproduction (MOG) study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity which is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new OECD 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust datasets which include both pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R’s. PMID:24862797

  7. A Review of National-Level Adaptation Planning with Regards to the Risks Posed by Climate Change on Infectious Diseases in 14 OECD Nations

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Mirna; Ford, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have significant implications for human health, particularly through alterations of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of infectious diseases. In the context of these risks, governments in high income nations have begun developing strategies to reduce potential climate change impacts and increase health system resilience (i.e., adaptation). In this paper, we review and evaluate national-level adaptation planning in relation to infectious disease risks in 14 OECD countries with respect to “best practices” for adaptation identified in peer-reviewed literature. We find a number of limitations to current planning, including negligible consideration of the needs of vulnerable population groups, limited emphasis on local risks, and inadequate attention to implementation logistics, such as available funding and timelines for evaluation. The nature of planning documents varies widely between nations, four of which currently lack adaptation plans. In those countries where planning documents were available, adaptations were mainstreamed into existing public health programs, and prioritized a sectoral, rather than multidisciplinary, approach. The findings are consistent with other scholarship examining adaptation planning indicating an ad hoc and fragmented process, and support the need for enhanced attention to adaptation to infectious disease risks in public health policy at a national level. PMID:24351735

  8. Regulatory Forum opinion piece: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity--the NTP modified one generation study and OECD 443.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul M D

    2014-12-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation (MOG) reproduction study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity that is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F 1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust data sets that include both pre and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R's. PMID:24862797

  9. Performance of Core Exit Thermocouple for PWR Accident Management Action in Vessel Top Break LOCA Simulation Experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is the first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reasons of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection.

  10. The efficiency of health care production in OECD countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-country comparisons.

    PubMed

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria

    2016-03-01

    There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers. PMID:26819140

  11. Coupling of OECD standardized test and immunomarkers to select the most environmentally benign ionic liquids option--towards an innovative "safety by design" approach.

    PubMed

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Diallo, Alpha-Oumar; Marlair, Guy; Pandard, Pascal; Chabot, Laure; Geffard, Alain; Len, Christophe; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed a potential industrial accompaniment to reduce ionic liquid harmfulness by a novel combination of OECD Daphnia magna standardized test and fish immunomarkers. The combination of these two tests allowed multicriteria examination of ILs impacts in different organisms and trophic levels. The work provided new data for legislation and opened a door towards an integrative environmental evaluation due to direct implications of immune system in fish and ecosystem health. Whatever the species, each IL tested induced deleterious effects suggesting that toxic impact was especially due to IL lipophilicity properties. Nevertheless, cation moieties of ILs seemed to draw overall toxicity of ILs to significant extent as supported by lower cell mortality shown with imidazolium-based ILs compared to phosphonium-based ILs. However, the anions moieties have some additional effect, as revealed by quite dissimilar toxicity within same IL family. Concerning the more integrative biomarkers, the cationic-based ILs tested possessed also dissimilar effect on immune system of fish, especially on leucocyte distribution, lysosomal membrane integrity and phagocytosis activity. These results confirm that ILs toxicity could be influenced by design and that chemical engineering processes can integrate ecological footprint reduction strategies for successful IL utilization in the future. PMID:25278158

  12. Application of the PSI-NUSS Tool for the Estimation of Nuclear Data Related keff Uncertainties for the OECD/NEA WPNCS UACSA Phase I Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), a methodology titled PSI-NUSS is under development for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into Criticality Safety Evaluation (CSE) with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The primary purpose is to provide a complementary option for the uncertainty assessment related to nuclear data, versus the traditional approach which relies on estimating biases/uncertainties based on validation studies against representative critical benchmark experiments. In the present paper, the PSI-NUSS methodology is applied to quantify nuclear data uncertainties for the OECD/NEA UACSA Exercise Phase I benchmark. One underlying reason is that PSI's CSE methodology developed so far and previously applied for this benchmark was based on using a more conventional approach, involving engineering guesses in order to estimate uncertainties in the calculated effective multiplication factor (keff). Therefore, as the PSI-NUSS methodology aims precisely at integrating a more rigorous treatment of the specific type of uncertainties from nuclear data for CSE, its application to the UACSA is conducted here: nuclear data related uncertainty component is estimated and compared to results obtained by other participants using different codes/libraries and methodologies.

  13. Assessing the suitability of the OECD 29 guidance document to investigate the transformation and dissolution of silver nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, Claus; Rüdel, Heinz; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Klawonn, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    The OECD guidance document No. 29 was designed to determine the rate and extend to which metals can produce soluble available ionic metal species. This transformation/dissolution protocol was applied to silver nanomaterials. The results prove that concentrations of released Ag(+) at pH 8 were nearly similar at all three different loadings. At pH 6, the concentration of Ag(+) was almost the same at loadings of 10 and 100 mg L(-1) AgNPs. However, the study showed changes in concentrations of nanoparticles and aggregates (operationally defined as the fraction passing a 0.2 µm filter). At the higher pH both the concentrations in the test medium of Ag(+) and of AgNPs (fraction < 0.2 µm) decreased. After 7 days of test duration, 71 µg L(-1) of Ag(+) was found in pH 6 medium (initial loading of 100 mg L(-1)). In pH 8 medium a maximum concentration of 29 µg L(-1) Ag(+) was measured (initial loading of 10 mg L(-1)). The maximum transformation from AgNPs to Ag(+) was 2.7% (27 µg L(-1)) in pH 8 medium (loading of 1 mg L(-1)) after 7 days. At an initial loading of 100 mg L(-1) AgNPs in medium at pH 8, only 0.03% (30 µg L(-1)) were transformed to Ag(+) after 7 days. At the loading of 1 mg L(-1) AgNPs all silver concentrations remain relatively constant for the duration of the test after 7 until 28 days. The results reveal that only low concentrations of Ag(+) are released from AgNPs under the applied conditions. PMID:26580718

  14. Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Ring and Block Model Results for Phase I of the OECD MHTGR-350 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2014-04-01

    The INL PHISICS code system consists of three modules providing improved core simulation capability: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been finalized, and as part of the code verification and validation program the exercises defined for Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR 350 MW Benchmark were completed. This paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark, and presents selected results of the three steady state exercises 1-3 defined for Phase I. For Exercise 1, a stand-alone steady-state neutronics solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) was calculated with INSTANT, using the provided geometry, material descriptions, and detailed cross-section libraries. Exercise 2 required the modeling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution. The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 combined the first two exercises in a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the coupled code suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach vs. a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity of the block model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions, and the typical under-predictions produced by the ring model approach are highlighted.

  15. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle

    2015-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  16. RELAP5 Analyses of OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Experiments on Intermediate-Break LOCAs at Hot Leg or Cold Leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Maruyama, Yu; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Experiments simulating PWR intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accidents (IBLOCAs) with 17% break at hot leg or cold leg were conducted in OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). In the hot leg IBLOCA test, core uncovery started simultaneously with liquid level drop in crossover leg downflow-side before loop seal clearing (LSC) induced by steam condensation on accumulator coolant injected into cold leg. Water remained on upper core plate in upper plenum due to counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) because of significant upward steam flow from the core. In the cold leg IBLOCA test, core dryout took place due to rapid liquid level drop in the core before LSC. Liquid was accumulated in upper plenum, steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow-side and SG inlet plenum before the LSC due to CCFL by high velocity vapor flow, causing enhanced decrease in the core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 post-test analyses of the two LSTF experiments were performed employing critical flow model in the code with a discharge coefficient of 1.0. In the hot leg IBLOCA case, cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods was underpredicted due to overprediction of core liquid level after the core uncovery. In the cold leg IBLOCA case, the cladding surface temperature was underpredicted too due to later core uncovery than in the experiment. These may suggest that the code has remaining problems in proper prediction of primary coolant distribution.

  17. Is gender policy related to the gender gap in external cause and circulatory disease mortality? A mixed effects model of 22 OECD countries 1973–2008

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in mortality vary widely between countries and over time, but few studies have examined predictors of these variations, apart from smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between gender policy and the gender gap in cause-specific mortality, adjusted for economic factors and health behaviours. Methods 22 OECD countries were followed 1973–2008 and the outcomes were gender gaps in external cause and circulatory disease mortality. A previously found country cluster solution was used, which includes indicators on taxes, parental leave, pensions, social insurances and social services in kind. Male breadwinner countries were made reference group and compared to earner-carer, compensatory breadwinner, and universal citizen countries. Specific policies were also analysed. Mixed effect models were used, where years were the level 1-units, and countries were the level 2-units. Results Both the earner-carer cluster (ns after adjustment for GDP) and policies characteristic of that cluster are associated with smaller gender differences in external causes, particularly due to an association with increased female mortality. Cluster differences in the gender gap in circulatory disease mortality are the result of a larger relative decrease of male mortality in the compensatory breadwinner cluster and the earner-carer cluster. Policies characteristic of those clusters were however generally related to increased mortality. Conclusion Results for external cause mortality are in concordance with the hypothesis that women become more exposed to risks of accident and violence when they are economically more active. For circulatory disease mortality, results differ depending on approach – cluster or indicator. Whether cluster differences not explained by specific policies reflect other welfare policies or unrelated societal trends is an open question. Recommendations for further studies are made. PMID:23145477

  18. Two novel prediction models improve predictions of skin corrosive sub-categories by test methods of OECD Test Guideline No. 431.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Bertrand; Barroso, João; Griesinger, Claudius; Kandárová, Helena; Alépée, Nathalie; Fuchs, Horst W

    2015-12-01

    Alternative test methods often use prediction models (PMs) for converting endpoint measurements into predictions. Two PMs are used for the skin corrosion tests (SCTs) of the OECD Test Guideline No. 431 (TG 431). One is specific to EpiSkin™ test method, whereas EpiDerm™, SkinEthic™ RHE and epiCS® share a common PM. These methods are based on reconstructed human epidermis models wherein cell viability values are measured. Their PMs allow translating those values into sub-categories of corrosive chemicals, Category 1A (Cat1A) and a combination of Categories 1B/1C (Cat1BC), and identifying non-corrosive (NC) chemicals. EpiSkin™'s PM already results in sufficiently accurate predictions. The common PM of the three others accurately identifies all corrosive chemicals but, for sub-categorization, an important fraction of Cat1BC chemicals (40-50%) is over-predicted as Cat1A. This paper presents a post-hoc analysis of validation data on a set of n=80 chemicals. It investigates: why this common PM causes these over-predictions and how two novel PMs that we developed (PMvar1 and PMvar2) improve the predictive capacity of these methods. PMvar1 is based on a two-step approach; PMvar2 is based on a single composite indicator of cell viability. Both showed a greater capacity to predict Cat1BC, while Cat1A correct predictions remaining at least at the same level of EpiSkin™. We suggest revising TG 431, to include the novel PMs in view of improving the predictive capacity of its SCTs. PMID:26320836

  19. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C). PMID:24211528

  20. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  1. Recent Research Activity at OECD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economics of Education Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research topics and activities at upcoming and past conferences involving the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Human resources activity is stressing partnerships and the adult learner. New policies and direction in teacher education are focusing on the new professionalism and training innovations. Imbalances in the…

  2. New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-10-01

    PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

  3. Petroleum Depletion, Economic Development, and the Concept of Terracentrism: New Directions in Critical Hermeneutics, Involving a Study of Official Publications from the UN and the OECD from 1975 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Blaine D.

    2007-05-01

    This is a study of policy statements from the UN and OECD. I explored conceptual linkages between petroleum depletion and economic development, with particular emphasis on Third World debt. Petroleum has served as the primary feedstock for the vast majority of commercial and industrial products used in modern society; however, its role has often been poorly understood. The era of relatively cheap petroleum is now over. Findings in the literature indicate that sensitivity to petroleum's socioeconomic role fluctuate in inverse proportion to its availability; moreover, the discourse on economic development varied, depending upon whether or not core or peripheral states were involved. There was no universal standard by which all states were measured. Currently, society has neither the adequate conceptual tools nor the vocabulary for construing this new challenge on a global scale. To this end, using petroleum depletion as the focus, the new theoretical approach of Terracentrism is presented as a first step toward developing a new, more Earth-centered vocabulary. The fundamental idea behind Terracentrism is to incorporate non-human, ecological, Earth-based elements into the analysis of all large-scale human and organizational systems.

  4. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles.

    PubMed

    Unice, Kenneth M; Bare, Jennifer L; Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-15

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f(C)), tire wear (f(W)), terrestrial weathering (f(S)), leaching from TRWP (f(L)), and environmental availability from TRWP (f(A)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F(T)) and release to water (FR) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F(T) for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5×10(-4) (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F(R) at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the weathering factor, f(S), were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f(L), and environmental availability factor, f(A), was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K(ow). Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. PMID:26184905

  5. A World of Assessment: OECD's AHELO Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized testing for higher education has been much in the news in the US over the last few years. In the wake of the Spellings Commission, the clear intent of the Department of Education's (USDOE) position in negotiated rulemaking in 2007 was to mandate its use in accreditation. Standardized testing is also a central feature of the Voluntary…

  6. Bringing about Curriculum Innovations. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is essential for the education sector. The ways in which curriculum decision making is organised reflects different implicit approaches on how educational systems pertain to promote innovation in education. Curriculum holds an outstanding place when seeking to promote innovation in education, as it reflects the vision for education by…

  7. Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Ahlefeld, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximise the use of and investment in learning environments. This article provides an update on the pilot project, which is currently being implemented in Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United…

  8. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  9. Globalisation and Higher Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education institutions are more important than ever as…

  10. Managed care in four managed competition OECD health systems.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Amir; Stam, Piet; Wasem, Jürgen; Trottmann, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Managed care emerged in the American health system in the 1980s as a way to manage suppliers' induced demand and to contain insurers' costs. While in Israel the health insurers have always been managed care organizations, owning health care facilities, employing medical personnel or contracting selectively with independent providers, European insurers have been much more passive, submitting themselves to collective agreements between insurers' and providers' associations, accompanied by extensive government regulation of prices, quantities, and budgets. With the 1990s reforms, and the introduction of risk-adjusted "managed competition", a growing pressure to allow the European insurers to manage their own care - including selective contracting with providers - has emerged, with varying speed of the introduction of policy changes across the individual countries. This paper compares experiences with managed care in Israel, The Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland since the 1990s. After a brief description of the health insurance markets in the four countries, we focus comparatively on the emergence of managed care in the markets for ambulatory care and inpatient market care. We conclude with an evaluation of the current situation and a discussion of selected health policy issues. PMID:25776034

  11. Alligator rivers analogue project an OECD/NEA international project

    SciTech Connect

    Duerden, P.; Airey, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia was studied as a natural analogue of the far field behaviour of high level waste repositories following groundwater ingress. A number of mathematical modelling approaches were developed for processes as diverse as groundwater transport, host rock weathering, radionuclide sorption, evolution of the uranium dispersion fan and the distribution of uranium series nuclides between mineral assemblages in weathered host rock. Some of these models are relevant to performance assessment at the level of individual processes and subsystem performance. Through the project, new insights into the application of the natural analogue approach to the assessment of potential waste repository sites were obtained.

  12. Universities for Cities and Regions: Lessons from the OECD Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ischinger, Barbara; Puukka, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    Over the years and almost unnoticed, the Norwegian University of Technology (NTNU) had transformed Trondheim, a city 500 kilometers from the Arctic Circle, into Norway's technological capital. As such, high-tech companies like Google, Yahoo, and FAST chose to establish their Norwegian research and development (R&D) base in this far-away part of…

  13. Distributional Orientation and Health Outcomes in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the 2008-2010 period to construct indicators of "pro-primary" and "pro-secondary" distributions. The former is concerned with the original distribution of income through the market, whereas the latter is concerned with the redistribution efforts of the government. The study ranks these countries along these dimensions to create a distributional orientation map for such countries. It finds that the Scandinavian countries occupy the top rankings in terms of equity in pro-primary distribution, followed by countries with a Bismarckian welfare state regime. The Scandinavian countries also rank very high on equity in pro-secondary distribution, along with some of the top-ranking Bismarckian countries. More significantly, the study finds that the countries' health outcomes are associated more strongly with the pro-primary distributional stance than with the pro-secondary distributional stance. A key policy implication is that to achieve better and more equitable health, it is more effective to design a level playing field for market participants in the first place, than to try to mend inequities after the fact through remedial social policy. PMID:26159174

  14. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste: (1) Meets the Federal definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261.3; and (2) Is subject to either the Federal RCRA manifesting requirements at 40 CFR part 262, subpart B, the universal waste management standards of 40 CFR part 273, State requirements analogous to 40 CFR part 273, the...

  15. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste: (1) Meets the Federal definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261.3; and (2) Is subject to either the Federal RCRA manifesting requirements at 40 CFR part 262, subpart B, the universal waste management standards of 40 CFR part 273, State requirements analogous to 40 CFR part 273, the...

  16. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste: (1) Meets the Federal definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261.3; and (2) Is subject to either the Federal RCRA manifesting requirements at 40 CFR part 262, subpart B, the universal waste management standards of 40 CFR part 273, State requirements analogous to 40 CFR part 273, the...

  17. OECD Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Norway. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Fride

    Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long…

  18. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD Waste Lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. To contact the EPA Docket Center Public Reading Room, call (202... waste: (1) Meets the Federal definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261.3; and (2) Is subject to either the Federal RCRA manifesting requirements at 40 CFR part 262, subpart B, to the universal...

  19. Comparing OECD Educational Models through the Prism of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulle, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    The PISA survey influences educational policies through an international competitive process which is not wholly rationally-oriented. Firstly, PISA league tables act normatively upon the definition of formal educational aims while the survey tests cannot evaluate the educational systems' relative strengths with regards to such aims. We argue that…

  20. Take the Test: Sample Questions from OECD's PISA Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salz, Susanne, Comp.; Figueroa, Diana Toledo, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    Parents, students, teachers, school leaders, governments and the general public need good information on how well their education systems prepare students for life. A growing commitment by governments to monitor the outcomes of education systems in terms of student achievement on a regular basis and within an internationally agreed framework led…

  1. The OECD Member Countries, l985 Edition - 2lst Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents statistics showing the diversity of economics in 24 countries. Tables include information on: agricultural area; population; labor force (percent females); agricultural/industry/services employment; gross domestic product; government expenditure and revenue; trade balance, imports/exports; consumer prices; infant mortality; animal…

  2. Is There a "New Rural Policy" in OECD Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, John M.

    There was a notable transition in the nature, content, and administration of rural policies in many developed nations in the 1980s and 1990s. These changes concerned issues of governance and institutional framework, the definition of "development," and policy goals and content. A key question, however, concerns the extent to which shifts in the…

  3. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Netherlands: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The Netherlands' career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: markets and the role of…

  4. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Luxembourg 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Ehren, Melanie; Santiago, Paulo; Tamassia, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the educational evaluation and assessment framework, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in Luxembourg.

  5. The OECD, PISA and the Impacts on Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale assessment regularly takes place in most jurisdictions across Canada, a fact not lost on the Fraser Institute and other right wing think tanks such as AIMS (Atlantic Institute for Market Studies) which use the test results as the primary basis for compiling school rankings at both the elementary and secondary level (see Gutstein,…

  6. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  7. Deliberative Democracy, Participation, and OECD Peer Reviews of Environmental Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Markku

    2006-01-01

    Deliberative democracy has attracted increasing attention in political science and has been suggested as a normative ideal for evaluation. This article analyzes to what extent evaluations carried out in a highly government-driven manner can nevertheless contribute to deliberative democracy. This potential is examined by taking the Organisation for…

  8. School Choice and Equity: Current Policies in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musset, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This literature review on school choice analyses the impact of choice schemes on students and on school systems focusing on equity. Reviewing the evidence can be difficult, as the literature is often fragmented and inconclusive, and the political importance of this research often results in high-profile attention given to individual studies rather…

  9. The Finance of Primary Education in Ten OECD Countries: A Comparative Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joel D.

    1979-01-01

    This Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) study was conducted in two phases. Phase I describes selected aspects of primary school finance arrangements in ten countries; Phase II examines the relationship between financial instruments and selected educational policy. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are assessed. (Author/KC)

  10. IMHE-Info. OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, July 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafon, Valerie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    IMHE-Info is the newsletter published by the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) programme. This issue includes: Spotlight on IMHE and its Environment, including comments from Donald J. Johnston, Barry McGaw, Richard Yelland, and Marijk van de Wende. IMHE News, publications of interest and upcoming events are included.

  11. Migration: a Negative or a Positive Driver for Development? OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No.29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katseli, Louka T.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    The effects of migration on development depend on who leaves, where they go, and how home countries adjust to their leaving. The authors advocate that migration patterns and the capacity to adjust are fundamental determinants of a migration-development nexus, and that migration and development policies are complements rather than substitutes. The…

  12. Financing Higher Education in the United States. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulip, Peter

    2007-01-01

    America's higher education system is among the best in the world. Nevertheless, there is scope for improvement. In particular, there appear to be substantial financial barriers to higher education despite large government expenditures aimed at promoting access. Policy makers have proposed addressing these barriers by increasing student grants.…

  13. OECD MCCI project enhancing instrumentation for reactor materials experiments, Rev. 0 September 3, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    Reactor safety experiments for studying the reactions of a molten core (corium) with water and/or concrete involve materials at extremely high temperature. Such high temperature severely restricts the types of sensors that can be employed to measure characteristics of the corium itself. Yet there is great interest in improving instrumentation so that the state of the melt can be established with more precision. In particular, it would be beneficial to increase both the upper range limit and accuracy of temperature measurements. The poor durability of thermocouples at high temperature is also an important issue. For experiments involving a water-quenched melt, direct measurements of the growth rate of the crust separating the melt and water would be of great interest. This is a key element in determining the nature of heat transfer between the melt and coolant. Despite its importance, no one has been able to directly measure the crust thickness during such tests. This paper considers three specialized sensors that could be introduced to enhance melt characterization: (1) A commercially fabricated, single point infrared temperature measurement with the footprint of a thermowell. A lens assembly and fiber optic cable linked to a receiver and amplifier measures the temperature at the base of a tungsten thermowell. The upper range limit is 3000 C and accuracy is {+-}0.25% of the reading. (2) In-house development of an ultrasonic temperature sensor that would provide multipoint measurements at temperatures up to {approx}3000 C. The sensors are constructed from tungsten rods and have a high temperature durability that is superior to that of thermocouples. (3) In-house development of an ultrasonic probe to measure the growth rate of the corium crust. This ultrasonic sensor would include a tungsten waveguide that transmits ultrasonic pulses up through the corium melt towards the crust and detects reflections from the melt/crust interface. A measurement of the echo time delay would provide the location of the interface. These three sensors would provide a considerable upgrade of the instrumentation used in our reactor materials tests. The infracouple is a commercial product that could provide an immediate improvement in temperature measurements. The sensor could also serve to corroborate thermocouple data by providing a measurement based upon a different physical principle. The ultrasonic temperature sensor would involve a greater investment and longer time frame than the infracouple, but offers all the advantages of the infracouple along with miniaturization and the ability to measure at multiple locations. In addition, the UTS is the platform from which we would begin development of the crust detector. Of the three sensors, the crust detector requires the most effort and entails the greatest uncertainty. However, a real-time crust thickness measurement has never before been made and such data would be unique and of great benefit to reactor materials experiments.

  14. Gendered Career Expectations of Students: Perspectives from PISA 2006. OECD Education Working Papers No. 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of adolescent career plans reported in PISA 2006. Its main focus is on the differences in the status and area of employment expected by girls and boys in high school. In almost all countries, girls lead boys in their interest in non-manual, high status professional occupations. This can be seen as a…

  15. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  16. Hungarian Innovation Policy: What's the Best Way Forward? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 445

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Hungarian government has recently been focusing on innovation policy as part of a wider campaign to improve the business environment. This paper first underscores the importance of a good general business climate in encouraging both formal and informal R&D activity as well as ensuring Hungary benefits from the international diffusion of…

  17. On OECD Policies and the Pitfalls in Economy-Driven Education: The Case of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a fundamental shift in the way schooling and even education as a whole is evaluated. From this new perspective the education system would seem to be interpreted as a sub-system of the economic system and thus subservient to it. Decisions on education matters seem to have become determinant for individual…

  18. Maintaining Switzerland's Top Innovation Capacity. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 487

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence

    2006-01-01

    Despite some weakening in the 1990s, partly due to sluggish trend growth, the Swiss innovation performance has been very strong. There are, however, areas in which policy reforms could strengthen innovation further and help Switzerland maintain its lead in the face of a changing global environment. Boosting competition, simplifying administrative…

  19. Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno

    2005-01-01

    A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

  20. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research and…

  1. Parental Involvement in Selected PISA Countries and Economies. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgonovi, Francesca; Montt, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of parental involvement in children's educational lives. Few studies, however, analyse parental involvement in a cross-national perspective and few evaluate a wide array of forms of involvement. In 2009, 14 countries and economies implemented the parental questionnaire option in the PISA 2009 cycle.…

  2. Systemic Management of Schools: The OECD's Professionalisation and Dissemination of Output Governance in the 1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bürgi, Regula

    2016-01-01

    At present, European education policy, research and administration is dominated by a specific concept of reform, namely so-called output governance, whose rise to prominence in national contexts in the 1990s coincided with the advance of international tests of school performance such as PISA. In this article it is argued that there is much more to…

  3. Fundamental Determinants of School Efficiency and Equity: German States as a Microcosm for OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Cross-country evidence on student achievement might be hampered by omitted country characteristics such as language or legal differences. This paper uses cross-state variation in Germany, whose sixteen states share the same language and legal system, but pursue different education policies. The same results found previously across countries hold…

  4. IMHE-Info. OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, July 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafon, Valerie, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    IMHE-Info is the newsletter published by the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) programme. This issue includes: Higher Education: Quality, Equity and Efficiency. IMHE News, publications of interest and upcoming events are included.

  5. International Approaches to Teacher Selection and Recruitment. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Andrew J.; Ashby, Patricia; McIntyre, Joanna; Malderez, Angi

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the review of the evidence base on comparative practices of teacher selection and recruitment, specifically on the different mechanisms countries use to assess teacher readiness to take up teaching posts, with particular emphasis on testing or examinations. It is intended that the report will be helpful to…

  6. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  7. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and measurement of…

  8. Making Federalism Work in Italy. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 590

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibbee, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Fiscal federalism can be an important complement to structural reforms and budget consolidation. Empowering sub national governments, while at the same time making them accountable to local citizens in the uses of tax money, could improve the allocation of public resources and promote catch up of the lagging regions. Italy has launched itself in…

  9. The Impact of the 1999 Education Reform in Poland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Maciej; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilo Ernesto; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the share of vocational secondary schooling has been a mainstay of development policy for decades, especially in formerly socialist countries. However, the transition to market economies led to significant restructuring of school systems and a decline in the number of vocational students. Exposing more students to a general curriculum…

  10. Comparing OECD PISA Reading in English to Other Languages: Identifying Potential Sources of Non-Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asil, Mustafa; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) across nations, cultures, and languages has been criticized. The key criticisms point to the linguistic and cultural biases potentially underlying the design of reading comprehension tests, raising doubts about the legitimacy of comparisons across economies. Our research focused…

  11. Commentary on the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some of the major issues raised in Education International's preliminary analysis of the overall PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 study. Some of these issues are: (1) PISA has serious limitations. The study does not cover the full curriculum, focusing on a narrow set of subject areas, neglecting such…

  12. Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotlüschen, Anke; Mallows, David; Reder, Stephen; Sabatini, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the information from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) regarding adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiency. The paper first describes the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of these populations. Although, they are more likely than the rest of the population to exhibit certain…

  13. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay. Phase 2: dose-response studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Jun; Onyon, Lesley; Peddada, Shyamal; Ashby, John; Jacob, Elard; Owens, William

    2003-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed phase 2 of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. The purpose of the validation program was to demonstrate the performance of two versions of the uterotrophic bioassay, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat, in four standardized protocols. This article reports the dose-response studies of the validation program; the coded single-dose studies are reported in an accompanying paper. The dose-response study design used five selected weak estrogen agonists, bisphenol A, genistein, methoxychlor, nonylphenol, and o,p -DDT. These weak agonists were administered in a prescribed series of doses to measure the performance and reproducibility of the protocols among the participating laboratories. All protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights when the weak agonists were administered. Within each protocol, there was good agreement and reproducibility of the dose response among laboratories with each substance. Substance-specific variations were observed in the influence of the route of administration on the uterine response, the potency as related to the dose producing the first statistically significant increase in uterine weights, and the maximum increase in uterine weight. Substantive performance differences were not observed between the uterotrophic bioassay versions or among the standardized protocols, and these were judged to be qualitatively equivalent. It is noteworthy that these results were reproducible under a variety of different experimental conditions (e.g., animal strain, diet, housing, bedding, vehicle, animal age), indicating that the bioassay's performance as a screen is robust. In conclusion, both the intact, immature, and adult OVX versions, and all protocols appear to be reproducible and transferable across laboratories and are able to detect weak estrogen agonists. PMID:12948896

  14. Learning beyond Schooling: New Forms of Supply and New Demands. OECD Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Knowledge and learning are becoming increasingly central to work and everyday life at the close of the 20th century. This document examines the potential for creating a new match between the demand for and the supply of new forms of learning. It draws on a range of recent Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) work and summarizes…

  15. An Investigation of International Science Achievement Using the OECD's PISA 2006 Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milford, Todd

    School Effectiveness Research (SER) is concerned with efforts to better understand the effectiveness enhancing relationship between student and school variables and how these variables primarily influence academic achievement (Scheerens, 2004). However, one identified methodological shortcoming in SER is the absence of cross-cultural perspectives (Kyriakides, 2006). This is a concern as what may prove effective in one nation does not necessarily mean that it can be easily and seamlessly imported into another with the same results. This study looked at the relationships between science self-beliefs and academic achievement in science across all nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2006. It further explored the variance accounted for by cultural, social and economic capital (the elements of the PISA socioeconomic status variable) for each country in PISA 2006 when predicting scientific literacy. Lastly, it used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze data from PISA 2006 for nations experiencing high rates of immigration (i.e., Germany, Spain, Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand). The outcome measures used for these countries were achievement scores in science, mathematics and reading. The variables examined at the student level were science self-efficacy, science self-concept, immigrant status and socioeconomic status. The variables examined at the school level were student level aggregates of school proportion of immigrants and school socioeconomic status. In the correlation analysis between science literacy and either science self-concept of science self-efficacy, findings suggest that at the student level, students with both higher science self-concept and higher science self-efficacy tend to achieve higher academically. However, at the country level the relationship was negative between self-concept and academic achievement in science (i.e., countries with higher science self-concept tend to achieve lower on scientific literacy). When the variables that comprised each of the cultural, social, and economic components of SES were regressed on scientific literacy for the PISA sample, cultural capital accounted for 16% of the variance in scientific literacy scores compared to 14% for social capital, 13% for the composite Economic Social and Cultural Status (ESCS), and 12% for economic capital. In the HLM null models, the intraclass correlations for the all countries except for Germany ranged from .16 to .29 (Germany's was between .57 and .68). In the final models, at level-1 country, immigrant status tended to negatively influence achievement (i.e., non-native students are predicted to have lower performance), while science self-efficacy and science self-concept positively influenced achievement The student level ESCS variable also impacted achievement positively. At the school level, level-2, school mean ESCS or school proportion of immigrants were found to significantly influence the level-1 predictors; however, a good deal of variability across nations was observed. The findings from this study demonstrate that there are some distinct national differences in the relationships between science self-beliefs, immigrant status and academic achievement.

  16. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  17. The Policy Determinants of Investment in Tertiary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 576

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Joaquim Oliveira; Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine; Saadi, Clarice

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses how policies and institutions affect private returns to invest in tertiary human capital, the ability of individuals to finance this investment and the institutional characteristics of tertiary education systems. Focusing on core tertiary education services, the paper presents new measures of private returns to tertiary…

  18. Poland's Education and Training: Boosting and Adapting Human Capital. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 495

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Paul; Paczynski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    An effective system of education and training is important for both social and economic reasons. Its role in the Polish economy is to provide the current and future labour force with skills to facilitate both continuing productivity growth and reallocation of resources as structural adjustment proceeds. Important reforms to decentralise primary…

  19. ICT and Initial Teacher Education: National Policies. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizza, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This working paper aims to give an overview of the national policies that exist in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) and initial teacher education. Information on this topic was initially gathered via a survey, in the form of a country questionnaire, which was conducted as part of the analytical strand of the the…

  20. The New Economy: Beyond the Hype. The OECD Growth Project. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Rory; Durand, Martine; Pilat, Dirk; Torres, Raymond

    Shifts that have taken place in growth patterns of the economies of Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in recent years are examined. The key factor to examine is productivity, since its increase allows the achievement of faster rates of noninflationary economic expansion. By the end of the 1990s, evidence of…

  1. Comparing New Zealand's 'Middle Out' health information technology strategy with other OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Tom; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    Implementation of efficient, universally applied, computer to computer communications is a high priority for many national health systems. As a consequence, much effort has been channelled into finding ways in which a patient's previous medical history can be made accessible when needed. A number of countries have attempted to share patients' records, with varying degrees of success. While most efforts to create record-sharing architectures have relied upon government-provided strategy and funding, New Zealand has taken a different approach. Like most British Commonwealth nations, New Zealand has a 'hybrid' publicly/privately funded health system. However its information technology infrastructure and automation has largely been developed by the private sector, working closely with regional and central government agencies. Currently the sector is focused on finding ways in which patient records can be shared amongst providers across three different regions. New Zealand's healthcare IT model combines government contributed funding, core infrastructure, facilitation and leadership with private sector investment and skills and is being delivered via a set of controlled experiments. The net result is a 'Middle Out' approach to healthcare automation. 'Middle Out' relies upon having a clear, well-articulated health-reform strategy and a determination by both public and private sector organisations to implement useful healthcare IT solutions by working closely together. PMID:23287413

  2. Nurse Workforce Challenges in the United States: Implications for Policy. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Linda H.; Cheung, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    The United States has the largest professional nurse workforce in the world numbering close to 3 million but does not produce enough nurses to meet its growing demand. A shortage of close to a million professional nurses is projected to evolve by 2020. An emerging physician shortage will further exacerbate the nurse shortage as the boundaries in…

  3. OECD NEA Benchmark Database of Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions for World Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Sly, Nicholas C; Michel-Sendis, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data on the isotopic concentrations in irradiated nuclear fuel represent one of the primary methods for validating computational methods and nuclear data used for reactor and spent fuel depletion simulations that support nuclear fuel cycle safety and safeguards programs. Measurement data have previously not been available to users in a centralized or searchable format, and the majority of accessible information has been, for the most part, limited to light-water-reactor designs. This paper describes a recent initiative to compile spent fuel benchmark data for additional reactor designs used throughout the world that can be used to validate computer model simulations that support nuclear energy and nuclear safeguards missions. Experimental benchmark data have been expanded to include VVER-440, VVER-1000, RBMK, graphite moderated MAGNOX, gas cooled AGR, and several heavy-water moderated CANDU reactor designs. Additional experimental data for pressurized light water and boiling water reactor fuels has also been compiled for modern assembly designs and more extensive isotopic measurements. These data are being compiled and uploaded to a recently revised structured and searchable database, SFCOMPO, to provide the nuclear analysis community with a centrally-accessible resource of spent fuel compositions that can be used to benchmark computer codes, models, and nuclear data. The current version of SFCOMPO contains data for eight reactor designs, 20 fuel assembly designs, more than 550 spent fuel samples, and measured isotopic data for about 80 nuclides.

  4. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  5. A Skills beyond School Review of Switzerland. OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Field, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of a changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? This report…

  6. A Skills beyond School Review of the Slovak Republic. OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihály; Kurekova, Lucia Mytna

    2016-01-01

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? The country…

  7. Assessment and Innovation in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Do some forms of student (and school) assessment hinder the introduction of innovative educational practices and the development of innovation skills in education systems? This report focuses on the impact of high-stake summative assessment on innovation and argues that it is possible to reconcile high-stakes assessments and examinations through…

  8. OECD MCCI project Melt Eruption Test (MET) design report, Rev. 2. April 15, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program is pursuing separate effect tests to examine the viability of the melt coolability mechanisms identified as part of the MACE program. These mechanisms include bulk cooling, water ingression, volcanic eruptions, and crust breach. At the second PRG meeting held at ANL on 22-23 October 2002, a preliminary design1 for a separate effects test to investigate the melt eruption cooling mechanism was presented for PRG review. At this meeting, NUPEC made several recommendations on the experiment approach aimed at optimizing the chances of achieving a floating crust boundary condition in this test. The principal recommendation was to incorporate a mortar sidewall liner into the test design, since data from the COTELS experiment program indicates that corium does not form a strong mechanical bond with this material. Other recommendations included: (i) reduction of the electrode elevation to well below the melt upper surface elevation (since the crust may bond to these solid surfaces), and (ii) favorably taper the mortar liner to facilitate crust detachment and relocation during the experiment. Finally, as a precursor to implementing these modifications, the PRG recommended the development of a design for a small-scale scoping test intended to verify the ability of the mortar liner to preclude formation of an anchored bridge crust under core-concrete interaction conditions. This revised Melt Eruption Test (MET) plan is intended to satisfy these PRG recommendations. Specifically, the revised plan focuses on providing data on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions, including a floating crust boundary condition. The overall objective of MET is to determine to what extent core debris is rendered coolable by eruptive-type processes that breach the crust that rests upon the melt. The specific objectives of this test are as follows: (1) Evaluate the augmentation in surface heat flux during periods of melt eruption; (2) Evaluate the melt entrainment coefficient from the heat flux and gas flow rate data for input into models that calculate ex-vessel debris coolability; (3) Characterize the morphology and coolability of debris resulting from eruptive processes that transport melt into overlying water; and (4) Discriminate between periods when eruptions take the form of particle ejections into overlying water, leading to a porous particle bed, and single-phase extrusions, which lead to volcano-type structures.

  9. Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration. OECD Reviews of Migrant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    How school systems respond to immigration has an enormous impact on the economic and social well-being of all members of the communities they serve, whether they have an immigrant background or not. "Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration" reveals some of the difficulties immigrant students encounter--and…

  10. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  11. Health, Education and Poverty Reduction. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    It is generally agreed that spending on education and health is key to poverty reduction, but simply allocating more resources to these sectors does not ensure that poverty actually declines. On the basis of four in-depth case studies (on Indonesia, Madagascar, Peru and Tanzania) and three Technical Papers on malnutrition and primary education in…

  12. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay. Phase 2: dietary phytoestrogen analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Owens, William; Ashby, John; Odum, Jenny; Onyon, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial laboratory diets have detectable levels of isoflavones (e.g., phytoestrogens such as genistein [GN]) that have weak estrogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. During validation studies of the uterotrophic bioassay, diet samples from 20 participating laboratories were collected and analyzed for three major phytoestrogens: GN, daidzein (DN), and coumestrol (CM). Soy phytoestrogens GN and DN were found at total phytoestrogen levels from 100 to 540 microg/g laboratory diet; a forage phytoestrogen, CM, ranged from nondetectable to 4 microg/g laboratory diet. The phytoestrogen levels were compared with both baseline uterine weights of the control groups and with the relative uterine weight increase of groups administered two weak estrogen agonists: bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP). The comparison uses a working assumption of additivity among the phytoestrogens, despite several significant qualifications to this assumption, to estimate total genistein equivalents (TGE). Some evidence was found that phytoestrogen levels in the diet > 325-350 microg/g TGE could diminish the responsiveness of the uterotrophic bioassay to weak agonists. This was especially true for the case of the intact, immature female version of the uterotrophic bioassay, where higher food consumption relative to body weight leads to higher intakes of dietary phytoestrogens versus ovariectomized adults. This dietary level is sufficient in the immature female to approach a biological lowest observable effect level for GN of 40-50 mg/kg/day. These same data, however, show that low to moderate levels of dietary phytoestrogens do not substantially affect the responsiveness of the assay with weak estrogen receptor agonists such as NP and BPA. Therefore, laboratories conducting the uterotrophic bioassay for either research or regulatory purposes may routinely use diets containing levels of phytoestrogens < 325-350 microg/g TGE without impairing the responsiveness of the bioassay. PMID:12948898

  13. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  14. IMHE-Info. OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, December 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafon, Valerie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    IMHE-Info is the newsletter published by the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) programme. This issue includes: Communication: A Key Aspect of the Strategy and Governance of Higher Education Institutions. IMHE News, publications of interest and upcoming events are included.

  15. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  16. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample…

  17. Does Competition Affect Schools' Performance? Evidence from Italy through OECD-PISA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of competition on the performance of Italian schools. The study is based on policy experiments developed in 2000 by the Lombardy Regional government which introduced a voucher plan to encourage families to enrol their children in private schools. After this intervention, many other Regions launched similar…

  18. "Perceived" Competition and Performance in Italian Secondary Schools: New Evidence from OECD-PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Murtinu, Samuele

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of competition on the performance of Italian secondary schools as measured by maths achievement scores (PISA 2006 dataset). Competition is measured by an indicator of "perceived" competition (generated from an answer provided by the schools' principals). The methodology employed is a propensity score…

  19. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 237

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development.…

  20. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  1. Test-Taking Engagement in PIAAC. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 133

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank; Martens, Thomas; Christoph, Gabriela; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how empirical indicators of test-taking engagement can be defined, empirically validated, and used to describe group differences in the context of the Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC). The approach was to distinguish between disengaged and engaged response behavior by means of…

  2. Improving Incentives in Tertiary Education in Belgium. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 587

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoj, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The tertiary education system has been transformed from an elite-oriented system to a system providing tertiary education to a much larger share of each new generation. This re-orientation has contributed to raising education attainment in Belgium. However, in many respects the organisation of the tertiary education systems has not been changed…

  3. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI workshop on transient thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.

    1997-07-01

    This is a report on the CSNI Workshop on Transient Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Requirements held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA November 5-8, 1996. This experts` meeting consisted of 140 participants from 21 countries; 65 invited papers were presented. The meeting was divided into five areas: (1) current and prospective plans of thermal hydraulic codes development; (2) current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes; (3) advances in modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and associated additional experimental needs; (4) numerical methods in multi-phase flows; and (5) programming language, code architectures and user interfaces. The workshop consensus identified the following important action items to be addressed by the international community in order to maintain and improve the calculational capability: (a) preserve current code expertise and institutional memory, (b) preserve the ability to use the existing investment in plant transient analysis codes, (c) maintain essential experimental capabilities, (d) develop advanced measurement capabilities to support future code validation work, (e) integrate existing analytical capabilities so as to improve performance and reduce operating costs, (f) exploit the proven advances in code architecture, numerics, graphical user interfaces, and modularization in order to improve code performance and scrutibility, and (g) more effectively utilize user experience in modifying and improving the codes.

  4. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155.

  5. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are {sup 149}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd.

  6. Recent Developments in Intellectual Capital Reporting and their Policy Implications. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, W. Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of recent developments in the reporting of intangible assets. It finds that rather than the wholesale restructuring of the accounting model that was proposed years ago, the trend has been to address gaps in reporting with new forms of reporting. New forms of reporting appear better suited to capture the type of…

  7. Fairness in Education--A Normative Analysis of OECD Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bøyum, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    Educational policy depends on assumptions about fairness in education, whether they are made explicit or kept implicit. Without a view of fairness, one would be in the dark as to what should be done about the reproduction of social inequality through education, or whether or not anything should be done at all. The aim of this paper is to uncover…

  8. "Will I Learn What I Want to Learn?" Usable Representations, "Students" and OECD Assessment Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Morgan, Clara; Nguyen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Amid growing debates around international assessment tools in educational policy, few have critically examined how students themselves are cast in policy tool production processes and discourse. Drawing on Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we show how higher education (HE) "students" are constructed, fixed and normalized by the…

  9. The State of the Environment In OECD Countries: A First Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of the state of the environment in selected nations is presented. Criteria such as water, land, noise, chemicals, and wildlife were considered in arriving at conclusions concerning world trends in environmental quality. (RE)

  10. The nuclear energy outlook--a new book from the OECD nuclear energy agency.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Uichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key points of a report titled Nuclear Energy Outlook, published in 2008 by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which has 30 member nations. The report discusses the commitment of many nations to increase nuclear power generating capacity and the potential rate of building new electricity-generating nuclear plants by 2030 to 2050. The resulting decrease in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion resulting from an increase in nuclear power sources is described. Other topics that are discussed include the need to develop non-proliferative nuclear fuels, the importance of developing geological disposal facilities or reprocessing capabilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, and the requirements for a larger nuclear workforce and greater cost competitiveness for nuclear power generation. PMID:21399406

  11. Reforming Education in England. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braconier, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant increases in spending on child care and education during the last decade, PISA scores suggest that educational performance remains static, uneven and strongly related to parents' income and background. Better educational performance could improve labour market outcomes, raise growth, lower the consequences of a disadvantaged…

  12. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives. PMID:18988087

  13. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  14. Institutional and Demographic Explanations of Women's Employment in 18 OECD Countries, 1975-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Need, Ariana; Van Der Kolk, Henk

    2012-01-01

    This study combined demographic and institutional explanations of women's employment, describing and explaining the degree to which mothers in industrialized societies are less likely to be employed than women without children. A large number of cross-sectional surveys were pooled, covering 18 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development…

  15. Financing of Education for Economic Growth. OECD Study Group in the Economics of Education. Papers Prepared for Directorate for Scientific Affairs of OECD Conference. (Paris, September 21-24, 1964.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifman, Lucille, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers presented at a conference designed to find solutions to the educational financing problems of developing nations. Papers in the first section present general trends and principles. The next section focuses on descriptions of the techniques used by educational planning and budget officials in establishing and…

  16. OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) design report, Rev. 2 October 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.; Pfeiffer, P.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are planned to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, data reduction, and test matrix are the subject of the first portion of this report. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The introduction of a thermal gradient across the crust is thought to be important for these tests because of uncertainty in the magnitude of the thermal stresses and thus their relative importance in the crust fracture mechanism at plant scale. The second half of this report describes the apparatus for measuring crust strength. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength).

  17. Stimulating Innovation in Russia: The Role of Institutions and Policies. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 539

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianella, Christian; Tompson, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of innovation policy in enhancing long-term productivity growth in Russia. It begins by exploring the role of framework conditions for business in encouraging innovative activities, particularly with respect to intellectual property rights and competition. Realising Russia's innovation potential will also…

  18. Getting the Most Out of Public-Sector Decentralisation in Korea. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 468

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses policies to improve fiscal relations between levels of government to better meet the needs of citizens, an objective of the government's "Roadmap for Decentralisation". Although local government accounts for around half of total government spending, they have little autonomy and fiscal resources vary sharply between regions.…

  19. Job-Related Training and Benefits for Individuals: A Review of Evidence and Explanations. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on job-related training and the effects of these investments for different groups of individuals. The paper also elaborates on the theories, empirical explanations, and policy implications that can be drawn from these findings. Employer-provided training is by far the most important source of further education and…

  20. Enhancing Incentives to Improve Performance in the Education System in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 570

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The French education system has a mixed record. A generally very successful pre-school and primary school level contrasts with underfunded public universities with high dropout rates which exist alongside very successful higher education institutions for elites. Initial education, especially secondary education and the universities, along with…

  1. The Impact of Hospital Payment Schemes on Healthcare and Mortality: Evidence from Hospital Payment Reforms in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Wubulihasimu, Parida; Brouwer, Werner; van Baal, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    In this study, aggregate-level panel data from 20 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries over three decades (1980-2009) were used to investigate the impact of hospital payment reforms on healthcare output and mortality. Hospital payment schemes were classified as fixed-budget (i.e. not directly based on activities), fee-for-service (FFS) or patient-based payment (PBP) schemes. The data were analysed using a difference-in-difference model that allows for a structural change in outcomes due to payment reform. The results suggest that FFS schemes increase the growth rate of healthcare output, whereas PBP schemes positively affect life expectancy at age 65 years. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, as results are sensitive to model specification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26080792

  2. Access to Education over the Working Life in Sweden: Priorities, Institutions and Efficiency. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate individuals to adjust their skills to changes in market demands, Sweden has a relatively generous policy to stimulate formal adult education at the compulsory, upper secondary and tertiary levels. This paper provides an overview of what research has reported to assess if and/or how it may be an efficient use of tax payers' money.…

  3. Work, Train, Win: Work-Based Learning Design and Management for Productivity Gains. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Realising the potential of work-based learning schemes as a driver of productivity requires careful design and support. The length of work-based learning schemes should be adapted to the profile of productivity gains. A scheme that is too long for a given skill set might be unattractive for learners and waste public resources, but a scheme that is…

  4. The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  5. Competence-Based Quality Assurance of University Education Lessons Learnt from the OECD-AHELO Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukahori, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The discourse that an educated workforce is essential for a prosperous and sustainable economy in a knowledge-based society has invited heightened policy interest in higher education. In effect, many industrialized countries are approaching, or have already reached universal access, with the majority of their age cohorts enrolling in higher…

  6. Workforce Skills and Innovation: An Overview of Major Themes in the Literature. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the main approaches, debates and evidence in the literature on the role of workforce skills in the innovation process in developed economies. It draws on multiple sources including the innovation studies discipline, neoclassical Human Capital theory, institutionalist labour market studies and the work organisation…

  7. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95% level of confidence: 37% variance explained on the environmental sustainability performance composite indicator out of 73%, 55% (of 55%) on the waste and pollution subindex, 20% (of 70%) on the sustainable energy subindex, 5% (of 100%) on the sustainable cities subindex, and 55% (of 81%) on the GHG indicator. Energy prices are relevant to Canadian policy; increasing prices could substantially improve Canada's performance. Policy makers should increase energy prices through a carbon pricing strategy that is congruent with the ecological fiscal reform advanced by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Keywords: sustainable development; composite indices; environmental policy; environmental governance; energy prices; Canada.

  8. Teacher Demand and Supply: Improving Teaching Quality and Addressing Teacher Shortages. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of the most relevant issues involved in the management of teacher demand and supply at the pre-tertiary level. First, it proposes a conceptual framework for distinguishing among, defining and relating the different relevant factors. Second, it identifies trends and policy concerns regarding the quality of…

  9. Critical aspects in implementing the OECD monograph No. 14 "the application of the principles of GLP to in vitro studies".

    PubMed

    Beernaert, Hedwig; Vanherle, Anne-Marie; Bertrand, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEC D) principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) were originally developed for application to animal-based toxicology studies. On the other hand, more and more studies involving in vitro test systems are performed to produce data on the safety of chemicals with respect to human health and the environment. Therefore, national legislation usually requires that the in vitro studies are conducted in compliance with the GLP principles. Furthermore, developments in the area of toxicogenomics, toxicoproteomics, toxicometabonomics and various high throughput screening techniques will also enhance the importance of in vitro methodologies for safety testing. The OEC D principles of GLP require that safety studies, independent of their type, are planned, conducted, recorded, reported, and archived in a way that they can be inspected by the GLP monitoring authorities and scientifically evaluated by the receiving authorities. Some critical aspects and pitfalls are discussed as regards the proper application and interpretation of the GLP principles for the organisation and management of in vitro studies. Organisational charts and responsibilities of test facilities (TFs) involved in single or multisite studies are sometimes dysfunctioning because there is a lack of traceability in reporting and communication lines. Manipulation of cell and tissue cultures of different test systems should be separated and performed under aseptic conditions to prevent cross-contamination. Characterization and environmental conditions under which the test systems are manipulated and stored are critical in in vitro studies. Another important pitfall is the lack of description in the experimental design concerning the use of any internal control items to control bias and to evaluate the performance of the test system. Finally, it is observed that samples of long-term preservable test systems are not always retained or only for a short time which can lead to a lack of confirmation of test system identity and/or reconstructability of the study. PMID:19351994

  10. The Growing Supranational Impacts of the OECD and the EU on National Educational Policies, and the Case of Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The trends of globalisation have had unavoidable impacts in steering and guiding the decisions of national policy-makers and the direction of national education policies. In the obscuring processes of supranational homogenisation of education and educational policy, supranational regimes, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  11. PIAAC Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments: A Conceptual Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Betrancourt, Mirelle; Britt, M. Anne; Bromme, Rainer; Graesser, Arthur C.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Leu, Donald J.; Ueno, Naoki; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2009-01-01

    Governments and other stakeholders have become increasingly interested in assessing the skills of their adult populations for the purposes of monitoring how well prepared they are for the challenges of the new information world. The current paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework developed for the assessment of problem solving in…

  12. Performance Indicators for Public Spending Efficiency in Primary and Secondary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 546

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Douglas; Price, Robert; Joumard, Isabelle, Nicq, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential to raise public spending efficiency in the primary and secondary education sector. Resource availability per pupil has increased significantly over the past decade in a number of countries; often in attempting to exploit the link between educational attainment and growth. However, available evidence reveals only a…

  13. Employers' Perspectives on the Roles of Human Capital Development and Management in Creating Value. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Human capital--the productive capacity that is embedded in people--is one of the most important contributors to the growth in nations' output and standard of living. Globalisation and technological change have increased the importance of human capital in recent years, to the point that there are now only two options to sustain high profits and…

  14. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  15. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups. PMID:27076651

  16. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  17. An Impossible Dream? The Efficacy of Using Rankings to Improve the Perception of a Non-OECD Country's Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Chris J.

    2008-01-01

    Rankings have an increasing impact on higher education. Regardless of their true ability to judge a university's success or failure, rankings are used by students, their families, and, increasingly, policy makers to define the quality of institutions. Rankings have gone beyond comparisons among universities within individual countries: Today, they…

  18. Understanding the Regional Contribution of Higher Education Institutions: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbo, Peter; Benneworth, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of higher education institutions to regional development is a theme that has attracted growing attention in recent years. Knowledge institutions are increasingly expected not only to conduct education and research, but also to play an active role in the economic, social and cultural development of their regions. The extent to…

  19. Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

  20. Subsidies and Levies as Policy Instruments to Encourage Employer-Provided Training. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Normann; Behringer, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the available information concerning selected policy instruments intended to promote employer-provided training, including the stated rationale and objectives, the target groups and operational design as well as a at a summary of the evaluative evidence regarding their operation. The analysis focuses on policy…

  1. Skill-Mix and Policy Change in the Health Workforce: Nurses in Advanced Roles. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, James; Calman, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An important potential contribution to the efficient use of the health workforce, is the possibility of "skill mix" changes. "Skill mix" is a relatively broad term which can refer to the mix of staff in the workforce or the demarcation of roles and activities among different categories of staff. Most of the policy attention on using skill-mix…

  2. Review of OECD/OPPTS-harmonized and OPPTS ecotoxicity test guidelines for their applicability to manufactured nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the environmental risk of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) presents a significant and growing challenge for environmental regulators. These materials, defined as having at least one physical dimensions between 1 and 100 nanometers are being developed, produced, and inco...

  3. Analysis of the OECD-LOFT International Standard Problem 31 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    1992-12-31

    The CORA-13 bundle heating and melting experiment performed at the Kernforechungszentrum, Karlaruhe, (KfK) was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3. This analysis was part of a systematic assessment of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to (a) evaluate the variances between calculated and observed behavior, (b) identify outstanding modeling deficiencies, and (c) to evaluate the impact of ongoing modeling improvements. A brief discussion of the CORA-13 experiment including a description of the facility, important test conditions, and comparisons with other CORA experimental conditions and results is provided in this report. This report describes the results of the SCDAP/RELAPS/MOD3 analysis including a description of the SCDAP/RELAPS model of the facility, base case results, sensitivity results, and a comparison with other SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 code-to-data comparisons.

  4. Analysis of the OECD-LOFT International Standard Problem 31 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The CORA-13 bundle heating and melting experiment performed at the Kernforechungszentrum, Karlaruhe, (KfK) was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3. This analysis was part of a systematic assessment of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to (a) evaluate the variances between calculated and observed behavior, (b) identify outstanding modeling deficiencies, and (c) to evaluate the impact of ongoing modeling improvements. A brief discussion of the CORA-13 experiment including a description of the facility, important test conditions, and comparisons with other CORA experimental conditions and results is provided in this report. This report describes the results of the SCDAP/RELAPS/MOD3 analysis including a description of the SCDAP/RELAPS model of the facility, base case results, sensitivity results, and a comparison with other SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 code-to-data comparisons.

  5. How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such transitions. Descriptive statistics show that educational success…

  6. Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education: Where Do We Strand? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan; Pfotenhauer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" were developed and adopted to support and encourage international cooperation and enhance the understanding of the importance of quality provision in cross-border higher education. The purposes of the "Guidelines" are to protect students and other stakeholders from low-quality…

  7. Public Spending Efficiency: Institutional Indicators in Primary and Secondary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 543

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonand, Frederic; Joumard, Isabelle; Price, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents composite indicators of the institutional and policy characteristics of educational systems, collated from the questionnaire responses of 26 Member countries. These indicators provide an overview of the institutional framework in the primary and secondary education sector and are constructed so as to be used for the analysis of…

  8. Fiscal Relations across Levels of Government in the United States. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 462

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the current state of fiscal relations between the federal, state and local governments in the United States and suggests directions for improvement. The significant degree of fiscal autonomy of the states and, to a lesser extent, of local governments has had several beneficial effects, including the responsiveness of public…

  9. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  10. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Quantity and Quality of Education: Focusing on Korea and OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Beom-Ho; Yun, Chung-Il

    2010-01-01

    Quantity and quality have long been recognized as primary factors to explain educational development. However, our understanding of the relationship between quantity and quality of education is quite limited and unclear. In this context, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between quantity and quality of education. To achieve…

  11. OECD Experts' Meeting on Libraries and Resource Centres for Tertiary Education (Paris, France, March 9-10, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Programme on Educational Building.

    School libraries are changing due to developments in information technology, teaching and learning methods, and society. A meeting of 28 experts from 16 countries was convened to better understand current trends in tertiary libraries and the effect of these trends on the demand, organization, and design of libraries. Participants agreed that the…

  12. OECD 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test plan, Rev. 0 January 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. The first of these two tests, CCI-1, was conducted on December 19, 2003. This test investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % calcined siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The second of these two planned tests, CCI-2, will be conducted with a nearly identical test facility and experiment boundary conditions, but with a Limestone/Common Sand (LCS) concrete test section to investigate the effect of concrete type on the two-dimensional core-concrete interaction and debris cooling behavior. The objective of this report is to provide the overall test plan for CCI-2 to enable pretest calculations to be carried out. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-2 test apparatus, followed by a description of the planned test operating procedure. Overall specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1.

  13. OECD MCCI project long-term 2-D molten core concrete interaction test design report, Rev. 0. September 30, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschliman, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following two technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of the first program objective, the Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength (SSWICS) test series has been initiated to provide fundamental information on the ability of water to ingress into cracks and fissures that form in the debris during quench, thereby augmenting the otherwise conduction-limited heat transfer process. A test plan for Melt Eruption Separate Effects Tests (MESET) has also been developed to provide information on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions. In terms of the second program objective, the project Management Board (MB) has approved startup activities required to carry out experiments to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interaction. In particular, for both wet and dry cavity conditions, there is uncertainty insofar as evaluating the lateral vs. axial power split during a core-concrete interaction due to a lack of experiment data. As a result, there are differences in the 2-D cavity erosion predicted by codes such as MELCOR, WECHSL, and COSACO. The first step towards generating this data is to produce a test plan for review by the Project Review Group (PRG). The purpose of this document is to provide this plan.

  14. Markets in Education: An Analytical Review of Empirical Research on Market Mechanisms in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waslander, Sietske; Pater, Cissy; van der Weide, Maartje

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decennia, many governments have introduced market mechanisms in education. They have done so by enhancing parental choice and encouraging school competition, through policies like abolishing catchment areas, creating voucher programmes and setting up charter schools. These market mechanisms have given rise to fierce debates in…

  15. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  16. Does Reading Proficiency at Age 15 Affect Pathways through Learning and Work. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluszynski, Tomasz; Bayard, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Canada has experienced a substantial increase in the number of individuals participating in post-secondary education (PSE). This trend emphasizes the importance of understanding the pathways leading to PSE enrolment and the competencies that are associated with them. This chapter describes a range of possible education and…

  17. Getting the Most Out of Public Sector Decentralisation in Spain. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 436

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joumard, Isabelle; Giorno, Claude

    2005-01-01

    In about two decades, Spain was transformed from one of the most centralised countries to one of the most decentralised. Spending functions were devolved rapidly. Following the rapid decentralisation to the regions since the early 1980s, the sub-national authorities now have more staff to manage than the central government and have…

  18. Adult Learning and Technology in OECD Countries. Proceedings of a Round Table (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 14-16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This book, which is based on the papers presented by the various countries attending an international conference on technology and adult learning, contains 16 papers examining the use of technology in adult learning programs in the context of major institutional and economic change. The following papers are included: "A View from Philadelphia:…

  19. 1-1 in Education: Current Practice, International Comparative Research Evidence and Policy Implications. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 44,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, more and more public and private stakeholders, in developed and developing countries, have been supporting 1:1 initiatives in education (i.e. every child receives her/his own personal computing device). These 1:1 initiatives represent a qualitative move forward from previous educational experiences with ICT, inasmuch as every…

  20. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  1. Highly Skilled Labour and International Mobility in South America. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrere, Rodolfo; Luchilo, Lucas; Raffo, Julio

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the main trends in respect of the supply of human resources in science and technology (HRST) in Latin America and the international mobility of its highly skilled labour. This will be done through the identification of potential data sources, followed by a presentation of indicators drawn from these sources. In addition, a…

  2. Getting the Most Out of Public Sector Decentralisation in Mexico. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 453

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joumard, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced autonomy of sub-national governments has spurred innovative management. Spending assignments across levels of government, however, often overlap and/or are not yet fully understood by most citizens. Sub-national governments' accountability is further reduced by the heavy reliance on federal transfers, as opposed to own-revenues (taxes and…

  3. Literacy, Numeracy and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments: Framework for the OECD Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    A basic level of literacy and numeracy is essential for full participation in modern societies. While very few people in most of the advanced countries could be regarded as illiterate or innumerate, recent studies have shown that there are, in fact, significant numbers of people with poor skills, and that low levels of skills are associated with…

  4. The Impact on Growth of Higher Efficiency of Public Spending on Schools. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 547

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonand, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on economic growth of increased efficiency of public spending in primary and lower-secondary education. Higher efficiency in public spending in schools can bolster growth through two main channels. On the one hand, it can allow a transfer of labour from the public sector to the business sector at unchanged…

  5. Improving Employment Prospects in the Slovak Republic: Building on Past Reforms. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 579

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Andres

    2007-01-01

    While employment growth has accelerated, allowing unemployment to fall significantly since 2005, many low-skilled workers are still unemployed and the duration of unemployment spells is still long. The introduction of an in-work benefit for workers in low-income households, subject to a minimum of hours worked, could lower barriers to higher…

  6. Effect of test concentration in the ready biodegradability test for chemical substances: Improvement of OECD test guideline 301C.

    PubMed

    Nabeoka, Ryosuke; Taruki, Masanori; Kayashima, Takakazu; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, understanding the environmental persistence of chemicals is very important for risk assessment, and ready biodegradability tests are mainly conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 301C. However, the highest test concentration specified in test guideline 301C, 100 mg/L, may cause microbial toxicity and incomplete biodegradation. The authors performed test guideline 301C tests at test concentrations of 30 mg/L for 13 substances that were readily biodegradable in ready biodegradability tests but not in test guideline 301C tests. Of the 5 substances with potential to cause microbial toxicity at 100 mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, 4-chloro-3-cresol (CC), thymol (THY), and p-tert-butyl-α-methylbenzenepropionaldehyde measured by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30 mg/L, suggesting a reduction in toxicity effects. Furthermore, CC and THY met the criteria for ready biodegradability, which are more than 60% of biodegradation by BOD and a 10-d window. Of the 8 substances with a low potential for causing microbial toxicity at 100 mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of only 2-(diethylamino)ethanol increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30 mg/L. Employing a lower test concentration in the standard test guideline 301C test will contribute to improvement of consistency between results of a test guideline 301C test and other ready biodegradability tests. PMID:26211908

  7. New Prompt Fission γ-ray Data in Response to the OECD/NEA High Priority Request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Billnert, R.; Belgya, T.; Borcea, R.; Bryś, T.; Geerts, W.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Kish, Z.; Martinez Perez, T.; Oberstedt, A.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Vidali, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we report about new prompt fission γ-ray measurements, which we have performed with highly efficient γ-ray detectors based on lanthanide-halide crystals, aiming at very fast timing in conjunction with a good energy resolution. About four decades after the experiments were performed, whose results are still used for current evaluations, we present new spectral prompt fission γ-ray data from the reactions 252Cf(SF) and 235U(nth, f). Based on our new findings we recommend to replace the current ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation for 252Cf(SF) and 235U(nth,f) as well as to perform new measurements for 238U(n, f) and 241Pu(n, f).

  8. The Impact of Literacy, Numeracy and Computer Skills on Earnings and Employment Outcomes. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Marguerita; Conlon, Gavan

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2012 PIAAC data, our analysis confirms that there are significantly higher earnings and employment returns to "both" increasing levels of formally recognised education, and to increasing levels of numeracy, literacy and information and communication technologies (ICT) skills proficiencies controlling for the level of education.…

  9. Getting Education Right for Long-term Growth in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 497

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Widening the skills base and improving labour-market efficiency requires the support of good education. This paper describes the structure of the education system, identifies weaknesses and considers ways to improve performance in light of the ongoing rapidly expanding demand for tertiary level education. The paper discusses ways to modernise the…

  10. Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes: Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    One of the long-standing priorities of the international community is to reduce gender disparity in developing countries. Yet, the overall picture is still gloomy: women continue to be excluded from access to resources and employment and are denied basic human rights. This Policy Brief explains why progress has been so minimal and what should be…

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  12. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 final data report, Rev. 1 February 10, 2003.; Report, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure; and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep, fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% limestone/common sand concrete decomposition products. The melt was quenched at nominally atmospheric pressure. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and data reduction to obtain an estimate of the corrected heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool. A section of the report is devoted to calculations of the conduction-limited heat flux that accounts for heat losses to the crucible holding the corium. The remainder of the report describes post test examinations of the crust, which includes permeability and mechanical strength measurements, and chemical analysis.

  13. OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-3 test data report : thermal Hydraulic results, Rev. 0 February 19, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the third water ingression test, designated SSWICS-3. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% limestone/common sand concrete at a system pressure of 4 bar absolute. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

  14. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  15. Boys Do Not Benefit from Male Teachers in Their Reading and Mathematics Skills: Empirical Evidence from 21 European Union and OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of women in the teaching profession has been claimed by various scholars to be responsible for the low school performance among boys. Based on this claim there have been widespread calls for increasing the share of male teachers as a means of improving boys' school performance. There is, however, very little empirical evidence…

  16. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Caroline J; Hodson, Mark E; Arnold, Rebecca E; Black, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouché (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO(3))(2) to have concentrations in the range 1,000 to 10,000 mg Pb kg(-1). After 28 days LC50(-95%confidence limit)(+95%confidence limit) values were E. andrei 5824(-361)(+898) mg Pb kg(-1), L. rubellus 2867(-193)(+145) mg Pb kg(-1) and A. caliginosa2747(-304)(+239) mg Pb kg(-1) and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841(-68)(+150) mg Pb kg(-1), L. rubellus1303(-201)(+240) mg Pb kg(-1) and A. caliginosa1208(-206)(+212) mg Pb kg(-1). At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing. PMID:15951078

  17. Mapping Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders: Draft Guidelines, Model Questionnaire and Indicators. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auriol, Laudeline; Felix, Bernard; Fernandez-Polcuch, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    Human resources are recognised as being key to the creation, commercialisation and diffusion of innovation. Among them, doctorate holders are not only the most qualified in terms of educational attainment, but also those who are specifically trained to conduct research. Not much is known however about their career and mobility patterns on the…

  18. The Policy Impact of PISA: An Exploration of the Normative Effects of International Benchmarking in School System Performance. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 71

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakspear, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA in policies and practices, to evaluate and improve…

  19. School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobmann, Ludger; Ludemann, Elke; Schutz, Gabriela; West, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Accountability, autonomy, and choice play a leading role in recent school reforms in many countries. This report provides new evidence on whether students perform better in school systems that have such institutional measures in place. We implement an internationally comparative approach within a rigorous micro-econometric framework that accounts…

  20. Human Resources in Science and Technology in India and the International Mobility of Highly Skilled Indians. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadria, Binod

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the stocks and flows of human resources in science and technology (HRST) in India, and their breakdown by education and occupation. Furthermore, the paper provides estimates of the number of highly skilled people moving to India and out of India during the 1990s, mainly to the United States. This part of the study…

  1. OECD MMCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCCI-1 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev 0 January 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten coreconcrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-1 experiment, which was conducted on December 19, 2003. Test specifications for CCI-1 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % calcined siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-1 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. The posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

  2. Comparative Approaches to Higher Education--Curriculum, Teaching, and Innovations in an Age of Financial Difficulties. Reports of the Hiroshima/OECD Meetings of Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    Academic activities undertaken during 1981-1982 by member countries of the Organization of Educational Cooperation and Development are reported in 21 articles. The following topics are addressed: higher education in the international age, curriculum and teaching, reforms and innovations, open universities and adult education, and higher education…

  3. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  4. School Choice in the Light of the Effectiveness Differences of Various Types of Public and Private Schools in 19 OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, J.; Robert, P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper approaches the issue of school choice in an indirect manner by investigating the effectiveness of public, private government-dependent and private independent schools in 19 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries selected from the PISA 2000 survey for this purpose. In a multilevel approach we estimate these…

  5. Report on Disclosure Issues Related to the Use of Copy Control and Digital Rights Management Technologies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 115

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report analyses the disclosure issues raised by technically-imposed restrictions on the use of digital content. It focuses on the application of copy control and digital rights management technologies in three areas: copy-protected CDs; online music, and DVD regional coding. In each of these areas, the report examines the kinds of…

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to monitor…

  7. Ageing and Skills: A Review and Analysis of Skill Gain and Skill Loss over the Lifespan and over Time. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship between ageing and foundation skills. In particular, the…

  8. The Impact of ICT on Educational Performance and its Efficiency in Selected EU and OECD Countries: A Non-Parametric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristovnik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review some previous researches examining ICT efficiency and the impact of ICT on educational output/outcome as well as different conceptual and methodological issues related to performance measurement. Moreover, a definition, measurements and the empirical application of a model measuring the efficiency of ICT use…

  9. Analysis of the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Transient Benchmark with the Coupled Thermal-Hydraulics and Neutronics Code TRAC-M/PARCS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Deokjung; Downar, Thomas J.; Ulses, Anthony; Akdeniz, Bedirhan; Ivanov, Kostadin N.

    2004-10-15

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip 2 (TT2) experiment has been performed using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutronics code TRAC-M/PARCS. The objective of the analysis was to assess the performance of TRAC-M/PARCS on a BWR transient with significance in two-phase flow and spatial variations of the neutron flux. TRAC-M/PARCS results are found to be in good agreement with measured plant data for both steady-state and transient phases of the benchmark. Additional analyses of four fictitious extreme scenarios are performed to provide a basis for code-to-code comparisons and comprehensive testing of the thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling. The obtained results of sensitivity studies on the effect of direct moderator heating on transient simulation indicate the importance of this modeling aspect.

  10. Institutional Change and Its Impact on the Poor and Excluded: The Indian Decentralisation Experience. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 242

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of democratic decentralisation on the chances of socially excluded groups to participate in newly created local governance institutions--Panchayati Raj Institutions--in three Indian states. This institutional reform included a quota for the disadvantaged--women and lower castes--to ensure their effective…

  11. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Conference (6th, Hiroshima, Japan, September 27-October 4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Pacific region countries reported on their 1982 cooperative activities in education, including exchange and curriculum development projects, aimed at improving intercultural understanding. The first part of the report describes what happened at the sessions; the second part contains the appendices. Various countries--Australia, Canada, Japan, New…

  12. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the second water ingression test, designated SSWICS-2. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

  13. OECD MCCI project Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 test data report : thermal hydraulic results. Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

  14. Delivering Cost-Efficient Public Services in Health Care, Education and Housing in Chile. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 606

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moccero, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Chilean authorities plan to raise budgetary allocations over the medium term for a variety of social programmes, including education, health care and housing. This incremental spending will need to be carried out in a cost-efficient manner to make sure that it yields commensurate improvements in social outcomes. Chile's health indicators show…

  15. The Curse of Success: The Impact of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment on the Discourses of the Teaching Profession in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautalin, Marjaana; Alasuutari, Pertti

    2007-01-01

    In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is an international comparative learning assessment measuring young people's knowledge and skills, Finland has been ranked at the top in the two rounds conducted and reported so far. In this article, the authors examine the discourses within which Finland's PISA results have been…

  16. Central Asia Since 1991: The Experience of the New Independent States. OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 212 (Formerly Technical Paper, No. 212)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomfret, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The five former Soviet republics of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan) have become separate states, developing at different rates and in different directions, and with different political and economic regimes. As a result, the cohesion of the region has broken down and economic development is…

  17. Migration of Highly Skilled Indians: Case Studies of IT and the Health Professionals. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadria, Binod

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two specific primary surveys, one of IT professionals in the city of Bangalore and their role in making the city a corridor for international mobility of Indian professionals, and the second survey of health professionals (doctors and nurses) in the city of New Delhi. In these surveys, highly skilled Indians…

  18. India's Information Technology Sector: What Contribution to Broader Economic Development? OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 207 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 207)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2003-01-01

    What contribution can information technology (IT) make to India's overall economic development? This paper provides an analytical framework centred around the concepts of comparative advantage, complementarities, and innovation. There is strong evidence that India has a strong and sustainable comparative advantage in software development and…

  19. Human Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 211 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 211)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…

  20. Sustaining High Growth Through Innovation: Reforming the R&D and Education Systems in Korea. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 470

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Yongchun; Jones, Randall

    2005-01-01

    With inputs of labour and capital slowing, sustaining high growth rates in Korea will increasingly depend on total factor productivity gains, which are in turn driven to a large extent by innovation. While a number of Korean firms are at the world technology frontier in areas such as ICT, the diffusion of technology to lagging sectors is a…

  1. OECD MCCI project 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-3 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev. 0 October 15, 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of a third long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiment designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-3 experiment, which was conducted on September 22, 2005. Test specifications for CCI-3 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 375 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 15 wt% siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The sand and aggregate constituents for this particular siliceous concrete were provided by CEA as an in-kind contribution to the program. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-3 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. Detailed posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

  2. Providing Low-Cost Information Technology Access to Rural Communities in Developing Countries: What Works? What Pays? OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 229 (Formerly Webdoc No. 17)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspary, Georg; O'Connor, David

    2003-01-01

    Rural areas of the developing world are the last frontier of the information technology revolution. Telephone and internet penetration there remains a small fraction of what it is in the developed world. Limited means of electronic communication with the outside world are just one source of isolation of rural communities and economies from the…

  3. Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…

  4. OECD MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test data report-thermalhydraulic results, Rev. 0 October 15, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-2 experiment, which was conducted on August 24, 2004. Test specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % Limestone/Common Sand (LCS) concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional LCS concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-2 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. Detailed posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

  5. The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

  6. Technical Feasibility of Reporting YITS 2010 Skill Assessment Results on the PISA 2000 Reading Scale. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of reporting scores of a test based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 instrument that was administered to a sample of 25-year-old Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) respondents on the PISA scale. Each of these respondents also participated in PISA 2000. The study examines the…

  7. Global Higher Education in Need of More and Better Learning Metrics. Why OECD's AHELO Project Might Help to Fill the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Damme, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I argue for more and better learning metrics in higher education, eventually through an international, comparative assessment of students' learning outcomes. Better learning measures may help to improve transparency in the system by addressing the information asymmetry problem. If not addressed adequately, the lack of transparency…

  8. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Meeting (5th, Portland, Oregon, September 28-October 3, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Efforts, including exchange activities and curriculum development projects, undertaken by Pacific region countries in 1981 to improve intercultural understanding were the main focus of the meeting. The report begins with a very brief description of what transpired during the sessions. Papers and reports presented are contained in the appendices,…

  9. The OECD program to validate the rat Hershberger bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo and androgen and antiandrogen responses: Phase-2 dose-response studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGN: The Hershberger bioassay is designed to identify suspected androgens and antiandrogens based on changes in the weights of five androgen-responsive tissues (ventral prostate, paired seminal vesicles and coagulating glands, the levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles, the g...

  10. The Impact of Education On Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less than Mothers? OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 217 (Formerly Webdoc No. 5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breierova, Lucia; Duflo, Esther

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of a massive school construction program that took place in Indonesia between 1973 and 1978 to estimate the effect of education on fertility and child mortality. Time and region varying exposure to the school construction program generates instrumental variables for the average education in the household, and the…

  11. 40 CFR 799.11 - Availability of test guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-487-4650). (b) The OECD guidelines for the various study plans are available from the following address: OECD Publication and Information Center, 1750 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20006...

  12. Transition from School to Work for Handicapped Adolescents: Swedish Position Report to the OECD/CERI Project concerning the Education of Handicapped Adolescents--Innovative Approaches in the Transition to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soder, Marten

    The report describes the Swedish educational and employment system and efforts underway to facilitate the transition from school to work for handicapped adolescents. A review of the general education system touches upon administrative structure, finance, and trends in compulsory comprehensive school and in upper secondary schools. The next section…

  13. Cultural Biases: A Non-Anglophone Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Emma

    2008-01-01

    In response to Barry McGaw's article "The role of the OECD in international comparative studies of achievement", this contribution explores two issues which the author considers closely interrelated. The first issue concerns the quality of the items produced to assess reading skills in the OECD-PISA and OECD-SIALS studies and the consistency…

  14. Cash, Competition, or Charity: International Students and the Global Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon; de Andreotti, Vanessa Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    As the number of students traveling from the Global South to study in the Global North continues to grow (OECD in Education at a glance 2014: highlights. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2014_eag_highlights-2014-en, 2014), we argue that it is necessary to broaden our conceptual approaches…

  15. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  16. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  17. Investing in Youth: Tunisia. "Strengthening the Employability of Youth during the Transition to a Green Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  18. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  19. International petroleum statistics report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992: and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  20. International petroleum statistics report, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.