Science.gov

Sample records for off-grid residential farm

  1. Living off-grid in an arid environment without a well : can residential and commercial/industrial water harvesting help solve water supply problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, Carl L.; Ferrando, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Our family of three lives comfortably off-grid without a well in an arid region ({approx}9 in/yr, average). This year we expect to achieve water sustainability with harvested or grey water supporting all of our needs (including a garden and trees), except drinking water (about 7 gallons/week). We discuss our implementation and the implication that for an investment of a few thousand dollars, many single family homes could supply a large portion of their own water needs, significantly reducing municipal water demand. Generally, harvested water is very low in minerals and pollutants, but may need treatment for microbes in order to be potable. This may be addressed via filters, UV light irradiation or through chemical treatment (bleach). Looking further into the possibility of commercial water harvesting from malls, big box stores and factories, we ask whether water harvesting could supply a significant portion of potable water by looking at two cities with water supply problems. We look at the implications of separate municipal water lines for potable and clean non-potable uses. Implications on changes to future building codes are explored.

  2. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

    2011-01-25

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

  3. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. (a) Residential real estate, small business, and small farm loans. (1) In addition to...

  4. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. 32.7 Section 32.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and...

  5. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and...

  6. Off-grid power quality: Impacts, analysis and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Arjun

    Good power quality is a critical factor for the reliable operation of electrical loads in a power system. However, the current drawn by many electronic devices and non-linear loads are non-sinusoidal, which can result in a poor power quality, particularly in off-grid power systems. Poor power quality is characterized by electrical disturbances such as transients, sags, swells, harmonics and even interruptions in the power supply. Off-grid power systems worldwide struggle with system failures and equipment damage due to poor power quality. To better understand off-grid system failures and equipment damage issues, the current and voltage characteristics of a number of electrical devices in two off-grid homes, one using a pure sine wave inverter and the other using a modified sine wave inverter, were recorded with a Fluke 43B power quality analyzer, and the devices' impact on the power quality of the off-grid systems was analyzed. The off-grid power quality data were then compared with data from a grid-connected apartment, to help identify the issues that were specific to off-grid systems. The MATLAB/Simulink software was used to model and analyze power quality for additional configurations of the two off-grid systems mentioned above. Strategies to mitigate the worst power quality issues were selected based upon their function and cost, and a few were tested in an off-grid system. Selection of an inverter was found to be important because not all devices are supported by each type of inverter. For example, the refrigerator in the off-grid home with a modified sine wave inverter produced a significant amount of current and voltage harmonics far above standards. In fact, this type of inverter does not support a number of sensitive devices including motors, refrigerators, microwave ovens, fluorescent lights, battery chargers etc. The major issues for the degradation of power quality in the off-grid system using a pure sine wave inverter were the current harmonics

  7. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  8. Switching Logic for Converting Off-grid PV Customers to On-grid by Utilizing Off-grid Inverter and Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishkumar, A. R.; Sreejaya, P.

    2016-05-01

    Kerala is a state in India having a very good potential for solar PV energy production. The domestic customers in Kerala using PV system are approximately 15 % and almost all of them are using the off-grid PV system. When these off grid customers move to on-grid system, off grid system accessories such as inverter and batteries become redundant. In this paper, a switching logic has been developed for the effective utilization of off grid accessories and reducing islanding power loss for on grid customers. An algorithm is proposed for the switching logic and it is verified using simulation results and hardware implementation.

  9. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  10. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  11. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  12. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  13. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  14. Multi-off-grid methods in multi-step integration of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of methods of solving first- and second-order systems of differential equations in which all derivatives are evaluated at off-grid locations in order to circumvent the Dahlquist stability limitation on the order of on-grid methods. The proposed multi-off-grid methods require off-grid state predictors for the evaluation of the n derivatives at each step. Progressing forward in time, the off-grid states are predicted using a linear combination of back on-grid state values and off-grid derivative evaluations. A comparison is made between the proposed multi-off-grid methods and the corresponding Adams and Cowell on-grid integration techniques in integrating systems of ordinary differential equations, showing a significant reduction in the error at larger step sizes in the case of the multi-off-grid integrator.

  15. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  16. Isotopic evidence for residential mobility of farming communities during the transition to agriculture in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Neil, Samantha; Evans, Jane; Montgomery, Janet; Scarre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Development of agriculture is often assumed to be accompanied by a decline in residential mobility, and sedentism is frequently proposed to provide the basis for economic intensification, population growth and increasing social complexity. In Britain, however, the nature of the agricultural transition (ca 4000 BC) and its effect on residence patterns has been intensely debated. Some authors attribute the transition to the arrival of populations who practised a system of sedentary intensive mixed farming similar to that of the very earliest agricultural regimes in central Europe, ca 5500 BC, with cultivation of crops in fixed plots and livestock keeping close to permanently occupied farmsteads. Others argue that local hunter–gatherers within Britain adopted selected elements of a farming economy and retained a mobile way of life. We use strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel from an Early Neolithic burial population in Gloucestershire, England, to evaluate the residence patterns of early farmers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that early farming communities in Britain were residentially mobile and were not fully sedentary. Results highlight the diverse nature of settlement strategies associated with early farming in Europe and are of wider significance to understanding the effect of the transition to agriculture on residence patterns. PMID:26909177

  17. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such products. A contract

  18. Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Galvin, James; Bolotov, Dmitriy; Clear, Robert; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2008-12-18

    This report is a product of our ongoing effort to support the development of high-quality yet affordable products for off-grid lighting in the developing world that have good potential to succeed in the market. The effort includes work to develop low-cost testing procedures, to identify useful performance metrics, and to facilitate the development of industry standards and product rating protocols. We conducted laboratory testing of nine distinct product lines. In some cases we also tested multiple generations of a single product line and/or operating modes for a product. The resultsare summarized in Table 1. We found that power consumption and light output varied by nearly a factor of 12, with efficacy varying by a factor of more than six. Of particular note, overall luminous efficacy varied from 8.2 to 53.1 lumens per watt. Color quality indices variedmaterially, especially for correlated color temperature. Maximum illuminance, beamcandlepower, and luminance varied by 8x, 32x, and 61x respectively, suggesting considerable differences among products in terms of service levels and visual comfort. Glare varied by1.4x, and was above acceptable thresholds in most cases. Optical losses play a role in overall performance, varying by a factor of 3.2 and ranging as high as 24percent. These findings collectively indicate considerable potential for improved product design.

  19. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  20. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Qu, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS), in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods. PMID:26343658

  1. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Qu, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS), in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods. PMID:26343658

  2. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Analysis of the Convexity of Maximum Likelihood Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Liang; WEI, Ping; LIAO, Hong Shu

    Spatial compressive sensing (SCS) has recently been applied to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation owing to advantages over conventional ones. However the performance of compressive sensing (CS)-based estimation methods decreases when true DOAs are not exactly on the discretized sampling grid. We solve the off-grid DOA estimation problem using the deterministic maximum likelihood (DML) estimation method. In this work, we analyze the convexity of the DML function in the vicinity of the global solution. Especially under the condition of large array, we search for an approximately convex range around the ture DOAs to guarantee the DML function convex. Based on the convexity of the DML function, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm framework for off-grid DOA estimation. Numerical experiments show that the rough convex range accords well with the exact convex range of the DML function with large array and demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed methods in terms of accuracy, robustness and speed.

  3. Kd Values for Agricultural and Surface Soils for Use in Hanford Site Farm, Residential, and River Shoreline Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    This report provides best estimate Kd values and a minimum and maximum range of Kd values to be used for agricultural soils and Columbia River bank sediments that exist today or would exist in the future when portions of the Hanford Site are released for farming, residential, and recreational use after the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) completes clean up of defense waste on the site. The Kd values should be used to determine the fate and transport rates of contaminants and their availability for plant and animal uptake in selected non-groundwater scenarios included in Hanford Site environmental impact statements, risk assessments and specific facility performance assessments. This report describes scenarios such as a small farm where drilling of a well inadvertently goes through buried waste and brings waste to the surface, allowing the tailings to become available for direct human exposure or incorporation into garden crops and farm animals used for food by the farm family. The Kd values recommended in this report can also be used to calculate sediment-water partitioning factors used to predict plant and animal uptake from interaction with the contaminated soil.

  4. Experimental optimization of the FireFly 600 photovoltaic off-grid system.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyson, William Earl; Orozco, Ron; Ralph, Mark E.; Brown, Marlene Laura; King, David L.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation and experimental optimization of the FireFly{trademark} 600 off-grid photovoltaic system manufactured by Energia Total, Ltd. was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories in May and June of 2001. This evaluation was conducted at the request of the manufacturer and addressed performance of individual system components, overall system functionality and performance, safety concerns, and compliance with applicable codes and standards. A primary goal of the effort was to identify areas for improvement in performance, reliability, and safety. New system test procedures were developed during the effort.

  5. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  6. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Generic Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Small Mammals Living in Swine Farm, Residential, Landfill, and Natural Environments in Southern Ontario, Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Samantha E.; Boerlin, Patrick; Janecko, Nicol; Lumsden, John S.; Barker, Ian K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Jardine, Claire

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impacts of different types of human activity on the development of resistant bacteria in the feces of wild small mammals, we compared the prevalences and patterns of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from fecal samples collected from wild small mammals living in four environments: swine farms, residential areas, landfills, and natural habitats. Resistance to antimicrobials was observed in E. coli isolates from animals in all environments: 25/52 (48%) animals trapped at swine farms, 6/69 (9%) animals trapped in residential areas, 3/20 (15%) animals trapped at landfills, and 1/22 (5%) animals trapped in natural habitats. Animals trapped on farms were significantly more likely to carry E. coli isolates with resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin than animals trapped in residential areas. The resistance genes sul2, aadA, and tet(A) were significantly more likely to be detected in E. coli isolates from animals trapped on farms than from those trapped in residential areas. Three S. enterica serotypes (Give, Typhimurium, and Newport) were recovered from the feces of 4/302 (1%) wild small mammals. All Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible. Our results show that swine farm origin is significantly associated with the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in wild small mammals in southern Ontario, Canada. However, resistant fecal bacteria were found in small mammals living in all environments studied, indicating that environmental exposure to antimicrobials, antimicrobial residues, resistant bacteria, or resistance genes is widespread. PMID:21131524

  8. A pilot study comparing observational and questionnaire measures as surrogates of residential pesticide exposures among residents impacted by the Ecuadorian Cut-Flower Farming industry

    PubMed Central

    Handal, Alexis J.; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of take-home pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa = 0.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa = 0.06) and wood (kappa = 0.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms. PMID:24455979

  9. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  10. Efficient, Off-Grid LiDAR Scanning of Remote Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, P.; Gold, R.; Cowgill, E.; Kreylos, O.; Hamann, B.

    2007-12-01

    As terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems become increasingly available, strategies for executing efficient field surveys in settings without access to the power grid are increasingly needed. To evaluate scan methods and develop an off-grid power system, we used a tripod-mounted laser scanner to create high resolution (≤40 mm point spacing) topographic maps for use in neotectonic studies of active faulting in arid, high elevation settings. We required 1-2 cm internal precision within point clouds spanning field sites that were ~300 x 300 m. Main components of our survey system included a Trimble GX DR200+ terrestrial laser scanner, a Leica TCR407power total station, a ruggedized laptop (2 GB RAM, 2.33 GHz dual-processor, and an Intel GMA 950 graphics card), batteries, and a portable photovoltaic array. Our first goal was to develop an efficient field-survey workflow. We started each survey project by using the total station for 1-2 days to locate an average of 8 ground control locations per site and to measure key geomorphic features within the project area. We then used the laser scanner to capture overlapping scans of the site, which required an average of six, 5-hour scanning sessions and an average of ten station setups. At each station, the scanner located itself on a particular point by measuring the relative positions of an average of four backsights, each of which is a ~17 x 17cm reflective target mounted on a tripod over the ground control point. To locate the scanner at a particular station prior to scanning, we experimented with both setting up over known points as measured using the total station, and resectioning, by positioning the scanner over an unmeasured location and backsighting on previously scanned points. We found that resectioning provided the smallest errors in scan registration. We then framed and queued a series of scans from each station that optimized point density and minimized data repetition. We also increased the accuracy of the

  11. An analysis of off-grid, off-pipe housing in six U.S. climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Mini

    This dissertation addresses the issues of climate change and depletion of non-renewable resources of energy and water, and aims at eliminating the use of non-renewable resources of energy and water for the building operation in single-family detached residences in the U.S. With this aim, this study investigated the feasibility of the off-grid, off-pipe design approach in six climate locations across the U.S. to achieve self-sufficiency in a house for building energy, indoor water use, and household wastewater and sewage disposal using only on-site available renewable resources. For the analysis, a 2,500 ft2, 2000/2001 International Energy Conservation Code standard reference house with typical building and usage characteristics was selected as the base case. The six U.S. climate locations included: Minneapolis, MN, Boulder, CO, Atlanta, GA, Houston, TX, Phoenix, AZ, and Los Angeles, CA. The renewable resources considered for this study included: solar radiation, wind, biomass for building energy needs; rainwater for indoor water use. In addition, the building site was considered for the disposal of household wastewater and sewage. The selected climate locations provided different scenarios in terms of base-case building energy needs and availability of renewable resources. Depending on these, energy and water efficiency measures were selected for reducing the building needs. For the reduced building needs, the sizing of systems for self-sufficiency was performed, including: solar thermal system for building's space heating and water heating needs, photovoltaic and wind power systems for building's electricity needs; rainwater harvesting system for indoor water needs; and septic system for the on-site disposal of household wastewater and sewage. In this manner, an integrated analysis procedure was developed for the analysis and design of off-grid, off-pipe homes, and was demonstrated for six U.S. climate locations. The results of the analysis indicated that

  12. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  13. Design and Performance of the Van Geet Off-Grid Home: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Torcellini, P.; Van Geet, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Van Geet home near Denver, Colorado, demonstrates the successful integration of energy conservation measures and renewable energy supply in a beautiful, comfortable, energy-efficient, 295-m2 (3,176-ft2) off-grid home in a cold, sunny climate. Features include a tight envelope, energy-efficient appliances, passive solar heating (direct gain and Trombe wall), natural cooling, solar hot water, and photovoltaics. In addition to describing this house and its performance, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting a goal for energy efficiency at the outset, (2) applying rules of thumb, and (3) using computer simulation to fine-tune the design. Performance monitoring and computer simulation are combined for the best possible analysis of energy performance. In this case, energy savings are estimated as 89% heating and cooling, 83% electrical, and nearly 100% domestic water heating. The heating and cooling energy use is 8.96 kJ/Cdaym2 (0.44 Btu/Fdayft2).

  14. A Modified Rife Algorithm for Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Representations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Guo, Limin; Liu, Lutao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses sparse representations based on weighted eigenvectors (SRBWEV) to deal with the MMV problem. MMV problem can be changed to single measurement vector (SMV) problem by using the linear combination of eigenvectors of array covariance matrix in signal subspace as a new SMV for sparse solution calculation. So the complexity of this proposed algorithm is smaller than other DOA estimation algorithms of MMV. Meanwhile, it can overcome the limitation of the conventional sparsity-based DOA estimation approaches that the unknown directions belong to a predefined discrete angular grid, so it can further improve the DOA estimation accuracy. The modified Rife algorithm for DOA estimation (MRife-DOA) is simulated based on SRBWEV algorithm. In this proposed algorithm, the largest and sub-largest inner products between the measurement vector or its residual and the atoms in the dictionary are utilized to further modify DOA estimation according to the principle of Rife algorithm and the basic idea of coarse-to-fine estimation. Finally, simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and can reduce the DOA estimation error caused by grid effect with lower complexity. PMID:26610521

  15. A Modified Rife Algorithm for Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Representations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Guo, Limin; Liu, Lutao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses sparse representations based on weighted eigenvectors (SRBWEV) to deal with the MMV problem. MMV problem can be changed to single measurement vector (SMV) problem by using the linear combination of eigenvectors of array covariance matrix in signal subspace as a new SMV for sparse solution calculation. So the complexity of this proposed algorithm is smaller than other DOA estimation algorithms of MMV. Meanwhile, it can overcome the limitation of the conventional sparsity-based DOA estimation approaches that the unknown directions belong to a predefined discrete angular grid, so it can further improve the DOA estimation accuracy. The modified Rife algorithm for DOA estimation (MRife-DOA) is simulated based on SRBWEV algorithm. In this proposed algorithm, the largest and sub-largest inner products between the measurement vector or its residual and the atoms in the dictionary are utilized to further modify DOA estimation according to the principle of Rife algorithm and the basic idea of coarse-to-fine estimation. Finally, simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and can reduce the DOA estimation error caused by grid effect with lower complexity. PMID:26610521

  16. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans (“Supplemental Lending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans... association may make residential real estate loans or extensions of credit to one borrower in the lesser...

  17. Dynamic modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for off-grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasemeyer, Mark David

    The volatile prices of fossil fuels and their contribution to global warming have caused many people to turn to renewable energy systems. Many developing communities are forced to use these systems as they are too far from electrical distribution. As a result, numerous software models have been developed to simulate hybrid renewable energy systems. However almost, if not all, implementations are static in design. A static design limits the ability of the model to account for changes over time. Dynamic modeling can be used to fill the gaps where other modeling techniques fall short. This modeling practice allows the user to account for the effects of technological and economic factors over time. These factors can include changes in energy demand, energy production, and income level. Dynamic modeling can be particularly useful for developing communities who are off-grid and developing at rapid rates. In this study, a dynamic model was used to evaluate a real world system. A non-governmental organization interested in improving their current infrastructure was selected. Five different scenarios were analyzed and compared in order to discover which factors the model is most sensitive to. In four of the scenarios, a new energy system was purchased in order to account for the opening of a restaurant that would be used as a source of local income generation. These scenarios were then compared to a base case in which a new system was not purchased, and the restaurant was not opened. Finally, the results were used to determine which variables had the greatest impact on the various outputs of the simulation.

  18. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Radecsky, Kristen; Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2008-12-14

    superior lighting services to low income people in off-grid areas of developing countries, many of whom currently rely on fuel based lighting sources such as kerosene. If this potential is to be achieved in the near term, however, manufacturers must produce off-grid lighting products that are inexpensive, perform well, and meet the needs of potential end users. At present, relatively few products meet all three of these goals. In this article, we report results from a detailed study of lighting use by micro-enterprises in two small towns in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. The work included a survey about lighting use by 50 small businesses, careful measurements of kerosene lighting use patterns and associated costs for 23 of these businesses, and a subsequent field trial in which 14 of the 23 businesses purchased and used low cost LED lamps over a number of months.

  19. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Off-Grid Detection Tool Based on FNET/GridEye

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Ye; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron; Irminger, Philip; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Willging, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Real-time situational awareness tools are of critical importance to power system operators, especially during emergencies. The availability of electric power has become a linchpin of most post disaster response efforts as it is the primary dependency for public and private sector services, as well as individuals. Knowledge of the scope and extent of facilities impacted, as well as the duration of their dependence on backup power, enables emergency response officials to plan for contingencies and provide better overall response. Based on real-time data acquired by Frequency Disturbance Recorders (FDRs) deployed in the North American power grid, a real-time detection method is proposed. This method monitors critical electrical loads and detects the transition of these loads from an on-grid state, where the loads are fed by the power grid to an off-grid state, where the loads are fed by an Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) or a backup generation system. The details of the proposed detection algorithm are presented, and some case studies and off-grid detection scenarios are also provided to verify the effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, the algorithm has already been implemented based on the Grid Solutions Framework (GSF) and has effectively detected several off-grid situations.

  20. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Jennifer; Mills, Evan

    2010-11-06

    The Lumina Project and Lighting Africa conducted a full-scale field test involving a switch from kerosene to solar-LED lighting for commercial broiler chicken production at an off-grid farm in Kenya. The test achieved lower operating costs, produced substantially more light, improved the working environment, and had no adverse effect on yields. A strategy using conventional solar-fluorescent lighting also achieved comparable yields, but entailed a six-fold higher capital cost and significantly higher recurring battery replacement costs. Thanks to higher energy and optical efficiencies, the LED system provided approximately twice the illumination to the chicken-production area and yet drew less than half the power.At the study farm, 3000 chickens were grown in each of three identical houses under kerosene, fluorescent, and LED lighting configurations. Under baseline conditions, a yearly expenditure of 1,200 USD is required to illuminate the three houses with kerosene. The LED system eliminates this fuel use and expense with a corresponding simple payback time of 1.5 years, while the solar-fluorescent system has a payback time of 9.3 years. The corresponding reduction in fuel expenditure in both cases represents a 15percent increase in after-tax net income (revenues minus expenses) across the entire business operation. The differential cost-effectiveness between the LED and fluorescent systems would be substantially greater if the fluorescent system were upsized to provide the same light as the LED system. Providing light with the fluorescent or LED systems is also far more economical than connecting to the grid in this case. The estimated grid-connection cost at this facility is 1.7 million Kenya Schillings (approximately 21,250 USD), which is nearly six-times the cost of the fluorescent system and 35-times the cost of the LED system.The LED system also confers various non-energy benefits. The relative uniformity of LED lighting, compared to the fluorescent or

  1. A Low-Cost Solar LED Lighting System Designed for Local Assembly and Repair in Off-Grid Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazes, Michael

    This is about bringing sustainable lighting systems to the world's billion poorest people who live in off-grid, rural communities. The lack of infrastructure presents a distribution challenge that places this market beyond the reach of the companies that address the Base of the Economic Pyramid sector. Addressing this market requires enabling the end-user to set up a local infrastructure for system maintenance. This requires a shift from the traditional consumer electronics paradigm of high-volume automated assembly with no user-serviceable parts. A lighting system is presented for local assembly and repair using locally sourced materials.

  2. Validation of the Efficacy of a Solar-Thermal Powered Autoclave System for Off-Grid Medical Instrument Wet Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization. PMID:22848098

  3. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization. PMID:22848098

  4. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  5. Environmental and economic assessment of a cracked ammonia fuelled alkaline fuel cell for off-grid power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian; Treyer, Karin

    2015-02-01

    Global mobile telecommunication is possible due to millions of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). Nearly 1 million of these are operating off-grid, typically powered by diesel generators and therefore leading to significant CO2 emissions and other environmental burdens. A novel type of Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) powered by cracked ammonia is being developed for replacement of these generators. This study compares the environmental and economic performance of the two systems by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE), respectively. Results show that the production of ammonia dominates the LCA results, and that renewable ammonia production pathways greatly improve environmental performance. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the fuel cell parameters that most affect system cost and environmental burdens are cell power density and lifetime and system efficiency. Recycling of anode catalyst and electrode substrate materials is found to have large impacts on environmental performance, though without large cost incentives. For a set of target parameter values and fossil sourced ammonia, the AFC is calculated to produce electricity with life cycle CO2 eq emissions of 1.08 kg kWh-1, which is 23% lower than a diesel generator with electricity costs that are 14% higher in the same application.

  6. Off-grid direction of arrival estimation based on joint spatial sparsity for distributed sparse linear arrays.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yujie; Ying, Rendong; Lu, Zhenqi; Liu, Peilin

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs) and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA) to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. PMID:25420150

  7. Off-Grid Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on Joint Spatial Sparsity for Distributed Sparse Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yujie; Ying, Rendong; Lu, Zhenqi; Liu, Peilin

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs) and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA) to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. PMID:25420150

  8. Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-03-02

    Low cost rechargeable flashlights that use LED technology are increasingly available in African markets. While LED technology holds promise to provide affordable, high quality lighting services, the widespread dissemination of low quality products may make it difficult to realize this potential. This study includes performance results for three brands of commonly available LED flashlights that were purchased in Kenya in 2009. The performance of the flashlights was evaluated by testing five units for each of the three brands. The tests included measurements of battery capacity, time required to charge the battery, maximum illuminance at one meter, operation time and lux-hours from a fully charged battery, light distribution, and color rendering. All flashlights tested performed well below the manufacturers? rated specifications; the measured battery capacity was 30-50percent lower than the rated capacity and the time required to fully charge the battery was 6-25percent greater than the rated time requirement. Our analysis further shows that within each brand there is considerable variability in each performance indicator. The five samples within a single brand varied from each other by as much as 22percent for battery capacity measurements, 3.6percent for the number of hours required for a full charge, 23percent for maximum initial lux, 38percent for run time, 11percent for light distribution and by as much as 200percent for color rendering. Results obtained are useful for creating a framework for quality assurance of off-grid LED products and will be valuable for informing consumers, distributors and product manufacturers about product performance.

  9. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  10. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  11. Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

  12. The Impact of Rural Non-Farm Residential Development on the Provision of Local Public Services. Iowa Land Use Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter S.

    Using multiple regression analysis for each county and a case study of selected services in Johnson County, Iowa, the study estimated the impacts of rural non-farm development in Iowa on the demand for local public services, on the cost of providing these services, and on the distribution of service benefits and tax burdens among population…

  13. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  14. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    Community micro-grids have played a central role in increasing access to off-grid rural electrification (RE) in many regions of the developing world, notably South Asia. However, the promise of community micro-grids in sub-Sahara Africa remains largely unexplored. My study explores the potential and limits of community micro-grids as options for increasing access to off-grid RE in sub-Sahara Africa. Contextualized in five community micro-grids in rural Kenya, my study is framed through theories of collective action and combines qualitative and quantitative methods, including household surveys, electronic data logging and regression analysis. The main contribution of my research is demonstrating the circumstances under which community micro-grids can contribute to rural development and the conditions under which individuals are likely to initiate and participate in such projects collectively. With regard to rural development, I demonstrate that access to electricity enables the use of electric equipment and tools by small and micro-enterprises, resulting in significant improvement in productivity per worker (100--200% depending on the task at hand) and a corresponding growth in income levels in the order of 20--70%, depending on the product made. Access to electricity simultaneously enables and improves delivery of social and business services from a wide range of village-level infrastructure (e.g. schools, markets, water pumps) while improving the productivity of agricultural activities. Moreover, when local electricity users have an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and electricity consumption is closely linked to productive uses that generate incomes, cost recovery is feasible. By their nature---a new technology delivering highly valued services by the elites and other members, limited local experience and expertise, high capital costs---community micro-grids are good candidates for elite-domination. Even so, elite control does not necessarily

  15. Modelling and control synthesis of a micro-combined heat and power interface for a concentrating solar power system in off-grid rural power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, Gerro; Dobson, Robert; Brent, Alan; Mammoli, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power co-generation systems have been identified as potential stand-alone solar energy supply solutions in remote rural energy applications. This study describes the modelling and synthesis of a combined heat and power Stirling CSP system in order to evaluate its potential performance in small off-grid rural village applications in Africa. This Stirling micro-Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) system has a 1 kW electric capacity, with 3 kW of thermal generation capacity which is produced as waste heat recovered from the solar power generation process. As part of the development of an intelligent microgrid control and distribution solution, the Trinum micro-CHP system and other co-generation systems are systematically being modelled on the TRNSYS simulation platform. This paper describes the modelling and simulation of the Trinum micro-CHP configuration on TRNSYS as part of the process to develop the control automation solution for the smart rural microgrid in which the Trinum will serve as a solar powerpack. The results present simulated performance outputs for the Trinum micro-CHP system for a number of remote rural locations in Africa computed from real-time TRNSYS solar irradiation and weather data (yearly, monthly, daily) for the relevant locations. The focus of this paper is on the parametric modelling of the Trinum Stirling micro-CHP system, with specific reference to this system as a TRNSYS functional block in the microgrid simulation. The model is used to forecast the solar energy harvesting potential of the Trinum micro-CHP unit at a number of remote rural sites in Africa.

  16. Residential Plumbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Leney

    This twenty-nine-unit residential plumbing curriculum contains teacher and student materlals based on the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) Plumbing Catalog of Performance Objectives, Performance Guides, and Tool and Equipment Lists. An introduction contains a V-TECS task listing showing the relationship between the…

  17. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  18. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  19. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  20. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  1. Residential Workers' Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Alan, Ed.

    The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…

  2. Farm Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  3. TES for Residential Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-07-31

    The article discusses thermal energy storage approaches for residential buildings. This article addresses both brick bank storage and phase change material technologies. The energy savings and market potential of these thermal energy storage methods are reviewed as well.

  4. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  5. Farm Growth Next to A Large City: Opportunities for Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Randall E.; James, Barbara H.; Blaine, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups of 147 farmers in Geauga County, Ohio, determined that the number of farms declined overall, although townships closer to Cleveland gained farms, including those with the most residential development and highest market value of farmland. Farmers in more rural areas identified urbanization problems; farmers in more urban areas…

  6. School Gardens and Farms--Aspects of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    The document places emphasis upon the need for school farm and garden programs. It is noted that today's youth are denied opportunities for meaningful physical work experiences in the home, community, and school. Reasons for lack of opportunities include overcrowded residential areas, lack of land areas, schools ignoring their charge to provide…

  7. A low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system for residential cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Joel D., III

    The use of liquid desiccants for dehumidification of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) process air is becoming a more promising concept as the drive for energy conservation continues to grow. Recently, liquid desiccant systems have been implemented on the commercial level in conjunction with evaporative coolers and have recorded energy savings upwards of 50%. The aim of this research is to test the potential liquid desiccant systems have on the residential level when paired with a conventional vapor compression cycle and to construct a system that would overcome some of its barriers to the residential market. A complete low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system was designed, constructed, and tested in the Off-Grid Zero Emissions Building (OGZEB) at the Florida State University. Key design characteristics include turbulent process air flow through the conditioner and airside heating in the regenerator. The system was tested in the two following ways: (1) for the energy savings while maintaining a constant temperature over a twenty four hour period and (2) for the energy savings over a single cooling cycle. The liquid desiccant system achieved a maximum energy savings of 38% over a complete day and 52% over a single cooling cycle. It was projected that the system has the potential to save 1064 kWh over the course of a year. When combined with a renewable source of heat for regeneration, liquid desiccant systems become very cost effective. The levelized cost of energy for the combination of the liquid desiccant system and solar thermal collectors was calculated to be 7.06 C/kWh with a payback period of 4.4 years. This research provides evidence of the technology's potential on the residential sector and suggests ways for it to become competitive in the market.

  8. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  9. Indiana Residential Child Care Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; Johnson, Marilee

    To compose a comprehensive description of the residential child care needs in Indiana, county agencies, county welfare departments, and probation departments were surveyed. Respondents were asked to identify the characteristics of children placed in Indiana residential facilities, in out-of-state residential care, and of those whom the agency was…

  10. Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central sphere. Farming regions are in the 'tires.' Mirrors reflect sunlight into the habitat and farms. The large flat panels radiate away extra heat into space, and panels of solar cells provide electricity. Factories and docks for spaceships are at either end of the long central tube. (NOTE: art printed in Book 'Space Colony - Frontier of the 21st Century by Franklyn M. Branley)

  11. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect

    German, a.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  12. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  13. Residential Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  14. Evaluating Residential Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millham, Spencer

    Drawing on the research experience of the Dartington Social Research Unit, this paper discusses methods and perspectives used in evaluating English residential institutions for children. Work of the Dartington Social Research Unit has involved evaluating aspects of a wide range of institutions, from elite boarding schools to children's homes and…

  15. Nonmetropolitan Residential Segregation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 1980 and 1990 Censuses of Population and Housing for Texas found overall black-white and Anglo-Hispanic residential segregation declined substantially. Nonmetropolitan counties were more segregated than metropolitan counties in both years, but growing nonmetro places showed the greatest segregation declines. Analyses controlling for…

  16. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the effectiveness, first costs and operational costs of various types of residential ventilation systems in three different climates in the U.S. The Agency, through its Energy Star Program, recommends that builders construct homes that are energy efficient ...

  17. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  18. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  19. 43 CFR 2430.5 - Additional criteria for classification of lands valuable for residential, commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chiefly valuable for residential, commercial, agricultural, or industrial uses or development (other than... development as a home and farm for a man and his family, and (3) the anticipated return from agricultural use... sufficient irrigation water, to permit agricultural development of its cultivable portions. (e) Lands may...

  20. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  1. Detailed residential electric determination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  2. Utilization management for residential programs.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Styron, Thomas H; Carlson, Shelly; Hoge, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on utilization management (UM) in community-based supportive residential programs for people with behavioral disorders. Various approaches for facilitating placement and movement are discussed in the context of an effort to develop a residential UM process in New Haven, Connecticut. Recommendations are made for a residential UM process that may be applied to a range of service systems. It takes into account the methodological difficulties inherent in the development of generalizable decision tools. PMID:15478874

  3. Residential fuel cell energy systems performance optimization using "soft computing" techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entchev, Evgueniy

    Stationary residential and commercial fuel cell cogeneration systems have received increasing attention by the general public due to their great potential to supply both thermal and electrical loads to the dwellings. The reported number of field demonstration trials with grid connected and off-grid applications are under way and valuable and unique data are collected to describe the system's performance. While the single electricity mode of operation is relatively easy to introduce, it is characterized with relatively low efficiency performance (20-35%). The combined heat and power generation mode is more attractive due to higher efficiency +60%, better resources and fuel utilization, and the advantage of using a compact one box/single fuel approach for supplying all energy needs of the dwellings. While commercial fuel cell cogeneration applications are easy to adopt in combined mode of operation, due to the relatively stable base power/heat load throughout the day, the residential fuel cell cogeneration systems face a different environment with uneven load, usually two peaks in the morning and in the evening and the fact that the triple load: space, water and power occur at almost the same time. In most of the cases, the fuel cell system is not able to satisfy the triple demand and additional back up heater/burner is used. The developed ''soft computing" control strategy for FC integrated systems would be able to optimize the combined system operation while satisfying combination of demands. The simulation results showed that by employing a generic fuzzy logic control strategy the management of the power supply and thermal loads could be done appropriately in an optimal way, satisfying homeowners' power and comfort needs.

  4. Re-thinking residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  5. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  6. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  7. Progress of solar technology and potential farm uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, W. G., Jr.; Trotter, W. K.

    1982-09-01

    The efficient use of solar energy on farms for space heating and cooling of livestock buildings, drying crops, and heating farm homes is discussed. Low cost, homemade solar collectors, having multiple uses and a payback of less than 5 years, are the most popular systems. In contrast, most commercially produced systems are still too expensive for agricultural uses, partly because they fail to qualify for tax credits as large as those allowed for residential uses. The solar industry has shown little interest in marketing the low cost technologies specifically developed for agriculture.

  8. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  9. Residential Segregation and School Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that school districts' efforts to integrate schools have failed to ameliorate the racial isolation of black students. Finds that schools remain segregated primarily because of continued residential segregation and that school integration efforts have had little long-term effect on residential segregation. (CFR)

  10. The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 20 potential indicators of residential segregation using census data on Hispanics, Blacks, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas. Factor-analyzes the results to select a single best indicator for each of five dimensions of residential segregation. Contains 69 references and 22 statistical formulas. (SV)

  11. Residential fuel quality

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  12. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  13. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  14. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  15. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  16. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  17. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Armin Rudd

    2005-08-30

    This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings, including a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. with particular emphasis on North American climates and construction.

  18. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  19. School Desegregation and Residential Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Andrew; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This statement on school and residential segregation, signed by 38 educators and social scientists, was prepared for attorneys connected with litigation concerning the Dayton and Columbus school systems. (RLV)

  20. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  1. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  2. Farming for Net Profit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors can influence farm management decisions. One important factor is economic returns. Staying in farming requires dealing with a wide range of changing conditions. Given these changing conditions, it is particularly important to “get the big decisions right”. This requires evaluating impac...

  3. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  4. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  5. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  6. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  7. Residential Transactive Control Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Fuller, Jason C.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Somani, Abhishek

    2014-02-19

    Arguably the most exciting aspect of the smart grid vision is the full participation of end-use resources with all forms of generation and energy storage in the reliable and efficient operation of an electric power system. Engaging all of these resources in a collaborative manner that respects the objectives of each resource, is sensitive to the system and local constraints of electricity flow, and scales to the large number of devices and systems participating is a grand challenge. Distributed decision-making system approaches have been presented and experimentation is underway. This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a residential demand response demonstration that uses the bidding transactions of supply and end-use air conditioning resources communicating with a real-time, 5 minute market to balance the various needs of the participants on a distribution feeder. The nature of the demonstration, the value streams being explored, and the operational scenarios implemented to characterize the system response are summarized along with preliminary findings.

  8. Energy Simulator Residential Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-24

    SERI-RES performs thermal energy analysis of residential or small commercial buildings and has the capability of modeling passive solar equipment such as rock beds, trombe walls, and phase change material. The analysis is accomplished by simulation. A thermal model of the building is created by the user and translated into mathematical form by the program. The mathematical equations are solved repeatedly at time intervals of one hour or less for the period of simulation. Themore » mathematical representation of the building is a thermal network with nonlinear, temperature-dependent controls. A combination of forward finite differences, Jacobian iteration, and constrained optimization techniques is used to obtain a solution. An auxiliary interactive editing program, EDITOR, is included for creating building descriptions. EDITOR checks the validity of the input data and also provides facilities for storing and referencing several types of building description files. Some of the data files used by SERI-RES need to be implemented as direct-access files. Programs are included to convert sequential files to direct-access files and vice versa.« less

  9. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  10. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  11. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  12. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  13. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  14. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research Lab Research Compliance Research Integrity & ...

  15. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  16. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  17. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  18. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  19. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.104 Residential placement If placement in a public or private residential program is necessary to provide special education and related services to...

  20. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.104 Residential placement If placement in a public or private residential program is necessary to provide special education and related services to...

  1. Characteristics of Owners of Residential Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.; And Others

    Although researchers have investigated quality and cost of residential care, little is known about the people who own and manage residential care facilities. In an attempt to find out more about these managers, members of the National Association of Residential Care Facilities (NARCF) were surveyed. Members (N=175) responded to questionnaires…

  2. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  3. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  4. Residential School for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Myra

    1981-01-01

    Briefly described is the program of the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, a residential program for gifted high school juniors and seniors which opened in 1980. Noted are the admission process, annual cost, course offerings, the work program, and attitudes of faculty and students. (DB)

  5. Functional Assessment in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, W. Guy

    2006-01-01

    This paper covers the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to treatment of problem behavior in residential facilities. Basic behavioral concepts are covered with emphasis on antecedent events and their importance in assessment and treatment. The paper focuses on two types of assessment, the behavioral interview and A-B-C narrative…

  6. Residential Mobility and Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; South, Scott J.

    2005-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the impact of recent residential mobility on adolescent violence. A unique focus of our analysis is an examination of the ability of various mechanisms, including parent-child relationships, psychological distress, experiences of victimization,…

  7. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  8. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  9. ON-FARM ANALYSIS OF PRECISION FARMING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming technologies are becoming increasingly popular. However, few studies have addressed the whole farm and per acre expense of these technologies. A 33-acre farm example is used to establish baseline cost estimates of these technologies. Findings suggest that per acre expense is relati...

  10. Evaluation of recent residential inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B.E.

    1982-06-01

    Seven residential utility-interactive inverters for photovoltaic power systems have been evaluated at MIT Laboratory and at the Northeast Residential Experiment Station (NE RES). Two, a Windworks Gemini and an Abacus Sunverter, have been reported on previously. Reviewed here are five other inverters: Windworks Gemini 8-kW (dc) model with an ac filter to improve the output current waveform and power factor; Acheval Wind Electronics 10-kW (ac) model, Helionetics 6-kW (dc) model; and American Power Conversion 2-kW and 4-kW (ac) models. Input and output power, power factor, current waveform distortion, audio noise and radio frequency interference measurements were made at the NE RES and the results are presented.

  11. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    An optimum integrated residential photovoltaic array/module is addressed. Nineteen existing or proposed systems intended for residential applications are described. Each of these systems is rated against a comprehensive set of evaluation criteria in an effort to formulate three module design concepts for further study and analysis. This evaluation led to a number of observations which are enumerated and should be considered in future module and array designs. Three module concepts are presented as baseline design approaches to be further analyzed and optimized. These options include: (1) a rectangular, direct mounted, shingle type module; (2) an integrally mounted module with nonconductive exposed elements; and (3) an aluminum framed, stand off module. Preliminary design drawings are presented for each of these module configurations.

  12. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An optimum integrated residential photovoltaic array/module is addressed. Nineteen existing or proposed systems intended for residential applications are described. Each of these systems is rated against a comprehensive set of evaluation criteria in an effort to formulate three module design concepts for further study and analysis. This evaluation led to a number of observations which are enumerated and should be considered in future module and array designs. Three module concepts are presented as baseline design approaches to be further analyzed and optimized. These options include: (1) a rectangular, direct mounted, shingle type module; (2) an integrally mounted module with nonconductive exposed elements; and (3) an aluminum framed, stand off module. Preliminary design drawings are presented for each of these module configurations.

  13. Who Becomes Established in Farming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T.; Martinson, Virgil O.

    1971-01-01

    Reports a study of the similarities and differences between individuals presently farming and those who have left farming in Wisconsin. Study is based on Virgil Martinson's 1970 Ph.D. dissertation. (SB)

  14. Staff supervision in residential care.

    PubMed

    Myers, Peter G; Bibbs, Tonya; Orozco, Candy

    2004-04-01

    Residential care workers must be offered opportunities for formalized and systematic supervision in individual and group formats to provide the highest possible level of care to children and adolescents whom they serve. Effective supervision with residential care staff should be open to exploring issues at all levels of their experience and in relation to each component of the broader organizational structure within which they work. Systems theory offers a useful lens through which to view supervising staff in residential treatment. Systems theory proposes that human behavior is shaped by interactional processes and internal factors. Although the development of the individual occurs within intrinsic cognitive and emotional spheres, it also is believed to be related to several other elements. These additional variables include the point at which the family and system function in their own life cycle, the historical and current emotional context, the current and changing structure of the system, narratives, and the cultural context. This article discussed how methods of training and supervision would be most effective if they were designed specifically for the developmental level of the participants. Some literature reviews have concluded that youth care workers, like all professionals, pass through developmental stages and progress through them in their work. To assist youth care workers in their jobs, supervisors must understand these stages and the ways in which they may be enacted in the workplace. PMID:15062348

  15. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  16. Down on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a farm program might assist any camp to offer experiential educational opportunities, improve attitudes toward food/nutrition, expand interpersonal relationships, develop work values and responsibility, teach history of food production/hunger. Details program goals, seasonal agricultural work, staffing, tools/equipment, daily…

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  18. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  19. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  20. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  1. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  2. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  3. Evaluation of evolving residential electricity tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Judy; DeForest, Nicholas; Kiliccote, Sila; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-05-15

    Residential customers in California's Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) territory have seen several electricity rate structure changes in the past decade. This poster: examines the history of the residential pricing structure and key milestones; summarizes and analyzes the usage between 2006 and 2009 for different baseline/climate areas; discusses the residential electricity Smart Meter roll out; and compares sample bills for customers in two climates under the current pricing structure and also the future time of use (TOU) structure.

  4. Impacts of changing residential oil burner technology

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Andrews, J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents trends in oil-fired residential heating appliance design that take advantage of recent research which promises significantly lower pollutant emissions, improved performance, and efficiency.

  5. Measuring Homelessness and Residential Stability: The Residential Time-Line Follow-Back Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsemberis, Sam; McHugo, Gregory; Williams, Valerie; Hanrahan, Patricia; Stefancic, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Reliable and valid longitudinal residential histories are needed to assess interventions to reduce homelessness and increase community tenure. This study examined the test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and concurrent validity of the Residential Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) Inventory, a method used to record residential histories in…

  6. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  7. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  8. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  9. Farm Work-Related Asthma Among US Primary Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; White, Gretchen E.; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%–68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%–45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention. PMID:25635741

  10. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  11. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  12. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  13. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.; Todd, A.

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  14. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  15. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  16. An Analysis of the Residential Remodeling Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Kenneth

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the residential remodeling occupation. The analysis only briefly covers the many areas of residential remodeling. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the…

  17. Residential Wood Combustion Emissions and Safety Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Mimi, Ed.; Barnett, Lucy, Ed.

    This seven-part guidebook provides information to assist decision makers and other individuals involved in the residential wood energy fuel cycle. It can be used as a tool for designing or implementing programs, strategies, and policies that encourage, prevent, or mitigate safety or air emission related impacts of residential woodburning equipment…

  18. An Analysis of the Residential Electricity Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearth, Charles E.; Nordvig, Carl A.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the residential electricity occupation. It does not cover the complete work of a master electrician, only the basic skills needed to do residential wiring. The document opens with a brief introduction…

  19. RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION CODE IMPACTS ON RADON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses residential construction code impacts on radon. It references existing residential construction codes that pertain to the elements of construction that impact either the ability to seal radon out of houses or the ability to achieve good soil ventilation for ra...

  20. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  1. ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COAL STOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation, in cooperation with the State of Vermont's Agency of Environmental Conservation, of emissions generated by anthracite and bituminous coal used for residential heating. A residential coal stove was operated with both coals, while comparin...

  2. Transport improvement, commuting costs, and residential location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of introducing new transportation on residential travel patterns is presented. Data are based on changes in residential location of urban commuters that alter the mode and length of work trips as well as economic factors.

  3. A Revaluation of Indexes of Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winship, Christopher

    1977-01-01

    Shows that there are at least two different perspectives from which residential segregation can be examined. Segregation can be measured as it deviates from a situation of complete desegregation or in terms of a situation in which there is random segregation in the city. New criteria for indexes of residential segregation are developed. (Author/JM)

  4. School Segregation, Residential Segregation: Some Speculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Nathan

    This essay addressed the question of to what extent does school segregation and school desegregation policy shape residential segregation. Census data, ethnic segregation, voluntary self-segregation, and attitude surveys are discussed in the residential segregation section. The Wolf and Lebeaux study is critically appraised in reference to school…

  5. Residential Segregation: Challenge to White America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the problem of residential segregation and demonstrates that it is a problem of social structure. The author contends that residential segregation has affirmed the continued subordination of blacks in American society over the past 50 years. New leadership in the Department of Housing and Urban Development is viewed as a positive…

  6. 78 FR 32124 - Community Residential Care

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... approval is revoked. On May 13, 1996, 61 FR 21965, VA redesignated Sec. 17.51n as Sec. 17.67. We are... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO62 Community Residential Care AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... concerning approval of non-VA community residential care facilities to allow VA to waive such...

  7. Residential Differences in Cohabitors' Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Snyder, Anastasia R.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, we examine residential variation in cohabiting women's union outcomes. Prior work has shown that although there are no residential differences in cohabitation, nonmetro women are more likely than others to marry directly and hold more favorable attitudes toward marriage. Building on this…

  8. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  9. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  10. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  11. Involvement of Wives in Farm Tasks as Related to Characteristics of the Farm, the Family and Work Off the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Ahrens, Nancy

    In an attempt to determine the basis of the farm wife's involvement in farm tasks, hypotheses regarding farm size and type, family cycle and wife's age, off-farm work of husband or wife, and family educational levels were tested in a 1978 random questionnaire survey of 532 Wisconsin farm families. As expected, wives were more involved with farm…

  12. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  13. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  14. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-06-26

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements.

  15. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  16. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  17. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  18. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  19. In Uzbekistan, Is It Farm Management or FARM "Management?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James S.; Luery, Andrea

    A broad spectrum of stakeholders in Uzbekistan were interviewed to identify areas in which Winrock International's Farmer-to-Farmer program volunteers could be targeted to help Uzbeks complete the transition to privatized farms. The interviews revealed that Uzbeks have a much broader conception of the "farm" than do people in Western countries and…

  20. Residential solar home resale analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    One of the determinants of the market acceptance of solar technologies in the residential housing sector is the value placed upon the solar property at the time of resale. The resale factor is shown to be an important economic parameter when net benefits of the solar design are considered over a typical ownership cycle rather than the life cycle of the system. Although a study of solar resale in Davis, Ca, indicates that those particular homes have been appreciating in value faster than nonsolar market comparables, no study has been made that would confirm this conclusion for markets in other geograhical locations with supporting tests of statistical significance. The data to undertake such an analysis is available through numerous local sources; however, case by case data collection is prohibitively expensive. A recommended alternative approach is to make use of real estate market data firms who compile large data bases and provide multi-variate statistical analysis packages.

  1. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  2. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  3. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  4. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  5. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  6. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  7. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes...

  8. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  9. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Improved residential real estate. 541.16 Section... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  10. 12 CFR 141.23 - Residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential real estate. 141.23 Section 141.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes...

  11. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Improved residential real estate. 541.16 Section... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  12. 12 CFR 141.23 - Residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential real estate. 141.23 Section 141.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes...

  13. 12 CFR 141.23 - Residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential real estate. 141.23 Section 141.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes...

  14. 12 CFR 141.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 141.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  15. 12 CFR 141.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 141.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  16. 12 CFR 141.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 141.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  17. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes...

  18. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other...

  19. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  20. Electrocution Hazards on the Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... by overhead power lines, standby generators, and general operating procedures of electrical systems at the farm work site. Electrocution hazards The ... electricity generated by a farm operation’s emergency power system from entering the ... operating precautions, equipment can come in contact with electrical ...

  1. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  2. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  3. Final materials, processes, and testing progress report for residential and non-residential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, S. E.; Themelis, M. P.

    1982-06-01

    I-V curves were generated for the prototype residential photovoltaic modules at both the Northeast Residential Experiment Station (NE RES) and the Southwest Residential Experiment Station (SW RES). Analyses of these measurements are given. Also presented are site measurements at Mead, Nebraska, and at Bryan, Ohio. Visual and electrical failure analysis results are also given for photovoltaic modules at Mead, Nebraska, at Bryan, Ohio, and at the Natural Bridges National Monument.

  4. Photovoltaic Residential Applications Program Implementation Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two major aspects of the workshop are presented: (1) presentations on the Photovoltaic program and the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration program, and (2) discussions on the issues pertinent to the Residential Application program.

  5. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  6. Converting Residential Drawing Courses to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the process of metric conversion in residential drafting courses. Areas of concern are metric paper sizes; metric scale; plot, foundation, floor and electric plans; wall sections; elevations; and heat loss/ heat gain calculations. (SK)

  7. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used by persons active in the real estate industry in the affected area. (b) HUD shall establish such... constitutes a local economic market for the purchase and sale of residential real estate. In...

  8. RESIDENTIAL RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION FEATURE SELECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a proposed residential radon resistant construction feature selection system. The features consist of engineered barriers to reduce radon entry and accumulation indoors. The proposed Florida standards require radon resistant features in proportion to regional...

  9. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    SciTech Connect

    Godfree, J.

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  10. Technician Losses in Public Residential Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharia, E. S.; Baumeister, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A cross-organizational longitudinal survey was undertaken of 12 state-operated residential facilities for the mentally retarded to gauge the extent to which technician-level work forces are affected by turnover and absenteeism. (Author/CL)

  11. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  12. Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Roof, Wade Clark

    1976-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the age, size, percent black, and occupational income differential in 32 southern cities, the findings show that age is still the strongest predictor of residential segregation. (Author)

  13. Saying Good-bye in Residential Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Presents the case history of a 13-year-old asthmatic boy in residential treatment in order to illustrate how experiences in the milieu can become a vehicle for a child to gain better control over separation anxiety. (CM)

  14. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  15. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  16. Utility integration issues of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamayee, Z. A.; Peschon, J.

    1981-05-01

    The economic aspects of residential solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are discussed from the electric utility perspective. The following schemes of SPV integration are considered: (1) SPV with complete utility buy-back and backup; (2) SPV with utility system storage; and (3) SPV with residential storage. Estimates are made of the price that the utility might pay for SPV owner's surplus energy compared to what it would charge for deficits by evaluating economic savings of SVP to the utility.

  17. Residential photovoltaic system simulation: Thermal aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, G. W.; Raghuraman, P.

    1982-04-01

    A TRNSYS simulation was developed to simulate the performance of utility interactive residential photovoltaic energy systems. The PV system is divided into its major functional components, which are individually described with computer models. These models are described in detail. The results of simulation and actual measured data obtained a MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Northeast Residential Station are compared. The thermal influences on the design of such photovoltaic energy systems are given particular attention.

  18. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  19. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  20. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  1. Short-Stay Residential Experience: Residential Work by Secondary School Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    Most secondary schools in Great Britain today have implemented residential courses. They have built, bought, or adapted premises ranging from derelict colleges to country houses for use as residential centers where students may spend from a few days to several weeks studying, working, or learning to use leisure time. This publication examines…

  2. Residential Programming for Mentally Retarded Persons. Volume III, Developmental Programming in the Residential Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Children, Arlington, TX. South Central Regional Office.

    The third of four booklets on residential programing for the mentally retarded is intended to help parents evaluate residential services and participate in decisions about program design and implementation. Areas of appropriate program emphasis are indicated for different age groups and for the various degrees of mental retardation from profound…

  3. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  4. Redefining Residential: Family-Driven Care in Residential Treatment--Family Members Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is the sixth in a series of papers issued by the American Association of Children's Residential Centers (AACRC) regarding emerging and best practices in the field of residential treatment for children, youth, and families. AACRC is a long standing national association focused exclusively on practice and policy issues related to the provision…

  5. Modelling pastoral farm systems--scaling from farm to region.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, Iris; Vibart, Ronaldo; Mackay, Alec; Dennis, Samuel; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef

    2014-06-01

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used to inform and evaluate policy options on the impacts of land use change on regional environmental and economic performance. In this study, the common approach of up-scaling representative farm systems to a regional scale, with a limited input of resource information, was compared with a new approach that links a geospatial land resource information data base (NZLRI, Agribase™) that includes independent estimates of the productive capacity of land parcels, with individual farm-scale simulation (Farmax® Pro and Farmax® Dairy Pro) and nutrient budgeting models (Overseer®). The Southland region of New Zealand, which is currently undergoing enormous land use change, was used as a case study. Model outputs from the new approach showed increased profit of about 75% for the region if the current land area under dairying increases from 16% to 45%, with the shift to dairy constrained to high pasture production classes only. Environmental impacts associated with the change were substantial, with nitrate leaching estimated to increase by 35% and greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Up-scaling of representative farm systems to the regional scale with limited input of resource information predicted lower potential regional profit and higher N leaching from dairy conversion. The new approach provides a farm scale framework that could easily be extended to include different systems, different levels of farming performance and the use of mitigation technologies. PMID:24657579

  6. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  7. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  8. Dairying. People on the Farm. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of two dairy farm families, the Schwartzbecks and the Bealls of Maryland. Beginning with early morning milking, the booklet traces the farm families through their daily work and community activities, explaining how a modern dairy farm is run. Although this booklet…

  9. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  10. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  11. Invisible Divide: Farm Workers and Telephone Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Delgadillo, Viviana; Flores, Nicolas; Ramirez, Debora

    2003-01-01

    A survey of California farm workers (n=34), former farm workers (n=7), vendors of telephone technology (n=13), and farm camp managers (n=5) revealed a pattern of low access to and availability of telephones and problems in the use of prepaid telephone cards. Results show that farm worker communities are largely forgotten in discussions of the…

  12. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  13. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  14. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  15. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  16. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency assesses each farming operation...

  17. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency assesses each farming operation...

  18. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency, in...

  19. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  20. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required. PMID:24445079

  1. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  2. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  3. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  4. Mercury Contamination: Review of a Residential Response.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella R

    2012-02-01

    A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex.To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect.A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

  5. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  6. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  7. Low back pain in Hispanic residential carpenters☆

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, David P.; Enebo, Brian A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Vela Acosta, Martha Soledad; Hautaluoma, Jacob E.; Bigelow, Philip L.; Rosecrance, John; Herron, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of lost work time and has been recognized as America's number one workplace safety challenge. Low back pain is occurring at epidemic proportions among construction workers, and minority populations have been underinvestigated for risk of back injury. This project investigated the multiple potential risk factors for occupational LBP among Hispanic residential carpenters. Methods This investigation evaluated 241 Hispanic residential framing carpenters. Data for this study were collected using a 91-question survey. End points of interest included point, annual, and lifetime prevalence of LBP. Results Nineteen percent of respondents reported they had an episode of LBP in their lifetime. Conclusions Hispanic residential carpenters reported less than expected prevalence of LBP compared with non-Hispanic counterparts in the same trade and location. Job tasks and personal and workplace risk factors, including psychological and morphological characteristics, affect the prevalence of LBP among Hispanic framing carpenters. PMID:19674688

  8. Labor Used on U.S. Farms, 1964-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Such factors as type of farm, farm production region, and farm size affect the percentage of farms hiring workers, the number of hours worked by hired workers, the length of the farm workweek, and the hours of labor used per $100 of sales. Labor costs and shortages most directly affected farms that sold $20,000 or more of farm products in 1964 and…

  9. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  10. Evaluation of Updated Standard Operating Proceduresfor Residential Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Operating Procedures for Residential Exposure Assessment (i.e., Residential SOPs) is a set of standard instructions for estimating exposure resulting from various non-occupational pesticide uses including lawn and garden care, foggers, and pet treatments.

  11. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on...

  12. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on...

  13. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on...

  14. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on...

  15. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  16. Nitrate production and availability in residential soils.

    PubMed

    Raciti, Steve M; Groffman, Peter M; Jenkins, Jennifer C; Pouyat, Richard V; Fahey, Timothy J; Pickett, Steward T A; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2011-10-01

    The rapid increase in residential land area in the United States has raised concern about water pollution associated with nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrate (NO3-) is the form of reactive N that is most susceptible to leaching and runoff; thus, a more thorough understanding of nitrification and NO3(-) availability is needed if we are to accurately predict the consequences of residential expansion for water quality. In particular, there have been few assessments of how the land use history, housing density, and age of residential soils influence NO3(-) pools and fluxes, especially at depth. In this study, we used 1 m deep soil cores to evaluate potential net nitrification and mineralization, microbial respiration and biomass, and soil NO3(-) and NH4+ pools in 32 residential home lawns that differed by previous land use and age, but had similar soil types. These were compared to eight forested reference sites with similar soils. Our results suggest that a change to residential land use has increased pools and production of reactive N, which has clear implications for water quality in the region. However, the results contradict the common assumption that NO3(-) production and availability is dramatically higher in residential soils than in forests in general. While net nitrification (128.6 +/- 15.5 mg m(-2) d(-1) vs. 4.7 +/- 2.3 mg m(-2) d(-1); mean +/- SE) and exchangeable NO3(-) (3.8 +/- 0.5 g/m2 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.3 g/m2) were significantly higher in residential soils than in forest soils in this study, these measures of NO3(-) production and availability were still notably low, comparable to deciduous forest stands in other studies. A second unexpected result was that current homeowner management practices were not predictive of NO3(-) availability or production. This may reflect the transient availability of inorganic N after fertilizer application. Higher housing density and a history of agricultural land use were predictors of greater NO3(-) availability in residential

  17. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  18. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  19. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16 Section 541.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate...

  20. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…

  1. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 6, Number 2, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "CWLA's Position on Residential Care"; (2) "The View of Adolescent Life: Perceptions and Realities" ( Lisa Moore Willis); (3) "Assessing Youth Preferences for Adult Behavior in Residential Care: A Replication" (Jack T. Bowers, III, Robert J. Jones, Gary D.…

  2. Benefits of Residential and Nonresidential Youth Summer Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David M.; Driver, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes survey made as part of Youth Conservation Corps evaluation. Compares personal benefits of residential camping with benefits of nonresidential camps. Concludes residential participants benefited in different ways and to greater extent than nonresidential campers. Residential camping benefits measurable at least nine months after…

  3. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  4. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  5. Youth Departing from Residential Care: A Gender Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Epstein, Michael H.; Reid, Robert; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Orduna, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Although females represent almost half of all youth involved in residential care in the US, very little is known about this population. In order to examine differences in characteristics of male (n = 308) and female (n = 180) youth departing from residential care, data were collected on 488 youth from a large residential treatment facility in the…

  6. Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Dzoma, B M; Sejoe, S; Segwagwe, B V E

    2008-06-01

    A survey-based study was carried out to assess the state of crocodile farming in Botswana. A prepared, structured questionnaire was dispatched to crocodile farmers based on a directory provided by the Fisheries section of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and National Parks. The oldest farm was established in 1986. An average of three farms have been in operation since then, all of which obtained their stock from the Okavango and Thamalakane rivers in Botswana. The current stock averages 5,419 animals as follows: breeders 4%, hatchlings 56%, and growers 40%. The average clutch size and average hatchability were 47 eggs/clutch and 67% respectively. Mortality among hatchings and growers averaged 8.3% up to 12 weeks of age. Only one farm encountered some problems with Salmonella and fungal infections of the belly. Raw skins are sold to South Africa as a result of the absence of a tannery. Crocodile farming should be encouraged in Botswana since a good market for crocodile products already exists. PMID:18509947

  7. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  8. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, a public database that characterizes the performance and costs of common residential energy efficiency measures. The data are available for use in software programs that evaluate cost-effective retrofit measures to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The database provides a single, consistent source of current data for DOE and private-sector energy audit and simulation software tools and the retrofit industry. The database will reduce risk for residential retrofit industry stakeholders by providing a central, publicly vetted source of up-to-date information.

  9. Farm 2000 and other projects

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, D.V.

    1981-07-20

    Three projects are discussed here: Farm 2000 (a tractorless, energy self-sufficient farm); an energy self-sufficient farm building; and a mobile, three-in-one still, fertilizer spreader and standby generator. The mobile still produces 20 to 25 gallons of 196-proof alcohol per hour, or roughly 50 to 65 gallons per 750 gallons of mash. The diesel powered generator provides electricity for the vacuum pump and for fermentation heat, consuming approximately 2.4 gallons of fuel each hour, and because it can be towed, the by-product can be spread as fertilizer without transferring it to other equipment. This is the invention of Dr. Vladimir Tica, the president of Solar Energy Innovations Corp., Maspeth, NY.

  10. Data Farming and Defense Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Gary; Meyer, Ted

    2011-01-01

    .Data farm,ing uses simulation modeling, high performance computing, experimental design and analysis to examine questions of interest with large possibility spaces. This methodology allows for the examination of whole landscapes of potential outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that outliers might be captured and examined for insights. It can be used to conduct sensitivity studies, to support validation and verification of models, to iteratively optimize outputs using heuristic search and discovery, and as an aid to decision-makers in understanding complex relationships of factors. In this paper we describe efforts at the Naval Postgraduate School in developing these new and emerging tools. We also discuss data farming in the context of application to questions inherent in military decision-making. The particular application we illustrate here is social network modeling to support the countering of improvised explosive devices.

  11. Farm accidents and injuries among farm families and workers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cummings, P H

    1991-09-01

    Farm accident facts traditionally have been difficult to collect because of the wide array of farm family and non-family involvement in farming practices. Areas commonly involved in farm related accidents include farm machinery, tractor overturns, farm animals, farm trucks, hand and power tools, household items, chemicals, and garden equipment. Two purposes of this descriptive study were to examine, over a 1 year period, the demographic features and types, severity, and mechanisms of injury among farm families and their workers in a representative county in South Carolina, and to develop a two part mail-out questionnaire for data collection relative to farm work related accidents. The researcher concluded that farm accidents are sparsely researched; that traditional data collection methods are difficult, expensive, and time consuming; and that mail-out questionnaires are not a very effective method of collecting data relative to farm accidents, since farmers proved very reluctant to report accidents. PMID:1888396

  12. MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUS RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wateer use is visualized as a customer-server interaction often encountered in queueing theory. Individual customers are assumed to arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, then engage water servers for random lengths of time. Busy servers are assumed t...

  13. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  14. MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUS RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential water use is visualized as a customer-server interaction often encountered in queuing theory. ndividual customers are assumed to arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, then engage water servers for random lengths of time. usy servers are assumed to draw...

  15. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  16. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  17. Distinctively American: The Residential Liberal Arts College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koblik, Steven, Ed.; Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book seeks to examine the residential liberal arts colleges as an institution, from its role in the lives of students, to its value as a form of education. It explores the threat faced by liberal arts colleges, as well as the transformative role, but positive and negative, information technology will play in future development and survival.…

  18. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  19. Maintaining Cultural Integrity in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazaratz, Don

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural residential placement of children and adolescents requires careful attention to the youth's culture of origin, so that the delivery of the treatment service is respectful of his or her way of life. Cultural protection in treatment facilities, as a principle, ensures that the traditions, symbols, values, norms, and the worldview, as…

  20. Residential solar-heating/cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents progress of residential solar-heating and cooling system development program at 5-month mark of anticipated 17-month program. System design has been completed, and development and component testing has been initiated. Report includes diagrams, operation overview, optimization studies of subcomponents, and marketing plans for system.

  1. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  2. A Curriculum for the Residential Educable Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Wisconsin Colony and Training School, Union Grove.

    Organized so that each teacher may use some latitude in planning teaching approaches, the guide describes the sequential curriculum used with educable mentally retarded children in a residential setting. Arithmetic, language arts, science, and social studies are outlined separately for preprimary, primary, and intermediate levels. Vocational units…

  3. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  4. Small Child Care Facilities in Residential Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giegerich & Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    One part of a three-part investigation prepared for the Montgomery County Planning Board in Silver Spring, Maryland, this study addresses planning and site planning issues arising from the location of child care facilities in residential settings. The study, which emphasizes homes and centers which care for 7 to 20 children, provides a detailed…

  5. Residential mobility breeds familiarity-seeking.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility. PMID:21843015

  6. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  7. The Residential Center: Corrections in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Sometimes called "halfway houses," the residential centers provide correctional services needed in the transition of selected offenders from prison terms to productive roles in society. Their task includes building solid ties between the offender and the community, integrating him into community life, restoring family ties, and obtaining…

  8. Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.; Butterfield, Earl, Ed.

    The handbook on residential institutions, for professionals and students in the field of mental retardation, attempts to interpret the institution as a part of the culture which it serves, avoiding emotional responses but suggesting formulas for change. Characteristics of contemporary institutions for the mentally retarded are examined and…

  9. Consumer Decision Rules and Residential Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Jaffe, Austin J.

    1979-01-01

    As guidelines for residential financing, the authors compare different approaches to understanding and figuring the costs of home ownership: the relation of income to house price and housing costs, interest rate, and mortgage term. Instead of the traditional method, they recommend the time value of money approach. (MF)

  10. Older Adults' Perceptions of Residential Relocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is a companion to a larger study of older adults who had made residential relocations that involved moving from one level of independence to another level. The current study examined the degree to which older individuals perceived their moves to be important, controllable, stressful, disruptive, and positive. (Author)

  11. Intentions and Expectations in Differential Residential Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, William; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes intentions and expectations in differential residential selection among families who had chose to move. Wives appear at face value to assess alternatives in the selection process rationally, to be aware of limitations in housing and location they will experience, and to have expectations about behavioral changes consistant…

  12. Residential GSHPs: Efficiency With Short Payback Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperman, Alissa; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-04-30

    This article discusses ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for residential application as an alternative to conventional HVAC systems. A listing of current space heating energy sources are presented which are then followed by a technology overview as advances have made GSHPs more efficient. The article concludes with potential energy savings offered by GSHPs and a brief market overview.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  14. Chapter 21: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Dimetrosky, S.; Parkinson, K.; Lieb, N.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  15. Assuring Residential Quality: Issues, Approaches and Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersani, Hank A., Jr.

    This report begins with discussion of several issues in the field of quality assurance in residential services for individuals with developmental disabilities. The issues include definitions of key terms, the role of ideology, major types of quality assurance, and dimensions of quality assurance. The report takes the position that primary values…

  16. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

  17. CHAMELEON AUTOMATED RESIDENTIAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected output of the project will be an experimentally determined Chameleon specification. The expected outcomes will include 1) a set of guidelines for implementing Chameleon in residential structures from both a retrofit and original design perspective and 2) a cost a...

  18. Residential Mobility among the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of short-distance residential moves in poor rural New York counties was much greater than nationally, driven by scarce affordable housing and changes in personal and household situations. Higher frequency movement was associated with younger age, fewer children, and weaker social support networks. Discusses impacts of high mobility…

  19. House Work: Jobs in Residential Upkeep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    For many people, domestic bliss does not involve cleaning, home repairs, or yard work. That doesn't mean that their vision of a happy home involves a dirty, broken-down house with an unkempt yard. It simply means that they prefer to pay others to do the grittier tasks of residential upkeep. And in doing so, they create employment opportunities for…

  20. Residential Camping for At Risk Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosberg, Bernard; Mellins, Claude A.; Pubentz, Jennifer L.

    A combination of experiential education and residential camping can have positive effects on preschool children with emotional, behavioral, and learning problems. Preschool Prep at Ramapo Anchorage Camp (Rhinebeck, New York) was developed to meet the specific needs of high-risk children aged 4-6. Many of the children come from unsafe urban…

  1. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  2. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  3. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  4. WHOLE-FARM PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dairy industry is undergoing rapid change to remain economically viable. Many farms are expanding herd size and increasing the importation of feed. Greater livestock numbers on a fixed land base has increased the risk of soil nutrient buildup and environmental pollution. This paper provides a ...

  5. How to Keep 'em Up On the Farm and Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    To counter elementary school children's ignorance about farming, a 1981 Agriculture in the Classroom Task Force recommended that states create their own groups and awareness programs. This article describes cooperative efforts between private and public sector organizations in Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Iowa, Oregon, and Virginia. An address and…

  6. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  8. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  9. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  10. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  11. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  12. General view of Crow Farm, view looking east of Crow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Crow Farm, view looking east of Crow Farm, showing farm house, hog house, and coal house - Jacob Crow Farm, Crow Creek Road, 1 mile south of intersection of Routes 15 & 28, Cameron, Marshall County, WV

  13. The Rapid Adjustment Farm Program's Influence on Other Farms in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeral, Kenneth D.

    The study investigated the diffusion of innovative farming practices from Rapid Adjustment Farms (RAF) to other farms in southeast Ohio. The RAF program, begun in 1968, introduced new technology and management practices to its participant farmers. After reviewing literature of farming programs' information diffusion, a descriptive survey was made…

  14. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  15. ANNUAL FARM LABOR REPORT - 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENHART, MARGOT WAKEMAN

    THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE WHICH INCLUDED ORGANIZATION, STAFF, OFFICES, ASSOCIATES AND ADVISORS, AND MEETINGS WAS PRESENTED. AT THE STATE LEVEL, THERE WAS A RISE IN OVERALL CROP PRODUCTION AND A DECREASE IN TOTAL CROPLAND HARVEST. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, URBAN ENCROACHMENT CHANGED THE NATURE OF PRODUCTION IN SOME AREAS AND…

  16. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  17. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  18. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  19. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  20. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  1. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in Soviet Russia.…

  2. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  3. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  4. The Persistence of Family Farming Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, John Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Presents data on the number, value, and distribution of the family farm between 1950 and 1982. Shows changes using five maps and two charts. Concludes that the geographical distribution of family farming areas has remained stable since World War II even though some farming systems have changed dramatically. (JDH)

  5. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  6. Managerial Perception and Success in Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Gilbert Lander

    To improve farm management instruction in vocational agriculture, survey data were secured from 125 young farmers in 35 Ohio counties to determine the relationship between their perception of themselves as entrepreneurs and their success in farming. The respondents represented a range of success in farming, were full-time farmers between the ages…

  7. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  8. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  9. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm products. 205.206 Section 205.206 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Interpretive Opinions § 205.206 Farm products....

  10. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm products. 205.206 Section 205.206 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Interpretive Opinions § 205.206 Farm products....

  11. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  12. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103...

  13. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  14. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  15. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103...

  16. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  17. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  18. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  19. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  20. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Fred K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Midwest, Plains, and Delta are among the regions hit hardest by the current farm crisis. The vulnerability of an area to the financial crisis in farming depends on the financial conditions of its farmers, its dependence on farming--especially on export-sensitive crops--and the strength of its nonfarm economy. (JHZ)

  1. Missouri Small Farm Family Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, George; And Others

    Records maintained by rural extension designees on the Missouri Small Farm Family Program, (initiated in 1972 by the cooperative extension service to help low income farm families learn to use available resources to improve their quality of life) provided data re: family characteristics, farm improvement progress, and improvement in the quality of…

  2. Kansas Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-four units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in farm management for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into twelve instructional areas: (1) Introduction to Financial Management, (2) Farm Business Arrangement, (3) Credit Management, (4) Budgeting, (5) Record Keeping, (6)…

  3. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  4. Farm Children's Work in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Harriett K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined farm children's work contribution to the household and farming operation, as reported by their mothers (N=263). Results showed that children began working at a very early age, and continued through adolescence. All adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 years helped with farm chores; fewer helped with household chores. (Author)

  5. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  8. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  10. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  11. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  12. Energy integrated farm system: Del Valle Hog Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Del Valle Hog Farm, a Texas hog farm with grain crops, is designed to conserve energy through methane generation, alcohol production, and efficient use of electrical energy. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: methane generation from swine manure to produce electricity and heat for alcohol fermentation and distillation and to produce hot water for heating the digester reactors and the hog feeding pens; and alcohol production from milo and distillation of 170 proof alcohol by use of methane and generated electricity. Specific energy technologies to be implemented are: anaerobic digester; gas compressors to store methane for peak demands; engine generator powered by methane; waste-heat exchanger on engine generator to produce hot water; continuous-process alcohol facility to produce 24 gal/day; and crop management.

  13. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new

  14. 76 FR 51344 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing... Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for FY...

  15. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  16. Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vang, Zoua M

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of housing supply in ethnic diversity and the residential segregation of Asian, African and eastern European immigrants from Irish nationals in Ireland. Housing supply is defined as the proportions of new housing, private rental accommodation and social housing among all housing units in an electoral district. Multivariate regressions reveal that, among all three housing supply variables, the proportion of private rentals had the largest effect on ethnic diversity and immigrant— Irish segregation. Areas with higher proportions of private rental units were more ethnically diverse, had greater presences of Africans, Asians and eastern Europeans (as opposed to high concentrations of Irish nationals) and exhibited greater integration between each of the three immigrant groups and Irish nationals. The article concludes with a discussion of immigrant assimilation and questions whether the patterns of residential integration observed would further facilitate other forms of social inclusion for immigrants in Irish society. PMID:21114091

  17. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  18. Residential air conditioner cycling: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, G.F.; Noell, S.K.

    1988-02-01

    Southern California Edison currently operates its Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program as a production program on a systemwide basis. Air conditioner cycling enables Edison to cycle, or switch off, at predetermined intervals, approximately 100,000 air conditioners throughout the Edison service areas. Activation of this system reduces peak demands for load shaping capability. Benefits of this method of peak reduction include the potential for system load factor improvement and/or for deferral of construction of new generation facilities. Edison began testing hardware for direct load control in 1976. Experimental test programs were implemented from 1978 through 1980. These successful test programs resulted in the decision to implement the Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program on a systemwide basis in 1983.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCES, RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY, AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE1

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth E.; Mare, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing both individual preferences and choices about where to live, and the implications of these choices for residential patterns. Although these methods are discussed in the context of residential choice, they can be applied more broadly to individual choices in a range of social contexts where behavior is interdependent. We review a variety of types of data on residential preferences and mobility and discuss appropriate statistical models for these data. We discuss the analysis of ranked and other types of clustered data; functional form issues; problems of unobserved heterogeneity in individuals and in neighborhoods; and strengths and weaknesses of stated preference data versus observations of actual mobility behavior. We also discuss specific problems with residential mobility data, including the treatment of one’s current location as a potential choice, how to specify the choice set of potential movers, the aggregation of units (such as dwelling units into neighborhoods) and the need to take account of variations in neighborhood size, the problem of very large choice sets and possible sampling solutions; and the link between residential mobility and patterns of neighborhood change. PMID:23476098

  20. Residential photovoltaic power systems for the northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. Each of these systems utilizes a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allows excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented, and performance results to date are discussed.

  1. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  2. Predicting elopement from residential treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Kashubeck, S; Pottebaum, S M; Read, N O

    1994-01-01

    To identify predictors of elopement in young patients in residential treatment, runaways were compared with a matched sample of nonrunaways. Runaways were more likely to have a history of elopement, a suspected history of sexual abuse, an affective disorder diagnosis, and parents whose rights had been terminated. The results suggested that the likelihood of elopement can be accurately predicted on the basis of patient characteristics known at admission. PMID:8147421

  3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Residential Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Supriya; Bandle, Brian; Niermeyer, Susan; Bol, Kirk A.; Khanna, Amber

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theories of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) suggest hypoxia is a common pathway. Infants living at altitude have evidence of hypoxia; however, the association between SIDS incidence and infant residential altitude has not been well studied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study by using data from the Colorado birth and death registries from 2007 to 2012. Infant residential altitude was determined by geocoding maternal residential address. Logistic regression was used to determine adjusted association between residential altitude and SIDS. We evaluated the impact of the Back to Sleep campaign across various altitudes in an extended cohort from 1990 to 2012 to assess for interaction between sleep position and altitude. RESULTS: A total of 393 216 infants born between 2007 and 2012 were included in the primary cohort (51.4% boys; mean birth weight 3194 ± 558 g). Overall, 79.6% infants resided at altitude <6000 feet, 18.5% at 6000 to 8000 feet, and 1.9% at >8000 feet. There were no meaningful differences in maternal characteristics across altitude groups. Compared with residence <6000 feet, residence at high altitude (>8000 feet), was associated with an adjusted increased risk of SIDS (odds ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval 1.01–5.24). Before the Back to Sleep campaign, the incidence of SIDS in Colorado was 1.99/1000 live births and dropped to 0.57/1000 live births after its implementation. The Back to Sleep campaign had similar effect across different altitudes (P = .45). CONCLUSIONS: Residence at high altitude was significantly associated with an increased adjusted risk for SIDS. Impact of the Back to Sleep campaign was similar across various altitudes. PMID:26009621

  4. Household and farm transitions in environmental context

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Glenn D.; Gutmann, Myron P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent debate in the literature on population, environment, and land use questions the applicability of theory that patterns of farm extensification and intensification correspond to the life course of farmers and to the life cycle of farm families. This paper extends the debate to the agricultural development of the United States Great Plains region, using unique data from 1875 to 1930 that link families to farms over time in 25 environmentally diverse Kansas townships. Results of multilevel statistical modeling indicate that farmer’s age, household size, and household structure are simultaneously related to both the extent of farm operations and the intensity of land use, taking into account local environmental conditions and time trends as Kansas was settled and developed. These findings validate farm- and life cycle theories and offer support for intergenerational motivations for farm development that include both daughters and sons. Environmental variation in aridity was a key driver of farm structure. PMID:21643468

  5. Evaluation of evolving residential electricity tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Judy; DeForest, Nicholas; Kiliccote, Sila; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-03-22

    Residential customers in California's Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) territory have seen several electricity rate structure changes in the past decade. A relatively simple two-tiered pricing system (charges by usage under/over baseline for the home's climate zone) was replaced in the summer of 2001 by a more complicated five-tiered system (usage below baseline and up to 30percent, 100percent, 200percent, and 300percent+ over baseline). In 2009, PG&E began the process of upgrading its residential customers to Smart Meters and laying the groundwork for time of use pricing, due to start in 2011. This paper examines the history of the tiered pricing system, discusses the problems the utility encountered with its Smart Meter roll out, and evaluates the proposed dynamic pricing incentive structures. Scenario analyses of example PG&E customer bills will also be presented. What would these residential customers pay if they were still operating under a tiered structure, and/or if they participated in peak hour reductions?

  6. Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.

  7. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  8. Projected integrated farm in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, K.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed integrated crop-livestock agro-processing complex to be based at Janakpur, Nepal is described. This project was proposed by the Agricultural Development Bank and is a small effort towards creating a self-sufficient rural community similar to one reported in China. The plan of the farm aims to achieve the integration of several agricultural, aquacultural, solar energy and biogas energy components with complete recycling of waste. These include biogas plants with associated slurry and storage tanks for operating a 3-kW generator, a 3.7-kW pump, providing domestic cooking, as well as energy to operate a fruit-processing plant. Energy for water heating, crop drying and refrigeration will be supplied by solar energy. Fish, livestock, fruits and vegetables will be produced by the farm.

  9. An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan; Sardinsky, Robert

    1995-10-01

    This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.

  10. Branchburg Solar Farm and Carport

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, John

    2013-10-23

    To meet the goal of becoming a model of green, clean, and efficient consumer of energy, the Township of Branchburg will install of a 250kw solar farm to provide energy for the Township of Branchburg Municipal Building, a 50kw Solar carport to provide power to the Municipal Annex, purchase 3 plug in hybrid-electric vehicles, and install 3 dual-head charging stations.

  11. Game from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Warning ... preparation/game-from-farm-to-table‭ Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Warning ...

  12. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.H.; Neubauer, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Weems, L.; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  13. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  14. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  15. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  16. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  17. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  18. Evaluation of Quality of Life of Those Living near a Wind Farm

    PubMed Central

    Mroczek, Bożena; Banaś, Joanna; Machowska-Szewczyk, Małgorzata; Kurpas, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can serve as a multidimensional means of evaluating the relationship between the presence of wind turbines in residential areas and their consequence for health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the presence of wind farms at different stages of development and the HRQoL of people living in their vicinity in Poland. Method: The instruments employed in this study were the SF-36v2, a questionnaire measuring self-reported health problems, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The study involved 1277 people who lived within 2 km from a wind turbine. Results: The highest overall QoL scores were obtained by respondents living the closest to wind turbines. The mental health, role emotional, and social functioning scores were significantly higher among respondents living near wind farms and wind-farm construction sites than among those living close to locations where wind farms were planned but where construction had not yet begun. Positive correlations were found between physical and mental component scores and reactions to the news of plans to construct a wind farm. Significant differences in physical and mental component scores were observed between residents who reacted calmly and those who responded with apprehension. Residents who expected the improvement of their financial standing as a result of the wind farm assessed their general health higher than those who did not expect to receive any economic benefits. The lowest QoL scores corresponded to frequent headaches, stomach aches, and back pain over the previous three months, as well as recurrent problems with falling asleep, anxiety, and a lack of acceptance of the project. Conclusion: The lowest overall QoL and general health scores were noted among residents of places where wind-farm developments were either at the stage of planning or under construction. In order to find ways of reducing environmental stress and its

  19. The Fermilab computing farms in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, S.

    1998-02-15

    The farms in 1997 went through a variety of changes. First, the farms expansion, begun in 1996, was completed. This boosted the computing capacity to something like 20,000 MIPS (where a MIP is a unit defined by running a program, TINY, on the machine and comparing the machine performance to a VAX 11/780). In SpecInt92, it would probably rate close to 40,000. The use of the farms was not all that large. The fixed target experiments were not generally in full production in 1997, but spent time tuning up code. Other users processed on the farms, but tended to come and go and not saturate the resource. Some of the old farms were retired, saving the lab money on maintenance and saving the farms support staff effort.

  20. Impacts of the Residential Conservation Service program on residential solar developments

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T.; Bircher, T.

    1981-04-01

    The roles of the various participants in the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program are examined, with special attention to their potential influence on the program's effectiveness in accelerating solar commercialization. Cooperation and support of the participants will be necessary for the information and implementation assistance goals of the program to be achieved, but resistance and obstructions are noted.

  1. Bullying in Adolescent Residential Care: The Influence of the Physical and Social Residential Care Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekol, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. Objective: By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in "Int J Adolesc Med Health" 24(1):63-68, 2012), this research examined the…

  2. Improving residential miscellaneous electrical load modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgett, Joseph M.

    Over the past 30 years, the intensity of all major energy use categories has decreased in the residential market with the exception of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs). MELs include primarily 120V plug-loads and some hard wired loads. MELs stand alone as the only category in which energy intensity has steadily increased over time. While MELs constitute approximately 15% - 25% of a typical home's total energy use, it is projected to increase to 36% by 2020. Despite the significant percentage of the home's total load, MELs are the least researched energy end use category and most poorly modeled. The Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index is the most widely used residential energy rating system and uses a simple square foot multiplier to model MELs. This study improves upon the HERS model by including occupant characteristics as part of the MEL model. This "new model" was created by regressing and explanatory equation from the Energy Information Agency's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The RECS has a very large sample size of 12,083 respondents who answered over 90 pages of questions related to home structure, appliances they own and demographical information. The information provided by the respondents was used to calculate a MEL for all the RECS households. A stepwise regression process was used to create a model that included size of the home, household income, number of household members and presence of a home business to predict the MEL. The new model was then tested on 24 actual homes to compare its predictive power with the HERS model. The new model more closely predicted the actual MEL for 17 of the 24 test houses (71%). Additionally, the standard deviation or the "tightness of fit" of the new model was less than half of the HERS model when used on the RECS respondents. What this study found was that using occupant characteristics to supplement a square foot multiplier significantly increased the precision of MEL modeling.

  3. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-10-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  4. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-08-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  5. Our 31,000 Largest Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolitch, Radoje

    Between 1959 and 1964, the number of farms with annual product sales of over $100,000 rose from 19,979 to 31,401, increasing this group's share of the market from 16 to 24 percent. During the same period, the 408 farms reaching the $1 million mark with a 4 percent share of the market increased to 919 farms with 7 percent of the market. This report…

  6. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  7. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  8. Residential lighting: Use and potential savings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) was the first to permit the estimation of annual kilowatt hours (kWh) used for lighting. The survey contained more detailed questions about the number of indoor lights used for specific amounts of time and more detailed questions about the use of outdoor lights than did previous surveys. In addition to these basic questions on the Household Questionnaire, the 1993 RECS also included a supplementary questionnaire, administered to a subset of households, that contained more detailed information about the types of lights used in the household, the rooms in which they were located, and the amount of time they were used.

  9. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  10. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  11. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  12. Interviews with widows following fatal farming incidents.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, A; Brandt, V

    2001-05-01

    Farm families have been identified traditionally with a strong family bond resulting from both living and working together. When a farming fatality occurs, surviving family members are left to deal with not only the tragedy of losing a loved one, but also the loss of a coworker. Although every family experiencing a loss will deal with bereavement issues, farm families are faced with additional challenges that differentiate them from other family situations. A qualitative research methodology was employed to understand the complex mix of challenges facing farm families after the death of a family member. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming widows in Kentucky to explore the stresses and challenges related to the farm business, family relationships, and the mental health of the individual members. Becoming the primary decision maker for the farm and household was a difficult role for the widows. Economic issues were an underlying consideration in many aspects of the experiences and changes they encountered. The need to make economic decisions almost immediately while continuing the necessary chores to maintain crops and livestock was very stressful and left little time for bereavement. Often the support from family, friends, and neighbors went beyond emotional comforting to providing help with farm chores and guidance on financial decisions. In developing resources for farm families in similar circumstances, it is important to understand how intertwined their lives are with their environment and the economics of the business. PMID:11465387

  13. Among farm variation in heifer BW gains.

    PubMed

    Bond, G B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Chapinal, N; Pajor, E A; Weary, D M

    2015-11-01

    BW of replacement heifers is rarely measured on commercial farms, making it difficult to evaluate the success of management practices related to calf growth. Our aims were to describe variability among commercial farms in Holstein heifer BW, determine how BW differences varied with management and propose a method of estimating calf growth based upon single measurement. Heart girth circumference was used to estimate BW of 576 heifers 48 to 70 weeks of age on 33 different farms (on average 11 ± 6 heifers/farm) in British Columbia, Canada. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship of BW with age (BW (kg)=116+5 × age (weeks)). Residuals from this regression were averaged across heifers within each farm to identify farms where heifers were heavier or lighter than would be predicted on the basis of their age; farm average residuals ranged from -54 to 72 kg. Farms with heifers showing the highest residual BW also had the highest rates of gain for pre-weaned calves. These results indicate that farms able to rear faster growing calves before weaning were also rearing faster growing heifers at breeding, and suggest that management of milk-fed calves is a particularly important component of replacement heifer management. PMID:26477529

  14. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  15. Hearing loss among high school farm students.

    PubMed Central

    Broste, S K; Hansen, D A; Strand, R L; Stueland, D T

    1989-01-01

    To study the prevalence of hearing loss among teen-aged farm children in central Wisconsin, audiometric threshold testing of 872 vocational agriculture students was carried out over a three-year period. The results indicate an increased prevalence of hearing loss among students actively involved in farm work, as compared to their peers not involved in farm work. Findings also suggest that use of hearing protection may reduce the risk of hearing loss among students who work on the farm, although few students report the use of such devices. These data also suggest that the hearing loss often observed in adult farmers may begin in childhood. PMID:2784948

  16. Residential normalcy and environmental experiences of very old people: changes in residential reasoning over time.

    PubMed

    Granbom, Marianne; Himmelsbach, Ines; Haak, Maria; Löfqvist, Charlotte; Oswald, Frank; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    The decision to relocate in old age is intricately linked to thoughts and desires to stay put. However, most research focuses either on strategies that allow people to age in place or on their reasons for relocation. There is a need for more knowledge on very old peoples' residential reasoning, including thoughts about aging in place and thoughts about relocation as one intertwined process evolving in everyday life. The aim of this study was to explore what we refer to as the process of residential reasoning and how it changes over time among very old people, and to contribute to the theoretical development regarding aging in place and relocation. Taking a longitudinal perspective, data stem from the ENABLE-AGE In-depth Study, with interviews conducted in 2003 followed up in interviews in 2011. The 16 participants of the present study were 80-89years at the time of the first interview. During analysis the Theoretical Model of Residential Normalcy by Golant and the Life Course Model of Environmental Experience by Rowles & Watkins were used as sensitizing concepts. The findings revealed changes in the process of residential reasoning that related to a wide variety of issues. Such issues included the way very old people use their environmental experience, their striving to build upon or dismiss attachment to place, and their attempts to maintain or regain residential normalcy during years of declining health and loss of independence. In addition, the changes in reasoning were related to end-of-life issues. The findings contribute to the theoretical discussion on aging in place, relocation as a coping strategy, and reattachment after moving in very old age. PMID:24655669

  17. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  18. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  19. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  20. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  1. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  2. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  3. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  5. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  7. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  9. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  11. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  12. 38 CFR 21.298 - Selecting a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selecting a farm. 21.298... Course Approval and Facility Selection § 21.298 Selecting a farm. (a) Control of the farm—farm operator. A farm selected for farm cooperative training must be under the control of the veteran by...

  13. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  15. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  19. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  20. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  1. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  2. Crop Farm Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chester; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Vocational Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 13 units for crop farm employees. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (opportunities in farming, farming as a science, and farming in the United States), farm records (keeping farm…

  3. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  4. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-02-23

    A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment.

  10. CPS and the Fermilab farms

    SciTech Connect

    Fausey, M.R.

    1992-06-01

    Cooperative Processes Software (CPS) is a parallel programming toolkit developed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It is the most recent product in an evolution of systems aimed at finding a cost-effective solution to the enormous computing requirements in experimental high energy physics. Parallel programs written with CPS are large-grained, which means that the parallelism occurs at the subroutine level, rather than at the traditional single line of code level. This fits the requirements of high energy physics applications, such as event reconstruction, or detector simulations, quite well. It also satisfies the requirements of applications in many other fields. One example is in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of computational chemistry, the process of drug design may be accelerated with this approach. CPS programs run as a collection of processes distributed over many computers. CPS currently supports a mixture of heterogeneous UNIX-based workstations which communicate over networks with TCP/IR CPS is most suited for jobs with relatively low I/O requirements compared to CPU. The CPS toolkit supports message passing remote subroutine calls, process synchronization, bulk data transfers, and a mechanism called process queues, by which one process can find another which has reached a particular state. The CPS software supports both batch processing and computer center operations. The system is currently running in production mode on two farms of processors at Fermilab. One farm consists of approximately 90 IBM RS/6000 model 320 workstations, and the other has 85 Silicon Graphics 4D/35 workstations. This paper first briefly describes the history of parallel processing at Fermilab which lead to the development of CPS. Then the CPS software and the CPS Batch queueing system are described. Finally, the experiences of using CPS in production on the Fermilab processor farms are described.

  11. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  12. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  13. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  14. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  15. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  16. On-farm energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Nagelvoort, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacture of biogas by manure fermentation, use of digested solids as bedding material for cows and calves, and the use of liquids containing 85% nutrients present in the digested manure as fertilizer are reported. The digester system provides electricity for the entire farm and milk-bottling facilities, an average of approximately 100 kW/h is being produced at an overall engine-generator efficiency of approximately 25%. From the manure of approximately 800 cows more than 60,000 cu.ft gas is obtained at a retention period of approximately 22 days.

  17. Tank farms essential drawing plan

    SciTech Connect

    Domnoske-Rauch, L.A.

    1998-08-04

    The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF.

  18. Neither "Family" nor "Corporate" Farming: Australian Tomato Growers as Farm Family Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Bill; Burch, David; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    For the past two decades there has been much debate about the future of family farming. The basic question on which this debate has turned is whether current pressures on family farm systems should be understood as symptomatic of a terminal condition, in which farmers are replaced progressively by corporate ownership; or whether family farms will…

  19. The Family Farm in California. Final Report of the Small Farm Viability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Economic Development, Sacramento. Community Services Administration.

    Most of California's farms are relatively small, family run operations, and their future has been called into question by current agricultural trends. The Small Farm Viability Planning Project was initiated to identify obstacles to small farm economic viability and make recommendations to the state on policies and actions that might reduce these…

  20. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

  1. Whole-Farm Evaluation of Phosphorus Crystallization as a Dairy Farm BMP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently proven method for precipitating significant phosphorus from dairy lagoons was incorporated to the Integrated Farm System Model. A whole-farm analysis of this BMP, including environmental and economical effects, were evaluated for an organic dairy farm in Washington. The BMP provides a non...

  2. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  3. Finding Farms: Comparing Indicators of Farming Dependence and Agricultural Importance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; Jensen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Many scholars have commented on the changing significance of farming for understanding the dynamics of social and economic change in contemporary rural America. Quantitative analyses of relationships between farming, local socioeconomic conditions, demographic trends, and policy have often relied on an indicator of "farm-dependent" (FD) counties…

  4. INSTRUCTION IN FARM MECHANICS, SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS IN FARM MECHANICS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLLENBERG, A.H.; JOHNSON, E.J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN TRAINING YOUNG FARMERS AND FARM WORKERS IN THE SELECTION, OPERATION, UTILIZATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF FARM TOOLS, MACHINERY, AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT. DESIGNED BY NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION SPECIALISTS, THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES CHAPTERS ON THE CHANGING FARM, SETTING UP PROGRAMS, FARM…

  5. Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

  6. Whole-farm phosphorus loss from grazing-based dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural farms persists as a water quality impairment issue. For dairy farms, P can be lost from cropland, pastures, and open-air lots. We used interview surveys to document land use, cattle herd characteristics, and manure management for four grazing-based dairy farms i...

  7. Spatial Analysis of Changes in the Number of Farms during the Farm Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasier, Kathryn J.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis reexamines factors affecting farm change during the Farm Crisis using spatial analysis techniques to identify important spatial factors and correct for spatial autocorrelation. Results indicate the importance of indicators of farm structure, percent of prime farmland, and state-level processes in predicting changes in the number of…

  8. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Indiana. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Freddie L.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 337 Indiana farm operators (a 24% response rate) and 289 spouses (a 21% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  9. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Michigan. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Colletta H.; Vlasin, Raymond D.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 331 Michigan farm operators (a 33% response rate) and 319 spouses (a 31% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

  10. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  11. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Ohio. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobao, Linda; Meyer, Katherine

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 388 Ohio farm operators (a 38.8% response rate) and 353 spouses as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The purpose of the survey…

  12. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Kansas. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biere, Arlo

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 342 Kansas farm operators (a 34% response rate) and 313 spouses (a 31% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  13. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Wisconsin. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; Eisenhauer, Janet

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 622 Wisconsin farm operators (a 39% response rate) and 525 spouses as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The purpose of the…

  14. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  15. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Missouri. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl; Klein, Tanna

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 192 Missouri farm operators (a 21% response rate) and 166 spouses (an 18% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

  16. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Iowa. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 311 Iowa farm operators (a 31% response rate) and 288 spouses (a 29% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  17. Farm Management Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-five units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in farm management for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into 12 instructional areas: (1) Introduction to Financial Management, (2) Farm Business Arrangement, (3) Credit Management, (4) Budgeting, (5) Recordkeeping, (6) Record…

  18. Farm Viability: Results of the USDA Family Farm Surveys. Rural Development Research Report No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salant, Priscilla; And Others

    The financial well-being of farm households in 29 Mississippi and Tennessee counties in 1980 and 8 Wisconsin counties in 1982 were analyzed. More than 90 percent of families planning to leave farming were viable under economic conditions at survey time. Almost half of Wisconsin dairy farm households were not viable. Higher debt, younger operator…

  19. Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  20. Sustaining a Rural Black Farming Community in the South: A Portrait of Brooks Farm, Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Valerie; Effland, Anne B. W.

    1997-01-01

    Brooks Farm is an independent Black farming community unique in the Mississippi Delta. A community case study shows that, despite declining population and resources, Brooks Farm has drawn on the strength of its traditional institutions (family, churches, civic groups) to sustain community life and to continue to provide services to the elderly,…

  1. The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm. Farming Experiences for Children with Mental Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ronald A.

    The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm, which was developed in 1974 with volunteer labor and over $100,000 in donations, provides farm experiences for the mentally handicapped students of the Helen J. Stewart School in Las Vegas, Nevada. The farm and animals are part of the school's emphasis on vocational training, and every effort is made to help prepare…

  2. THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF BEGINNING FARM OPERATORS IN BECOMING ESTABLISHED IN FARMING IN NEW YORK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEARCE, FRANK CHARLES

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE SITUATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEGINNING FARM OPERATORS WHICH INFLUENCE ESTABLISHMENT IN FARMING. KEY INFORMANTS IN EACH COUNTY OF NEW YORK IDENTIFIED 2,260 BEGINNING FARM OPERATORS WHO WERE STRATIFIED BY REGION AND DAIRY COWHERD SIZE. CLUSTER SAMPLES WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED. AN INTERVIEW…

  3. Dynamic pricing? Not so fast. a residential consumer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Barbara R.

    2010-07-15

    With the installation of smart metering, will residential customers be moved to ''dynamic'' pricing? Some supporters of changing residential rate design from a fixed and stable rate structure believe customers should be required to take electric service with time-variant price signals. Not so fast, though. There are real implications associated with this strategy. (author)

  4. Classification of Residential Facilities for Mentally Retarded People. Brief #24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B. K.; Lakin, K. C.

    This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of residential facilities for mentally retarded people based on program model, size, and operation. Data are presented on the use of the classification system in a national survey of 15,633 residential facilities for mentally retarded persons in the United States. Program models are defined…

  5. Residential Education as an Option for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beker, Jerome, Ed.; Magnuson, Douglas, Ed.

    Residential treatment centers have always steered a course between bureaucracy and anarchy. The conventional professional wisdom in the United States holds that residential group care programs for children and youth are intrinsically flawed. This volume seeks to remedy this perception by making a case for the adoption of Israeli and European…

  6. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  7. Building a Community of Learning through Early Residential Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathy; Larsen, Carl; Parry, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The positioning of residential fieldwork early in students' higher education is an established way of attempting to build and engage them in a community of learning. In the study reported here, the benefits of such early residential fieldwork were investigated using Krausse and Coates's seven scales of engagement. These scales consider a…

  8. Substance Use among Young People Living in Residential State Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence on substance use among young people living in residential state care during adolescence is comparatively limited. This paper reports on substance use trends of young people living in residential state care during three annual data-sweeps when aged 14, 15 and 16 years. A repeated cross-sectional research design was…

  9. Behind Closed Doors: Stories from the Kamloops Indian Residential School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Agness, Ed.

    Thirty-two Canada Natives who attended the Kamloops Indian Residential School agreed to share their stories in the form of this book. In this way, their families and communities could learn and understand what happened at the school, and all Canadians could know the truth about residential schools so that history is never repeated. Kamloops Indian…

  10. Differences in Outcome Trajectories of Children in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgerson, Jena; Martinovich, Zoran; Durkin, Elizabeth; Lyons, John S.

    2005-01-01

    At least three circumstances have converged to focus attention on the outcomes associated with residential treatment. First, the reduction in lengths of stay in the psychiatric hospital has resulted in residential treatment becoming the most expensive service on a per episode basis. Second, the increasing emphasis on the identification and use of…

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Residential Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabat, Julia Cathcart; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We examined the differential outcomes in residential treatment for youths with conduct disorder (CD)--with special attention paid to interactions with age and gender--in a sample of children and adolescents in 50 residential treatment centers and group homes across Illinois. Multi-disciplinary teams rated youths ages 6-20 (N = 457) on measures of…

  12. Residential Satisfaction and Levels of Environment in Students' Residences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amole, Dolapo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between residential satisfaction and levels of the residential environment. Specifically, it identifies the levels of environment to which users respond in relation to satisfaction, how significant satisfaction is across levels of environment, and the dimensions of satisfaction across the levels. The study…

  13. Residential Preferences: What's Terrorism Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, David; Geisler, Charles; Bills, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Security has long been recognized as an element in residential preference and its relative importance has risen with fear of extremist attacks on U.S. cities. Using polling data from 2004, this research investigates whether the security breaches of 9/11 in New York City influenced residential preferences in New York State. Our results confirm that…

  14. 20 CFR 638.514 - Residential support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residential support services. 638.514 Section 638.514 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.514 Residential support services. The center operator...

  15. 20 CFR 638.514 - Residential support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential support services. 638.514 Section 638.514 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.514 Residential support services. The center operator...

  16. Residential Learning Communities. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Residential learning communities in postsecondary education, also known as living-learning programs, aim to improve student learning and success by integrating students' academic and daily living environments. Students participating in these programs live together (usually in a residential dormitory), take certain classes together, and engage…

  17. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

  18. The Role of Residential Segregation in Contemporary School Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Inaction to address housing segregation in metropolitan areas has resulted in persistently high levels of residential segregation. As the Supreme Court has recently limited school districts' voluntary integration efforts, this article considers the role of residential segregation in maintaining racially isolated schools, namely what is known…

  19. No End of Grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    This book documents and comments on what is known about the Indian residential school era in Canada. The aftermath of this era has exacted a huge toll, both in the human suffering of First Nations and on Canadian society in general, but understanding the impact of residential schools can aid the healing process. Chapters are: (1) "Examining the…

  20. The Future of Family Engagement in Residential Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affronti, Melissa L.; Levison-Johnson, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Residential programs for children and youth are increasingly implementing engagement strategies to promote family-centered and family-driven models of care (Leichtman, 2008). The practice of engagement is a fairly new area of research, especially in residential care. Driven by their goal to increase the use of state-of-the-art family engagement…

  1. Residential Care in Illinois: Trends and Alternatives. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budde, Stephen; Mayer, Susan; Zinn, Andrew; Lippold, Melissa; Avrushin, Adam; Bromberg, Ava; Goerge, Robert; Courtney, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this multi-faceted exploratory study, administrative data were used to examine trends in residential care utilization by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) and youth outcomes from 1993 to 2003. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the factors associated with entry to residential care and…

  2. Examination of Negative Peer Contagion in a Residential Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…

  3. Family-Centered Residential Treatment: Knowledge, Research, and Values Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the evidence base for the effectiveness of residential treatment is still very limited, a review of the literature reveals family-centered residential care as an emerging best practice. Synthesizing knowledge from research, families, youth, professionals, as well as values put forth in the standards by accrediting organizations, this…

  4. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for...

  5. Minimizing Public Costs of Residential Growth. Coping With Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce; Beck, Richard

    Rapid residential growth in rural areas or on the fringes of urban areas brings both costs and benefits. Seven factors determine whether new homes and subdivisions generate more revenues than expenditures. Local governments can substantially influence four of these seven factors in order to reduce the public costs of residential growth. Less…

  6. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... which he received a loan of $5,000 from the Federal Solar-Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Assume... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or...

  7. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which he received a loan of $5,000 from the Federal Solar-Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Assume... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or...

  8. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which he received a loan of $5,000 from the Federal Solar-Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Assume... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or...

  9. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which he received a loan of $5,000 from the Federal Solar-Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Assume... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or...

  10. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... which he received a loan of $5,000 from the Federal Solar-Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Assume... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or...

  11. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 1, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Building Bridges between Service Delivery Providers, Families, and Youth (Lloyd Bullard); (2) The Promise of Professionalism Arrives in Practice:…

  12. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  13. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  14. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  15. The Education of Youth in DFY Residential Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Div. for Youth, Albany.

    This report describes educational programs at New York State Division for Youth (DFY) residential facilities. It provides an overview of the services offered to prepare adjudicated youth for successful return to the community. The Division's residential education services encourage student growth in cognitive, affective, and vocational skill…

  16. The Severely Disturbed Adolescent; Inpatient, Residential, and Hospital Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easson, William M.

    The text is an attempt to clarify specific indications for hospital treatment and to highlight the type of adolescent disturbance that might be helped in an inpatient therapeutic environment. Chapters discuss the prescription of residential treatment, the therapeutic facilities of a residential unit for disturbed adolescents, the continued…

  17. 20. VIEW OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS TAKEN IN 1911 LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS TAKEN IN 1911 LOOKING NORTHEAST PROBABLY FROM SWAN FALLS DAM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ARE COTTAGE 101, THE COTTAGE THAT BURNED IN 1921 (AND WAS REPLACED WITH COTTAGE 231), AND THE CLUB HOUSE. OTHER BUILDINGS IN FOREGROUND ARE STOREHOUSES AND SHOPS. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  18. Black Residential Segregation: Impact of State Licensing Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the level of Black residential segregation among two groups of States: those whose real estate licensing laws contain explicit fair housing or anti-discrimination provisions, and those whose licensing laws contain no such provisions. Found that State licensing laws have no significant impact on Black residential discrimination. (GC)

  19. Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

    1989-01-01

    Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

  20. Benchmarking the FCI at Illinois State's Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how Office of Residential Life at one university met maintenance challenges facing its residential and food-service facilities. Discusses study conducted in 1992 to evaluate widespread management practices and addresses its findings, including six recommended practices. Examines development and implementation of facilities audit,…