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1

THE EFFECTS OF OFF-ROAD VEHICLES ON ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the impacts and effects of off-road vehicles (ORV) on ecosystems have been a controversial subject across the United States and throughout the world (Webb and Wilshire, 1983). In the United States, it became an issue during the 1970s when environmentalists became concerned with ORV use on federal properties. During this time, scientific investigations were conducted to evaluate

Richard B. Taylor

2

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid...working head and tail lights. (d) In violation of...e) While under the influence of...

2010-07-01

3

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid...working head and tail lights. (d) In violation of...e) While under the influence of...

2013-07-01

4

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid...working head and tail lights. (d) In violation of...e) While under the influence of...

2012-07-01

5

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid...working head and tail lights. (d) In violation of...e) While under the influence of...

2011-07-01

6

Dynamic Stability of Off-road Vehicles: a Geometric Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic stability reflects the vehicle's ability to traverse uneven terrain at high speeds. It is determined from the set of admissible speeds and tangential accelerations of the center of mass along the path, subject to the ground force constraints and the geometric path constraints. This paper presents a geometric procedure for computing the set of admissible speeds and accelerations of

Moshe P. Mann; Zvi Shiller

2006-01-01

7

Effects of all-terrain vehicle trails on stream channel characteristics, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas  

E-print Network

Research shows that road and trail crossings have negative impacts on forest streams, and that off-road vehicles are detrimental to the environment. However, little information is available concerning the effects of such vehicles on stream channels...

Rohrer, Deven Michelle

2012-06-07

8

77 FR 20843 - Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announces the availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) that documents decisions regarding off-road vehicle management in...The ROD also describes the rationale used in making the decision and identifies the environmentally...

2012-04-06

9

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles\\u000a (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days\\/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days\\/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness,

J. F. Burr; V. K. Jamnik; N. Gledhill

10

Helmet use among Alaskan children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes  

PubMed Central

Background Off-road motorized vehicle crashes are a common source of trauma among Alaska children. Injury morbidity is worse in Alaska Native children than non-Native children, but the reasons are unclear. Objective To evaluate the differences in helmet use between the Native and the non-Native children, and to assess the impact of helmet use on injury patterns and outcomes. Design This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged 17 or younger admitted after all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile or motorbike injury between 2001 and 2011 from the Alaska Trauma Registry. Helmeted and non-helmeted patients were compared with respect to demographics, central nervous system (CNS) injury and the overall risk of death or permanent disability. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of helmet use and the effects of ethnicity and helmet use on outcomes. Results Of the 921 injured children, 51% were Alaska Native and 49% were non-Native. Helmet use was lower among Native versus non-Native patients on unadjusted comparison (24% vs. 71%) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.27, p<0.0001). Prevalence of CNS injury was higher among Native children (39.7% vs. 30.4%, p=0.016). However, on logistic regression with adjustment for helmet use, Native ethnicity was not a significant predictor of CNS injury (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.68–1.68, p=0.78), whereas helmet use was strongly protective against CNS injury (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44, p<0.0001) as well as death or permanent disability (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, p=0.006). Conclusions Helmet use is lower among Alaska Native children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes. These ethnic disparities in helmet use contribute to higher rates of CNS injury among Native children. Helmet use significantly improves overall outcome. Helmet promotion efforts should be expanded, especially in Native communities. PMID:25317382

Snyder, Christopher W.; Muensterer, Oliver J.; Sacco, Frank; Safford, Shawn D.

2014-01-01

11

Effects of off-road vehicles on reproductive success of pine snakes ( Pituophus melanoleucus ) in the New Jersey pinelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has been devoted to the effects of people and their vehicles on birds and mammals, but possible effects\\u000a on reptiles in populated areas have received less attention. Moreover, the effects of human activities on reptile reproductive\\u000a success itself has been harder to demonstrate. This paper examines the effect of management of off-road vehicles in New Jersey’s\\u000a pinelands on

Joanna Burger; Robert T. Zappalorti; Michael Gochfeld; Emile DeVito

2007-01-01

12

Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy beaches.  

PubMed

Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic on sandy shores. Such ecological impacts of ORVs are, however, poorly understood for endobenthic invertebrates of the intertidal zone seawards of the dunes. Consequently, this study quantified the degree to which assemblages of intertidal beach invertebrates are affected by traffic. The study design comprised a series of temporally replicated spatial contrasts between two reference sites (no ORVs) and two beaches with heavy ORV traffic (in excess of 250,000 vehicles per year) located in SouthEast Queensland, Australia. Macrobenthic assemblages on ORV-impacted beaches had significantly fewer species at substantially reduced densities, resulting in marked shifts in community composition and structure. These shifts were particularly strong on the middle and upper shore where vehicle traffic was concentrated. Strong effects of ORVs were detectable in all seasons, but increased towards the summer months as a result of heavier traffic volumes. This study provides clear evidence that ORVs can have substantial impacts on sandy beach invertebrates that are manifested throughout the whole community. Demonstrating such an ecological impact caused by a single type of human use poses a formidable challenge to management, which needs to develop multi-faceted approaches to balance environmental, social, cultural, and economic arguments in the use of sandy shores, including management of "beach traffic." PMID:18266026

Schlacher, Thomas A; Richardson, Darren; McLean, Ian

2008-06-01

13

A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders – off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian

Jamie F. Burr; Veronica Jamnik; Norman Gledhill

2010-01-01

14

Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 ?g g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 ?g g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 ?m). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 ?g g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin

2012-08-01

15

POSITIONING AN AUTONOMOUS OFF-ROAD VEHICLE BY USING FUSED DGPS AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with positioning system for an autonomous vehicle ARSKA. Localization of the vehicle is based on fusion of internal dead reckoning navigation and periodic absolute position measurements. Fusion is done by using Kalman-filtering technique. Similar kind of approach is used in correcting the heading measurement. This is important because the position error is mostly result of the accumulated

T. Schönberg; M. Ojala; J. Suomela; A. Torpo; A. Halme

1995-01-01

16

Dynamic Stability of Off-Road Vehicles Considering a Longitudinal Terramechanics Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic stability reflects the vehicle's ability to traverse uneven terrain at high speeds. It is determined from the set of admissible speeds and tangential accelerations of the center of mass along the path, subject to the ground force and geometric path constraints. This paper presents an analytical method for computing the stability margins of a planar all-wheel drive vehicle that

Zvi Shiller; Moshe P. Mann; Dror Rubinstein

2007-01-01

17

78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, Texas AGENCY...Vehicle Management Plan (Plan), Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (LAMR), Texas...the office of the Superintendent, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, Alibates...

2013-01-25

18

Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model  

SciTech Connect

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA required that certain tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-road recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Funds to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual States equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1993 to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-road recreation in the State level by different vehicle types. A modification of the methodology developed by ORNL has been used to apportion funds to the States since that time.

Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.; Hu, P.S.

1999-07-01

19

Vehicles versus conservation of invertebrates on sandy beaches: mortalities inflicted by off-road vehicles on ghost crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches face increasing anthropogenic pressures, with vehicle traffic being ecologically highly harmful. Ghost crabs (Fam. Ocypodidae) are conspic- uous on many beaches, and they have been used as a bio-monitoring tool to measure the ecological responses to human disturbance. However, the mechan- isms causing declines in crab numbers are unknown, yet conservation must tar- get the actual impact mechanisms.

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke Thompson; Sam Price

2007-01-01

20

Impact of Off-road Vehicles (ORVs) on Ghost Crabs of Sandy Beaches with Traffic Restrictions: A Case Study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

2014-03-01

21

Assessment of propeller and off-road vehicle scarring in seagrass beds and wind-tidal flats of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used aerial photography and GIS to establish a quantitative baseline of propeller and off-road vehicle (ORV) scarring in seagrass and wind-tidal flats of the upper Laguna Madre in the Padre Island National Seashore (Texas, USA). We also examined scar recovery through comparison of recent (2002, 2005) and historical (1967) aerial photographs of the study area. Scarring intensity was calculated using two different methods. In the first, polygons were visually drawn around groups of scars on digital images. Scarring intensity was estimated as light (20%), based on the total coverage of scars within each polygon (taking into account the length, width, and density of scars). We developed a more objective method that employed creation of vector grid cells and buffers that incorporated the localized ecological impact of scars. Results of spatial and temporal analysis revealed that the polygon approach greatly underestimated the magnitude of scarring. For example, in a single photograph, 7% of seagrass area was lightly scarred according to the polygon method; but light scarring increased to 51% according to grid analysis of the same image. Our results also indicated that propeller scars in Halodule wrightii beds appear to recover in less than three years and ORV tracks have persisted in the wind-tidal flats for at least 38 years. Our approach provides resource managers with procedures for a more objective and efficient assessment of physical disturbances to seagrass and wind-tidal flats caused by boats and ORVs. ?? 2008 by Walter de Gruyter.

Martin, S.R.; Onuf, C.P.; Dunton, K.H.

2008-01-01

22

Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.  

PubMed

Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns. PMID:24370998

Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

2014-03-01

23

Off-road robot modeling with dextrous manipulation kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel way of modeling wheeled vehicles on outdoor terrains. Adapting concepts from dextrous manipulation, we precisely model the way that three dimen- sional wheels roll over uneven ground. Our method is easily adaptable to other vehicle designs of arbitrary complexity. Our modeling method is used to validate a new concept for design of off-road vehicle wheel suspensions,

Joseph Auchter; Carl A. Moore

2008-01-01

24

An Experimental Platform for Motion Estimation and Maneuver Characterization in High Speed Off-Road Driving  

E-print Network

like those performed by professional race- car drivers allows a vehicle to enter a sharp turn without Grand Challenge, a competition to race autonomous ground vehicles off-road 150 miles through the Mojave such is the issue of controlling a race vehicle turning at high speeds on terrain such as dirt or a dry lake bed

Murray, Richard M.

25

The Off-Road Axle Detection Sensor (ORADS) is a dual-beam co-axial laser radar (LADAR) sensor that measures lane position and passage of vehicle tires to determine axle  

E-print Network

amp- hour, 12 volt battery. The ORADS is also equipped with a 12-watt, 12 volt solar panel attached to the lid of the unit. The solar panel provides auxiliary power to charge the internal battery during1 ORADS The Off-Road Axle Detection Sensor (ORADS) is a dual-beam co-axial laser radar (LADAR

Prevedouros, Panos D.

26

Off-Road Robot Modeling with Dextrous Manipulation Kinematics Joseph Auchter and Carl Moore  

E-print Network

Off-Road Robot Modeling with Dextrous Manipulation Kinematics Joseph Auchter and Carl Moore Variable Camber (PVC). Simulation results of a three-wheeled vehicle with PVC demonstrate that the vehicle can negotiate an extreme terrain without kinematic slip and with relatively small changes in camber

Collins, Emmanuel

27

Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on- and off-road incident rates.  

PubMed

This analysis overcomes the known limitations of police and emergency room bicycle accident databases through use of a survey that asked cyclists to indicate their accident history as well as their regular commute route to work or school. By relating the route information of the 1604 respondents (52.5% of the distributed questionnaires) to facility attributes in a Geographic Information System, defensible estimates of travel exposure on roads, off-road paths and sidewalks were developed. The relative rates of collisions on the three different facility types were not statistically different from 1.0. The relative rates for falls and injuries suggest it is safest to cycle on-road followed by off-road paths and trails, and finally least safe on sidewalks. While there were no major injuries reported on sidewalks, the relative rate for these events on paths was greater than the rate for roads. The absolute event rates per bicycle kilometre were found to be between 10 and 41 times higher than similar rates for automobile travel. Results suggest a need to discourage sidewalk cycling, and to further investigate the safety of off-road paths/trails. The analysis also demonstrates the need for bicycle travel exposure information and the use of more than just collision databases for bicycle safety analysis. PMID:9542542

Aultman-Hall, L; Hall, F L

1998-01-01

28

Regulated emissions from biodiesel fuels from on\\/off-road applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is one of the largest studies of biodiesel in both on-road and off-road uses. The testing was conducted for the military and encompassed a wide range of application types including two medium-duty trucks, two Humvees, a heavy heavy-duty diesel truck, a bus, two stationary backup generators (BUGs), a forklift, and an airport tow vehicle. The full range of

Thomas D. Durbin; David R. Cocker; Aniket A. Sawant; Kent Johnson; J. Wayne Miller; Bruce B. Holden; Norman L. Helgeson; Jason A. Jack

2007-01-01

29

The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

Miller, Steven A. E.

2014-01-01

30

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

...false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails...Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and...

2014-07-01

31

TRAILS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please click on the link for your class below. You will need your four digit code in order to start the assessment. Please read each question carefully and answer as best you can. WINTER 2013 Comp 10 - Mr. Hett's Classes Hett - 4th hour- Lit9A 2013 POST - HETT- 4th 2013 Hett - Lit9A - 5th hour - 2013 POST - HETT 5th 2013 TRAILS ...

Schultz, Ms.

2009-10-28

32

Mapping, navigation, and learning for off-road traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision as the main sensor. The system is very robust - we can typically give it a

Kurt Konolige; Motilal Agrawal; Morten Rufus Blas; Robert C. Bolles; Brian P. Gerkey; Joan Solà; Aravind Sundaresan

2009-01-01

33

Forecasting off-road trafficability from terrain appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people drive off-road, we look at the upcoming terrain and make a variety of judgments-whether to avoid or attempt to cross a patch of terrain, whether to slow down or speed up, etc. We consider a variety of factors including perceived slope, obstacles, resistance, traction, sinkage, roughness, and the limitations of our perception. We judge many of the handling

Gary Witus; Robert Karlsen; James Overholt; Grant Gerhart

2005-01-01

34

An Intelligent World Model for Autonomous Off Road Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a world model designed to act as a bridge between multiple sensory inputs and a behavior generation (path planning) subsystem for off- road autonomous driving. It describes how the world model map is built and how the objects and features of the world are represented. The functions used to maintain the model are explained and the sensors

Tsai Hong Hong; Marilyn Abrams; Tommy Chang; Michael Shneier

2000-01-01

35

Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

2004-01-01

36

NOVEL DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE FIELD NOx AND CO2 CONTINUOUS EMISSION DATA, BASED ON THE EVALUATION OF: (1) AN OFF-ROAD DIESEL COMPACTOR RUNNING ON THREE FUEL TYPES AND (2) TWO COMPACTORS RUNNING ON DIESEL FUEL  

E-print Network

In spite of being few in number, off-road vehicles have a significant contribution to air pollutants such as NOx and CO2. Engine dynamometer test cycles have been developed in an effort to better characterize the emissions ...

Guerra, Sergio

2012-12-31

37

Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

2013-04-30

38

Non-market valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of trail closures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few economic studies are available to measure off-highway vehicle recreation benefits foregone when trails must be closed to protect the environment. This paper estimates the non-market benefits associated with off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on National Forest lands in Larimer County, Colorado. We use a contingent valuation model (CVM) to estimate benefits to OHV users, which includes dirt bike riders, all

Daniel Deisenroth; John Loomis; Craig Bond

2009-01-01

39

Mobility Erosion: High speed motion safety for mobile robots operating in off-road terrain  

E-print Network

This paper addresses the problem of ensuring mobile robot motion safety when reacting to soft and hard hazards in a static environment. The work is aimed at off-road navigation for mobile ground robots where soft hazards ...

Karumanchi, Sisir

40

A Fuel-Based Assessment of Off-Road Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of

Andrew J. Kean; Robert F. Sawyer; Robert A. Harley

2000-01-01

41

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

E-print Network

], [4]. Unmanned ground vehicles such as those built by Dickmanns[5] have been capable of high dynamics. In particular, we find it useful to incorporate the non-holonomic property of the ground vehicle was offered for the individual or team that could build an autonomous ground vehicle capable of traversing

Soatto, Stefano

42

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2009-05-01

43

Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based\\u000a and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road\\u000a triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in\\u000a 5-year intervals) were analyzed

Romuald LepersPaul; Paul J. Stapley

44

Off-road mobile robot control: an adaptive approach for accuracy and  

E-print Network

Off-road mobile robot control: an adaptive approach for accuracy and integrity R. Lenain 1 B a high level of accuracy in the path tracking problem. Next, the dynamic model used for grip condition estimation is considered to address also robot integrity preservation thanks to the velocity lim- itation. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

COMPARISON OF ON AND OFF ROAD DIESEL EXHAUST SOURCES ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AN INFLUENZA INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE), a major component of urban air pollution, and its modulatory role in human susceptibility to respiratory infections is of great concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of on- and off-road sources of DE exposure on the severity of an ...

46

A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and plume capture experiments. Extensive in-use emissions data are available for NOx, especially for on-road engines. Measurements of exhaust PM2.5 emission factors are sparse in comparison. For NOx, there have been dramatic (factor of 2) decreases in emission factors for on-road gasoline engines between 1996 and 2006, due to use of improved catalytic converters on most engines. In contrast, diesel NOx emission factors decreased more gradually over the same time period. Exhaust PM2.5 emission factors appear to have decreased for most engine categories, but emission uncertainties are large for this pollutant. Pollutant emissions were estimated by combining fuel sales with emission factors expressed per unit of fuel burned. Diesel engines are the dominant mobile source of both NOx and PM2.5; the diesel contribution to NOx has increased over time as gasoline engine emissions have declined. Comparing fuel-based emission estimates with EPA’s national emission inventory led to the following conclusions: (1) total emissions of both NOx and PM2.5 estimated by two different methods were similar, (2) the distribution of source contributions to these totals differ significantly, with higher relative contributions coming from on-road diesel engines in this study compared to EPA.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

2009-12-01

47

Real-Time Visualization of Dynamic Terrain in Off-Road Driving Simulation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic terrain has become an increasingly important requirement for realistic ground-based simulation systems. In this paper, we give a view-dependent dynamic terrain visualization method using strip masks and implement our method in off-road driving simulation system. We partition our terrain into several blocks, and we pre-compute a set of strip masks of blocks. At run time, to render the terrain,

Xingquan Cai; Jinhong Li; Zhitong Su

2007-01-01

48

Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.  

PubMed

Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area. PMID:24261886

Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

2013-12-17

49

Off road vehicle impact in Cape Cod national seashore: Disruption and recovery of dune vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-going investigation of the rates of vegetation breakdown and natural recovery under controlled conditions has been established at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, U.S.A. In this study, the effects of controlled impacts on a variety of coastal habitats were measured in terms of above and below ground biomass. Dune sites, ranging from unstabilized to moderately stabilized, were driven on

J. M. Brodhead; P. J. Godfrey

1977-01-01

50

76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interior. ACTION: Notice of Renewal...Interior is giving notice of renewal of the Big Cypress National...relationship that the NPS has with its partners and communities. The Committee...I hereby certify that the renewal of the Big Cypress...

2011-10-17

51

Off-Road Vehicle Impact on Sediment Displacement and Disruption at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland  

E-print Network

), Maryland. To measure ORV impact, ground-based LiDAR was used to collect detailed profiles across a three by three meter test plot at each site. Based on the quantification of the displaced sediment and redistribution of that sediment from the tracks, a...

Labude, Brian

2012-08-15

52

Flight and Integrated Testing: Blazing the Trail for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors that will carry the next generation of astronauts into space safer and more efficiently than ever and send them to the Moon to develop a permanent outpost. NASA's Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Ares I-X Mission Management Office have primary responsibility for developing and conducting critical ground and flight tests for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. These tests will draw upon Saturn and the Space Shuttle experiences, which taught the value of using sound systems engineering practices, while also applying aerospace best practices such as "test as you fly" and other lessons learned. FITO will use a variety of methods to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks of flying humans safely aboard a launch vehicle.

Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charlie; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

2007-01-01

53

Fatigue of clamped connections with application to a stem-handlebar assembly for off-road bicycles  

E-print Network

the mean and amplitude values of cyclic stress and hence will influence fatigue performance of the assemFatigue of clamped connections with application to a stem-handlebar assembly for off-road bicycles of assembly in fatigue life predictions and (iii) to verify the accuracy of fatigue life predictions

Hull, Maury

54

Structurally Bonded Off-Road Chassis Matt Baker, Steve Bell, Nick Child, Todd McGraw, Chris Pell, Alex Welton  

E-print Network

Structurally Bonded Off-Road Chassis Matt Baker, Steve Bell, Nick Child, Todd McGraw, Chris Pell is 100% welded, the entire chassis is often replaced if a part is damaged. Structural bonding can be used � Damaged parts can be removed and replaced � Reduction of structural heat damage and hazards associated

Provancher, William

55

The inhibitory effect of MSCs expressing TRAIL as a cellular delivery vehicle in combination with cisplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in many types of tumors, while many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display high resistance to TRAIL. Another outstanding limitation of TRAIL is the short half-life in vivo. Stem cell-based therapies provide a promising approach for the treatment of many types of tumors because of the ability of tropism. Therefore, as a new therapeutic strategy, the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and TRAIL gene modified MSCs (TRAIL-MSCs) would improve the therapeutic efficacy of HCC in vivo. This is the first time to show the potential of combination of chemotherapeutic agents and MSCs as a gene vector in the therapy of HCC. PMID:22922789

Zhang, Bo; Shan, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Zheng-Ran; Zhu, Kang-Shun; Jiang, Zai-Bo

2012-10-01

56

The inhibitory effect of MSCs expressing TRAIL as a cellular delivery vehicle in combination with cisplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in many types of tumors, while many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display high resistance to TRAIL. Another outstanding limitation of TRAIL is the short half-life in vivo. Stem cell-based therapies provide a promising approach for the treatment of many types of tumors because of the ability of tropism. Therefore, as a new therapeutic strategy, the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and TRAIL gene modified MSCs (TRAIL-MSCs) would improve the therapeutic efficacy of HCC in vivo. This is the first time to show the potential of combination of chemotherapeutic agents and MSCs as a gene vector in the therapy of HCC. PMID:22922789

Zhang, Bo; Shan, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Zheng-Ran; Zhu, Kang-Shun; Jiang, Zai-Bo

2012-01-01

57

Automotive Vehicle Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The automotive vehicle dynamics is related to the movements of automotive vehicles - automobiles, vans, trucks, buses, coaches,\\u000a and special-purpose vehicles – on on\\/off-road surfaces. The movements of relevance are ride and turning as well as acceleration\\u000a (driving) and deceleration (braking). The forces affecting on the vehicle from the tyres, gravity, and aerodynamics, resolve\\u000a dynamic behaviour.

B. T. Fijalkowski

58

Comparison of birds detected from roadside and off-road point counts in the Shenandoah National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-ha) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results from 81 paired roadside and off-road counts indicated that roadside counts had higher numbers of several edge species but did not have lower numbers of nonedge forest species. More individuals and species were detected from roadside points because of this increase in edge species. Sixty-five percent of the species detected in 10 minutes were recorded in the first 3 minutes.

Keller, C.M.E.; Fuller, M.R.

1995-01-01

59

Detection and Classification of Motor Vehicle Noise in a Forested Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

Brown, Casey L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Dietz, Matthew S.; Fristrup, Kurt M.

2013-11-01

60

Three-way catalyst technology for off-road equipment powered by gasoline and LPG engines. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research was done to demonstrate the feasibility of using closed-loop three-way catalyst (TWC) technology in off-road large spark-ignited (LSI) engine applications to meet California State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission reduction goals. Available technology was investigated for applicability to engines in this category. Appropriate test cycles were recommended, and five representative engines were selected and baseline emission tested. Total feasible emission reductions were calculated. The retail price equivalent (RPE) for the recommended emission control technology was determined, and cost-effectiveness was calculated. Emission standards necessary to meet SIP goals were recommended.

White, J.J.; Ingalls, M.N.; Carroll, J.N.; Chan, L.M.

1999-04-01

61

Vehicle load-equalization system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System uses cables and associated pulleys to form closed-loop suspension system for terrain compensation. Loop causes reactions at each of three wheels in response to loading at remaining wheel. Simplicity of design should be of interest to designers and manufacturers of construction equipment and off-road vehicles.

Creasy, W. K.

1976-01-01

62

Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type rear suspensions in off-road bicycles.  

PubMed

Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle, [Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, "An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics," Journal of Mechanical Design 119, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8 km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38 x 14, the corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture, the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average heightfor the standing posture was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 9 of the 11 subjects. While the optimum height was relatively insensitive to pedaling mechanics in both the seated and standing postures, the choice of the optimal pivot point height in production bicycles necessitates some compromise in performance given the disparity in the averages between the seated and standing postures. PMID:11871595

Karchin, Ari; Hull, M L

2002-02-01

63

Differences in Off-Road Glances: Effects on Young Drivers’ Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young drivers display more risk-taking behavior than other age groups. Performing distracting tasks is a risky behavior that young drivers tend to engage in, but may not be able to compensate for appropriately. A driving simulator study with 53 young drivers (aged 18 to 21) was conducted to assess the level of engagement with an in-vehicle secondary task. A cluster

Birsen Donmez; Linda Ng Boyle; John D. Lee

2010-01-01

64

An Autonomous Off-Road Robot Based on Integrative Technologies Orlando J. Hernandez  

E-print Network

and Computer Engineering The College of New Jersey hernande@tcnj.edu Yunfeng Wang Mechanical Engineering by converging highly reliable integrative technologies. The mechanical, electrical, and computing platforms infrastructure for unmanned ground vehicle. Part of the design is an interactive graphical simulation interface

Hernandez, Orlando

65

Trail Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

66

75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. After the EPA Notice...INFORMATION: This DEIS evaluates the impacts of a range of alternatives...Environment, and The Wilderness Society (Plantiffs) filed a lawsuit...Alternative 1 evaluates the impacts of the no-action and...

2010-08-11

67

76 FR 52690 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...evaluates the environmental impacts of a preferred alternative...INFORMATION: This FEIS evaluates the impacts of a range of alternatives...Environment, and The Wilderness Society (Plantiffs) filed a lawsuit...frozen. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was...

2011-08-23

68

78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interior. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the big cypress national...Interior is giving notice of renewal of the Big Cypress National...relationship that the NPS has with its partners and communities. The Committee...I hereby certify that the renewal of the Big Cypress...

2013-10-03

69

Off-road vehicle recreation management policy for public lands in the United States: A case history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three annual motorcycle races on the Johnson Valley-Parker course in California's Mojave Desert have resulted in conspicuous modifications of soil and vegetation in a Wilderness Study Area (WSA) and in other lands of high resource values. The extent of damage caused by the races, which have involved fewer than 400 participants, exceeded the expectations of the managing agency by 360% 640% and the allowable limits imposed by the agency by 40% 76%. After three races, no resource monitoring results have been obtained by which compliance with the regulations for interim management of the Wilderness Study Area may be judged. Designation of the remaining parts of the course on lands of high resource value was based on criteria subsequently determined by a federal court to be in violation of regulations derived from two Executive Orders.

Wilshire, Howard G.

1983-11-01

70

Impact analysis of off-road-vehicle use on vegetation in the Grand Mere dune environment. [Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A linear regression between percent nonvegetative land and the time variable was completed for the two sample areas. Sample area no. 1 showed an average vegetation loss of 1.901% per year, while the loss for sample area no. 2 amounted to 5.889% per year. Two basic reasons for the difference were assumed to play a role: the difference in access potential and the amount of already fragmented vegetation complexes in existence during the first year of the comparative analysis - 1970. Sample area no. 2 was located closer to potential access points and was more fragmented initially.

Schultink, G. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

71

Aiding Off-Road Inertial Navigation with High Performance Models of Forrest Rogers-Marcovitz, Michael George, Neal Seegmiller, and Alonzo Kelly1  

E-print Network

Aiding Off-Road Inertial Navigation with High Performance Models of Wheel Slip Forrest Rogers estimate. Unfortunately, the position- denied accuracy of the inertial navigation system (INS) is governed by large systematic errors due to wheel slip. As a result, affordable terrestrial inertial navigation

Kelly, Alonzo

72

In the near future, off-road mobile robots will feature high levels of autonomy which will render them useful for a vari-  

E-print Network

Page 1 Abstract In the near future, off-road mobile robots will feature high levels of autonomy applications have a special demand for robots to possess similar qualities to man-driven machines: high speed approaches that model the soil as a mass-spring system, where the soil granules are considered as point

Kelly, Alonzo

73

Knee Injuries and the Use of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in Off-road Motorcycling: Results of a Large-Scale Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effectiveness of prophylactic knee bracing in preventing knee injuries during sports has been evaluated; however, because of the variability in study conclusions, the topic remains controversial. Despite a paucity of data, the authors believe that prophylactic knee bracing is frequently used in off-road motorcycling.Hypothesis: No statistically significant difference exists in the frequency and types of knee injuries incurred

Mark S. Sanders; Robert A. Cates; Michael D. Baker; Sue D. Barber-Westin; Wesley M. Gladin; Martin S. Levy

2011-01-01

74

The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. PMID:24979615

Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanis?aw; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Mi?osz; Michalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

2014-07-01

75

The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. PMID:24979615

Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Milosz; Michalczyk, Malgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

76

Passive perception system for day/night autonomous off-road navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive perception of terrain features is a vital requirement for military related unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a self-contained passive perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelf pan-tilt unit. The sensor head contained three color cameras for multi-baseline daytime stereo ranging, a pair of cooled mid-wave infrared cameras for nighttime stereo ranging, and supporting electronics to synchronize captured imagery. Narrow-baseline stereo provided improved range data density in cluttered terrain, while wide-baseline stereo provided more accurate ranging for operation at higher speeds in relatively open areas. The passive perception system processed stereo images and outputted over a local area network terrain maps containing elevation, terrain type, and detected hazards. A novel software architecture was designed and implemented to distribute the data processing on a 533MHz quad 7410 PowerPC single board computer under the VxWorks real-time operating system. This architecture, which is general enough to operate on N processors, has been subsequently tested on Pentium-based processors under Windows and Linux, and a Sparc based-processor under Unix. The passive perception system was operated during FY04 PerceptOR program evaluations at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper discusses the Team Raptor passive perception system hardware and software design, implementation, and performance, and describes a road map to faster and improved passive perception.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Bergh, Charles F.; Goldberg, Steven B.; Bellutta, Paolo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2005-05-01

77

Trail Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Something of a veteran by Internet standards, the Trail Database has been around since 1997 and, as such, now bills itself as the "world's largest hiking trail database." "Henk," the Dutch hiker responsible for this compendium, updates the site regularly and has included a wide variety of links to helpful material here. Users can search or browse the resources, which are arranged both under general topics, such as Knots or Equipment, and by country. Those planning European hikes will find the links off the front page to foot and mouth disease-related hiking restrictions useful (though we found some of these links to be broken). In all, an impressive collection of material. The site is available in Dutch or English.

1997-01-01

78

Basics of Automotive Vehicle Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is necessary to have knowledge of the technology correlated with contemporary auto-motive vehicles’ BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a to understand the wheel-tyre to on\\/off-road interface, vehicle dynamics during braking, and the components of a BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a mechatronic control system. This section examines these issues to enhance the level of that knowledge.

B. T. Fijalkowski

79

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles of CD20-specific TRAIL fusion protein delivery: a double-target therapy against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy. We have designed a promising double-target therapeutic system for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) therapy. The system is based on MSC homing capacity and scFvCD20 antigen-restriction to NHL. In this system, a novel secreted fusion protein scFvCD20-sTRAIL, which contains a CD20-specific single chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv) and a soluble tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL, aa residues 114-281) with an isoleucine zipper (ISZ) added to the N-terminal (ISZ-sTRAIL), was expressed in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). When compared with ISZ-sTRAIL protein, the scFvCD20-sTRAIL fusion protein demonstrated a potent inhibition of cell proliferation in CD20-positive BJAB cells, moderate inhibition in Raji cells, weak inhibition in CD20-negative Jurkat cells, and no effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The scFvCD20-sTRAIL fusion protein also caused significant increase of cellular apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. Using a NOD/SCID mouse subcutaneous BJAB lymphoma xenograft model, the tropism of the firefly luciferase (fLuc) labeled MSC was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) for fLuc activity. Our study indicated that HUMSCs selectively migrated to the tumor site after 24 h of intravenous injection and mice injected with the MSC.scFvCD20-sTRAIL significantly inhibited the tumor growth when compared with those treated with MSC.ISZ-sTRAIL. The treatment was tolerated well in mice, as no obvious toxicities were observed. Our study has suggested that scFvCD20-sTRAIL secreting HUMSCs is a novel and efficient therapeutic approach for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23121392

Yan, Cihui; Li, Shuangjing; Li, Zhenzhen; Peng, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiangfei; Jiang, Linlin; Zhang, Yanjun; Fan, Dongmei; Hu, Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xiong, Dongsheng

2013-01-01

80

HERITAGE TRAIL OLD ABERDEEN  

E-print Network

. Enjoy your visit to Old Aberdeen Aberdeen's Heritage Trail Leaflets Granite Trail March Stones Trail City Council's commemorative plaques as well as a number of splendid carved stones and armorial panels

Levi, Ran

81

Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras

Arturo Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry Matthies; Max Bajracharya; Christopher Assad; Shane Brennan; Paolo Bellutta; Gary W. Sherwin

2011-01-01

82

CONSTRAINED DYNAMIC ROUTE PLANNING FOR UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Ground Vehicles are tasked with negotiat- ing off-road terrain while satisfying certain objectives, such as maintaining cover and concealment and arriving at a phase line by a designated time. The problem is compli- cated by the fact that the terrain is typically not known completely in advance, rendering pre-planned routes use- less if selected passageways are obstructed. In this

Anthony Stentz

83

The Oregon Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you will look at some webistes and listen to some documentaries about the Oregon Trail. We are going to go on an exploration through the internet about the Oregon Trail. When you are done watching the videos and reading the material I want you to write a paragraph that tells what life was like onthe Oregon Trail. 1. Click on this link: The Oregon Trail Documentary (2 minutes) 2. Write down ...

Fiefia, Mrs.

2010-02-04

84

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

85

Intelligent mobility for robotic vehicles in the army after next  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TARDEC Intelligent Mobility program addresses several essential technologies necessary to support the army after next (AAN) concept. Ground forces in the AAN time frame will deploy robotic unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in high-risk missions to avoid exposing soldiers to both friendly and unfriendly fire. Prospective robotic systems will include RSTA/scout vehicles, combat engineering/mine clearing vehicles, indirect fire artillery and missile launch platforms. The AAN concept requires high on-road and off-road mobility, survivability, transportability/deployability and low logistics burden. TARDEC is developing a robotic vehicle systems integration laboratory (SIL) to evaluate technologies and their integration into future UGV systems. Example technologies include the following: in-hub electric drive, omni-directional wheel and steering configurations, off-road tires, adaptive tire inflation, articulated vehicles, active suspension, mine blast protection, detection avoidance and evasive maneuver. This paper will describe current developments in these areas relative to the TARDEC intelligent mobility program.

Gerhart, Grant R.; Goetz, Richard C.; Gorsich, David J.

1999-07-01

86

National Water Trails System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder: What exactly is the National Water Trails System (NWTS)? That's a good question; NWTS describes the system as "a distinctive national network of exemplary water trails that are cooperatively supported and sustained." This website provides information about the NWTS for policy makers, water enthusiasts, and other interested parties. Casual visitors will want to start with the Explore a National Water Trail area. Here they can use an interactive map to locate water trails, and go deeper into each riverine passage with the Stories and Images section. Moving on, policy makers and park administrators will want to peruse the Develop and Manage a National Water Trail area. This section contains some basic answers to queries such s "What Are The Benefits of National Water Trail Designation?" and "How Do I Apply For National Water Trail Designation?"

87

DIRBE Comet Trails  

E-print Network

Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 micron surface brightnesses of meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

Arendt, Richard G

2014-01-01

88

DAYTIME WATER DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION FOR UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting and localizing water bodies during the daytime using a stereo pair of color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of terrain reflections in stereo data. A ground

A. L. Rankin; L. H. Matthies

89

Persistent Leonid Meteor Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998 and 1999 a campaign was conducted to study the lingering trails left by (brighter than -1.5 mag) Leonid meteors over the Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM, a facility owned by the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory. Although not unique to the Leonids, lingering trails are characteristic of the brighter members of this shower,

J. D. Drummond; S. P. Milster; B. W. Grime; C. S. Gardner; A. Z. Liu; X. Chu; M. C. Kelley; C. A. Kruschwitz; T. J. Kane

2000-01-01

90

Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

Reuel, Nigel (Rio Rancho, NM); Lionberger, Troy A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-03-11

91

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.  

PubMed

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

2011-10-01

92

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

93

The Manzanita Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide includes directions and a list of stops for the Manzanita Trail in the San Gabriel Mountains of California. Hikers can follow the trace of the Punchbowl Fault and see a variety of features, including fault gouge, slickensides and easy-to-identify juxtapositions of quite different rock types on either side of the fault. The trail also passes through many vegetation zones, which exhibit a variety of plant communities. The guide includes a detailed trip log with mileages and photos of features that can be seen from the trail.

94

Coed y Brenin Animal Trail  

E-print Network

Coed y Brenin Animal Trail Clues Follow the clues and the map around the trail keeping your eyes peeled for the animals. Machynlleth Dolgellau Bala Ffestiniog Porthmadog A494 A470 A470 A470 A458 A487 to find us.. The Animal Puzzle trail is on the Afon Eden trail from the visitor centre which is 8 miles

95

The Trails Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Kansas City, Missouri school district with support from the US Department of Education, this Website offers innovative approaches to and materials for the teaching of Western history. The Website focuses on the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, offering a variety of interactive elements for students to work with. Included here are Virtual Reality tours of selected sites along the trails, a selection of trail diaries, examples of essays written by students about the trails, and more. The true strength of the site, though, probably lies in its support materials for teachers. The site provides well-conceived, extensive lesson plans, instruction guides, and curriculum plans, and also promises a media database in the future that will include presentations, instructional materials, and pictures. However, since there has been little activity on-site in the last few months, we suggest teachers not count on that material appearing soon.

96

Make a Nature Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the planning, construction, use, and maintenance of a nature trail. Ideal for demonstrating interrelationships between plants and animals, conservation practices, wildlife management, plant succession, forestry, geologic features and other scientific phenomena. (JR)

Johnson, Janice K.

1973-01-01

97

Brownian trail rectified  

SciTech Connect

The experiments described here indicate when one of Nature's best fractals -- the Brownian trail -- becomes nonfractal. In most ambient fluids, the trail of a Brownian particle is self-similar over many decades of length. For example, the trail of a submicron particle suspended in an ordinary liquid, recorded at equal time intervals, exhibits apparently discontinuous changes in velocity from macroscopic lengths down to molecular lengths: the trail is a random walk with no velocity memory'' from one step to the next. In ideal Brownian motion, the kinks in the trail persist to infinitesimal time intervals, i.e., it is a curve without tangents. Even in real Brownian motion in a liquid, the time interval must be shortened to {approximately}10{sup {minus}8}s before the velocity appears continuous. In sufficiently rarefied environments, this time resolution at which a Brownian trail is rectified from a curve without tangents to a smoothly varying trajectory is greatly lengthened, making it possible to study the kinetic regime by dynamic light scattering. Our recent experiments with particles in a plasma have demonstrated this capability. In this regime, the particle velocity persists over a finite step length'' allowing an analogy to an ideal gas with Maxwell-Boltzmann velocities; the particle mass could be obtained from equipartition. The crossover from ballistic flight to hydrodynamic diffusion was also seen. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Hurd, A.J.; Ho, P.

1989-01-01

98

The Freedom Trail Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâÂÂs primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâÂÂs most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the âÂÂSee the 16 sitesâ section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul RevereâÂÂs House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

99

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

100

Obstacle detection for unmanned ground vehicles: a progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect obstacles during off-road autonomous navigation, unmanned ground vehicles (UGV's) must sense terrain geometry and composition (terrain type) under day, night, and low-visibility conditions. To sense terrain geometry, we have developed a real-time stereo vision system that uses a Datacube MV-200 and a 68040 CPU board to produce 256×240-pixel range images in about 0.6 seconds\\/frame. To sense terrain type,

Larry Matthies; Alonzo Kelly; Todd Litwin; Greg Tharp

1995-01-01

101

Exploring the Oregon Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As we are studying the pioneer trek along the Oregon Trail, I want you to create a character and write a journal as if you were taking the journey. First, you should get a good idea of what the Oregon Trail was like. Read the personal accounts and experiences from actual pioneers at the websites below: "Jumping Off" "Power" "Hardships" "Camping" The following is a memoir from an actual pioneer (you will want to write your journal in this style). "Across the Plains in 1844" To help you get a ...

Miles, Ms.

2005-10-20

102

R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.

Moorehead, Stewart J.; Wellington, Carl K.; Paulino, Heidi; Reid, John F.

2010-04-01

103

The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail  

E-print Network

Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail at the Arboretum at UC Santa: Taxonomy is partly the study of the naming and clas- sification of plants. For this more technical to produce a preview edition of the Manual in 1989. By establishing this Taxonomy trail as a memorial, we

California at Santa Cruz, University of

104

Design a Hiking Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides experience working on a real-life scenario by allowing students the opportunity to use topographic maps to design a hiking trail system based on access from road, range of habitats, and other specified criteria. They will also complete a data sheet and produce an informational brochure.

Remis, Becky; Hochmuth, Rose

105

The Oregon Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored and maintained by Professors Mike Trinklein and Steve Boettcher, Authored and maintained by Professors Mike Trinklein and Steve Boettcher, creators of the award-winning PBS documentary of the same title, this recently updated Website provides access to a wealth of information and documentation that the creators say they couldn't fit into the film. Included here is a "complete primer" on the Trail, images and text covering over two dozen historic sites along the trail, a collection of fascinating anecdotes about incidents and (mis)adventures suffered by pioneers along the way, and, last but by no means least, an archive of diaries, memoirs, and period books written during the overland period. A serviceable, if somewhat typical, teacher's guide is also provided. In a more commercial vein, the site features an online shop featuring videos, books, games, and audiocassettes.

Boettcher, Steve.; Trinklein, Mike.

106

Cooking with Trail Mix  

E-print Network

soda ? teaspoon baking powder ? teaspoon cinnamon (if you like) ? cup trail mix What you need ? cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon... it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. In a large bowl, mix sugar, applesauce, oil, egg and milk. 4. Add flour, baking soda, baking powder and cinnamon and mix it thoroughly. 5. Stir...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

107

The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding ?fall-line? alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes. This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of the natural and recreational integrity of the trail system infrastructure.

Olive, N.D.; Marion, J.L.

2009-01-01

108

Efficacy of adenovirally expressed soluble TRAIL in human glioma organotypic slice culture and glioma xenografts  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in malignant cells, including gliomas, and is currently in anticancer clinical trials. However, the full-length and tagged forms of TRAIL, unlike the untagged ligand (soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL)), exhibits toxicity against normal cells. Here, we report the generation and testing of an adenovirus (AdsTRAIL) that expresses untagged sTRAIL in an intracranial xenograft model and a human glioma organotypic slice culture model. AdsTRAIL efficiently induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines, including those resistant to sTRAIL, but not in normal human astrocytes (NHAs). It inhibited anchorage-independent glioma growth and exerted a bystander effect in transwell assays. Intratumoral injections of AdsTRAIL in a rodent intracranial glioma model resulted in reduced tumor growth and improved survival compared with Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)- or vehicle-treated controls without toxicity. Human glioma organotypic slices treated with AdsTRAIL demonstrated apoptosis induction and caspase activation. PMID:21368892

Liu, Y; Lang, F; Xie, X; Prabhu, S; Xu, J; Sampath, D; Aldape, K; Fuller, G; Puduvalli, V K

2011-01-01

109

TRAIL combinations: The new 'trail' for cancer therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) therapy is anticipated to be one of the most effective cancer treatments. However, resistance to TRAIL therapy remains a challenge facing the development of anticancer strategies. To circumvent this problem, TRAIL combinations have been experimented with for over ten years to induce synergism or sensitize resistant cancer cells. By analyzing the signaling pathways triggered by these combinations, this review has defined a set of core targets for novel combinatorial treatments. The review suggests specific pathways to be targeted together with TRAIL for more efficient treatment, including cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and its downstream survival factors, the Bcl-2 family and other prominent targets. The suggested pathways provide new avenues for more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy. PMID:24765133

REFAAT, ALAA; ABD-RABOU, AHMED; REDA, ASMAA

2014-01-01

110

TRAIL/TRAIL Receptor System and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p?=?9.8×10?4, OR?=?1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p?=?0.005, OR?=?1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p?=?0.012, OR?=?0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p?=?2.12×10?5, OR?=?0.59). These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS. PMID:21814551

Garcia-Leon, Juan Antonio; Pinto-Medel, Maria Jesus; Oliver-Martos, Begona; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesus; Suardiaz, Margarita; Garcia-Trujillo, Lucia; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Benito-Leon, Julian; Prat, Isidro; Varade, Jezabel; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena

2011-01-01

111

TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p?=?9.8×10(-4), OR?=?1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p?=?0.005, OR?=?1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p?=?0.012, OR?=?0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p?=?2.12×10(-5), OR?=?0.59). These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS. PMID:21814551

López-Gómez, Carlos; Fernández, Oscar; García-León, Juan Antonio; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Suardíaz, Margarita; García-Trujillo, Lucía; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Benito-León, Julián; Prat, Isidro; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Leyva, Laura

2011-01-01

112

Trail following with omnidirectional vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system which follows “trails” for autonomous outdoor robot navigation. Through a combination of visual cues provided by stereo omnidirectional color cameras and ladar-based structural information, the algorithm is able to detect and track rough paths despite widely varying tread material, border vegetation, and illumination conditions. The approaching trail region is simply modeled as a circular arc of

Christopher Rasmussen; Yan Lu; Mehmet Kocamaz

2010-01-01

113

Designing Fitness Trails for Seniors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness trails for senior adults are being developed in retirement communities and community parks nationwide to enhance total fitness through activities that build cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, strength, and balance. Recreation planners must create fitness trails that are interesting, enjoyable, safe, and appropriate for the senior…

Hall, Kenneth B.

1991-01-01

114

Spatial arrangement of trail markers and visitor involvement on a self-guided interpretive trail  

E-print Network

Variety as a Trail Use Motivation. . 105 Xil LIST OF FIGURES Fl. gute Page 1. Trail Stop Example l. 2. Trail Stop Example 2. 20 20 3. Map of Park and Trail. 21 4. Trail Leaflet Map pocket 5. Trai. l Marker Example. 29 6. Trailhead Sign... Variety as a Trail Use Motivation. . 105 Xil LIST OF FIGURES Fl. gute Page 1. Trail Stop Example l. 2. Trail Stop Example 2. 20 20 3. Map of Park and Trail. 21 4. Trail Leaflet Map pocket 5. Trai. l Marker Example. 29 6. Trailhead Sign...

Marcy, Julie Benedict

2012-06-07

115

The Labor Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Chicago Center for Working-Class Studies, the Interactive Labor Trail documents 140 significant locations in the history of labor, migration, and working-class culture in Chicago. Visitors to the site can use the information here to learn more about the history of labor activism and related matters in Chicago, and visitors are also encouraged to add sites for inclusion on the map. First-time users can use the map by just clicking on sites of interest (like Hull House or the Pullman community) and they can also listen to audio features, such as "The Haymarket Affair", narrated by William J. Adelman. In the "Resources" tab, visitors can watch video clips, look over a photo gallery, and check out a detailed bibliography and external resources.

116

Regulation of the human TRAIL gene  

PubMed Central

TRAIL is a member of the TNF superfamily that induces tumor-selective cell death by engaging the pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4 and DR5. The antitumor potential of the TRAIL pathway has been targeted by several therapeutic approaches including recombinant TRAIL and TRAIL-receptor agonist antibodies among others. Interest in sensitizing tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis has driven investigations of TRAIL-receptor gene regulation, though regulation of the TRAIL gene has been less studied. Physiologically, TRAIL serves as a pro-apoptotic effector molecule in the immune surveillance of cancer that is conditionally expressed by immune cells upon stimulation via an interferon-response element that was identified in early studies of the TRAIL gene promoter. Here, we map the TRAIL gene promoter and review studies of TRAIL gene regulation that involve several modalities of gene regulation including transcription factors, epigenetics, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and functionally distinct isoforms. PMID:22892844

Allen, Joshua E.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2012-01-01

117

Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by closed circuit television (CCTV), with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Experimentation studying the effects of vision-system characteristics on off-road, remote driving has been performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering coupled camera and color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience has been gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. This paper discusses the preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience.

McGovern, D.E.

1987-01-01

118

Meteor trail diffusion and fields: 1. Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meteoroid penetrating the Earth's atmosphere leaves behind a trail of dense plasma embedded in the lower E\\/upper D region ionosphere. While radar measurements of meteor trail evolution have been collected and used to infer meteor and atmospheric properties since the 1950s, no accurate quantitative model of trail fields and diffusion exists. This paper describes finite element simulations of trail

Y. S. Dimant; M. M. Oppenheim

2006-01-01

119

Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the DISC level Morizot A. 1  

E-print Network

to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, two membrane bound receptors that are often expressed by tumor cells. TRAIL can their potential to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We show here that TRAIL-R4, expressed either endogenously of the effector caspase-3. Type II cells require the engagement of a mitochondrial amplification loop, which

Boyer, Edmond

120

Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the  

E-print Network

Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Page /1 14 Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL equally to this work. Abstract Apo2L/TRAIL is a promising anti-cancer drug owing to its ability to trigger signaling, and unveil TRAIL-R4 s' ability to cooperate with c-FLIP to inhibit TRAIL-induced cell death

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

2010-01-01

122

Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.  

PubMed

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

2010-01-01

123

Base Passive Porosity for Vehicle Drag Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

124

Base passive porosity for vehicle drag reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

125

HUBBLE: ON THE ASTEROID TRAIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers Karl Stapelfeldt and Robin Evans have tracked down about 100 small asteroids by hunting through more than 28,000 archival images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Here is a sample of what they have found: four archival images that show the curved trails left by asteroids. [Top left]: Hubble captured a bright asteroid, with a visual magnitude of 18.7, roaming in the constellation Centaurus. Background stars are shown in white, while the asteroid trail is depicted in blue at top center. The trail has a length of 19 arc seconds. This asteroid has a diameter of one and one-quarter miles (2 kilometers), and was located 87 million miles from Earth and 156 million miles from the sun. Numerous orange and blue specks in this image and the following two images were created by cosmic rays, energetic subatomic particles that struck the camera's detector. [Top right]: Here is an asteroid with a visual magnitude of 21.8 passing a galaxy in the constellation Leo. The trail is seen in two consecutive exposures, the first shown in blue and the second in red. This asteroid has a diameter of half a mile (0.8 kilometers), and was located 188 million miles from Earth and 233 million miles from the sun. [Lower left]: This asteroid in the constellation Taurus has a visual magnitude of 23, and is one of the faintest seen so far in the Hubble archive. It moves from upper right to lower left in two consecutive exposures; the first trail is shown in blue and the second in red. Because of the asteroid's relatively straight trail, astronomers could not accurately determine its distance. The estimated diameter is half a mile (0.8 kilometers) at an Earth distance of 205 million miles and a sun distance of 298 million miles. [Lower right]: This is a broken asteroid trail crossing the outer regions of galaxy NGC 4548 in Coma Berenices. Five trail segments (shown in white) were extracted from individual exposures and added to a cleaned color image of the galaxy. The asteroid enters the image at top center and moves down toward the lower left. Large gaps in the trail occur because the telescope is orbiting the Earth and cannot continuously observe the galaxy. This asteroid has a visual magnitude of 20.8, a diameter of one mile (1.6 kilometers), and was seen at a distance of 254 million miles from Earth and 292 million miles from the sun. Credit: R. Evans and K. Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and NASA

2002-01-01

126

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

127

17 CFR 37.205 - Audit trail.  

...audit trail. (2) Transaction history database. A swap execution facility's audit trail...include an electronic transaction history database. An adequate transaction history database includes a history of all indications...

2014-04-01

128

75 FR 37463 - Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...the official trail marker insignia of the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...document is John Maounis, Superintendent, Star-Spangled Banner National Historic...

2010-06-29

129

THE SCREAMING DOWNHILL THE BOARDMAN TRAIL  

E-print Network

PRINTING PRESS LOOP DAM LOOP SOUTHSIDE WAR ZONE THE SCREAMING DOWNHILL THE BOARDMAN TRAIL THE BOARDMAN TRAIL THE SIDEHILLTHE SIDEHILL THE ROLLERCOASTER OLD W OLFEBORO ROAD RESERVOIR LOOP ROPES COURSE Pond Occom Pond Connecticut River Route 10 Rope Ferry Road Reservoir Road RULES AND REGS Trails

130

Plasma instabilities in meteor trails: Linear theory  

E-print Network

Plasma instabilities in meteor trails: Linear theory Meers M. Oppenheim, Lars P. Dyrud, and Licia, such as those found at Jicamarca, Arecibo, and Kwajalein. This paper presents a theory of meteor trail electric field, the resulting electron drifts, and the linear plasma instabilities of meteor trails

Oppenheim, Meers

131

Perceptual Geography through Urban Trails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project whereby geography students were charged with designing an urban trail (city walk with informational markers) that would accommodate specific groups. Chosen groups included people with physical disabilities, 10-year olds, and those interested in local street art. Discusses the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective objectives of…

Dove, Jane

1997-01-01

132

Carving a New Assessment Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRAILS (Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills), is a free online test of student information-handling skills. It was formulated by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education and Kent State University Libraries. Based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards and the philosophy of Information Power, it assesses…

Morriston, Terry

2007-01-01

133

Good Practice Minotaur mountain trail  

E-print Network

, disability 2. Partner organisations Coed y Mynydd Forest District, Dolgellau, Disability Sports Wales of bike best suited the trail; and on opening, a local community group "Challenge your Boundaries", provided leaders, equipment and coaching for disabled riders so they could enjoy and experience independent

134

A Mathematics and Science Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to engage primary-school students in a hands-on, real-world problem-solving context, a large urban district, a mathematics and science institute housed in a college of education, and a corporate sponsor in the southwest United States, joined forces to create a mathematics and science trail for fourth- and fifth-grade students. A…

Smith, Kathy Horak; Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

2012-01-01

135

Puzzle Trail Sut i gyrraedd  

E-print Network

Llwybr Pos Puzzle Trail Sut i gyrraedd Mae Bod Petryal wedi ei lleoli rhwng Rhuthun ei arwyddo am Felin y Wig. Mae maes parcio ar eich ochr dde 100 llath i mewn. How to find us Bod.forestry.gov.uk/cymru To find out more... You can get further information about Bod Petryal from: Forestry Commission Wales

136

The Healthy Trail Food Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

Miller, Dorcas S.

137

Expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas: identification of TRAIL-? as a prognostic marker  

PubMed Central

Background TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) belongs to the TNF-superfamily that induces apoptotic cell death in a wide range of neoplastic cells in vivo as well as in vitro. We identified two alternative TRAIL-splice variants, i.e. TRAIL-? and TRAIL-? that are characterized by the loss of their proapoptotic properties. Herein, we investigated the expression and the prognostic values of the TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas. Methods Real time PCR for amplification of the TRAIL-splice variants was performed in tumour tissue specimens and corresponding normal tissues of 41 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. Differences on mRNA-expression levels of the TRAIL-isoforms were compared to histo-pathological variables and correlated with survival data. Results All three TRAIL-splice variants could be detected in both non-malignant and malignant tissues, irrespective of their histological staging, grading or tumour types. However, TRAIL-? exhibited a higher expression in normal gastric tissue. The proapoptotic TRAIL-? expression was increased in gastric carcinomas when compared to TRAIL-? and TRAIL-?. In addition, overexpression of TRAIL-? was associated with a significant higher survival rate. Conclusions This is the first study that investigated the expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Thus, we provide first data that indicate a prognostic value for TRAIL-? overexpression in this tumour entity. PMID:23937794

2013-01-01

138

Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by closed circuit television (CCTV), with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision-system characteristics on off-road, remote driving has been performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering coupled camera and color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience has been gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. This paper discusses the preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience.

McGovern, D.E.

1987-10-01

139

Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by close-circuit television with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision system characteristics on off-road, remote driving was performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering-coupled camera and of color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience was gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. The preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience are discussed.

Mcgovern, Douglas E.

1989-01-01

140

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

141

SCHROTH INTERPRETIVE TRAIL DEMONSTRATION PRAIRIE  

E-print Network

(SCULPTURE) KEY 3.0 mi/68 min 2.4 mi/53 min 2.2 mi/49 min 1.1 mi/25 min 2.1 mi/48 min 2.6 mi/59 min 0.8 mi/19 min Total 14.2 mi/5.5 hrs approximate distance/time HIKING TRAILS MAP Named one of the 7 Wonders

Frank, Thomas D.

142

More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities  

PubMed Central

Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

2013-01-01

143

Rail Trail Development: A Conceptual Model for Sustainable Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notwithstanding the contemporary significance of rail trails as recreational and tourism assets, studies focusing particularly on these multi-use trails have been sparse. This paper presents a contribution to this gap, proposing a model of rail trails as tourism products in an attempt to provide a conceptual basis for rail trail management, planning and research. Examining the Otago Central Rail Trail

Arianne Carvalhedo Reis; Carla Jellum

2012-01-01

144

75 FR 12254 - Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail. The original graphic image was developed as part of the Trail's comprehensive management and use Plan. It first came into public use in 2009. The...

2010-03-15

145

30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions...permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be...Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity and...

2010-07-01

146

Riding a Trail of Debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet.

Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower.

This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

2005-01-01

147

Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

148

Trail inventory and assessment approaches to trail system planning at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail system planning and management require accurate assessments of existing trail resources and their condition. A standardized and efficient process for surveying, inventorying, and assessing trail systems was developed and applied in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Two approaches employed were (1) a Trail System Inventory, and (2) Prescriptive Work Logs. These complimentary approaches provide resource managers with valuable information regarding the location and length of individual trails, their current condition and needed maintenance work, and material and labor estimates necessary to conduct such work.

Williams, P.B.; Marion, J. L.

1993-01-01

149

Na Ala Hele (Trails for Walking).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proposal for the development of a system of administering hiking trails in the state of Hawaii when such trails would involve various public and private jurisdictions emphasizes three elements: (a) proposing means of administration involving multiple jurisdictions; (b) demonstrating by means of a proposed project on the west coast of the Big…

Hawaii State Dept. of Planning and Economic Development, Honolulu.

150

Developing Recreational Trails: Motivations for Recreational Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore the motivations and preferences of recreational walkers in near-urban areas and the implications for trail development. A qualitative focus group method was employed in order to generate open discussion amongst recreational walkers from a range of backgrounds and levels of interest, participation and experience, drawing out motivations to walk, and potential issues relating to trail

Nicholas J. Davies; Leslie M. Lumsdon; Richard Weston

2012-01-01

151

In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

2007-01-01

152

Radio propagation by reflection from meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a survey of those characteristics of meteors, and of meteor propagation, which are important to the understanding and use of meteor ionization insofar as it provides a means of radio transmission. The subjects discussed include the utility of meteor bursts for intermittent radio communication, physical properties of meteors and meteor trails, reflection properties of individual trails, short-term

G. R. Sugar

1964-01-01

153

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

Criswell, D.R.

1993-07-06

154

Evaluation of powertrain solutions for future tactical truck vehicle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of a large scale design space exploration for the hybridization of two off-road vehicles, part of the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) family: Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle (MSV) and Utility Vehicle (UV). Series hybrid architectures are examined. The objective of the paper is to illustrate a novel design methodology that allows for the choice of the optimal values of several vehicle parameters. The methodology consists in an extensive design space exploration, which involves running a large number of computer simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles, and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to choose the design tradeoffs that better satisfy the performance and fuel economy requirements. At the end, few promising vehicle configuration designs will be selected that will need additional detailed investigation including neglected metrics like ride and drivability. Several powertrain architectures have been simulated. The design parameters include the number of axles in the vehicle (2 or 3), the number of electric motors per axle (1 or 2), the type of internal combustion engine, the type and quantity of energy storage system devices (batteries, electrochemical capacitors or both together). An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. The control parameters are tunable and have been included into the design space exploration. The results show that the internal combustion engine and the energy storage system devices are extremely important for the vehicle performance.

Pisu, Pierluigi; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Serrao, Lorenzo; Josephson, John R.; Russell, James

2006-05-01

155

Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

2002-01-01

156

77 FR 1723 - Notice of Availability, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trail) segment management partners and...throughout the Trail network. DATES: The...coordination among Trail management partners; and...diverse Trail network. The document...comprehensive management plan for the Trail network, will...

2012-01-11

157

Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.  

PubMed

Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail discrimination, including the mechanisms by which many snails determine the polarity of the trail, are yet to be experimentally determined. Given the multiple functions of trail-following we propose that future studies should adopt an integrated approach, taking into account the possibility of the simultaneous occurrence of many selectively advantageous roles of trail-following behaviour in gastropods. We also believe that future opportunities to link phenotypic and genotypic traits will make possible a new generation of research projects in which gastropod trail-following, its multitude of functions and evolutionary trade-offs can be further elucidated. PMID:23374161

Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

2013-08-01

158

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

159

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.  

PubMed

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

2008-12-01

160

A robust nonlinear skid-steering control design applied to the MULE (6x6) unmanned ground vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a robust nonlinear skid-steering control design concept. The control concept is based on the recursive/backstepping control design technique and is capable of compensating for uncertainties associated with sensor noise measurements and/or system dynamic state uncertainties. The objective of this control design is to demonstrate the performance of the nonlinear controller under uncertainty associate with road traction (rough off-road and on-road terrain). The MULE vehicle is used in the simulation modeling and results.

Kaloust, Joseph

2006-05-01

161

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2013-07-01

162

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2010-07-01

163

33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

2012-07-01

164

TrailRunner 1.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone's looking for an improved running or walking path, and TrailRunner can help you do just that. TrailRunner 1.8 is essentially a route planning application designed for sports like running, biking, and inline skating. Visitors can create interactive maps, review alternate routes, and export the directions onto their iPod. This version is compatible with Mac OS X 10.3.

2008-01-01

165

A standard audit trail format  

SciTech Connect

The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

Bishop, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1995-02-01

166

Animal Trail Follow the clues and the map around the red trail  

E-print Network

Tan y Coed Animal Trail Clues Follow the clues and the map around the red trail keeping your eyes peeled for the animals. Machynlleth Dolgellau Bala Ffestiniog Porthmadog A A A470 A487 A470 B A487.forestry.gov.uk/cymru Canolfan Cyswllt CC Cymru: 0845 604 0845 (diwrnodiau'r wythnos yn unig) How to find us.. The Animal Puzzle

167

Use and Nonuse of a Rail Trail Conversion for Physical Activity: Implications for Promoting Trail Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is limited research examining both use and nonuse of trails for physical activity. Purpose: Such research might enable health educators to better promote physical activity on trails.Methods:We used random digit dialing methods to survey 726 respondents in 2012. Results: The majority (75.1%) of respondents reported not using the…

Price, Anna E.; Reed, Julian A.

2014-01-01

168

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour. PMID:17327203

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-05-01

169

The Biology of TRAIL and the Role of TRAIL-Based Therapeutics in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a key mediator of the innate immune response to infection. While TRAIL-mediated apoptosis plays an essential role in the clearance of virus-infected cells, its physiologic role also includes immunosurveilance for cancer cells. Therapeutics that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells remain a focus of ongoing investigation in clinical trials, and much has been learned from these studies regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these interventions. These data, combined with data from numerous preclinical studies that detail the important and multifaceted role of TRAIL during infection with human immunodeficiency virus and other viruses, suggest that therapeutic exploitation of TRAIL signaling offers a novel and efficacious strategy for the management of infectious diseases. PMID:21857885

Shepard, Brett D.; Badley, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

170

HypTrails: A Bayesian Approach for Comparing Hypotheses about Human Trails  

E-print Network

When users interact with the Web today, they leave sequential digital trails on a massive scale. Examples of such human trails include Web navigation, sequences of online restaurant reviews, or online music play lists. Understanding the factors that drive the production of these trails can be useful for e.g., improving underlying network structures, predicting user clicks or enhancing recommendations. In this work, we present a general approach called HypTrails for comparing a set of hypotheses about human trails on the Web, where hypotheses represent beliefs about transitions between states. Our approach utilizes Markov chain models with Bayesian inference. The main idea is to incorporate hypotheses as informative Dirichlet priors and to leverage the sensitivity of Bayes factors on the prior for comparing hypotheses with each other. For eliciting Dirichlet priors from hypotheses, we present an adaption of the so-called (trial) roulette method. We demonstrate the general mechanics and applicability of HypTrai...

Singer, Philipp; Hotho, Andreas; Strohmaier, Markus

2014-01-01

171

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-03-01

172

Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.

1981-01-01

173

Science Nation: Hydrogen Trail Blazers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just the last few years, Columbia, South Carolina has transformed itself into a hotbed of hydrogen research--thanks in large part to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Fuel Cells at the University of South Carolina, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Hydrogen is widely hailed as the fuel of the future--plentiful and non-polluting, discharging only water vapor into the environment. Perfecting the fuel cell, which converts hydrogen into a steady stream of electricity, will be one of the keys to making hydrogen vehicles commonplace. To support the push to hydrogen, the city of Columbia, the university, and local business and industry are coordinating to put these new hydrogen technologies to work around town. One example, city policeman patrol the downtown area on hydrogen hybrid Segways.

174

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2013-07-01

175

27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, NPS TRAILS, FRONT ROW RIGHT; BERNIE PONYAH, NPS YCC SUPERVISOR, BACK ROW RIGHT. - West Rim Drive, Between Grand Canyon Village & Hermit Rest, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

176

7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL TO THE BRIDGE, WEIGHT OF CABLE AND DRUM APPROXIMATELY 2200 POUNDS - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

177

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2012-07-01

178

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2011-07-01

179

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2013-07-01

180

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

...2014-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2014-07-01

181

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2010-07-01

182

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2010-07-01

183

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2012-07-01

184

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2011-07-01

185

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2010-07-01

186

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2013-07-01

187

How to Build a Walking Trail Texas Department of Health  

E-print Network

How to Build a Walking Trail Texas Department of Health Chronic Disease Community & Worksite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Media Promotion

188

Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL.  

PubMed

TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFN? (interferon ?) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials. PMID:23124518

Kim, Hye Ryung; Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Jo, Ha Yeong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Chueh, Hee Won; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

2012-01-01

189

Tracking of biogenic hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).  

PubMed

For seals hunting in dark and murky waters one source of sensory information for locating prey consists of fish-generated water movements, which they can detect using their highly sensitive mystacial vibrissae. As water movements in the wake of fishes can persist for several minutes, hydrodynamic trails of considerable length are generated. It has been demonstrated that seals can use their vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic trails generated artificially by miniature submarines. In the present study, we trained a harbour seal to swim predefined courses, thus generating biogenic hydrodynamic trails. The structure of these trails was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry. A second seal was trained to search for and track the trail after the trail-generating seal had left the water. Our trail-following seal was able to detect and accurately track the hydrodynamic trail, showing search patterns either mostly congruent with the trail or crossing the trail repeatedly in an undulatory way. The undulatory trail-following search pattern might allow a seal to relocate a lost trail or successfully track a fleeing, zigzagging prey fish. PMID:17297138

Schulte-Pelkum, N; Wieskotten, S; Hanke, W; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B

2007-03-01

190

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the…

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

191

Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise. [noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.

Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.

1981-01-01

192

Food Stories Exhibition Trail Leader's Notes  

E-print Network

Food Stories Exhibition Trail Leader's Notes 1. Take a look at the stone fragment. Where do you a story about a celebration involving food? (No answer required) 3. This is a food hook from Papua New of grass, palm leaves and bamboo. The food hook would hang from the ceiling of the hut. Why do you think

Levi, Ran

193

Newton to Einstein: The Trail of Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

This engaging text takes the reader along the trail of light from Newton's particles to Einstein's relativity. Like the best detective stories, it presents clues and encourages the reader to draw conclusions before the answers are revealed. The first seven chapters cover the behavior of light, Newton's particle theory, waves and an electromagnetic wave theory of light, the photon, and

Ralph Baierlein

2001-01-01

194

Research on artificial meteor trail emergency communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the particles known as meteors enter the earth's atmosphere, a small fraction of which can form ionized cloud, this ionized cloud has property useful for reflecting electromagnetic wave. Meteor burst communication is a point to point communication technology base on the above principle. Similarly, artificial meteor trail communication establishes “ionized cloud” signal channel by alkali metal ionizing at high-altitude ionosphere to reflect electromagnetic waves. Currently, Meteor burst communication is a mature communication technology with many advantages. However, as a completely uncontrollable natural phenomena, the communication time, duration time, the amount of information transmitted and antenna alignment direction are all uncontrollable. We can only figure out key parameters such as throughput and waiting time within a certain time relying on statistical regularities. Information transmission between specified sites in certain time is impossible to predict accurately. These disadvantages greatly reduce the dependability of meteor trail communication and cannot meet emergency communication’s requirements for real-time, controllable and uninterrupted. Artificial meteor trail emergency communication technology solves the above problems, it’s a reliable emergency telecommunication method. This paper focuses on the necessity and feasibility of artificial meteor trail emergency communication technology, as well as its future application.

Juntao, Liu; Xijun, Yan; Li, Jia

195

An Aerial-Photographic Assessment of Reenacted Handcart Treks on a Section of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Fremont County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reenactments of historical pioneer emigrations have increased in popularity since the celebration of these events during the United States bicentennial in 1976. From 1999 to 2006, approximately 70,000 Mormon trekkers traveled the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail (hereinafter referred to as the Trail) segment between Sixth Crossing and Rock Creek Hollow in Fremont County, Wyoming. Recent elevated levels of use have raised concerns over potential recreation-related damage to this particularly scenic segment of the Trail. In 2006, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an aerial-photographic assessment of the condition of the Trail between Sixth Crossing and Rock Creek Hollow. Specifically, the USGS was to assess trail conditions for this segment as influenced by handcart use (low, medium, and high intensity of use) and concentrated activities associated with trekking (toilet, rest, and camp sites). Based on these results, there are identifiable management considerations. Toilet and rest sites need to be carefully located relative to where sensitive vegetation or soils occur. The analyses presented here indicate that limiting motorized vehicle use needs to be a priority over that of adjusting the number of trekkers. Additionally, monitoring of the Trail from Sixth Crossing to Rock Creek Hollow segment needs to consider explicit management targets, such as minimum acceptable levels of bare ground or trail width, and the establishment of permanent monitoring plots to evaluate targets and measure responses to altered management activities.

McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Nielsen, Charlene C.; Hanson, Leanne; Bowen, Zachary H.

2008-01-01

196

SAHM:VisTrails (Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for VisTrails): training course  

USGS Publications Warehouse

VisTrails is an open-source management and scientific workflow system designed to integrate the best of both scientific workflow and scientific visualization systems. Developers can extend the functionality of the VisTrails system by creating custom modules for bundled VisTrails packages. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s North Central Climate Science Center have teamed up to develop and implement such a module—the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). SAHM expedites habitat modeling and helps maintain a record of the various input data, the steps before and after processing, and the modeling options incorporated in the construction of an ecological response model. There are four main advantages to using the SAHM:VisTrails combined package for species distribution modeling: (1) formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process; (2) easier collaboration through a common modeling framework; (3) a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output; and (4) extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. In order to meet increased interest in the SAHM:VisTrails package, the FORT offers a training course twice a year. The course includes a combination of lecture, hands-on work, and discussion. Please join us and other ecological modelers to learn the capabilities of the SAHM:VisTrails package.

Holcombe, Tracy

2014-01-01

197

The Novel Receptor TRAIL-R4 Induces NF-?B and Protects against TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis, yet Retains an Incomplete Death Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fourth member of the emerging TRAIL receptor family, TRAIL-R4, has been cloned and characterized. TRAIL-R4 encodes a 386–amino acid protein with an extracellular domain showing 58%–70% identity to those of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R3. The signaling capacity of TRAIL-R4 is similar to that of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 with respect to NF-?B activation, but differs in its inability to induce

Mariapia A Degli-Esposti; William C Dougall; Pamela J Smolak; Jennifer Y Waugh; Craig A Smith; Raymond G Goodwin

1997-01-01

198

Targeting death receptor TRAIL-R2 by chalcones for TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:23203129

Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Ksek, Ma?gorzata; Czuba, Zenon P; Król, Wojciech

2012-01-01

199

User Manual for ZOMBIE TRAIL Welcome to the world of Zombie Trail. In a land taken over by zombies, the  

E-print Network

User Manual for ZOMBIE TRAIL Welcome to the world of Zombie Trail. In a land taken over by zombies .zip file to any directory of your choosing and running the ZombieTrail.exe file. Once the game loads a rocket launcher at a single zombie group, killing it. Priest � The priest will help your morale raise up

Wolfgang, Paul

200

Fn14•Trail Effectively Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth  

PubMed Central

Background New strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are needed, given that currently available chemotherapeutics are inefficient. Since tumor growth reflects the net balance between pro-proliferative and death signaling, agents shifting the equilibrium toward the latter are of considerable interest. The TWEAK:Fn14 signaling axis promotes tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, while TRAIL:TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R) interactions selectively induce apoptosis in malignant cells. Fn14•TRAIL, a fusion protein bridging these two pathways, has the potential to inhibit tumor growth, by interfering with TWEAK:Fn14 signaling, while at the same time enforcing TRAIL:TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, Fn14•TRAIL's capacity to inhibit HCC growth was tested. Results Fn14•TRAIL induced robust apoptosis of multiple HCC cell lines, while sparing non-malignant hepatocyte cell lines. Differential susceptibility to this agent did not correlate with expression levels of TRAIL, TRAIL-R, TWEAK and Fn14 by these lines. Fn14•TRAIL was more potent than soluble TRAIL, soluble Fn14, or a combination of the two. The requirement of both of Fn14•TRAIL's molecular domains for function was established using blocking antibodies directed against each of them. Subcutaneous injection of Fn14•TRAIL abrogated HCC growth in a xenograft model, and was well tolerated by the mice. Conclusions In this study, Fn14•TRAIL, a multifunctional fusion protein originally designed to treat autoimmunity, was shown to inhibit the growth of HCC, both in vitro and in vivo. The demonstration of this fusion protein’s potent anti-tumor activity suggests that simultaneous targeting of two signaling axes by a single fusion can serve as a basis for highly effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:24130833

Aronin, Alexandra; Amsili, Shira; Prigozhina, Tatyana B.; Tzdaka, Kobi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob; Shani, Noam; Tykocinski, Mark L.; Dranitzki Elhalel, Michal

2013-01-01

201

Therapeutic efficacy and safety of TRAIL-producing human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells against experimental brainstem glioma  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an extensive migratory capacity for gliomas, which is comparable to that of neural stem cells. Among the various types of MSCs, human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAT-MSC) emerge as one of the most attractive vehicles for gene therapy because of their high throughput, lack of ethical concerns, and availability and ease of isolation. We evaluated the therapeutic potential and safety of genetically engineered hAT-MSCs encoding the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against brainstem gliomas. Human AT-MSCs were isolated from human fat tissue, characterized, and transfected with TRAIL using nucleofector. The therapeutic potential of TRAIL-producing hAT-MSCs (hAT-MSC.TRAIL) was confirmed using in vitro and in vivo studies. The final fate of injected hAT-MSCs was traced in long-survival animals. The characterization of hAT-MSCs revealed the expression of MSC-specific cell-type markers and their differentiation potential into mesenchymal lineage. Short-term outcomes included a 56.3% reduction of tumor volume (P < .001) with increased apoptosis (3.03-fold, P < .05) in animals treated with hAT-MSC.TRAIL compared with the control groups. Long-term outcomes included a significant survival benefit in the hAT-MSC.TRAIL-treated group (26 days of median survival in the control group vs 84 days in the hAT-MSC.TRAIL-treated group, P < .0001), without any evidence of mesenchymal differentiation in vivo. Our study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of nonvirally engineered hAT-MSCs against brainstem gliomas and showed the possibility of stem-cell–based targeted gene therapy for clinical application. PMID:21062796

Choi, Seung Ah; Hwang, Sung-Kyun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Jung, Hee Won; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Seung-Ki

2011-01-01

202

Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

2001-01-01

203

Phenethyl isothiocyanate sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is a promising antitumor therapy. However, many cancer cells, including malignant glioma cells, tend to be resistant to TRAIL, highlighting the need for strategies to overcome TRAIL resistance. Here we show that in combination with phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), exposure to TRAIL induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant glioma cells. Subtoxic concentrations of PEITC significantly potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in glioma cells. PEITC dramatically upregulated DR5 receptor expression but had no effects on DR4 receptor. PEITC enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of cell survival proteins and the upregulation of DR5 receptors through actions on the ROS-induced-p53. PMID:24491546

Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Hai-Chon; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hwa

2014-04-18

204

Molecular Targets of TRAIL-Sensitizing Agents in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily, interacts with its functional death receptors (DRs) and induces apoptosis in a wide range of cancer cell types. Therefore, TRAIL has been considered as an attractive agent for cancer therapy. However, many cancers are resistant to TRAIL-based therapies mainly due to the reduced expression of DRs and/or up-regulation of TRAIL pathway-related anti-apoptotic proteins. Compounds that revert such defects restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, suggesting that combined therapies could help manage neoplastic patients. In this article, we will focus on the TRAIL-sensitizing effects of natural products and synthetic compounds in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which such agents enhance the response of CRC cells to TRAIL. PMID:22942679

Stolfi, Carmine; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2012-01-01

205

The trail making test in India  

PubMed Central

The trail making test (TMT) is a short and convenient estimate of cognitive functions, principally attention and working memory. Like most neuropsychological tests, it is derived from and primarily applicable to English-speaking individuals. Norms for other ethnic minorities may differ significantly. The application of majority or mixed norms to specific ethnic subcultures may introduce systematic bias. To examine the impact of an English test on primarily nonEnglish-speaking individuals, outpatients attending the dermatology department of a large Indian hospital (n = 120) were asked to complete the English version of the TMT. The time taken to complete the TRAILS was unexpectedly long, although all the subjects scored within normal limits on the modified mini mental status examination and a test for general knowledge. Possible reasons for the delayed completion times are discussed below. PMID:20711393

Bhatia, Triptish; Shriharsh, Vandana; Adlakha, Saurabh; Bisht, Vivek; Garg, Kapila; Deshpande, Smita N.

2007-01-01

206

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...headlights and taillights. (viii) Drivers of off-road vehicles shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, saddle horses, pack trains, and animal-drawn vehicles. (ix) Any person who operates an off-road vehicle on public...

2011-10-01

207

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...headlights and taillights. (viii) Drivers of off-road vehicles shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, saddle horses, pack trains, and animal-drawn vehicles. (ix) Any person who operates an off-road vehicle on public...

2012-10-01

208

Mating system shifts on the trailing edge  

PubMed Central

Background The trailing edges of species ranges are becoming a subject of increasing interest as the environment changes due to global warming. Trailing edge populations are likely to face extinction because of a decline in numbers and an inability to evolve new adaptations with sufficient speed. Discussions of character change in the trailing edge have focused on physiological, exomorphic and phenological traits. The mating pattern within populations has not been part of the discourse, in spite of the fact that the mating pattern may affect the ability of populations to respond to environmental change and to maintain their sizes. In this paper, the case is made that a substantial increase in self-fertilization rates may occur via plastic responses to stress. Scope and Conclusions Small populations on the trailing edge are especially vulnerable to environmental change because of inadequate levels of cross-fertilization. Evidence is presented that a deficiency of cross-seed production is due to inadequate pollinator services and a paucity of self-incompatibility alleles within populations. Evidence also is presented that if plants are self-compatible, self-fertilization may compensate in part for this deficiency through a stress-induced increase in levels of self-compatibility and stress-induced alterations in floral morphology that elevate self-pollination. Whereas increased self-fertility may afford populations the time to adapt to their changing environments, it can be concluded that increased selfing is not a panacea for the ills of environmental change, because it will lead to substantial reductions in genetic diversity, which may render adaptation unlikely. PMID:21980190

Levin, Donald A.

2012-01-01

209

The anomalous diffusion of meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Radars frequently detect meteor trails created bythe,ablation of micro-meteoroids between70 and120 km altitude in the atmosphere. Plasma simulations show that densitygradientsattheedgesofmeteortrailsdrivegradient- drift instabilities which develop into waves with perturbed electric elds often exceeding hundreds of mV\\/m. These waves create an anomalous,cross-eld diusion that can ex- ceed the cross-eld (? B) ambipolar diusion,by an order of magnitude. The characteristics of

Lars P. Dyrud; Meers M. Oppenheim; Axel F. vom Endt

2001-01-01

210

Stability of trailing vortices with radial stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the effects of the radial density stratification on the stability of the q-vortex, a commonly accepted model for aircraft trailing vortices. It has been demonstrated that the 2D Lamb--Oseen vortex develops a Rayleigh--Taylor instability when its core is heavier than the surrounding fluid (Joly, Fontane & Chassaing 2005, Sipp et al 2005). The underlying mechanism relies on baroclinic vorticity generation due to any misalignment between the density gradient and the centripetal acceleration field. The instability is triggered provided that the density decreases radially somewhere in the vortex core. This mechanism is also active in the 3D trailing vortex and affects its stability characteristics due to the addition of an axial component in the acceleration field. We show that the unstable center modes of the homogeneous case (Fabre & Jacquin 2004) are promoted in a q-vortex with a heavy core. Their growth rate increases while their m-spiral structure is preserved. For an Atwood number At=0.5, their predicted growth rate can be ten times the ones found in the homogeneous case. Furthermore, the unstable domain is extended far beyond the neutral curve in the homogeneous case, with unstable modes observed for Swirl numbers up to q=5. It is argued here that corresponding density perturbations could eventually lead to the development of new and original strategies to decrease the lifespan of aircraft trailing vortices and greatly reduce their unwanted side-effects on contrails persistence and air traffic regulations.

Fontane, Jerome; Joly, Laurent; Audouin, Auriane

2011-11-01

211

The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

2004-01-01

212

Aerodynamics of flapping wings with fluttering trailing edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous work on the aerodynamics of passive flexible flapping wings showed that there is a strong relationship between the dynamics of trailing edge and the size of the leading edge vortex, therefore aerodynamic forces. Here we investigated the aerodynamic effects of active trailing edges. The experiments were conducted on a model flapping wing in an oil tank. During static tests, the trailing edge bending angle was held constant from the angle of attack of the upper portion of the rigid wing. For dynamic cases, the trailing edge was controlled to flutter with a prescribed frequency and amplitude. Force measurements and PIV results show that trailing edge flexion/camber strongly correlates with the leading edge vortex and the aerodynamic forces. In addition, large instantaneous force variations are observed in the dynamic fluttering cases, suggesting that trailing edge can be used for force modulation in MAVs.

Zhao, Liang; Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

213

Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

214

Pheromone trailing behavior of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.  

PubMed

The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active conspecifics was tested in the laboratory by using a Y maze. Males displayed a trailing response to both female and male pheromone trails over blank controls. As males of this species display ritualized combat behavior, these responses likely represent both direct and indirect mechanisms, respectively, for the location of potential mates in the wild. Males did not, however, discriminate between male and female trails when given a choice on the Y maze. PMID:11817075

Greene, M J; Stark, S L; Mason, R T

2001-11-01

215

Human mesenchymal stem cells with adenovirus-mediated TRAIL gene transduction have antitumor effects on esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109.  

PubMed

The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is believed to be a promising candidate for cancer gene therapy, yet gene therapy strategies to tackle this disease systemically are often impaired by inefficient delivery of the vector to the tumor tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to home to tumor sites and could potentially act as a shield and vehicle for an antitumor gene therapy vector. Here, we used an adenoviral vector expressing TRAIL to transduce MSCs and studied the apoptosis-inducing activity of these TRAIL-carrying MSCs on esophageal cancer cell Eca-109. Our results showed that, in vitro, TRAIL-expressing MSCs were able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in Eca-109 cells by an MTT assay, co-culture experiments and flow cytometry analysis. In vivo, TRAIL-expressing MSCs also displayed an ability to inhibit tumor growth in an Eca-109 xenograft mouse model. Together, our findings indicated that the gene therapy strategy of MSCs-based TRAIL gene delivery has a wide potential value for improving the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:24739635

Li, Lin; Li, Fengling; Tian, Hui; Yue, Weiming; Li, Shuhai; Chen, Guanqing

2014-06-01

216

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails  

E-print Network

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails S radio waves reflect off structures in a turbulent meteor trail. These trails persist from a few nonspecular trails and find that the meteoroid energy causes much of the variability in the nonspecular trail

Oppenheim, Meers

217

Trail Impacts in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal: A Logistic Regression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trail study was conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal, during 1997–1998. Based on that study, this paper examines the spatial variability of trail conditions and analyzes factors that influence trail conditions. Logistic regression (multinomial logit model) is applied to examine the influence of use and environmental factors on trail conditions. The assessment of trail conditions is

2003-01-01

218

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector  

SciTech Connect

Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

2013-03-01

219

Trail-following in termites: Evidence for a multicomponent system.  

PubMed

Several African termite species from different subfamilies and different habitats are sensitive to trail-active extracts or to naturally laid trails from other species. Using single-extract bioassays, it is shown that the response threshold for trail-following is nearly identical for all tested species (except forHodotermes mossambicus). However, when termite workers have a choice between trails from their own species and from other species, conspecific trail-following is exclusively observed. This phenomenon can be counteracted by dilution (1?10) of the conspecific trail-pheromone extract. Tests of the trail activity of various synthetic alcohols show that among these, the highest sensitivity of termite workers is to (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol. Based on our experimental data, we postulate that, in addition to a generally active trail-pheromone constituent (an unsaturated primary C12 alcohol) or a pool of chemically closely related alcohols, other species-specific components are present in termite trails. PMID:24413962

Kaib, M; Bruinsma, O; Leuthold, R H

1982-09-01

220

Safer Science: The Safety Legal Paper Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To avoid the potential for litigation, teachers need to be informed. They must know how to prevent accidents and should be proactive to protect both themselves and students from harm in the classroom. The following actions are recommended to help teachers maintain a safe working environment by protecting students from unreasonable risks of harm. Also, these actions will help teachers remain safe from litigation. If litigation does arise, these actions provide a paper trail that documents a teacher's efforts to prevent harm to students.

Roy, Ken

2009-02-01

221

Targeted ovarian cancer treatment: the TRAILs of resistance  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Although most patients respond to the initial therapy when presenting with advanced disease, only 10-15% maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. Recurrence defines incurable disease in most cases. Despite improvements with conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate remained mostly stable over the years. Increased long-term survival in OC patients will only be achieved through a comprehensive understanding of the basic mechanisms of tumor cell resistance. Such knowledge will translate into the development of new targeted strategies. In addition, because OC is considered to be a heterogeneous group of diseases with distinct gene expression profiles, it is likely that different approaches to treatment for distinct sub-types will be required to optimize response. One of the new promising anti-cancer therapies is the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL has the ability to selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells with little toxicity to normal cells. Death receptor ligands such as TRAIL rely on the activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway to destroy tumor cells. TRAIL induces the formation of a pro-apoptotic death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) via its death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL R1) and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL R2). The formation of the DISC activates caspase-8 which requires further signal amplification through the mitochondrial pathway for an efficient activation of effector caspases in OC cells. The initial enthusiasm for TRAIL has been hampered by accumulating data demonstrating TRAIL resistance in various tumor types including OC cells. There is, therefore, a need to identify markers of TRAIL resistance, which could represent new hits for targeted therapy that will enhance TRAIL efficacy. In addition, the identification of patients that are more likely to respond to TRAIL therapy would be highly desirable. In this review, we discuss the different molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to TRAIL resistance in OC. In particular, we address the mechanisms involved in intrinsic, acquired and environment-mediated TRAIL resistance, and their potential implication in the clinical outcome. PMID:22206047

Khaider, Nadzeya Goncharenko; Lane, Denis; Matte, Isabelle; Rancourt, Claudine; Piche, Alain

2012-01-01

222

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.  

PubMed

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

2010-07-01

223

Using modeling and simulation to evaluate stability and traction performance of a track-laying robotic vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DOD has been involved in the research, development and acquisition of unmanned ground vehicle systems to support the troops in the field while minimizing the risks associated with supplying these troops. Engineers and scientists at TARDEC are using computer based modeling and simulation (M&S) to investigate how modifications to unmanned ground vehicles impact their mobility and stability, and to predict performance levels attainable for these types of vehicle systems. The objective of this paper will be to describe the computerbased modeling, simulation, and limited field testing effort that has been undertaken to investigate the dynamic performance of an unmanned tracked vehicle system while conducting a full matrix of tests designed to evaluate system shock, vibration, dynamic stability and off road mobility characteristics. In this paper we will describe the multi-body modeling methodology used as well as the characteristic data incorporated to define the models and their subsystems. The analysis undertaken is applying M&S to baseline the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and comparing these results with performance levels recorded for several manned vehicle systems. We will identify the virtual test matrix over which we executed the models. Finally we will describe our efforts to visualize our findings through the use of computer generated animations of the vehicle system negotiating various virtual automotive tests making up the test matrix.

Gunter, D. D.; Bylsma, W. W.; Edgar, K.; Letherwood, M. D.; Gorsich, D. J.

2005-05-01

224

30 CFR 77.603 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Trailing Cables § 77.603 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. Trailing cables shall be clamped to machines in a manner to protect the cables from damage and to prevent strain on the electrical...

2010-07-01

225

25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?  

...and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot block, restrict, or otherwise interfere with the use of a road, trail, or...

2014-04-01

226

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2012-07-01

227

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2013-07-01

228

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check...75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for...

2011-07-01

229

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-11-01

230

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

231

Suggestions and Procedures in Developing Nature Trails. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though public nature trails have been in use since the late 1800's, their use on school grounds for educational purposes is a relatively new concept. The nature trail is an important tool for teaching environmental awareness and appreciation. It provides experiences for observing nature firsthand with all senses employed. It is a resource that is…

Hendren, Travis E.; Lenk, Alan

232

Hydrodynamic Trails Produced by Daphnia: Size and Energetics  

PubMed Central

This study focuses on quantifying hydrodynamic trails produced by freely swimming zooplankton. We combined volumetric tracking of swimming trajectories with planar observations of the flow field induced by Daphnia of different size and swimming in different patterns. Spatial extension of the planar flow field along the trajectories was used to interrogate the dimensions (length and volume) and energetics (dissipation rate of kinetic energy and total dissipated power) of the trails. Our findings demonstrate that neither swimming pattern nor size of the organisms affect the trail width or the dissipation rate. However, we found that the trail volume increases with increasing organism size and swimming velocity, more precisely the trail volume is proportional to the third power of Reynolds number. This increase furthermore results in significantly enhanced total dissipated power at higher Reynolds number. The biggest trail volume observed corresponds to about 500 times the body volume of the largest daphnids. Trail-averaged viscous dissipation rate of the swimming daphnids vary in the range of to and the observed magnitudes of total dissipated power between and , respectively. Among other zooplankton species, daphnids display the highest total dissipated power in their trails. These findings are discussed in the context of fluid mixing and transport by organisms swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers. PMID:24671019

Wickramarathna, Lalith N.; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

2014-01-01

233

Trail-Laying Robots for Robust Terrain Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotics researchers have studied robots that can follow the trails laid by other robots. We, on the other hand, study robots that leave trails in the terrain to cover closed terrain once or repeatedly. How to design such ant robots has so far been studied only theoretically for gross robot simplifications. In this paper, we describe for the first time

Jonas Svennebring; Sven Koenig

2003-01-01

234

On the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs  

MedlinePLUS

... the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page On the Trail of Drug-Defying ... Findings About Our Resident Microbes This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

235

ACTIVE WING FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING A TRAILING EDGE FLAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aeroservoelastic behaviour of a thin rectangular wing with a controllable trailing edge flap is investigated. A rather high aspect ratio motivates a numerical model based on linear beam theory for the structural dynamics and strip theory for the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Experimental flutter testing shows good agreement with the numerical stability analysis, and the impact of the trailing edge

D. Borglund; J. Kuttenkeuler

2002-01-01

236

Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils  

E-print Network

Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils Franck Bertagnolio Risø-R-1633(EN) Risø Bertagnolio Title: Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils Department: Wind Energy in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RIS�-B1

237

An experimental investigation of trailing-edge noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airfoil trailing-edge noise up to a Reynolds number based on chord of 2.96 x 10 to the 6th power was studied. Comparisons are made with current theory, particularly with regard to the nature of the pressure field in the vicinity of the trailing-edge and its influence on the radiated noise.

Brooks, T. F.; Hodgson, T. H.

1979-01-01

238

Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open  

E-print Network

Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open Periodically? Julien Dubois1 motion perception of unknown origin: the subject perceives a series of discrete stationary images potentially reveal how our brains update conscious visual perception in time. What Do Visual Trails Look Like

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

State Secret: North Carolina and the Cherokee Trail of Tears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an analytic essay that examines the treatment of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in a North Carolina fourth grade textbook. I begin by offering a satiric look at an imaginary textbook's treatment of the Holocaust that is based closely on the actual narrative of the Trail of Tears written in the fourth grade text. Following this, close…

Bryant, James

2008-01-01

240

Plasma wave excitation on meteor trails in the equatorial electrojet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual properties of meteor echoes recently observed at Jicamarca (Chapin and Kudeki, 1994) are attributed to the growth and propagation of plasma irregularities along meteor trails deposited within the equatorial electrojet. It is suggested that trails at electrojet heights must carry intense discharge currents that excite two-stream and\\/or gradient drift instabilities for irregularity growth. The direction of electron motion

Elaine Chapin; Erhan Kudeki

1994-01-01

241

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recombinant gene was constructed, encoding the soluble form of the human Flt3L gene (hFlex) at the 5' end and the human TRAIL gene at the 3' end. This plasmid (phFlex/TRAIL) was administrated by the hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. As a result, tumor g...

J. J. Song

2004-01-01

242

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and rehabilitation of trailside and trailhead facilities and trail linkage for recreational trails; (10) Purchase and lease of recreational trail construction and maintenance equipment;...

2011-04-01

243

Michigan Technological University Annual Placement Report  

E-print Network

motorcycle, a supermileage vehicle, an off-road vehicle, and a solar-powered car. Michigan Tech has hosted advised a student team that designed a human- powered, off-road wheelchair to help disabled people enjoy

244

Evaluating a Negotiated Rulemaking Process at Cape Hatteras National Seashore: Toward Piping Plover and People in One Place  

E-print Network

process to create an Off Road Vehicle Management Rule. The rulemaking process involved park stakeholders working with the NPS as a Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee with the goal of creating an Off Road Vehicle Management Rule for CAHA...

Merritt, Lavell

2011-02-22

245

Trailing edge flow conditions as a factor in airfoil design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some new developments relevant to the design of single-element airfoils using potential flow methods are presented. In particular, the role played by the non-dimensional trailing edge velocity in design is considered and the relationship between the specified value and the resulting airfoil geometry is explored. In addition, the ramifications of the unbounded trailing edge pressure gradients generally present in the potential flow solution of the flow over an airfoil are examined, and the conditions necessary to obtain a class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients developed. The incorporation of these conditions into the inverse method of Eppler is presented and the modified scheme employed to generate a number of airfoils for consideration. The detailed viscous analysis of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients demonstrates a reduction in the strong inviscid-viscid interactions generally present near the trailing edge of an airfoil.

Ormsbee, A. I.; Maughmer, M. D.

1984-01-01

246

TRAIL on trial: preclinical advances in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, or TRAIL, is a promising anticancer agent as it can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers whilst generally sparing non-malignant cells. However, the translation of TRAIL into the clinic has been confounded by its short half-life, inadequate delivery methods, and TRAIL-resistant cancer cell populations. In this review, we discuss how TRAIL has been functionalized to diversify its traditional tumor-killing role and novel strategies to facilitate its effective deployment in preclinical cancer models. The successes and failures of the most recent clinical trials using TRAIL agonists are highlighted and we provide a perspective for improving its clinical implementation. PMID:24076237

Stuckey, Daniel W; Shah, Khalid

2013-11-01

247

Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.  

PubMed

Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

2013-01-01

248

Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails  

PubMed Central

Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

2013-01-01

249

TRAIL on Trial: Preclinical advances for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, or TRAIL, is a promising anti-cancer agent as it can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers whilst generally sparing non-malignant cells. However, the translation of TRAIL into the clinic has been confounded by its short half-life, inadequate delivery methods and TRAIL-resistant cancer cell populations. In this review we discuss how TRAIL has been functionalized to diversify its traditional tumor-killing role and novel strategies to facilitate its effective deployment in preclinical cancer models. The successes and failures of the most recent clinical trials using TRAIL agonists are discussed and we provide a perspective for improving its clinical implementation. PMID:24076237

Stuckey, Daniel W.; Shah, Khalid

2013-01-01

250

Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

1997-04-01

251

Trail-following responses of the Argentine ant,Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr), to a synthetic trail pheromone component and analogs.  

PubMed

Behavioral evidence indicates that (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16?ALD) is a trail pheromone component ofIridomyrmex humilis, and that the true trail pheromone may be multicomponent. Trail-following responses ofI. humilis workers to several concentrations of syntheticZ9-16?ALD, a constituent of the Pavan's gland, were found to be comparable to responses to gaster extract trails containing ca. 100 times lessZ9-16?ALD. Of the five aldehyde analogs tested, only (Z)-7-hexadecenal (Z7-16?ALD) elicited significant trail-following. However, following responses to severalZ9-16?ALD-Z7-16?ALD combinations were lower than responses toZ9-16?ALD alone. Trails on filter paper of biologically relevant concentrations ofZ9-16?ALD lose activity within 2 hr in the laboratory. The release rate ofZ9-16?ALD measured from filter paper trails was 0.25 ± 0.10 pg/cm-sec. This was used to estimate the trail-following threshold for this compound of Argentine ant workers. PMID:24414579

Van Vorhis Key, S E; Baker, T C

1982-01-01

252

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

253

Impacts of Recreation Trails on Exotic and Ruderal Species Distribution in Grassland Areas Along the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the establishment patterns of exotic and ruderal species along trail corridors in grassland areas of the Colorado Front Range. The effects of trail presence, trail age, and trail traffic levels on exotic and ruderal species establishment are explored to ascertain the potential impacts of trails on surrounding vegetation. Established trails exhibited a greater presence of exotic and

Aaron P. Potito; Susan W. Beatty

2005-01-01

254

TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter  

SciTech Connect

An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

Yu, W S; Powell, J R; Usher, J L

1980-01-01

255

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes  

SciTech Connect

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

256

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

257

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

258

Close-up of Europa's Trailing Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This complex terrain on Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows an area centered at 8 degrees north latitude, 275.4 degrees west longitude, in the trailing hemisphere. As Europa moves in its orbit around Jupiter, the trailing hemisphere is the portion which is always on the moon's backside opposite to its direction of motion. The area shown is about 100 kilometers by 140 kilometers (62 miles by 87 miles). The complex ridge crossing the picture in the upper left corner is part of a feature that can be traced hundreds of miles across the surface of Europa, extending beyond the edge of the picture. The upper right part of the picture shows terrain that has been disrupted by an unknown process, superficially resembling blocks of sea ice during a springtime thaw. Also visible are semicircular mounds surrounded by shallow depressions. These might represent the intrusion of material punching through the surface from below and partial melting of Europa's icy crust. The resolution of this image is about 180 meters (200 yards); this means that the smallest visible object is about a quarter of a mile across.

This picture of Europa was taken by Galileo's Solid State Imaging system from a distance of 17,900 kilometers (11,100 miles) on the spacecraft's sixth orbit around Jupiter, on February 20, 1997.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

259

Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power requirements; small lift oscillations when deployed in a time-dependent manner; and significant flexibility with respect to the specific devices selected.

Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert

2008-01-01

260

Mapping, Navigation, and Learning for Off-Road Traversal  

E-print Network

developed outperformed all nine other teams in final blind tests over previously unseen terrain. C 2008. Further, the participating teams were to be tested "blind"--sending in code to be run on a robot on sand or leaves and be unable to climb even small grades if they were slippery. These con- ditions could

Solà, Joan

261

Identification of plant extracts sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive heterogeneous cancer subgroup with a higher rate of distant recurrence and a poorer prognosis compared to other subgroups. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive molecule that induces cell death in various tumor cells without causing cytotoxicity to normal cells; however, primary or acquired resistance to TRAIL often limits its efficacy in cancer patients. To develop combination therapies to improve TRAIL efficacy and/or to overcome the resistant mechanism, we screened 138 medicinal plant extracts against TRAIL-sensitive and -insensitive TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Among them, 5 plant extracts, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris, Cortia depressa, Dichasia bengalensis and Cinnamomum obtusifolium did not cause apparent cytotoxicity (<20%) as a single regimen, but showed significant synergistic effects in combination with TRAIL against both cell lines. Moreover, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris and Cinnamomum obtusifolium were found to suppress the phosphorylation of p65 that is involved in TRAIL-resistant mechanisms. These observations suggest that the identified plant extracts in combination with TRAIL could lead to potential therapeutic benefits for cancer patients in the clinical setting. PMID:23426404

Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hafiyani, Lia; Kalauni, Surya K; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Awale, Suresh; Saiki, Ikuo

2013-05-01

262

Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-? SST, transitional k-? SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions.

Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

2014-06-01

263

Maternal Plasma Soluble TRAIL is Decreased in Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by systemic intravascular inflammation. Women who develop PE are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has anti-atherosclerotic effects in endothelial cells and can mediate neutrophil apoptosis. Low soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) and high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in non-pregnant individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP differ between women with PE and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=93) and those with PE (n=52). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower and the median plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (25.55 vs. 29.17; p = 0.03 and 8.0 vs. 4.1; p=0.001, respectively); 2) the median plasma concentration sTRAIL/CRP ratio was twofold lower in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (p<0.001); and 3) women with plasma sTRAIL and CRP ratio in the lowest quartile were eight times more likely to have PE than women with concentrations in the upper three quartiles (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 2.8–27.8). Conclusion Maternal plasma sTRAIL concentrations are lower (while those of CRP are higher) in women with PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies. These findings are consistent with the evidence of intravascular inflammation in this disorder. PMID:23688319

Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Stampalija, Tamara; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

264

Constraint-based semi-autonomy for unmanned ground vehicles using local sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleoperated vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in a variety of military functions. While advantageous in many respects over their manned counterparts, these vehicles also pose unique challenges when it comes to safely avoiding obstacles. Not only must operators cope with difficulties inherent to the manned driving task, but they must also perform many of the same functions with a restricted field of view, limited depth perception, potentially disorienting camera viewpoints, and significant time delays. In this work, a constraint-based method for enhancing operator performance by seamlessly coordinating human and controller commands is presented. This method uses onboard LIDAR sensing to identify environmental hazards, designs a collision-free path homotopy traversing that environment, and coordinates the control commands of a driver and an onboard controller to ensure that the vehicle trajectory remains within a safe homotopy. This system's performance is demonstrated via off-road teleoperation of a Kawasaki Mule in an open field among obstacles. In these tests, the system safely avoids collisions and maintains vehicle stability even in the presence of "routine" operator error, loss of operator attention, and complete loss of communications.

Anderson, Sterling J.; Karumanchi, Sisir B.; Johnson, Bryan; Perlin, Victor; Rohde, Mitchell; Iagnemma, Karl

2012-06-01

265

Trails of Kilovolt Ions Created by Subsurface Channeling  

SciTech Connect

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe{sup +} ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2010-02-19

266

An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Tarr, N.M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

2010-01-01

267

Effect of Trail Bifurcation Asymmetry and Pheromone Presence or Absence on Trail Choice by Lasius niger Ants  

PubMed Central

During foraging, ant workers are known to make use of multiple information sources, such as private information (personal memory) and social information (trail pheromones). Environmental effects on foraging, and how these interact with other information sources, have, however, been little studied. One environmental effect is trail bifurcation asymmetry. Ants forage on branching trail networks and must often decide which branch to take at a junction (bifurcation). This is an important decision, as finding food sources relies on making the correct choices at bifurcations. Bifurcation angle may provide important information when making this choice. We used a Y-maze with a pivoting 90° bifurcation to study trail choice of Lasius niger foragers at varying branch asymmetries (0°, [both branches 45° from straight ahead], 30° [branches at 30° and 60° from straight ahead], 45°, 60° and 90° [one branch straight ahead, the other at 90°]). The experiment was carried out either with equal amounts of trail pheromone on both branches of the bifurcation or with pheromone present on only one branch. Our results show that with equal pheromone, trail asymmetry has a significant effect on trail choice. Ants preferentially follow the branch deviating least from straight, and this effect increases as asymmetry increases (47% at 0°, 54% at 30°, 57% at 45°, 66% at 60° and 73% at 90°). However, when pheromone is only present on one branch, the graded effect of asymmetry disappears. Overall, however, there is an effect of asymmetry as the preference of ants for the pheromone-marked branch over the unmarked branch is reduced from 65%, when it is the less deviating branch, to 53%, when it is the more deviating branch. These results demonstrate that trail asymmetry influences ant decision-making at bifurcations and that this information interacts with trail pheromone presence in a non-hierarchical manner.

Forster, Antonia; Czaczkes, Tomer J; Warner, Emma; Woodall, Tom; Martin, Emily; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Herberstein, M

2014-01-01

268

Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitment–yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not to DR5, through the DHHC and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Expression level of GODZ affects apoptosis of tumor cells triggered by TRAIL, but not that induced by TNF-?/cycloheximide (CHX) or DNA-damaging drugs. In parallel, GODZ functions to localize DR4 to the plasma membrane (PM) via DHHC motif. Also, introduction of mutation into the cysteine-rich motif of DR4 results in its mistargeting and attenuates TRAIL- or GODZ-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, GODZ expression is highly downregulated in Hep-3B tumor cells, which show resistance to TRAIL. However, reconstitution of GODZ expression enhances the targeting of DR4 to cell surface and sensitizes Hep-3B cells to TRAIL. Taken together, these data establish that GODZ is a novel DR4-selective regulator responsible for targeting of DR4 to the PM, and thereby for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:22240897

Oh, Y; Jeon, Y-J; Hong, G-S; Kim, I; Woo, H-N; Jung, Y-K

2012-01-01

269

78 FR 59368 - Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Historic Trail Advisory Council and Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...and waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic...

2013-09-26

270

Modelling landscape-scale erosion potential related to vehicle disturbances along the U.S.-Mexico border  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decades of intensive off-road vehicle use for border security, immigration, smuggling, recreation, and military training along the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from anthropogenic activities, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, we refined two factors whose categorical and spatial representations limit the application of the USLE for non-agricultural landscapes: the C-factor (vegetation cover) and the P-factor (support practice/management). A soil compaction index (P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to maps of vehicle disturbances digitized from aerial photography. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2?=?0.77) than data derived from land cover (r2?=?0.06). We identified 9,780?km of unauthorized off-road tracks in the 2,800?km2 study area. Maps of these disturbances, when integrated with soil compaction data using the USLE, provided landscape-scale information on areas vulnerable to erosion from both natural processes and human activities, and are detailed enough for adaptive management and restoration planning. The models revealed erosion potential hotspots adjacent to the border and within areas managed as critical habitat for the threatened flat-tailed horned lizard and endangered Sonoran Pronghorn.

Villarreal, Miguel; Webb, Robert H.; Norman, Laura M.; Psillas, Jennifer L.; Rosenberg, Abigail S.; Carmichael, Shinji; Petrakis, Roy E.; Sparks, Philip E.

2014-01-01

271

Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

2011-01-01

272

5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

273

30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...portable (trailing) cable furnishes electric power. (6) Have nominal outside...workmanlike manner to insure good electrical conductivity, insulation, and mechanical...

2012-07-01

274

Audit trails in the Aeolus distributed security platform  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

Popic, Victoria

2010-01-01

275

Analyzing audit trails in the Aeolus security platform  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design and implementation of an analysis system for audit trails generated by Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. Previous work focused on collecting these ...

Blankstein, Aaron (Aaron M.)

2011-01-01

276

Audit Trails in the Aeolus Distributed Security Platform  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

Popic, Victoria

2010-09-29

277

Trailing Edge Blowing and Aerodynamic Losses in Cooled Turbine Vanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern gas turbine development is driven by the often-incompatible goals of increased efficiency, higher durability, and reduced emissions. With high turbine inlet temperatures and ineffective cooling at the trailing edge of a first-stage stator vane, observations of this region during engine tests frequently reveal burn marks, cracks, and buckling. To aid designers of turbine vane cooling schemes, the ability to model and predict the aerodynamic and heat transfer performance is required. This program is a combined numerical and experimental study of the cooled trailing edge region. Predictions and measurements of aerodynamic losses are presented for a "covered" trailing edge configuration. Aerodynamic losses are minimized for optimum coolant ejection mass flow rates expressed as a fraction of the main air flow. The trailing edge wake structure, with its velocity measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), reveals reduced shear layer interaction in the wake at optimal cooling. These results qualitatively agree with the numerically-predicted flow field.

Brundage, Aaron L.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Lawless, Patrick B.

2003-11-01

278

The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

1993-01-01

279

21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

2013-04-01

280

21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

2011-04-01

281

21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.  

... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

2014-04-01

282

21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

2010-04-01

283

21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

2012-04-01

284

Targeting of TRAIL Apoptotic Pathways for Glioblastoma Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in cancer biology have generated novel cancer therapeutics that can activate apoptotic pathways in human cancers.\\u000a Among the apoptotic therapeutics, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has received much attention\\u000a because it can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Preclinical studies in glioblastoma cell lines, primary cultures,\\u000a and xenografts have resulted in the development of TRAIL-based therapeutic modalities

Anita C. Bellail; Patrick Mulligan; Chunhai Hao

285

Forced Diffusion of Trailing Vorticity from a Hovering Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small turbulence generating device was Attached near the tip of a hovering rotor blade In order to alter the structure of the trailing vortex. Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) images were used to quantify the wake behind the rotor blade during the first revolution. An analysis of the 3D-velocity field includes a method for accounting for vortex wander. The results show that a major change in the size and intensity of the trailing vortex can be achieved.

McAlister, Kenneth W.; Tung, Chee; Heineck, James T.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

286

GRASSLAND SONGBIRD ABUNDANCE ALONG ROADS AND TRAILS IN SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted roadside and trail-side point count surveys to determine whether grassland bird abundance differs along ditched and non-ditched sampling points in south- western Saskatchewan. Savannah and Vesper Sparrows were more abundant along roads, while Baird's Sparrows, Chestnut-collared Longspurs, and Sprague's Pipits were more abun- dant along trails. Clay-colored Sparrows, Horned Larks, and Western Meadowlarks were de- tected equally along

GLENN C. SUTTER; STEPHEN K. DAVIS; DAVID C. DUNCAN

287

Getting TRAIL back on track for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Unlike other members of the TNF superfamily, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, also known as Apo2L) possesses the unique capacity to induce apoptosis selectively in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This exciting discovery provided the basis for the development of TRAIL-receptor agonists (TRAs), which have demonstrated robust anticancer activity in a number of preclinical studies. Subsequently initiated clinical trials testing TRAs demonstrated, on the one hand, broad tolerability but revealed, on the other, that therapeutic benefit was rather limited. Several factors that are likely to account for TRAs' sobering clinical performance have since been identified. First, because of initial concerns over potential hepatotoxicity, TRAs with relatively weak agonistic activity were selected to enter clinical trials. Second, although TRAIL can induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, it has now emerged that many others, and importantly, most primary cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL monotherapy. Third, so far patients enrolled in TRA-employing clinical trials were not selected for likelihood of benefitting from a TRA-comprising therapy on the basis of a valid(ated) biomarker. This review summarizes and discusses the results achieved so far in TRA-employing clinical trials in the light of these three shortcomings. By integrating recent insight on apoptotic and non-apoptotic TRAIL signaling in cancer cells, we propose approaches to introduce novel, revised TRAIL-based therapeutic concepts into the cancer clinic. These include (i) the use of recently developed highly active TRAs, (ii) the addition of efficient, but cancer-cell-selective TRAIL-sensitizing agents to overcome TRAIL resistance and (iii) employing proteomic profiling to uncover resistance mechanisms. We envisage that this shall enable the design of effective TRA-comprising therapeutic concepts for individual cancer patients in the future. PMID:24948009

Lemke, J; von Karstedt, S; Zinngrebe, J; Walczak, H

2014-01-01

288

GeneTrail - advanced gene set enrichment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive and efficient gene set analysis tool, called 'GeneTrail' that offers a rich functionality and is easy to use. Our web-based application facilitates the statistical evaluation of high-throughput genomic or proteomic data sets with respect to enrichment of functional categories. GeneTrail covers a wide variety of biological cate- gories and pathways, among others KEGG, TRANSPATH, TRANSFAC, and

Christina Backes; Andreas Keller; Jan Kuentzer; Benny Kneissl; Nicole Comtesse; Yasser A. Elnakady; Rolf Müller; Eckart Meese; Hans-peter Lenhof

2007-01-01

289

Scent trailing by virgin females ofPseudococcm calceolariae.  

PubMed

Virgin females of the citrophilous mealybugPseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.) deposit scent marks as trails on the substrate on which they rest or move. These substances elicit attraction and sexual behavior by conspecific males. The same responses were obtained when males were bioassayed on extracts from filter paper disks on which females had rested. The significance of scent trailing in mealybugs is discussed. PMID:24420428

Rotundo, G; Tremblay, E

1981-01-01

290

Regulation of TRAIL-Receptor Expression by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients. PMID:25318057

Sarhan, Dhifaf; D'Arcy, Padraig; Lundqvist, Andreas

2014-01-01

291

Europa's Northern Trailing Hemisphere: Lineament Stratigraphic Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the global distribution of Europan geologic units in time and space is a necessary step for the synthesis of the results of the Galileo mission and in preparation for future exploration (namely, by JIMO) of the satellite. We have initiated the production of the first Global Geological Map of Europa. As a base map, we use the recently published global photomosaic of Europa (U.S.G.S. Map I-2757) and additional Galileo SSI images at their original resolution. The map is being produced entirely on GIS format for analysis and combination with other datasets [1]. One of the main objectives of this project is to establish a global stratigraphic framework for Europa. In the absence of a well-developed cratering record, this goal will be achieved using the satellite s global network of lineaments (ridges, ridge complexes and bands; cf. [2]). Here we present the preliminary stratigraphic framework synthesized from the sequence of lineaments derived for the northern trailing hemisphere of Europa (Figure 1, below), and we discuss its significance and some emerging implications.

Figueredo, P. H.; Hare, T.; Ricq, E.; Strom, K.; Greeley, R.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.

2004-01-01

292

Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

PubMed Central

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

293

Recent Laboratory and Numerical Trailing Vortex Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from two laboratory studies and two numerical studies are presented. In the first laboratory study, measurements of the strength of vortices from a three-dimensional (3-D) model wing are presented. The measurements follow the vortices as they evolve in time from a two-dimensional (2-D) line vortex pair to the development and migration of 3-D vortex rings. It is shown that the resulting vortex rings can contain up to 40 percent of the initial vortex circulation. Thus, the formation of vortex rings may not necessarily signal the end of the wake hazard to following aircraft. In the second laboratory study, we present the results of an experiment which shows how the spanwise drag distribution affects wake-vortex evolution. In this experiment, we modified the spanwise drag distribution on a model wing while keeping the total lift and drag constant. The results show that adding drag on or near the centerline of the wing has a larger effect than adding drag at or near the wingtips. These measurements complement the results of NASA studies in the 1970s. In the first numerical study, results of 3-D numerical calculations are presented which show that the vortex Reynolds number has a significant influence on the evolution and migration of wake vortices. When the Reynolds number is large, 3-D vortex rings evolve from the initially 2-D line vortex pairs. These vortex rings then migrate vertically. When the Reynolds number is lower, the transition of vorticity from 2-D to 3-D is delayed. When the Reynolds number is very low, the vortices never transition to 3-D, and the vertical migration is significantly reduced. It is suggested that this effect may have been important in previous laboratory wake-evolution studies. A second numerical study shows the influence that vertical wind shear can have on trailing vortex evolution.

Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.; Robins, Robert E.; Singh, Raminder

1996-01-01

294

Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

1993-01-01

295

Salinomycin potentiates the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL on glioblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been reported to exhibit therapeutic activity in cancer. However, many tumors remain resistant to treatment with TRAIL. Therefore, small molecules that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL could be used for combinatorial therapy. Here we found that the ionophore antibiotic salinomycin acts in synergism with TRAIL, enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Treatment with low doses of salinomycin in combination with TRAIL augmented the activation of caspase-3 and increased TRAIL-R2 cell surface expression. TRAIL-R2 upmodulation was required for mediating the stimulatory effect of salinomycin on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, since it was abrogated by siRNA-mediated TRAIL-R2 knockdown. Salinomycin in synergism with TRAIL exerts a marked anti-tumor effect in nude mice xenografted with human glioblastoma cells. Our results suggest that the combination of TRAIL and salinomycin may be a useful tool to overcome TRAIL resistance in glioma cells and may represent a potential drug for treatment of these tumors. Importantly, salinomycin+TRAIL were able to induce cell death of well-defined glioblastoma stem-like lines. PMID:24740347

Calzolari, Alessia; Saulle, Ernestina; De Angelis, Maria Laura; Pasquini, Luca; Boe, Alessandra; Pelacchi, Federica; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Baiocchi, Marta; Testa, Ugo

2014-01-01

296

Salinomycin Potentiates the Cytotoxic Effects of TRAIL on Glioblastoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been reported to exhibit therapeutic activity in cancer. However, many tumors remain resistant to treatment with TRAIL. Therefore, small molecules that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL could be used for combinatorial therapy. Here we found that the ionophore antibiotic salinomycin acts in synergism with TRAIL, enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Treatment with low doses of salinomycin in combination with TRAIL augmented the activation of caspase-3 and increased TRAIL-R2 cell surface expression. TRAIL-R2 upmodulation was required for mediating the stimulatory effect of salinomycin on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, since it was abrogated by siRNA-mediated TRAIL-R2 knockdown. Salinomycin in synergism with TRAIL exerts a marked anti-tumor effect in nude mice xenografted with human glioblastoma cells. Our results suggest that the combination of TRAIL and salinomycin may be a useful tool to overcome TRAIL resistance in glioma cells and may represent a potential drug for treatment of these tumors. Importantly, salinomycin+TRAIL were able to induce cell death of well-defined glioblastoma stem-like lines. PMID:24740347

Calzolari, Alessia; Saulle, Ernestina; De Angelis, Maria Laura; Pasquini, Luca; Boe, Alessandra; Pelacchi, Federica; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Baiocchi, Marta; Testa, Ugo

2014-01-01

297

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

298

Meteor trail characteristics observed by high time resolution lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report and analyse the characteristics of 1382 meteor trails based on a sodium data set of ~ 680 h. The observations were made at Yanqing (115.97° E, 40.47° N), China by a ground-based Na fluorescence lidar. The temporal resolution of the raw profiles is 1.5 s and the altitude resolution is 96 m. We discover some characteristics of meteor trails different from those presented in previous reports. The occurrence heights of the trails follow a double-peak distribution with the peaks at ~ 83.5 km and at ~ 95.5 km, away from the peak height of the regular Na layer. 4.7% of the trails occur below 80 km, and 3.25% above 100 km. 75% of the trails are observed in only one 1.5 s profile, suggesting that the dwell time in the laser beam is not greater than 1.5 s. The peak density of the trails as a function of height is similar to that of the background sodium layer. The raw occurrence height distribution is corrected taking account of three factors which affect the relative lifetime of a trail as a function of height: the meteoroid velocity (which controls the ratio of Na/Na+ ablated); diffusional spreading of the trail; and chemical removal of Na. As a result, the bi-modal distribution is more pronounced. Modelling results show that the higher peak corresponds to a meteoroid population with speeds between 20 and 30 km s-1, whereas the lower peak should arise from much slower particles in a near-prograde orbit. It is inferred that most meteoroids in this data set have masses of ~ 1 mg, in order for ablation to produce sufficient Na atoms to be detected by lidar. Finally, the evolution of longer-duration meteor trails is investigated. Signals at each altitude channel consist of density enhancement bursts with the growth process usually faster than the decay process, and there exists a progressive phase shift among these altitude channels.

Liu, Y. J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Clemesha, B. R.; Wang, J. H.; Cheng, X. W.

2014-10-01

299

Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

2011-01-01

300

Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

2013-09-01

301

AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

Davis, S.C.

2000-08-16

302

A class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some new developments relevant to the design of single-element airfoils using potential flow methods are presented. In particular, the ramifications of the unbounded trailing edge pressure gradients generally present in the potential flow solution for the flow over an airfoil are examined, and the conditions necessary to obtain a class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients developed. The incorporation of these conditions into the inverse method of Eppler for the design of low-speed airfoils is discussed, and designs generated using the modified scheme are presented for consideration. A detailed viscous analysis of one of these airfoils demonstrates a significant reduction in the strong inviscid-viscid interactions generally present near the trailing edge. These reductions offer the possibility of improved airfoil performance, as well as the possibility of improved accuracy in the methods of airfoil design and analysis.

Ormsbee, A. I.; Maughmer, M. D.

1985-01-01

303

Active Wing Flutter Suppression Using a Trailing Edge Flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeroservoelastic behaviour of a thin rectangular wing with a controllable trailing edge flap is investigated. A rather high aspect ratio motivates a numerical model based on linear beam theory for the structural dynamics and strip theory for the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Experimental flutter testing shows good agreement with the numerical stability analysis, and the impact of the trailing edge flap on the dynamics is verified by open-loop testing. The problem of stabilizing the wing utilizing the trailing edge flap is posed, and the design of a fixed-structure feedback controller is performed using numerical optimization. The problem of maximizing closed-loop modal damping with constraints on actuator performance is solved for a sequence of flow speeds and the obtained controller is synthesized using gain scheduling. The fairly large predicted increase in critical speed is experimentally verified with satisfactory accuracy.

Borglund, D.; Kuttenkeuler, J.

2002-04-01

304

Broadband trailing edge noise from a sharp-edged strut.  

PubMed

This paper presents experimental data concerning the flow and noise generated by a sharp-edged flat plate at low-to-moderate Reynolds number (Reynolds number based on chord of 2.0 × 10(5) to 5.0 × 10(5)). The data are used to evaluate a variety of semi-empirical trailing edge noise prediction methods. All were found to under-predict noise at lower frequencies. Examination of the velocity spectra in the near wake reveals that there are energetic velocity fluctuations at low frequency about the trailing edge. A semi-empirical model of the surface pressure spectrum is derived for predicting the trailing edge noise at low-to-moderate Reynolds number. PMID:21568386

Moreau, Danielle J; Brooks, Laura A; Doolan, Con J

2011-05-01

305

Merging of aircraft vortex trails: Similarities to magnetic field merging  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in a MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1989-01-01

306

The diffusion of multiple ionic species in meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteor trails are composed of a number of different types of ions that are produced during the meteoroid ablation process. The diffusion of meteoric plasma is usually presented in terms of the diffusion of a single ionic species, but this ignores the possibility of non-linear diffusion due to complex meteor trail composition. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate what effect multi-ion diffusion has on the time-decay of meteor radar echoes, and whether multi-ion diffusion could be responsible for the anomalous diffusion coefficient estimates produced by radars operating at different frequencies. It is found that the diffusion of different species of ions in meteor trails does not produce the same discrepancies seen in estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient made using meteor radar.

Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.

2014-10-01

307

Application of Passive Porous Treatment to Slat Trailing Edge Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous trailing-edge treatment is investigated as a passive means for slat noise reduction by using time-accurate simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For the model scale high-lift configuration used during previous experiments in the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, application of the proposed treatment over a minute fraction of the slat surface area is shown to mitigate the noise impact of the trailing edge, with no measurable aerodynamic penalty. Assessment of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the treated edge indicates a potential noise reduction in excess of 20 dB. The primary mechanism underlying this reduction is related to the reduced strength of Strouhal shedding from the finite thickness trailing edge. A secondary effect of the treatment involves an upward shift in the Strouhal-shedding frequency to a frequency band of reduced auditory sensitivity in a full-scale application.

Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2003-01-01

308

Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

309

UndergraduateEducation2010 MICHIGAN TECH  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL #12;#12;DESIGN Off-road adventure Helping people with disabilities enjoy the Tech trails for 1,140+ mpg UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH Auger North Studying the universe's highest energy particles | Michigan Tech Engineering #12;Off-road adventure Helping people with disabilities enjoy the Tech Trails

310

30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check...906 Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check wires. On and after...1971, all trailing cables supplying...

2011-07-01

311

30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check...906 Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check wires. On and after...1971, all trailing cables supplying...

2013-07-01

312

30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check...906 Trailing cables supplying power...equipment; ground wires and ground check wires. On and after...1971, all trailing cables supplying...

2012-07-01

313

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

2010-04-01

314

Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report addresses the management of overnight use and associated impacts along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (A.T.). This effort was initiated in response to agency and Appalachian Trail Conference (ATC) management concerns regarding the resource and social impacts of increasing overnight visitation, particularly in high use areas. Report findings and recommendations are primarily based on series of on-site investigations at 17 problem areas selected by A.T. clubs and ATC staff. However, the report?s recommendations also draw on an examination of relevant A.T. legislative, agency, and organization guidance and visitor impact management knowledge derived from research and management experience.

Marion, J.L.

2003-01-01

315

Detection of a trailing (L5) Neptune Trojan.  

PubMed

The orbits of small Solar System bodies record the history of our Solar System. Here, we report the detection of 2008 LC18, which is a Neptune Trojan in the trailing (L5) Lagrangian region of gravitational equilibrium within Neptune's orbit. We estimate that the leading and trailing Neptune Trojan regions have similarly sized populations and dynamics, with both regions dominated by high-inclination objects. Similar populations and dynamics at both Neptune Lagrangian regions indicate that the Trojans were likely captured by a migrating, eccentric Neptune in a dynamically excited planetesimal population. PMID:20705814

Sheppard, Scott S; Trujillo, Chadwick A

2010-09-10

316

Plume and plate controlled hotspot trails in the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering if hotspots observed on the Earth's surface are explained by underlying plumes rising from the deep mantle or by shallow plate-driven processes continues to be an essential goal in Earth Science. Key evidence underpinning the mantle plume concept is the existence of age-progressive volcanic trails recording past plate motion relative to surface hotspots and their causal plumes. Using the icebreaker RV Polarstern, we sampled scattered hotspot trails on the 2,000 km-wide southeast Atlantic hotspot swell, which projects down to one of the Earth's two largest and deepest regions of slower-than-average seismic wave speed - the Africa Low Shear Wave Velocity Province - caused by a massive thermo-chemical 'pile' on the core-mantle boundary. We showed recently using Ar/Ar isotopic ages - and crustal structure and seafloor ages - that these hotspot trails are age progressive and formed synchronously across the swell, consistent with African plate motion over plumes rising from the stable edge of a Low Shear Wave Velocity Province (LLSVP) (O'Connor et al., 2012). We showed furthermore that hotspot trails formed initially only at spreading boundaries at the outer edges of the swell until roughly 44 million years ago, when they started forming across the swell, far from spreading boundaries in lithosphere that was sufficiently weak (young) for plume melts to reach the surface. We concluded that if plume melts formed synchronous age progressive hotspot trails whenever they could penetrate the lithosphere, then hotspot trails in the South Atlantic are controlled by the interplay between deep plumes and the shallow motion and structure of the African plate. If the distribution of hotspot trails reflects where plume melts could or could not penetrate the continental or oceanic lithosphere then plumes could have been active for significantly longer than indicated by their volcanic chains. This provides a mechanism for extended late stage interplay between deep mantle processes and the passive margin and adjacent continents that might explain extensive magmatism, lithospheric thinning and phases of post-rift uplift on continental margins and nearby continents. O'Connor, J. M., Jokat, W., le Roex, A. P., Class, C., Wijbrans, J. R., Kessling, S., Kuiper, K. F. & Nebel, O. Hotspot trails in the South Atlantic controlled by plume and plate tectonic processes. Nature Geoscience, DOI:10:1038/NGEO1583 (2012). http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v5/n10/full/ngeo1583.html

O'Connor, John; Jokat, Wilfried; le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia; Wijbrans, Jan; Keßling, Stefanie; Kuiper, Klaudia; Nebel, Oliver

2013-04-01

317

49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230.108 Section 230.108 Transportation...Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. (a) Maintenance. Trucks...

2010-10-01

318

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

...2014-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and...

2014-07-01

319

76 FR 54730 - Rubicon Trail Easement, Eldorado National Forest, Pacific Ranger District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Rubicon Trail Saturated Soil Water Quality Protection Plan (El Dorado...trail has become incised due to the heavy use, and water from rainfall and snowmelt events...sediment, to stream crossings. Water also collects in large puddles...

2011-09-02

320

30 CFR 75.605 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...75.605 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables shall be clamped to machines in a manner to protect the cables from damage and to prevent strain on the electrical...

2010-07-01

321

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2011-07-01

322

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2012-07-01

323

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2010-07-01

324

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2013-07-01

325

Development of a radioiodinated apoptosis–inducing ligand, rhTRAIL, and a radiolabelled agonist TRAIL receptor antibody for clinical imaging studies  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through activation of the death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Recombinant human (rh) TRAIL and the TRAIL-R1 directed monoclonal antibody mapatumumab are currently clinically evaluated as anticancer agents. The objective of this study was to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting the TRAIL-R1, suitable for clinical use to help understand and predict clinical efficacy in patients. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH rhTRAIL was radioiodinated with 125I, and conjugated mapatumumab was radiolabelled with 111In. The radiopharmaceuticals were characterized, their in vitro stability and death receptor targeting capacities were determined and in vivo biodistribution was studied in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts with different expression of TRAIL-R1. KEY RESULTS Labelling efficiencies, radiochemical purity, stability and binding properties were optimized for the radioimmunoconjugates. In vivo biodistribution showed rapid renal clearance of [125I]rhTRAIL, with highest kidney activity at 15 min and almost no detectable activity after 4 h. Activity rapidly decreased in almost all organs, except for the xenografts. Radiolabelled mapatumumab showed blood clearance between 24 and 168 h and a reduced decrease in radioactivity in the high receptor expression xenograft. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS rhTRAIL and mapatumumab can be efficiently radiolabelled. The new radiopharmaceuticals can be used clinically to study pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tumour targeting, which could support evaluation of the native targeted agents in phase I/II trials. PMID:22014269

Duiker, EW; Dijkers, ECF; Lambers Heerspink, H; de Jong, S; van der Zee, AGJ; Jager, PL; Kosterink, JGW; de Vries, EGE; Lub-de Hooge, MN

2012-01-01

326

Compartmentalization of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor functions: emerging role of nuclear TRAIL-R2.  

PubMed

Localized in the plasma membrane, death domain-containing TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, induce apoptosis and non-apoptotic signaling when crosslinked by the ligand TRAIL or by agonistic receptor-specific antibodies. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated that TRAIL receptors are additionally found in noncanonical intracellular locations in a wide range of cell types, preferentially cancer cells. Thus, besides their canonical locations in the plasma membrane and in intracellular membranes of the secretory pathway as well as endosomes and lysosomes, TRAIL receptors may also exist in autophagosomes, in nonmembraneous cytosolic compartment as well as in the nucleus. Such intracellular locations have been mainly regarded as hide-outs for these receptors representing a strategy for cancer cells to resist TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Recently, a novel function of intracellular TRAIL-R2 has been revealed. When present in the nuclei of tumor cells, TRAIL-R2 inhibits the processing of the primary let-7 miRNA (pri-let-7) via interaction with accessory proteins of the Microprocessor complex. The nuclear TRAIL-R2-driven decrease in mature let-7 enhances the malignancy of cancer cells. This finding represents a new example of nuclear activity of typically plasma membrane-located cytokine and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, this extends the list of nucleic acid targets of the cell surface receptors by pri-miRNA in addition to DNA and mRNA. Here we review the diverse functions of TRAIL-R2 depending on its intracellular localization and we particularly discuss the nuclear TRAIL-R2 (nTRAIL-R2) function in the context of known nuclear activities of other normally plasma membrane-localized receptors. PMID:25165876

Bertsch, U; Röder, C; Kalthoff, H; Trauzold, A

2014-01-01

327

Therapeutic effect of neural stem cells expressing TRAIL and bortezomib in mice with glioma xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of glioblastoma remains a challenge in neuro-oncology. We investigated if treatment with neural stem cells engineered to express membrane-bound TRAIL (NSCs-mTRAIL) alone or in combination with proteasome inhibitors is a feasible therapeutic approach for experimental glioma. Glioma cells showed resistance to soluble TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors alone, but responded well to their combined treatment. In co-culture with NSCs-mTRAIL, glioma

Irina V. Balyasnikova; Sherise D. Ferguson; Yu Han; Feifei Liu; Maciej S. Lesniak

2011-01-01

328

Potent antitumoral activity of TRAIL through generation of tumor-targeted single-chain fusion proteins  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to improve TRAIL's (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) tumor selective activity a variant was designed, in which the three TRAIL protomers are expressed as a single polypeptide chain (scTRAIL). By genetic fusion with a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) recognizing the extracellular domain of ErbB2, we further equipped scTRAIL with tumor-targeting properties. We studied tumor targeting and apoptosis induction of scFv–scTRAIL in comparison with non-targeted scTRAIL. Importantly, the tumor antigen-targeted scTRAIL fusion protein showed higher apoptotic activity in vitro, with a predominant action by TRAIL-R2 signaling. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed increased plasma half-life of the targeted scTRAIL fusion protein compared with scTRAIL. In vivo studies in a mouse tumor model with xenotransplanted Colo205 cells confirmed greater response to the ErbB2-specific scTRAIL fusion protein compared with non-targeted scTRAIL both under local and systemic application regimen. Together, in vitro and in vivo data give proof of concept of higher therapeutic activity of tumor-targeted scFv–scTRAIL molecules. Further, we envisage that through targeting of scTRAIL, potential side effects should be minimized. We propose that scFv-mediated tumor targeting of single-chain TRAIL represents a promising strategy to improve TRAIL's antitumoral action and to minimize potential unwanted actions on normal tissues. PMID:21364672

Schneider, B; Munkel, S; Krippner-Heidenreich, A; Grunwald, I; Wels, W S; Wajant, H; Pfizenmaier, K; Gerspach, J

2010-01-01

329

Chemical cues used by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) to follow trails of rodent prey.  

PubMed

Each of 10 prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) was exposed to three types of trails after striking rodent prey (Mus musculus). One trail was made with mouse urine, another was made with tap water, and the third consisted of materials from mouse integument. The snakes exhibited trailing behavior only when integumentary trails were available. It was concluded that prairie rattlesnakes do not utilize urinary cues; instead they attend to materials associated with rodent skin and fur. PMID:24264897

Chiszar, D; Melcer, T; Lee, R; Radcliffe, C W; Duvall, D

1990-01-01

330

Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

Laframboise, J. F.

1987-09-01

331

Suppression of orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells with sTRAIL gene expression driven by AFP promoter.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents in tumor therapy. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs with respect to hepatic differentiation potential in injured livers in animals, while their hepatic differentiation under the hepatocarcinoma microenvironment is unclear. In this study, HUMSCs were isolated and transduced by lentiviral vectors coding the soluble human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) gene driven by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter to investigate the therapeutic effects of these HUMSC against orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice. We showed that HUMSCs can be transduced by lentivirus efficiently. HUMSCs developed cuboidal morphology, and expressed AFP and albumin in a two-step protocol. HUMSCs were capable of migrating to hepatocarcinoma in vitro as well as in vivo. In the orthotopical hepatocarcinoma microenvironment, the AFP promoter was activated during the early hepatic differentiation of HUMSCs. After intravenous injected, MSC.AFPILZ-sTRAIL expressed sTRAIL exclusively at the tumor site, and exhibited significant antitumor activity. This effect was stronger when in combination with 5-FU. The treatment was tolerated well in mice. Collectively, our results provide a potential strategy for targeted tumor therapy relying on the use of the tumor tropism and specific differentiation of HUMSCs as vehicles. PMID:24406219

Yan, Cihui; Yang, Ming; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuangjing; Hu, Xiao; Fan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianxiang; Xiong, Dongsheng

2014-03-01

332

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a meteoroid penetrates Earth's atmosphere, it forms a high-density ionized plasma column immersed in the ionosphere between approximately 70 and 140 km altitude. High-power, large-aperture (HPLA) radars detect nonspecular trails when VHF or UHF radio waves reflect off structures in a turbulent meteor trail. These trails persist from a few milliseconds to many minutes and the return from these trails is referred to as nonspecular trails or range-spread trail echoes. In this paper, we present analysis of nonspecular trails detected with ALTAIR, which is an HPLA radar operating simultaneously at 160 MHz and 422 MHz on the Kwajalein Atoll. First, we investigate the aspect sensitivity of nonspecular trails and show that as the angle between the radar beam and the background magnetic field increases, the signal strength falls off 3 to 4 dB per degree at 160 MHz. For ALTAIR, this means that the aspect angle must be within approximately 12 degrees in order to detect nonspecular trails using the chosen waveforms. Second, we compare and contrast the meteoroids that form nonspecular trails and find that the meteoroid energy causes much of the variability in the nonspecular trail's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given aspect angle. In addition, we show two range-resolved fragmentation events that also affect the SNR. Finally, we determine the dependence of SNR on wavelength using two wavelengths and show that the maximum nonspecular trail SNR scales as approximately ?6, with a variation that depends upon altitude.

Close, S.; Hamlin, T.; Oppenheim, M.; Cox, L.; Colestock, P.

2008-06-01

333

Targeting c-Met receptor overcomes TRAIL-resistance in brain tumors.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. However, with approximately half of all known tumor lines being resistant to TRAIL, the identification of TRAIL sensitizers and their mechanism of action become critical to broadly use TRAIL as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we explored whether c-Met protein contributes to TRAIL sensitivity. We found a direct correlation between the c-Met expression level and TRAIL resistance. We show that the knock down c-Met protein, but not inhibition, sensitized brain tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by interrupting the interaction between c-Met and TRAIL cognate death receptor (DR) 5. This interruption greatly induces the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and subsequent downstream apoptosis signaling. Using intracranially implanted brain tumor cells and stem cell (SC) lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that SC expressing a potent and secretable TRAIL (S-TRAIL) have a significant anti-tumor effect in mice bearing c-Met knock down of TRAIL-resistant brain tumors. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates c-Met contributes to TRAIL sensitivity of brain tumor cells and has implications for developing effective therapies for brain tumor patients. PMID:24748276

Du, Wanlu; Uslar, Liubov; Sevala, Sindhura; Shah, Khalid

2014-01-01

334

Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

2012-01-01

335

Trail Pheromone of the Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

2012-01-01

336

Hexyl Decanoate, the First Trail Pheromone Compound Identified in a Stingless Bee, Trigona recursa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona

Stefan Jarau; Claudia M. Schulz; Michael Hrncir; Wittko Francke; Ronaldo Zucchi; Friedrich G. Barth; Manfred Ayasse

2006-01-01

337

The Use of Variants of the Trail Making Test in Serial Assessment: A Construct Validity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct validity of three variants of the Trail Making Test was investigated using 162 undergraduate psychology students. During a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Comprehensive Trail Making Test, and Connections Task were administered in six possible orders. Using confirmatory factor…

Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ryan, Jeanne P.

2008-01-01

338

Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

339

30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Circuits § 75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

2010-07-01

340

TIPS for Environmental Education: Teacher Aids for Using a Discovery Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a self-guided package developed for teacher use on nature trails at Aullwood Audubon Center. The packet contains booklet of trail activities, backpack of simple field discovery equipment, and laminated visual aids. Activities are provided for each station and this format enables teachers to become effective instructors on the trail. (DH)

Zeph, Paul T.

1985-01-01

341

INTRODUCTION Bonnet (1779) first recorded that some ants use trails to  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Bonnet (1779) first recorded that some ants use trails to recruit workers to a food source. Gradually our knowl- edge of these trails and the behaviour of ants applying and following them the substances used by insects for chemical communi- cation, many trail pheromones have been identified

Wenseleers, Tom

342

Role of trail pheromone in foraging and processionary behavior of pine processionary caterpillars Thaumetopoea pityocampa.  

PubMed

Although caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocamnpa may mark their pathways with silk, this study shows that the material is essential to neither the elicitation nor maintenance of trail-following or processionary behavior. Trail following is dependent upon a pheromone the caterpillars deposit by brushing the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens against the substate. Earlier instars are strongly bound to their trail system; in the laboratory, caterpillars followed circular trails continuously for as long as 12 hr before breaking away from them. The trail pheromone is long-lived and soluble in nonpolar solvents, but its volatilization or degradation allows the caterpillars to distinguish new from aged trails. In contrast to trail following, processionary behavior, the head-to-tail, single-file movement of the caterpillars is dependent on neither silk nor the trail pheromone. Stimuli associated with setae found on the tip of the abdomen of the precedent caterpillar serve to hold processions together, and such stimuli take priority over those associated with either the trail pheromone or silk. Although the caterpillars discern trail strength and choose stronger over weaker trails, the trail marking system of the processionary caterpillar appears less sophisticated than those of other, previously studied species of social caterpillars, and colonies are relatively inefficient in abandoning exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. In laboratory studies, females were more likely to lead processions than males, and leaders, regardless of gender, expended more energy in locomotion than followers. PMID:12757316

Fitzgerald, T D

2003-03-01

343

Interpretation of non-specular radar meteor trails Lars P. Dyrud,1  

E-print Network

Interpretation of non-specular radar meteor trails Lars P. Dyrud,1 Meers M. Oppenheim,1 Sigrid. [1] Radar data of non-specular meteor trails shows two clear and consistent features: (1) non­specular meteor trails are observed from a narrower altitude range than are head echoes and (2) an approximately

Oppenheim, Meers

344

Nonspecular meteor trail altitude distributions and durations observed by a 50 MHz highpower radar  

E-print Network

Nonspecular meteor trail altitude distributions and durations observed by a 50 MHz highpower radar observe nonspecular meteor trail echoes that result from plasma turbulence driven by the intense pressure power. An improved knowledge of nonspecular trails will allow researchers to better understand meteor

Oppenheim, Meers

345

14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD RISING FROM BENEATH CHAPIN PASS (AT EXTREME RIGHT) TO FALL RIVER PASS (FAR LEFT). - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

346

What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

347

The energy spectra of meteor trails in the radio range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral transformations and method of calculation of the energy spectra of radio waves scattered by a set of meteor trails formed in a given region of space in a specified time interval are given. Astronomical and atmospheric factors as well as the parameters of the measuring equipment are taken into account. Experiments confirm the calculations both in absolute value

V. I. Bojkov; T. V. Kazakova; A. V. Karpov; M. M. Katsevman

1990-01-01

348

Chattanooga Math Trail: Community Mathematics Modules, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of community mathematics modules, or "math trail", is appropriate for middle grades and high school students (grades 5-12). Collectively, the modules pay attention to all 10 of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards which include five content standards (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry,…

McAllister, Deborah A.; Mealer, Adrian; Moyer, Peggy S.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Peoples, John B.

349

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

350

Pure physics research spawns unimaginable industries On the fan trail  

E-print Network

Ion men Pure physics research spawns unimaginable industries On the fan trail Entertaining rugby physics research at The University of Auckland ­ long before cell phones and silicon-based computers were. "This $100 million a year industry in South Auckland has stemmed from the original pure research

Auckland, University of

351

Odorized Air Current Trailing by Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of adult red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, to airborne odor trails was studied. An airtight T-maze was used, through which a constant airflow was drawn by a vacuum pump. The arms of the 'T' provided a choice between earthworm extract and distilled water. Experiment 1 tested the snake's responses to varying concentrations of earthworm extract. Snakes accurately

Roy Mark Waters

1993-01-01

352

Human Resource Services 1265 Military Trail, Room BV-526E  

E-print Network

Human Resource Services 1265 Military Trail, Room BV-526E Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 SAFETY TRAINING safety training courses assigned by the employer and supervisor. Employee's acknowledgement signature): It is the responsibility of the Supervisor to ensure the employee/student has met safety training requirements under

Boonstra, Rudy

353

Mining, Modeling, and Analyzing Real-Time Social Trails  

E-print Network

to Twitter or Facebook; the creation, sharing, and viewing of videos on websites like YouTube; and so on. While access to social trails could benefit many domains there is a significant research gap toward discovering, modeling, and leveraging these social...

Kamath, Krishna Y

2013-05-28

354

Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices Karthik Duraisamy1,a  

E-print Network

Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices Karthik Duraisamy1,a and Sanjiva K. Lele2,b 1 evolution of a low swirl-number turbulent Batchelor vortex is studied using pseudospectral direct numerical application of boundary conditions. The physics of the evolution is investigated with an emphasis

Alonso, Juan J.

355

College of liberal arts University of alaska fairbanks Language Trail  

E-print Network

and Bad: UAF rallies to support victims of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami 4 Filmed in Alaska by AlaskansCollege of liberal arts · University of alaska fairbanks 2012 Issue · Language Trail Potentiallinks Fátima Ochante Cáceres gains experience in rural Alaska 8 Linguistic Connections: Linguists explore links

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

356

Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18((R)):DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas. PMID:19540229

Geel, Tessa M; Meiss, Gregor; van der Gun, Bernardina T; Kroesen, Bart Jan; de Leij, Lou F; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Ar?nas; Kokkinidis, Michael; Pingoud, Alfred; Ruiters, Marcel H; McLaughlin, Pamela M; Rots, Marianne G

2009-09-10

357

The Appalachian Trail: Guidelines for Preservation, Revised May 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing developmental pressure being asserted on land resources, there is a need for identifying unique areas that, once destroyed, may never be recouped. Many of the areas suffering from developmental encroachment are located on or along the Appalachian Trail, which is a continuous footpath about 2,000 miles long that follows the…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Landscape Architecture.

358

The Oregon Trail: Wyoming Students Construct a CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the work of four Wyoming high school students who created a CD-ROM collection of Oregon Trail documents for use by fourth graders. The students reviewed 60 boxes of diaries, government documents, prints, and artifacts, becoming historians themselves as they created the electronic database. Includes photographs and illustrations. (MJP)

Holt, Pol William

1998-01-01

359

In Search of the Ways of Knowing Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Flash animated adventure, learners explore the Ituri Forest and the village of Epulu in central Africa. Learners "travel" with four other kids and can use the Forest Factbook containing definitions and pronunciations to help them along the way. Through this interactive game, learners will solve problems, discover the rich biodiversity of the area, and learn the "secret" of the knowing trail.

Zoo, Brookfield; Society, Chicago Z.

2012-06-26

360

Balancing Resolution and Response in Computational Steering with Simulation Trails  

E-print Network

Balancing Resolution and Response in Computational Steering with Simulation Trails Rick Walker1, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, UK Abstract-- Computational steering provides many opportu- nities to gain method from the domain of astrophysics. Keywords: computational steering, smoothed particle hydrody

Kent, University of

361

Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.  

PubMed

In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures. PMID:22573108

van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphaël; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

2012-06-01

362

South Florida Natural Resources Center Runoff Under the Trail  

E-print Network

South Florida Natural Resources Center Runoff Under the Trail: An Historical Analysis of Flows Resources Branch South Florida Natural Resources Center Everglades National Park #12;South Florida Natural Resources Center #12;South Florida Natural Resources Center #12;South Florida Natural Resources Center #12

Sukop, Mike

363

ScentTrails: Integrating Browsing and Searching on the Web  

E-print Network

are more appropriately termed by Jul and Furnas [1997] as "search by navigation" and "search by query," respectively, but we will use the more common terms "browsing" and "searching.") Authors' addresses: ChrisScentTrails: Integrating Browsing and Searching on the Web CHRIS OLSTON Stanford University and ED

Chi, Ed Huai-hsin

364

A theoretical model for uni-directional ant trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of uni-directional ant traffic, motivated by the motion of ants in trail is proposed. Two different type of ants, one of which smells very well and the other does not, are considered. The flux of ants in this model is investigated as functions of the probability of evaporation rate of pheromone. The obtained results indicate that the

Ozhan Kayacan

2011-01-01

365

The Work We Do: Journal as Audit Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a peek inside the journals kept by a well-known language-arts educator, which he uses as a repository for his thoughts, drawings, articles of interest, notes from conversations with others on his own work, the work of others, and education in general. Shows how the journal is an "audit trail" of its owner's learning. (SR)

Harste, Jerome C.; Vasquez, Vivian

1998-01-01

366

Observations of persistent Leonid meteor trails 3. The ``Glowworm''  

E-print Network

Observations of persistent Leonid meteor trails 3. The ``Glowworm'' Jack D. Drummond,1 Brent W August 2002. [1] A spectacular, well-observed Leonid meteor of visual magnitude Ã?14.3 appeared on 17 s after the meteor and recorded a video with an intensified camera for even longer. From information

Chu, Xinzhao

367

Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

Geel, Tessa M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Meiss, Gregor [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania)] [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania); Kokkinidis, Michael [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece)] [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece); Pingoud, Alfred [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ruiters, Marcel H. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Synvolux therapeutics, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Netherlands; McLaughlin, Pamela M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Rots, Marianne G., E-mail: m.g.rots@med.umcg.nl [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-09-10

368

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We employed a glucose oxidase (GOD) to deplete glucose in the tumor. TRAIL cytotoxicity is potentiated in the presence of GOD. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that GOD has potent tumoricidal activity. Hydrogen peroxide produced by GOD is ef...

J. J. Song

2003-01-01

369

Antitumor effects of soluble TRAIL in human hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The therapeutic potential of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was studied. The expression of TRAIL receptors was detected in 60 HCC tissues, 20 normal liver samples and 2 HCC cell lines (HepG2 and SMMC-7721) by in situ hybridization. Before and after HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were treated with sTRAIL protein with various concentrations, the apoptosis rate was observed by using flow cytometry and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase (TdT) labeling. The results showed death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 were expressed in 60 HCC tissues and 20 normal liver samples, while the expression intensity of DR in HCC tissues was stronger than in normal liver samples. DcR1 and DcR2 were not detectable in 54 (90%) and 25 (41.%) HCC tissues, while in 20 normal liver samples, DcR was detectable. The high expression of DR and low expression of DcR in HCC tissues were significantly differed from the low expression and high expression in normal liver samples. The expression of DR5, DR4 and DcR2 in both HCC cell lines was detectable, but the expression of DcR1 was not detectable. The expression of DR in HCC tissues was related to the differentiation and grades of HCC. In the poor differentiated HCC, the expression of DR was decreased (P < 0.01). The expression of DR in Il/IV grades was significantly lower than that in I / 11 grades (P < 0.05). The expression of DR was not related to gender, age, HBsAg, AFP, tumor size and metastasis. The expression of DR in the HCC drugresistant lines was decreased. After treatment with TRAIL (100 ng/ml) for 24 h, the apoptosis rate of HCC cells, Jurkat cells and human cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 was 10%, 70%, 50% respectively. It was suggested that the TRAILR expression is prevalent in HCC with different expression patterns of different receptor types. HCC is resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. The treatment of TRAIL alone has a limited effect on inducing apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC7721. PMID:15934308

He, Songqing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Yongzhong; Wang, Haiping; Zhang, Wanguang; Wang, Shaofa

2005-01-01

370

Space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

Vonpragenau, G. L. (inventor)

1975-01-01

371

Bortezomib Sensitizes Primary Meningioma Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Enhancing Formation of the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex.  

PubMed

A meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in 37 meningiomas. Freshly isolated primary meningioma cells were treated with TRAIL with or without different sensitizing protocols, and apoptotic cell death was then quantified. Mechanisms of TRAIL sensitization were determined by a combination of Western blotting, flow cytometry, receptor complex immunoprecipitation, and siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified by an automated software-based algorithm. Primary tumor cells from 11 (29.7%) tumor samples were sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, 12 (32.4%) were intermediate TRAIL resistant, and 14 (37.8%) were completely TRAIL resistant. We tested synergistic apoptosis-inducing cotreatment strategies and determined that only the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib potently enhanced expression of the TRAIL receptors TRAIL-R1 and/or TRAIL-R2, the formation of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex, and activation of caspases; this treatment resulted in sensitization of all TRAIL-resistant meningioma samples to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Bortezomib pretreatment induced NOXA expression and downregulated c-FLIP, neither of which caused the TRAIL-sensitizing effect. Native TRAIL receptor expression could not predict primary TRAIL sensitivity. This first report on TRAIL sensitivity of primary meningioma cells demonstrates that TRAIL/bortezomib cotreatment may represent a novel therapeutic option for meningiomas. PMID:25289891

Koschny, Ronald; Boehm, Christina; Sprick, Martin R; Haas, Tobias L; Holland, Heidrun; Xu, Li-Xin; Krupp, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolf C; Bauer, Manfred; Koschny, Thomas; Keller, Marius; Sinn, Peter; Meixensberger, Juergen; Walczak, Henning; Ganten, Tom M

2014-11-01

372

Trail Blazers: Fourth-Grade Students Create Digital Field Guides for Visitors to the School's Nature Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a fourth-grade science teacher, the author wanted a project that was (a) yearlong in scope, (b) got her students outside more, and (c) laid the groundwork for a learning progression. In this article, she describes a project in which her fourth-grade students created digital field guides for visitors to their school's nature trail. In the…

Connors, Lisa Marie

2011-01-01

373

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

374

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

375

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

376

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

377

Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells express TRAIL receptors and can be sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Death ligands and their tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family receptors are the best-characterized and most efficient inducers of apoptotic signaling in somatic cells. In this study, we analyzed whether these prototypic activators of apoptosis are also expressed and able to be activated in human pluripotent stem cells. We examined human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) and found that both cell types express primarily TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and TNFR1, but very low levels of Fas/CD95. We also found that although hESC and hiPSC contain all the proteins required for efficient induction and progression of extrinsic apoptotic signaling, they are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, both hESC and hiPSC can be sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by co-treatment with protein synthesis inhibitors such as the anti-leukemia drug homoharringtonine (HHT). HHT treatment led to suppression of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and Mcl-1 expression and, in combination with TRAIL, enhanced processing of caspase-8 and full activation of caspase-3. cFLIP likely represents an important regulatory node, as its shRNA-mediated down-regulation significantly sensitized hESC to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, we provide the first evidence that, irrespective of their origin, human pluripotent stem cells express canonical components of the extrinsic apoptotic system and on stress can activate death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:23806100

Vinarsky, Vladimir; Krivanek, Jan; Rankel, Liina; Nahacka, Zuzana; Barta, Tomas; Jaros, Josef; Andera, Ladislav; Hampl, Ales

2013-11-15

378

Automating Pro/Engineer Using Trail Files and External Programs  

SciTech Connect

Keyboard macros provide shortcuts to many repetitive command sequences in Pro/Engineer. They map any number of frequently used command sequences to user-selected keyboard keys. They may be nested within each other and may also include user keyboard entry within the macro. Another powerful feature of Pro/Engineer is adding menu options. Menu options may be added to any Pro/Engineer menu and is an effective way to graphically display keyboard macros to make them more accessible. Command sequences are mapped to a single user-defined menu option added to the bottom of any Pro/Engineer window. The '{at}setbutton' command added to the 'menu{_}def.pro' file specifies the commands to associate with added menu options. Menu options may also be used to execute non-Pro/Engineer commands. The associated command is linked to a menu option within Pro/Engineer's Utilities menu (in the Misc menu) and is issued whenever the menu option is selected. Such a feature is useful for adding menu options to start the Pro/Engineer User Guide utility, start a text editor from within Pro/Engineer, or perform system level actions. The '{at}setbutton{_}exec' command is used in the 'menu{_}def.pro' file for non-Pro/Engineer commands. A more detailed description of adding menu options can be found in the Pro/Engineer Fundamentals Guide. Another useful component of Pro/Engineer is the trail file functionality. Trail files are automatically created every time a new working Pro/Engineer session begins. Although they are typically used to reconstruct a previous working session, they can also be used to automate a series of commands. By specifying all the commands in a trail file, a user can issue the commands quickly and repetitively using the command sequence 'Misc-Trail' and specifying the trail file name. All actions, including keyboard entries and mouse click locations, may be included in a trail file. Although adding menu options and using trial files provide powerful functionality in Pro/Engineer, neither the menu options functionality nor trail files allow interaction between the model and the commands to perform. The commands performed by the menu options are static and cannot depend on model features and parameters. Commands cannot query the model and perfonn different actions or calculations based on the query results; the menu options commands cannot interact with Pro/Engineer. As an example, suppose we wish to generate a feature listing for all parts and subassemblies in a model. We can add a menu option or a keyboard macro to make the feature listing command easier to execute, but we would still need to select each part and subassembly individually (either through screen selection, selection by menu, or entering the component name). The task becomes quite tedious if we have an assembly with a large number of subassembly and part components. A versatile and powerful method for automating many Pro/Engineer tasks is to combine the menu options functionality with Trail files and the infonnation files which Pro/Engineer creates during infonnation listings. The combination provides communication between Pro/Engineer and other programs and enables automation of a large variety of commands. The automation scheme is comprised of three components: (1) the infonnation files (usually with extensions 'inf' or '1st'); (2) a menu option to issue a program or command external to Pro/Engineer; and (3) a menu option to run both the external program and its associated trail file.

Chow, K.

1996-05-21

379

Dealing Naturally with Stumbling Blocks on Highways and Byways of TRAIL Induced Signaling.  

PubMed

In-depth analysis of how TRAIL signals through death receptors to induce apoptosis in cancer cells using high throughput technologies has added new layers of knowledge. However, the wealth of information has also highlighted the fact that TRAIL induced apoptosis may be impaired as evidenced by experimental findings obtained from TRAIL resistant cancer cell lines. Overwhelmingly, increasing understanding of TRAIL mediated apoptosis has helped in identifying synthetic and natural compounds which can restore TRAIL induced apoptosis via functionalization of either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways. Increasingly it is being realized that biologically active phytochemicals modulate TRAIL induced apoptosis, as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of how different phytonutrients have shown efficacy in restoring apoptosis in TRAIL resistant cancer cells. We partition this review into how the TRAIL mediated signaling landscape has broadened over the years and how TRAIL induced signaling machinery crosstalks with autophagic protein networks. Subsequently, we provide a generalized view of considerable biological activity of coumarins against a wide range of cancer cell lines and how coumarins (psoralidin and esculetin) isolated from natural sources have improved TRAIL induced apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. We summarize recent updates on piperlongumine, phenethyl isothiocyanate and luteolin induced activation of TRAIL mediated apoptosis. The data obtained from pre-clinical studies will be helpful in translation of information from benchtop to the bedside. PMID:25338981

Rana, Aamir; Attar, Rukset; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Donato, Violante Di; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad

2014-01-01

380

The Dynamics of Foraging Trails in the Tropical Arboreal Ant Cephalotes goniodontus  

PubMed Central

The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4–8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony’s trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest. PMID:23209749

Gordon, Deborah M.

2012-01-01

381

The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p {<=}0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

Maduro, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hollema, Harry [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mom, Constantijne H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-09-01

382

Soluble TRAIL is present at high concentrations in seminal plasma and promotes spermatozoa survival.  

PubMed

The expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL(TNFSF10)) and of its receptors (TRAILR1, TRAILR2, TRAILR3, and TRAILR4) have been documented in testis, but the presence of soluble TRAIL in seminal fluid, as well as the potential physiopathological role of the TRAIL/TRAILR system in spermatozoa, has not been previously investigated. Male donors (n=123) among couples presenting for infertility evaluation were consecutively enrolled in this study. The presence of soluble TRAIL was analyzed in seminal samples by ELISA, while the surface expression of TRAIL receptors was investigated by flow cytometry. High levels of soluble TRAIL were detected in seminal plasma (median, 11?621?pg/ml and mean±s.d., 13?371±8367?pg/ml) and flow cytometric analysis revealed a variable expression of TRAIL receptors in the sperm cellular fraction among different subjects. In addition, the effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of recombinant TRAIL was investigated on survival and motility of spermatozoa. Of interest, the in vitro exposure of capacitated spermatozoa to recombinant TRAIL (10?ng/ml) significantly preserved their overall survival. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TRAIL in seminal fluids. Moreover, the demonstration that recombinant TRAIL promotes spermatozoa survival after capacitation suggests potential therapeutic implications. PMID:24825910

Zauli, Giorgio; Celeghini, Claudio; Monasta, Lorenzo; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Gonelli, Arianna; Grill, Vittorio; Ricci, Giuseppe; Secchiero, Paola

2014-08-01

383

Aplysin Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL by Suppressing P38 MAPK/Survivin Pathway  

PubMed Central

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL. PMID:25257790

Liu, Jia; Ma, Leina; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ge; Zheng, Lanhong; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

384

Aplysin sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL by suppressing P38 MAPK/survivin pathway.  

PubMed

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL. PMID:25257790

Liu, Jia; Ma, Leina; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ge; Zheng, Lanhong; Lin, Xiukun

2014-09-01

385

Evodiamine sensitizes U87 glioblastoma cells to TRAIL via the death receptor pathway.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis?inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to selectively induce death in cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. Most glioma cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Resistance to TRAIL limits its potential use as a drug for therapy of glioma. The present study was conducted to identify bioactive compounds that have the potential to sensitize U87 glioblastoma cells to TRAIL. Evodiamine, a major bioactive compound of the Chinese herb Evodiae fructus, has been reported to sensitize U87 glioblastoma cells to TRAIL. TRAIL and evodiamine, in combination or alone, were used to treat U87 glioblastoma cells. We show that evodiamine treatment inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner; however, TRAIL alone failed to exert any cytotoxic effect. Combining TRAIL with evodiamine significantly increased the apoptotic rate of U87 glioblastoma cells, as compared to evodiamine treatment alone. Further investigation of the mechanism underlying these effects revealed that the evodiamine + TRAIL effect is associated with the increased expression of death receptor (DR)4, DR5, caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3. The present study demonstrated, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that evodiamine can sensitize U87 glioblastoma cells to TRAIL via the death receptor pathway. Thus, our results suggest that combined treatment with evodiamine and TRAIL may represent a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for the therapy of glioma. PMID:25333675

Khan, Muhammad; Bi, Yanying; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Fan, Limei; Gao, Hongwen

2015-01-01

386

Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

387

Development, parameterization, and validation of a visco-plastic material model for sand with different  

E-print Network

as the assessment of the off-road (uneven-terrain) vehicle dynamics (including vehicle rollover stability, crew@ces.clemson.edu with the target structures/vehicles as well as of the off-road vehicle dynamics is still not mature. As discussed and is suitable for both mine-blast and off-road vehicle dynamics computational analyses. JMDA237 © IMechE 2009

Grujicic, Mica

388

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M.; Dowd, Jennifer L. B.; Aubry, Lise M.

2013-01-01

389

The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.  

PubMed

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

2013-01-01

390

Inhibition of eIF2? dephosphorylation enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an inducer of cancer cell death that holds promise in cancer therapy. Cancer cells are more susceptible than normal cells to the cell-death-inducing effects of TRAIL. However, a variety of cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL through complex mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effects of inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit ? (eIF2?) dephosphorylation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Treatment of hepatoma cells with salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2? dephosphorylation, enhances TRAIL-induced eIF2? phosphorylation, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) expression and caspase activation. Salubrinal enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which could be abrogated by caspase inhibitor. Overexpression of phosphomimetic eIF2? (S51D) enhances TRAIL-induced CHOP expression, caspase 7 and PARP cleavage and apoptosis. By contrast, overexpression of phosphodeficient eIF2? (S51A) abrogates the stimulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by salubrinal. Moreover, knockdown of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), which recruits protein phosphatase 1 to dephosphorylate eIF2?, enhances TRAIL-induced eIF2? phosphorylation, CHOP expression, caspase activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the sensitization of hepatoma cells to TRAIL by salubrinal is dependent on CHOP. Knockdown of CHOP abrogates the stimulation of TRAIL-induced caspase activation and apoptosis by salubrinal. Combination of salubrinal and TRAIL leads to increased expression of Bim, a CHOP-regulated proapoptotic protein. Bim knockdown blunts the stimulatory effect of salubrinal on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of eIF2? dephosphorylation may lead to synthetic lethality in TRAIL-treated hepatoma cells. PMID:24525736

Teng, Y; Gao, M; Wang, J; Kong, Q; Hua, H; Luo, T; Jiang, Y

2014-01-01

391

Trail corridors as habitat and conduits for movement of plant species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-layer vegetation was sampled along selected trail corridors to determine whether corridors provide habitat for certain species and act as conduits for species movement. Patterns of plant species composition were analyzed in relation to distance from trail edge, level of trail use, and distance from trailheads, junctions, and campgrounds. Species composition was significantly affected by distance from trail edge and

Mary Benninger-Truax; John L. Vankat; Robert L. Schaefer

1992-01-01

392

Techniques for inferring terrain parameters related to ground vehicle mobility using UAV born IFSAR and lidar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting ground vehicle performance requires in-depth knowledge, captured as numeric parameters, of the terrain on which the vehicles will be operating. For off-road performance, predictions are based on rough terrain ride comfort, which is described using a parameter entitled root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness. Likewise, on-road vehicle performance depends heavily on the slopes of the individual road segments. Traditional methods of computing RMS and road slope values call for high-resolution (inch-scale) surface elevation data. At this scale, surface elevation data is both difficult and time consuming to collect. Nevertheless, a current need exists to attribute large geographic areas with RMS and road slope values in order to better support vehicle mobility predictions, and high-resolution surface data is neither available nor collectible for many of these regions. On the other hand, meter scale data can be quickly and easily collected for these areas using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based IFSAR and LIDAR sensors. A statistical technique for inferring RMS values for large areas using a combination of fractal dimension and spectral analysis of five-meter elevation data is presented. Validation of the RMS prediction technique was based on 43 vehicle ride courses with 30-centimeter surface elevation data. Also presented is a model for classifying road slopes for long road sections using five-meter elevation data. The road slope model was validated against one-meter LIDAR surface elevation profiles. These inference algorithms have been successfully implemented for regions of northern Afghanistan, and some initial results are presented.

Durst, Phillip J.; Baylot, Alex; McKinley, Burney

2011-05-01

393

Autonomous vehicles  

SciTech Connect

There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

1996-08-01

394

Simulation of Acoustic Scattering from a Trailing Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three model problems were examined to assess the difficulties involved in using a hybrid scheme coupling flow computation with the the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to predict noise generated by vortices passing over a sharp edge. The results indicate that the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation correctly propagates the acoustic signals when provided with accurate flow information on the integration surface. The most difficult of the model problems investigated inviscid flow over a two-dimensional thin NACA airfoil with a blunt-body vortex generator positioned at 98 percent chord. Vortices rolled up downstream of the blunt body. The shed vortices possessed similarities to large coherent eddies in boundary layers. They interacted and occasionally paired as they convected past the sharp trailing edge of the airfoil. The calculations showed acoustic waves emanating from the airfoil trailing edge. Acoustic directivity and Mach number scaling are shown.

Singer, Bart A.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

1999-01-01

395

Single cell motility and trail formation in populations of microglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microglia are a special type of glia cell in brain that has immune responses. They constitute about 20 % of the total glia population within the brain. Compared to other glia cells, microglia are very motile, constantly moving to destroy pathogens and to remove dead neurons. While doing so, they exhibit interesting body shapes, have cell-to-cell communications, and have chemotatic responses to each other. Interestingly, our recent in vitro studies show that their unusual motile behaviors can self-organize to form trails, similar to those in populations of ants. We have studied the changes in the physical properties of these trails by varying the cell population density and by changing the degree of spatial inhomogeneities (``pathogens''). Our experimental observations can be quite faithfully reproduced by a simple mathematical model involving many motile cells whose mechanical motion are driven by actin polymerization and depolymerization process within the individual cell body and by external chemical gradients.

Lee, Kyoung Jin

2009-03-01

396

Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.  

PubMed

The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

Desmond, Bree

2011-01-01

397

Stator Loading Measurements Behind a Fan With Trailing Edge Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of aircraft noise pollution around airports has become increasingly important as those areas have become more densely populated. Currently, the removal of older noisier aircraft from operation is reducing noise levels around airports; however, with air traffic projected to increase by about 5% over the next decade the number of commercial aircraft operating in the world is expected to be about 17,700 by the year 2007. To keep noise levels around airports from increasing as a result of traffic increases, it is important to investigate new methods of noise reduction. The objective of this work is to provide a better understanding of the effects that trailing edge blowing has on stator unsteady loading. This is done by presenting flowfield and stator loading data from experiments conducted with and without trailing edge blowing.

Waitz, Ian A.

2000-01-01

398

Long Trails of Optical Emission Behind PNe and LBVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep wide field optical images of Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and Luminous Blue Variables stars (LBVs) have revealed long tails of emission which form as the stars plough through their local interstellar media (ISM) during periods of mass ejection. The first deep wide-field images of planetary nebula HFG1 and the LBVs P Cygni and R143 in the Large Magellanic Cloud which have shown long trails of emission are presented here.

Boumis, P.; Meaburn, J.

2010-07-01

399

CARIBOU WILDERNESS AND TRAIL LAKE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Caribou Wilderness and Trail Lake Roadless Area conducted in 1979 revealed no indications of a potential for mineral or fossil fuel resources in the areas. The wilderness is in the Cascade volcanic province, a setting locally favorable for geothermal resources, but no geothermal resource potential was identified in the wilderness or roadless area. Regional studies and drilling would be necessary to identify geothermal resource potential.

Till, Alison, B.; McHugh, Edward, L.

1984-01-01

400

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour\\u000a seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic\\u000a trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single

Nele Gläser; Sven Wieskotten; Christian Otter; Guido Dehnhardt; Wolf Hanke

2011-01-01

401

Biogeography: molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails.  

PubMed

Darwin was fascinated by the transportation of land snails across great swathes of open ocean by birds--he even immersed snails in sea water to see how long they would survive. Here we follow a molecular phylogenetic trail that reveals the incredible transequatorial dispersal of the land snail Balea from Europe to the Azores and the Tristan da Cunha islands, and back again. This long-distance dispersal is unexpected for what are proverbially considered the most pedestrian of creatures. PMID:16437103

Gittenberger, Edmund; Groenenberg, Dick S J; Kokshoorn, Bas; Preece, Richard C

2006-01-26

402

Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

2002-01-01

403

lmpacts of Recreation Trails on Exotic and Ruderal Species Distribution in Grassland Areas Along the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

fhis study exarnincs the establishrnenl patterns of exotic and ruderal spccics along trailcorridclrs in grassland arci'ts of the C'oloraclo Front Rangc.-l'he efl-ects ol'trail prcscrrcc. trail agc, and trail traflic lcvels on exotic and ruderal species establishrnent are explored to ascertain the potentral impacts of trails on surrounding vegctation. Established trails cxhibited a greater presence of exotic and rudcral species along

Aaron P. Potitol E; Susan W. Beattv

404

Restoring TRAIL Mediated Signaling in Ovarian Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer has emerged as a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Genetic/epigenetic mutations, suppression of tumor suppressors, overexpression of oncogenes, rewiring of intracellular signaling cascades and loss of apoptosis are some of the deeply studied mechanisms. In vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted different molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer. In this review, we bring to limelight, expansion in understanding systematical characterization of ovarian cancer cells has led to the rapid development of new drugs and treatments to target negative regulators of TRAIL mediated signaling pathway. Wide ranging synthetic and natural agents have been shown to stimulate mRNA and protein expression of death receptors. This review is compartmentalized into programmed cell death protein 4, platelet-derived growth factor signaling and miRNA control of TRAIL mediated signaling to ovarian cancer. Mapatumumab and PRO95780 have been tested for efficacy against ovarian cancer. Use of high-throughput screening assays will aid in dissecting the heterogeneity of this disease and increasing a long-term survival which might be achieved by translating rapidly accumulating information obtained from molecular and cellular studies to clinic researches. PMID:25030086

Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Yaylim, Ilhan; Ozkan, Nazl? Ezgi; Zaman, Farrukh; Halim, Talha Abdul; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

2014-12-01

405

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

406

Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

407

IRAS observations of asteroid dust bands and cometary dust trails  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of data from the infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) resulted in the discovery of bands of dust surrounding the inner solar system, consisting of asteroid collision debris (Low et al., 1984). Narrow trails of dust were also discovered tracking the orbits of a number of short-period comets (Sykes et al., 1986). Pairs of dust bands are the product of individual collisional events in the asteroid belt. A dynamical model is developed that shows how the orbits of debris from such collisions evolve to form a band pair. A model of the surface-area evolution of such bands is also developed which, coupled with asteroid collision theories, indicates that some of the observed dust bands are the consequence of the disruption of approx.10 km diameter asteroids within the last approx.10/sup 7/ years. Observations of other bands are consistent with more ancient disruptions of much larger asteroids, which resulted in the formation of the Koronis and Themis asteroid families. Cometary dust trails consist of particles hundreds of microns and larger in diameter, ejected at low velocities (m/s) from the parent comet, and spreading out ahead and behind the comet's position along its orbital path, the initial stages in the evolution of meteor streams. Preliminary results from a survey of dust trails in the IRAS data indicate the presence of a large number of previously unobserved short-period comets.

Sykes, M.V.

1986-01-01

408

BRCA1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to hypoxia and TRAIL and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

A major contributing factor to the development of breast cancer is decreased functional expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, BRCA1. Another key contributor to tumorigenesis is hypoxia. Here we show that hypoxia increased the nuclear localization of BRCA1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cell lines without changing its steady-state expression level. Nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 was not evident in MCF-12A or HMEC (human mammary epithelial cell) nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells under the same conditions. Hypoxia also increased the cell surface expression of TRAIL on MDA-MB-468 cells. Neutralization of TRAIL precluded the hypoxia-induced accumulation of BRCA1 in the nucleus, whereas exogenously administered TRAIL mimicked the effect. Treatment of MDA-MB-468 cells with TRAIL resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC1937 cells, which harbor a BRCA1 mutation, increased synergistically when wild-type BRCA1 was reconstituted in the cells, and downregulation of BRCA1 expression in MDA-MB-468 cells reduced the apoptotic response to TRAIL. These data provide a novel link between hypoxia, TRAIL and BRCA1, and suggest that this relationship may be especially relevant to the potential use of TRAIL as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:17803681

Fitzgerald, Latricia D; Bailey, Charvann K; Brandt, Stephen J; Thompson, Marilyn E

2007-10-01

409

G. Jacquemin et al. Quercetin restores TRAIL-induced apoptosis in B-NHL Quercetin-mediated Mcl-1 and survivin downregulation restores TRAIL-  

E-print Network

G. Jacquemin et al. Quercetin restores TRAIL-induced apoptosis in B-NHL 1 Quercetin-mediated Mcl-1 and the INCa. Running Title: Quercetin restores TRAIL apoptosis in B-NHL Keywords : follicular lymphoma in B-NHL 2 Abstract Background : Non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphomas account for approximately 70% of B cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four methods of detection of bodies of water are under development as means to enable autonomous robotic ground vehicles to avoid water hazards when traversing off-road terrain. The methods involve processing of digitized outputs of optoelectronic sensors aboard the vehicles. It is planned to implement these methods in hardware and software that would operate in conjunction with the hardware and software for navigation and for avoidance of solid terrain obstacles and hazards. The first method, intended for use during the day, is based on the observation that, under most off-road conditions, reflections of sky from water are easily discriminated from the adjacent terrain by their color and brightness, regardless of the weather and of the state of surface waves on the water. Accordingly, this method involves collection of color imagery by a video camera and processing of the image data by an algorithm that classifies each pixel as soil, water, or vegetation according to its color and brightness values (see figure). Among the issues that arise is the fact that in the presence of reflections of objects on the opposite shore, it is difficult to distinguish water by color and brightness alone. Another issue is that once a body of water has been identified by means of color and brightness, its boundary must be mapped for use in navigation. Techniques for addressing these issues are under investigation. The second method, which is not limited by time of day, is based on the observation that ladar returns from bodies of water are usually too weak to be detected. In this method, ladar scans of the terrain are analyzed for returns and the absence thereof. In appropriate regions, the presence of water can be inferred from the absence of returns. Under some conditions in which reflections from the bottom are detectable, ladar returns could, in principle, be used to determine depth. The third method involves the recognition of bodies of water as dark areas in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) images. This method is based on the fact, well known among experts in remote sensing, that water bodies of any appreciable depth appear very dark in near-infrared, overhead imagery. Even under a thick layer of marine fog, SWIR illumination is present. Hence, this method may work even in the presence of clouds, though it is unlikely to work at night. Snow and ice also exhibit very strong absorption at wavelengths greater than about 1.4 m. Hence, the wavelength range of about 1.5 to 1.6 m might be useable in this method for recognizing water, snow, and ice. One notable drawback of this method is that useful look-ahead distance could be limited by surface reflections. The fourth method, intended for use at night, involves the contrast between water and terrain in thermal-infrared (medium-wavelength infrared) imagery. This method is based on the fact that at night, water is usually warmer than the adjacent terrain. Look-ahead distance could be limited in this method because, for reasons not yet fully understood, water appears to darken in the thermal infrared with increasing distance.

Matthes, Larry; Belluta, Paolo; McHenry, Michael

2006-01-01

411

Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail pheromones and use them to find food.  

PubMed

Foragers of several species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Meliponini) deposit pheromone marks in the vegetation to guide nestmates to new food sources. These pheromones are produced in the labial glands and are nest and species specific. Thus, an important question is how recruited foragers recognize their nestmates' pheromone in the field. We tested whether naïve workers learn a specific trail pheromone composition while being recruited by nestmates inside the hive in the species Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We installed artificial scent trails branching off from trails deposited by recruiting foragers and registered whether newly recruited bees follow these trails. The artificial trails were baited with trail pheromones of workers collected from foreign S. pectoralis colonies. When the same foreign trail pheromone was presented inside the experimental hives while recruitment took place a significant higher number of bees followed the artificial trails than in experiments without intranidal presentation. Our results demonstrate that recruits of S. pectoralis can learn the composition of specific trail pheromone bouquets inside the nest and subsequently follow this pheromone in the field. We, therefore, suggest that trail pheromone recognition in S. pectoralis is based on a flexible learning process rather than being a genetically fixed behaviour. PMID:21052681

Reichle, Christian; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

2011-03-01

412

Chemical trail marking and following by caterpillars ofMalacosoma neustria.  

PubMed

Chemical trail marking and following by gregarious caterpillars,Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), was studied in the laboratory. As in other species ofMalacosoma, larvae deposit a trail pheromone from a sternal secretory site when searching the host for food. Larvae in the vanguard of foraging columns establish chemical trails as they explore new territory. Marking behavior diminishes as successive unfed foragers utilize the trail. These exploratory trails are subsequently overmarked by fed larvae returning to the tent. Other foragers follow the trails of fed larvae in preference to trails of unfed larvae. Thus, like the eastern tent caterpillar,M. americanum, successful foragers ofM. neustria recruit colony-mates to feeding sites. The chemical activity of both recruitment and exploratory trails degrades slowly, suggesting that the trail pheromone ofM. neustria is a nonvolatile substance. Caterpillars ofM. neustria readily follow the nonvolatile trail pheromone which has been identified fromM. americanum, 5?-cholestane-3,24-dione. PMID:24276133

Peterson, S C

1988-03-01

413

Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.  

PubMed

Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees. PMID:16718558

Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

2006-07-01

414

Trail impacts in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal: a logistic regression analysis.  

PubMed

A trail study was conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal, during 1997-1998. Based on that study, this paper examines the spatial variability of trail conditions and analyzes factors that influence trail conditions. Logistic regression (multinomial logit model) is applied to examine the influence of use and environmental factors on trail conditions. The assessment of trail conditions is based on a four-class rating system: (class I, very little damaged; class II, moderately damaged, class III, heavily damaged; and class IV, severely damaged). Wald statistics and a model classification table have been used for data interpretation. Results indicate that altitude, trail gradient, hazard potential, and vegetation type are positively associated with trail condition. Trails are more degraded at higher altitude, on steep gradients, in areas with natural hazard potential, and within shrub/grassland zones. Strong correlations between high levels of trail degradation and higher frequencies of visitors and lodges were found. A detailed analysis of environmental and use factors could provide valuable information to park managers in their decisions about trail design, layout and maintenance, and efficient and effective visitor management strategies. Comparable studies on high alpine environments are needed to predict precisely the effects of topographic and climatic extremes. More refined approaches and experimental methods are necessary to control the effects of environmental factors. PMID:14753617

Nepal, S K

2003-09-01

415

Potential application of temozolomide in mesenchymal stem cell-based TRAIL gene therapy against malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Because the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, it is one of the most promising candidates for cancer treatment. TRAIL-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-TRAIL) provide targeted and prolonged delivery of TRAIL in glioma therapy. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL of glioma cells is a major problem to be overcome. We showed a potential therapy that used MSC-TRAIL combined with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). The antitumor effects of the combination with MSC-TRAIL and TMZ on human glioma cells were determined by using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo experimental xenografted mouse model. Intracellular signaling events that are responsible for the TMZ-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were also evaluated. Treatment of either TRAIL-sensitive or -resistant human glioma cells with TMZ and MSC-TRAIL resulted in a significant enhancement of apoptosis compared with the administration of each agent alone. We demonstrated that TMZ effectively increased the sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated upregulation of the death receptor 5 and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Subsequently, this combined treatment resulted in a substantial increase in caspase activation. Furthermore, in vivo survival experiments and bioluminescence imaging analyses showed that treatment using MSC-TRAIL combined with TMZ had greater therapeutic efficacy than did single-agent treatments. These results suggest that the combination of clinically relevant TMZ and MSC-TRAIL is a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24436439

Kim, Seong Muk; Woo, Ji Sun; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Chung Heon; Jang, Jae-Deog; Jeun, Sin-Soo

2014-02-01

416

TRAIL Mediates Liver Injury by the Innate Immune System in the Bile Duct-Ligated Mouse  

PubMed Central

The contribution of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct–ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/?), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL?/?) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA(mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P < 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was accompanied by an increase in liver accumulation of natural killer 1.1 (NK 1.1)–positive NK and natural killer T (NKT) cells, the predominant cell types expressing TRAIL. Depletion of NK 1.1–positive cells reduced hepatic TRAIL mRNA expression and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Consistent with a role for NK/NKT cells in this model of liver injury, stress ligands necessary for their recognition of target cells were also up-regulated in hepatocytes following BDL. Compared to sham-operated wt mice, BDL mice displayed a 13-fold increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and an 11-fold increase in caspase 3/7–positive hepatocytes (P < 0.01). The number of TUNEL and caspase 3/7–positive cells was reduced by >80% in BDL TRAIL knockout animals (P < 0.05). Likewise, liver histology, number of bile infarcts, serum ALT values, hepatic fibrosis, and animal survival were also improved in BDL TRAIL?/? animals as compared to wt animals. Conclusion These observations support a pivotal role for TRAIL in cholestatic liver injury mediated by NK 1.1–positive NK/NKT cells. PMID:18220275

Kahraman, Alisan; Barreyro, Fernando J.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Mott, Justin L.; Akazawa, Yuko; Masuoka, Howard C.; Howe, Charles L.; Gores, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

417

Candidate gene study of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors: association with response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p?=?8.88×10(-4), pc?=?0.048, OR?=?0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS. PMID:23658636

López-Gómez, Carlos; Pino-Ángeles, Almudena; Órpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Arnáiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fernández, Óscar; Leyva, Laura

2013-01-01

418

Candidate Gene Study of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors: Association with Response to Interferon Beta Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p?=?8.88×10?4, pc?=?0.048, OR?=?0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS. PMID:23658636

Orpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, Maria Jesus; Oliver-Martos, Begona; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesus; Arnaiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varade, Jezabel; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca

2013-01-01

419

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic advantages of electric vehicles (EVs) are: (a) no emissions at the point of their operation, (b) very low emissions, if the energy is produced in normal power stations, (c) lower energy consumption compared to conventional cars, and (d) very low noise during operation. Their main disadvantage is the limited driving range due to the limited capacity of the

D. Naunin

1996-01-01

420

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

421

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

422

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

423

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

424

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

425

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21) high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community. PMID:22289653

2012-01-01

426

Src and ADAM-17-Mediated Shedding of Transforming Growth Factor-? Is a Mechanism of Acute Resistance to TRAIL  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L) has emerged as a promising anticancer agent. However, resistance to TRAIL is likely to be a major problem, and sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL may therefore be an important anticancer strategy. In this study, we examined the effect of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib and a human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-TKI (M578440) on the sensitivity of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL). A synergistic interaction between rhTRAIL and gefitinib and rhTRAIL and M578440 was observed in both rhTRAIL-sensitive and resistant CRC cells. This synergy correlated with an increase in EGFR and HER2 activation after rhTRAIL treatment. Furthermore, treatment of CRC cells with rhTRAIL resulted in activation of the Src family kinases (SFK). Importantly, we found that rhTRAIL treatment induced shedding of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) that was dependent on SFK activity and the protease ADAM-17. Moreover, this shedding of TGF-? was critical for rhTRAIL-induced activation of EGFR. In support of this, SFK inhibitors and small interfering RNAs targeting ADAM-17 and TGF-? also sensitized CRC cells to rhTRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our findings indicate that both rhTRAIL-sensitive and resistant CRC cells respond to rhTRAIL treatment by activating an EGFR/HER2-mediated survival response and that these cells can be sensitized to rhTRAIL using EGFR/HER2-targeted therapies. Furthermore, this acute response to rhTRAIL is regulated by SFK-mediated and ADAM-17-mediated shedding of TGF-?, such that targeting SFKs or inhibiting ADAM-17, in combination with rhTRAIL, may enhance the response of CRC tumors to rhTRAIL. PMID:18922903

Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Kelly, Donal M.; Kyula, Joan; Stokesberry, Susan; Fennell, Dean A.; Johnston, Patrick G.; Longley, Daniel B.

2008-01-01

427

The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants.  

PubMed

Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when small, thereby overcoming the hurdles to grow large? In this paper, we study the case of combined group and mass recruitment displayed by some ant species. Using mathematical models, we explore to what extent early group recruitment may aid deployment of scent trails, making such trails available at much smaller colony sizes. We show that a competition between group and mass recruitment may cause oscillatory behaviour mediated by scent trails. This results in a further reduction of colony size to establish trails successfully. PMID:23925728

Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

2013-10-01

428

Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.  

SciTech Connect

Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

Barone, Matthew Franklin

2011-08-01

429

Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open Periodically?  

E-print Network

‘‘Visual trailing’ ’ is a transient but dramatic disturbance of visual motion perception of unknown origin: the subject perceives a series of discrete stationary images trailing in the wake of otherwise normally moving objects. Although this phenomenon is most frequently encountered after ingestion of prescription and/or illicit drugs (most commonly with lysergic acid diethylamid, or LSD), it has also occasionally been reported following brain damage or neurological disorders. A quantitative account of visual trails is lacking; we argue that careful experimental investigation could potentially reveal how our brains update conscious visual perception in time. What Do Visual Trails Look Like? Ask any LSD user: they know the drug is taking effect when the ‘‘good trails’ ’ kick in. Trailing is a visual perceptual effect commonly experienced during LSD consumption and as a long-lasting side

Julien Dubois; Rufin Vanrullen

430

Visitor impacts on trails in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.  

PubMed

This study summarizes findings of a visitor impact study conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. The effect of visitor use, and the influence of environmental characteristics on trail conditions are investigated. Seven trails divided into 208 trail segments, and with a total length of 90 kilometers were included in the assessment. A four-class rating system has been used for the assessment of trail conditions. Arc/Info and Arc/View geographic information system (GIS) are used to analyze spatial patterns of impacts. The study indicates a strong correlation between visitor use and trail degradation. However, locational and environmental factors are equally important variables. The study concludes that more systematic, and experimental studies are needed that can make a clear distinction between human-induced trail damage and the effects of natural factors. PMID:15387069

Nepal, Sanjay K; Nepal, Stella Amor

2004-08-01

431

With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter during a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

2000-01-01

432

TRAIL-Deficiency Accelerates Vascular Calcification in Atherosclerosis via Modulation of RANKL  

PubMed Central

The osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) cytokine system, not only controls bone homeostasis, but has been implicated in regulating vascular calcification. TNF–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a second ligand for OPG, and although its effect in vascular calcification in vitro is controversial, its role in vivo is not yet established. This study aimed to investigate the role of TRAIL in vascular calcification in vitro using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from TRAIL?/? and wild-type mice, as well as in vivo, in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of TRAIL?/?ApoE?/? mice. The involvement of OPG and RANKL in this process was also examined. TRAIL dose-dependently inhibited calcium-induced calcification of human VSMCs, while TRAIL?/? VSMCs demonstrated accelerated calcification induced by multiple concentrations of calcium compared to wild-type cells. Consistent with this, RANKL mRNA was significantly elevated with 24 h calcium treatment, while OPG and TRAIL expression in human VSMCs was inhibited. Brachiocephalic arteries from TRAIL?/?ApoE?/? and ApoE?/? mice fed a high fat diet for 12 w demonstrated increased chondrocyte-like cells in atherosclerotic plaque, as well as increased aortic collagen II mRNA expression in TRAIL?/?ApoE?/? mice, with significant increases in calcification observed at 20 w. TRAIL?/?ApoE?/? aortas also had significantly elevated RANKL, BMP-2, IL-1?, and PPAR-? expression at 12 w. Our data provides the first evidence that TRAIL deficiency results in accelerated cartilaginous metaplasia and calcification in atherosclerosis, and that TRAIL plays an important role in the regulation of RANKL and inflammatory markers mediating bone turn over in the vasculature. PMID:24040204

Harith, Hanis H.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Schoppet, Michael; Kavurma, Mary M.

2013-01-01

433

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a meteoroid penetrates Earth's atmosphere, it forms a high-density ionized plasma column immersed in the ionosphere between approximately 70 and 140 km altitude. High-power, large-aperture (HPLA) radars detect nonspecular trails when VHF or UHF radio waves reflect off structures in a turbulent meteor trail. These trails persist from a few milliseconds to many minutes and the return from these

S. Close; T. Hamlin; M. Oppenheim; L. Cox; P. Colestock

2008-01-01

434

TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of pediatric malignancies.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a pro-apoptotic ligand that has shown the exquisite ability to trigger extrinsic apoptosis in various types of cancer cells without significant toxicity toward normal cells, when compared to other pro-apoptotic ligands such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? or Fas ligand. Consequently, TRAIL-based therapies aim to trigger apoptosis in cancer cells by providing the soluble TRAIL or monoclonal antibodies targeting the death receptors TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. In this review, we start by highlighting the relevance of the tumor microenvironment in tumor development and elimination. We then address conventional and targeted therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment, highlighting the mechanisms involved or targeted. We describe the extrinsic and intrinsic pro-apoptotic pathways of TRAIL, together with the evidences for its pro-survival signaling, and with the relevance of these pathways in therapy. Possible mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis are highlighted (i.e. c-FLIP, Bcl-2, IAPs, p53, NF-? B) and the rationale for the combined administration of TRAIL with drugs targeting these mechanisms is provided. Preclinical data are reported and show encouraging evidences for TRAIL consideration in pediatric malignancies (i.e., leukemia, lymphomas, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, medulloblastoma). Clinical trials of TRAIL-based therapies on the overall population are in phase I or II, and we put particular focus on the pediatric population, on which only few trials have been conducted or are ongoing. Finally, we consider emerging cellular therapies based on TRAIL, such as TRAIL-engineered mesenchymal stem cells or 'inflammatory' dendritic cells. PMID:23458616

Gasparini, C; Vecchi Brumatti, L; Monasta, L; Zauli, G

2013-01-01

435

Singularities in BIEs for the Laplace equation; Joukowski trailing-edge conjecture revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with trailing-edge issues connected with the analysis of three-dimensional incompressible quasi-potential flows (i.e. flows that are potential everywhere, except for a zero-thickness vortex layer, called the wake). Specifically, following the Joukowski conjecture of smooth flow at the trailing edge, all the trailing-edge conditions that are required to avoid singularities in the boundary integral representation for the velocity,

Luigi Morino; Giovanni Bernardini

2001-01-01

436

P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M.; Nagler, Arnon

2014-01-01

437

Polarized short odor-trail recruitment communication by a stingless bee, Trigona spinipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized odor-trail communication, in which a receiver can orient towards the correct endpoint from within the trail, is documented in relatively few animals and is poorly understood, although such directionality could significantly enhance resource localization. Among animals, stingless bees exhibit the unique behavior of depositing long substrate-borne odor trails that assist the orientation of flying nestmates to a specific three-dimensional

James C. Nieh; Felipe A. L. Contrera; Ryan R. Yoon; Lillian S. Barreto; Vera L. Imperatriz-Fonseca

2004-01-01

438

TRAIL-Receptor Costimulation Inhibits Proximal TCR Signaling and Suppresses Human T Cell Activation and Proliferation.  

PubMed

The TRAIL-receptor/TRAIL system originally described to induce apoptosis preferentially in malignant cells is also known to be involved in T cell homeostasis and the response to viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Whereas the expression of TRAIL on activated NK and T cells increases their cytotoxicity, induction of TRAIL on APCs can turn them into apoptosis inducers but might also change their immunostimulatory capacity. Therefore, we analyzed how TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R) costimulation is modulating TCR-mediated activation of human T cells. T cells triggered by rTRAIL in combination with anti-CD3 and -CD28 Abs exhibited a strong decrease in the expression of activation markers and Th1 and Th2 cytokines compared with CD3/CD28-activated T cells. Most importantly, proliferation of TRAIL-R costimulated T cells was strongly impaired, but no apoptosis was induced. Addition of exogenous IL-2 could not rescue T cells silenced by TRAIL-R costimulation, and TRAIL-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation only prevented TCR-triggered proliferation but was ineffective if T cells were activated downstream of the TCR. Inhibition of T cell proliferation was associated with abrogation of proximal TCR signaling by inhibiting recruitment of TCR-associated signaling molecules to lipid rafts, followed by abrogation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP70, phospholipase C-?1, and protein kinase C-?, and impaired nuclear translocation of NFAT, AP-1, and NF-?B. Most importantly, TRAIL-R costimulation efficiently inhibited alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation and CD3/28-induced activation and proliferation of autoreactive T cells derived from patients with Omenn syndrome, indicating that coactivation of TRAIL-R and TCR represents a mechanism to downmodulate T cell immune responses. PMID:25217163

Lehnert, Corinna; Weiswange, Maxi; Jeremias, Irmela; Bayer, Carina; Grunert, Michaela; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Strauss, Gudrun

2014-10-15

439

1900 Draconid Trail Activity in 2011 and the Prospects for 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides an explanation of stronger than expected by the Author Draconids 2011 activity basing on the assumption of unusually high density of 1900 trail of the comet 21P Giacobini-Zinner. Also, a revised prediction for Draconids 2014 is presented, which should also be caused by 1900 trail. For this prediction a "vertical trails" approach is used. This approach is described in the article.

Maslov, Mikhail

2014-08-01

440

Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those of Gurney flap and conventional flap. The extended trailing edge, as a simple mechanical device added on a wing without altering the basic configuration, has a good potential to improve the cruise flight efficiency.

Liu, Tianshu; Montefort; Liou, William W.; Pantula, Srinivasa R.; Shams, Qamar A.

2007-01-01

441

Effects of the Built Environment on Childhood Obesity: the Case of Urban Recreational Trails and Crime  

PubMed Central

We study the effects of urban environment on childhood obesity by concentrating on the effects of walking trails and crime close to children’s homes on their BMI and obesity status. We use a unique dataset, which combines information on recreational trails in Indianapolis with data on violent crimes and anthropomorphic and diagnostic data from children’s clinic visits between 1996 and 2005. We find that having a trail near a home reduces children’s weight. However, the effect depends on the amount of nearby violent crimes. Significant reductions occur only in low crime areas and trails could have opposite effects on weight in high crime areas. These effects are primarily among boys, older children, and children who live in higher income neighborhoods. Evaluated at the mean length of trails this effect for older children in no crime areas would be a reduction of two pounds of the body weight. Falsification tests using planned trails instead of existing trails, show that trails are more likely to be located in areas with heavier children, suggesting that our results on effects of trails represent a lower bound. PMID:22459489

Sandy, Robert; Tchernis, Rusty; Wilson, Jeff; Liu, Gilbert; Zhou, Xilin

2012-01-01

442

Allometric scaling of foraging rate with trail dimensions in leaf-cutting ants.  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) create physical pathways to support the transport of resources on which colony growth and reproduction depend. We determined the scaling relationship between the rate of resource acquisition and the size of the trail system and foraging workforce for 18 colonies of Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes. We examined conventional power-law scaling patterns, but did so in a multivariate analysis that reveals the simultaneous effects of forager number, trail length and trail width. Foraging rate (number of resource-laden ants returning to the nest per unit time) scaled at the 0.93 power of worker numbers, the -1.02 power of total trail length and the 0.65 power of trail width. These scaling exponents indicate that individual performance declines only slightly as more foragers are recruited to the workforce, but that trail length imposes a severe penalty on the foraging rate. A model of mass traffic flow predicts the allometric patterns for workforce and trail length, although the effect of trail width is unexpected and points to the importance of the little-known mechanisms that regulate a colony's investment in trail clearance. These results provide a point of comparison for the role that resource flows may play in allometric scaling patterns in other transport-dependent entities, such as human cities. PMID:22337696

Bruce, Andrew I; Burd, Martin

2012-06-22

443

Population dynamics of American dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along park trails  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.

Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

1991-01-01

444

Trail and arena marking by caterpillars ofArchips cerasivoranus (lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The activity ofArchips cerasivoranus caterpillars is largely limited to their colonial silk web and trails. Silk pulled directly from the spinnerets of caterpillars and wound onto paper strips to form artificial trails elicited locomotion from the larvae. Trails made from extracts of silk and silk glands also elicited locomotion. These and other observations reported here indicate that the caterpillars are responsive to a water-soluble pheromone that is a component of the silk strand. Marker pheromones appear not to be secreted from other regions of the body, as has been reported for some other trail-following caterpillars. PMID:24249177

Fitzgerald, T D

1993-07-01

445

Site of secretion of the trail marker of the eastern tent caterpillar.  

PubMed

A new site of secretion of a chemical trail marker was found on the sternum at the tip of the last abdominal segment of the larva of the eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum. Larvae marked from this site by drawing their sterna along the substrate when they extended existing trails in search of food and again when they established recruitment trails to food-finds. Differences in the quantity or quality of the marker deposited by exploring and recruiting caterpillars may account for the greater activity of the recruitment trails. PMID:24414582

Fitzgerald, T D; Edgerly, J S

1982-01-01

446

Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5?-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests. PMID:24301883

Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

1987-03-01

447

Trail-following behavior ofReticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

The behavior ofReticulitermes hesperus Banks pseudergates (workers) was assessed on artificial trails containing different concentrations of sternal gland extract. On nongiadient trails, more pseudergates were recruited to trails of greater pheromone concentration, they traveled a greater distance without pausing, and their rate of locomotion increased over that observed on trails of lesser concentration (positive orthokinesis). Of the individuals pausing before completing trails of high concentration, fewer left the trails or reversed direction (negative klinokinesis) than on trails of lower concentration. Termites walking down concentration gradients failed to complete these trails to the low-concentration termini. At a point representing an average decrease of slightly more than 10-fold in the original concentration of pheromone, individuals reversed their direction of travel and returned to the high-concentration terminus. Termites walking up pheromone gradients proceeded to the high-concentration termini without reversing direction.R. hesperus pseudergates are thus able to orient along a gradient of trail pheromone by longitudinal klinotaxis. PMID:24276008

Grace, J K; Wood, D L; Frankie, G W

1988-02-01

448

Ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer represents an ideal disease for chemopreventive intervention. Propolis possesses immuno-modulatory, anti-tumour and chemopreventive properties. The tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an important endogenous anti-cancer agent that induces apoptosis selectively in tumour cells. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Naturally occurring phenolic and polyphenolic compounds sensitize TRAIL-resistant cancer cells and augment the apoptotic activity of TRAIL. The ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP) is rich in phenolic components. Our in vitro results indicate the potential targets in the TRAIL-induced apoptotic pathway for the cancer chemopreventive activity of Brazilian propolis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Brazilian EEP and its bioactive components in combination with TRAIL on LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The chemical composition of Brazilian green propolis was determined by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The cytotoxicity was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was evaluated using DePsipher staining by fluorescence microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to analyse death receptor (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2) expression in LNCaP cells. The inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) (p65) activation in cancer cells was confirmed by the ELISA-based TransAM NF-?B kit. The LNCaP cells were shown to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that EEP sensitizes TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cells. The main phenolic components detected in Brazilian green propolis are artepillin C, quercetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid. Brazilian propolis and its bioactive components markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells. Brazilian EEP enhanced the expression of TRAIL-R2 and the activity of NF-?B in LNCaP cells. The co-treatment of prostate cancer cells with 100 ng/ml TRAIL and 50 µg/ml EEP increased the percentage of apoptotic cells to 65.8 ± 1.2% and caused a significant disruption of ??m in LNCaP cells. We show that Brazilian EEP helped cells overcome TRAIL resistance by engaging both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and regulating NF-?B activity. The data demonstrate the important role of Brazilian green propolis and its bioactive compounds in prostate cancer chemoprevention through the enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:21286663

Szliszka, Ewelina; Zydowicz, Grzegorz; Janoszka, Beata; Dobosz, Cezary; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Grazyna; Krol, Wojciech

2011-04-01

449