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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

Oller, Adam

2

Deaths among drivers of off-road vehicles after collisions with trail gates--New Hampshire, 1997-2002.  

PubMed

During April-July 2002, three deaths occurred on New Hampshire trails when adolescents driving off-highway recreational vehicles (OHRVs) collided with trail gates. Because of these three incidents, the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services conducted a study to determine the extent of the problem and characteristics of the fatal events. This report describes trail gate fatalities in New Hampshire during 1997-2002. To prevent trail gate collisions, efforts should focus on increased enforcement of OHRV operating rules, driver education, enhanced gate visibility, and improved signage. PMID:12570320

2003-01-24

3

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2013-07-01

4

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2013-07-01

5

Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study undertaken to determine the ecological effects of off-road vehicles, such as four-wheel drive trucks and dirt bikes in the Big Cottonwood Canyon area near Salt Lake City. Applications of the study to other investigations of off-road vehicles are discussed. (DB)

Kay, Jeanne; And Others

1981-01-01

6

Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a study undertaken to determine the ecological effects of off-road vehicles, such as four-wheel drive trucks and dirt bikes in the Big Cottonwood Canyon area near Salt Lake City. Applications of the study to other investigations of off-road vehicles are discussed. (DB)|

Kay, Jeanne; And Others

1981-01-01

7

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

2010-10-01

8

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

2009-10-01

9

76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...been established as directed in the Off- Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000...National Environmental Policy Act. The Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000...hereby certify that the renewal of the Big Cypress Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee...

2011-10-17

10

Vibration Testing of Off-Road Vehicle Seats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibration tests of four off-road vehicle seats were performed. The purpose of the tests was to determine which seat provided the best vibration attenuation under laboratory conditions. Laboratory tests were constructed to simulate the mining vibration env...

J. C. Gagliardi W. K. Utt

1993-01-01

11

Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)|

Reid, David C.; And Others

1988-01-01

12

Modeling and validation of off-road vehicle ride dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concerns on human driver comfort/health and emerging demands on suspension systems for off-road vehicles call for an effective and efficient off-road vehicle ride dynamics model. This study devotes both analytical and experimental efforts in developing a comprehensive off-road vehicle ride dynamics model. A three-dimensional tire model is formulated to characterize tire-terrain interactions along all the three translational axes. The random roughness properties of the two parallel tracks of terrain profiles are further synthesized considering equivalent undeformable terrain and a coherence function between the two tracks. The terrain roughness model, derived from the field-measured responses of a conventional forestry skidder, was considered for the synthesis. The simulation results of the suspended and unsuspended vehicle models are derived in terms of acceleration PSD, and weighted and unweighted rms acceleration along the different axes at the driver seat location. Comparisons of the model responses with the measured data revealed that the proposed model can yield reasonably good predictions of the ride responses along the translational as well as rotational axes for both the conventional and suspended vehicles. The developed off-road vehicle ride dynamics model could serve as an effective and efficient tool for predicting vehicle ride vibrations, to seek designs of primary and secondary suspensions, and to evaluate the roles of various operating conditions.

Pazooki, Alireza; Rakheja, Subhash; Cao, Dongpu

2012-04-01

13

40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. 1037...EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.631 Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road...

2013-07-01

14

36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. 13.903 Section 13.903...903 Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. Operating a motor vehicle off...on NPS lands; and (3) Off-road vehicle use continues to be...

2013-07-01

15

77 FR 6581 - Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...issues and make recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these...

2012-02-08

16

78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...been established as directed in the Off- Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000...National Environmental Policy Act. The Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000...hereby certify that the renewal of the Big Cypress Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee...

2013-10-03

17

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve...Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2013-07-01

18

Physics Based Vehicle Terrain Interaction Model for Soft Soil off- Road Vehicle Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the context of off-road vehicle simulations, deformable terrain models mostly fall into three categories: simple visualization of an assumed terrain deformation, use of empirical relationships for the deformation, or finite/discrete element approaches ...

A. Seidl D. Negrut G. Bozdech J. Madsen P. Ayers

2012-01-01

19

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 ...UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative...13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use...

2009-07-01

20

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 ...UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative...13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use...

2010-07-01

21

Sensor fusion method for off-road vehicle position estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A FOG-aided GPS fusion system was developed for positioning an off-road vehicle, which consists of a six-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Garmin global positioning system (GPS). An observation-based Kalman filter was designed to integrate the readings from both sensors so that the noise in GPS signal was smoothed out, the redundant information was fused and a high update rate of output signals was obtained. The drift error of FOG was also compensated. By using this system, a low cost GPS can be used to replace expensive GPS with a higher accuracy. Measurement and fusion results showed that the positioning error of the vehicle estimated using this fusion system was greatly reduced from a GPS-only system. At a vehicle speed of about 1.34 m/s, the mean bias in East axis of the fusion system was 0.48 m comparing to the GPS mean bias of 1.28 m, and the mean bias in North axis was reduced to 0.32 m from 1.48 m. The update frequency of the fusion system was increased to 9 Hz from 1 Hz of the GPS. A prototype system was installed on a sprayer for vehicle positioning measurement.

Guo, Linsong; Zhang, Qin; Han, Shufeng

2002-07-01

22

76 FR 35468 - Cancellation of June 23, 2011, Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...issues and make recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these...

2011-06-17

23

76 FR 3653 - 2011 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...issues and make recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these...

2011-01-20

24

77 FR 77090 - 2013 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...issues and make recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these...

2012-12-31

25

75 FR 1809 - 2010 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...issues and make recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these...

2010-01-13

26

75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan...ramps, and improvements and additions to the interdunal road system. The NPS Notice of Availability for the...

2010-11-15

27

Experimental Study of an Ultra-Mobile Vehicle for Off-Road Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research accomplished during the fifth six-month period of this three-year project. The research is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental off-road vehicle called the ASV-84. The vehicle concept envisages loco...

R. B. McGhee K. J. Waldron

1984-01-01

28

Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

29

78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMR-LAMR-10224...Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft...Meredith National Recreation Area, Texas AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...the National Park Service (NPS...Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan...Meredith National Recreation Area...

2013-01-25

30

Failure analysis of a final drive transmission in off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study in failure analysis of a final drive transmission in an off-road vehicle. The failure involved a satellite gear mounting shaft that departed from the differential assembly as a result of fracturing of a retaining pin. An investigation of the mechanical condition of various transmission components, consisting primarily of visual (macroscopic) inspection, geometrical investigation and

E Makevet; I Roman

2002-01-01

31

Analysis of Semi-Active and Passive Suspensions System for Off-Road Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of off-road vehicles over rough terrain is generally determined by the ride quality not by the engine power. For this reason, researches are currently being undertaking to improve the ride dynamics of these vehicles using an advanced suspension system. This study intends to provide a preliminary evaluation of whether semi-active suspensions are beneficial to improving ride and handling in off-road vehicles. One of the greatest challenges in designing off-road vehicle suspension system is maintaining a good balance between vehicle ride and handling. Three configurations of these vehicles; 2-axle, 3-xle and 4-axles have been studied and their performances are compared. The application of several control policies of semi-active suspension system, namely skyhook; ground-hook and hybrid controls have been analyzed and compared with passive systems. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and ground-hook control policies. Results show an improvement in ride comfort and vehicle handling using 4-axle over 3-axle and 2-axle when emphasis is placed on the response of the vehicle body acceleration, suspension and tyre deflection.

Benlahcene, Zohir; Faris, Waleed F.; Khan, M. D. Raisuddin

2009-03-01

32

RAVON -- A Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the autonomous outdoor robot RAVON1 (see Figure 1) which is developed at Kaiserslautern University of Technology. The vehicle is used as a testbed to investigate behaviour-based strategies on motion adaptation, local- isation and navigation in rough outdoor terrain. At the current stage the vehicle features collision-free autonomous navigation along way points given in GPS coor- dinates.

Helge Schaefer; M. Proetzsch; K. Berns; Tim Braun

2006-01-01

33

Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

2001-04-18

34

Injuries and deaths associated with off-road recreational vehicles among children in Manitoba.  

PubMed Central

Injuries and deaths associated with off-road recreational vehicles are of increasing concern in North America. We reviewed all hospital admissions and deaths attributed to these vehicles in Manitoba from April 1979 to April 1985 among children 16 years of age or younger. Of the 693 hospital admissions and deaths 480 were associated with motorbikes, snowmobiles or all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). The incidence of injuries resulting from snowmobile and dirtbike accidents remained stable over the study period; however, there was an almost exponential increase in the number of admissions because of ATV-related injuries. There were 21 deaths during the study period. Preventive measures through legislation are necessary to reduce the numbers of injuries and deaths; these include mandatory registration, licensing and enhanced safety regulations.

Postl, B D; Moffatt, M E; Black, G B; Cameron, C B

1987-01-01

35

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n=58) were randomized to a control group (n=12) or one of four experimental groups; 2days/week ATV (n=11), 2days/week ORM (n=12), 4days/week ATV (n=11), or 4days/week ORM (n=12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP=9.410.1, DBP=5.86.2mmHg), fasting glucose (0.50.7mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.91.1%), body mass (0.72.7kg), waist circumference (1.32.5cm), and isometric leg endurance (2644s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d=0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.94.6mlkg(-1)min(-1)), leg power (172486w), and curl-ups (13.222.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus. PMID:21225277

Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

2011-01-12

36

A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

37

Off-Road Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, takes a look at the Baha SAE off-road competition, organized by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International. The video explains how students take an off-road vehicle all the way from the design phase to completion and the competition. Here, visitors will see the different tools and techniques that students use to design and build their vehicles. This video is helpful for anyone looking into the automotive engineering field and the skills necessary to be successful in it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:52.

2010-12-07

38

A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle ridersoff-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian

Jamie F. Burr; Veronica Jamnik; Norman Gledhill

2010-01-01

39

Suspension settings for optimal ride comfort of off-road vehicles travelling on roads with different roughness and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that will ensure optimal ride comfort of an off-road vehicle, on different road profiles and at different speeds. These settings are required for the design of a four stage semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring damper suspension system (4S4). Spring and damper settings in the 4S4 can be set either

P. E. Uys; P. S. Els; M. Thoresson

2007-01-01

40

Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 ?g g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 ?g g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 ?m). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 ?g g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin

2012-08-01

41

Vegetation versus man-made object detection from imagery for unmanned vehicles in off-road environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several major advances in autonomous navigation for unmanned ground vehicles in controlled urban environments in recent years. However, off-road environments still pose several perception and classification challenges. This paper addresses two of these challenges: detection and classification of vegetation vs. man-made objects. In order for a vehicle or remote operator to traverse cross-country terrain, automated decisions must be made about obstacles in the vehicle's path. The most common obstacle is vegetation, but some vegetation may be traversable, depending on the size of the vehicle and the type of vegetation. However, man made objects should generally be detected and avoided in navigation. We present recent research towards the goal of vegetation and man-made object detection in the visible spectrum. First, we look at a state-of-the-art approach to image segmentation and image saliency using natural scene statistics. Then we apply recent work in multi-class image labeling to several images taken from a small unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This work will attempt to highlight the recent advances and challenges that lie ahead in the ultimate goal of vegetation and man-made object detection and classification in the visual spectrum from UGV.

Harguess, Josh; Larson, Jacoby

2013-05-01

42

Off-Road and the Fragile Desert  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)|

Stebbins, Robert C.

1974-01-01

43

Physical models of off-road vehicles moving on loose soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in natural environments present complex dynamical behaviors: rolling stones, deformations, compressions, avalanches and collapses. The geometry of the terrain can be highly modified by the vehicle itself during its displacement; simultaneously, the behavior of the vehicle also becomes more complex. Deformable soils, such as loose soils cannot be modelled by solid physics and they require the use of accurate

A. Luciani; B. Chanclou

1997-01-01

44

A detailed multi-body model for dynamic simulation of off-road tracked vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available models for dynamic simulation of tracked vehicles usually include super-elements to describe the tracks and the suspension systems. In these models, the dynamics of the track, the interaction between each track link and the ground, and their effect on the vehicle dynamics cannot be considered properly. The rapid increase in computing speed enables the utilization of more complex

D. Rubinstein; R. Hitron

2004-01-01

45

Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: Resistance in different U.S. deserts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts are an important component of desert ecosystems, as they influence soil stability and fertility. This study examined and compared the short-term vehicular impacts on lichen cover and nitrogenase activity (NA) of biological soil crusts. Experimental disturbance was applied to different types of soil in regions throughout the western U.S. (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, Chihuahuan, and Mojave deserts). Results show that pre-disturbance cover of soil lichens is significantly correlated with the silt content of soils, and negatively correlated with sand and clay. While disturbance appeared to reduce NA at all sites, differences were statistically significant at only 12 of the 26 sites. Cool desert sites showed a greater decline than hot desert sites, which may indicate non-heterocystic cyanobacterial species are more susceptible to disturbance than non-heterocystic species. Sandy soils showed greater reduction of NA as sand content increased, while fine-textured soils showed a greater decline as sand content increased. At all sites, higher NA before the disturbance resulted in less impact to NA post-disturbance. These results may be useful in predicting the impacts of off-road vehicles in different regions and different soils. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Belnap, J.

2002-01-01

46

Impacts of Off-Highway Motorized Vehicle Trails on the Reptiles and Vegetation of the Owyhee Front.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used drift fences to trap reptiles near to and far from off road motorized vehicle (OHMV) trails in the Owyhee Front. We also assessed vegetation. We found that at the less intensively used OHMV site (Fossil Butte), there was a tendency for more reptil...

A. A. Ames B. R. Barnett J. C. Munger S. J. Novak

2003-01-01

47

The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating a 4-wheel drive truck in a 9-ha area of the Mojave Desert were evaluated. A truck was driven over the same 0.9-km track 21 times between November 1973 and May 1974. The vehicle was also driven randomly around the area (1.3 to 3.4 km) 17 times between December 1973 and May 1974.

A. T. Vollmer; B. G. Maza; P. A. Medica; F. B. Turner; S. A. Bamberg

1977-01-01

48

Stereovision-based 3D field recognition for automatic guidance system of off-road vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stereovision-based disparity evaluation algorithm was developed for rice crop field recognition. The gray level intensities and the correlation relation were integrated to produce the disparities of stereo-images. The surface of ground and rice were though as two rough planes, but their disparities waved in a narrow range. The cut/uncut edges of rice crops were first detected and track through the images. We used a step model to locate those edge positions. The points besides the edges were matched respectively to get disparity values using area correlation method. The 3D camera coordinates were computed based on those disparities. The vehicle coordinates were obtained by multiplying the 3D camera coordinates with a transform formula. It has been implemented on an agricultural robot and evaluated in rice crop field with straight rows. The results indicated that the developed stereovision navigation system is capable of reconstructing the field image.

Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin; Shen, Chuan; Jiang, Huanyu; Zhang, Qin

2005-12-01

49

Vehicles versus conservation of invertebrates on sandy beaches: mortalities inflicted by off-road vehicles on ghost crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches face increasing anthropogenic pressures, with vehicle traffic being ecologically highly harmful. Ghost crabs (Fam. Ocypodidae) are conspic- uous on many beaches, and they have been used as a bio-monitoring tool to measure the ecological responses to human disturbance. However, the mechan- isms causing declines in crab numbers are unknown, yet conservation must tar- get the actual impact mechanisms.

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke Thompson; Sam Price

2007-01-01

50

Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine

Romuald Lepers; Paul J. Stapley

2010-01-01

51

Effects of off-road vehicle use on the hydrology and landscape of arid environments in central and southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two widely separated sites in California used for motorcycle hill-climbing were studied to evaluate the impact on the landscape and hydrology. At Panoche Hills in central California, an area formerly used by motorcycles together with an adjacent unused area were monitored from 1971 to 1975. Observations in both areas included measurements of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, soil bulk density, plant cover, and erosion surveys. At Dove Spring Canyon in souther California erosion was measured on a site that is currently being used for motorcycle hill-climbing. At the Panoche Hills site, the area used by motorcycles produced about eight times as nuch runoff as the unused area. Similarly, sediment yield from the used areas was 857 cubic meters/sq km, while the quantity of sediment from the unused area was not measurable by standard methods. At the Dove Spring Canyon site, which is still being used for hill-climbing, erosion surveys show that degradation in trails has been as much as 0.3 m in the period 1973-75. Compaction of soils and reduction of permeability appears to be the most serious hydrologic impact of motorcycle use at Panoche Hills. Increased bulk density of soils reduces depth of moisture penetration which deprives plants of moisture needed for growth. (Woodard-USGS)

Snyder, Charles T.; Frickel, D. G.; Hadley, R. F.; Miller, R. F.

1976-01-01

52

Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked in swimming than in mountain biking and running, whereas differences in power output were more marked for mountain biking than for swimming and running. In addition, differences in cycling between the sexes were greater for off-road than conventional on-road triathlon. The specific aspects of mountain biking (e.g. level and terrain) may partly explain the significant differences between the sexes recorded in cycling for off-road triathlon. Future studies will need to focus on the physiological bases of off-road triathlon and how they differ from conventional triathlon. PMID:21038168

Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

2010-12-01

53

Nighttime negative obstacle detection for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting negative obstacles (ditches, holes, wadis, and other depressions) is one of the most difficult problems in perception for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) off-road autonomous navigation. One reason for this is that the width of the visible portion of a negative obstacle may only span a few pixels at the stopping distance for vehicle speeds UGV programs aspire to operate

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

54

Colour based off-road environment and terrain type classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrain classification is an important problem that still remains to be solved for off-road autonomous robot vehicle guidance. Often, obstacle detection systems are used which cannot distinguish between solid obstacles such as rocks or soft obstacles such as tall patches of grass. Terrain classification is needed to prevent that the robot is stopped needlessly by the obstacle detection system. It

Paul Jansen; Wannes van der Mark; Johan C. van den Heuvel; Frans C. A. Groen

2005-01-01

55

Detecting water hazards for autonomous off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting water hazards for autonomous, off-road navigation of unmanned ground vehicles is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we catalog environmental variables that affect the difficulty of this problem, including day vs. night operation, whether the water reflects sky or other terrain features, the size of the water body, and other factors. We briefly survey sensors that are applicable

Larry H. Matthies; Paolo Bellutta; Mike McHenry

2003-01-01

56

Run-Off-Road Collision Avoidance Countermeasures Using IVHS Countermeasures. Task 4, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the single vehicle crash problem through application of technology to prevent and/or reduce the severity of these crashes. Task 4 focused on the development of preliminary performance specifications for run- off-road countermeasures,...

D. Pape D. Pomerleau V. Narendran J. Hadden J. Everson M. Koenig

1995-01-01

57

77 FR 3123 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore-Off-Road...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Seashore--Off-Road Vehicle Management AGENCY...This rule designates off-road vehicle (ORV) routes and authorizes...designated ORV route or Seashore road immediately after the transport...leave the beach quickly due to weather or health issues?...

2012-01-23

58

Autonomous Automobile Trajectory Tracking for Off-Road Driving: Controller Design, Experimental Validation and Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear control law for an automobile to autonomously track a trajectory, provided in real-time, on rapidly varying, off-road terrain. Existing methods can suffer from a lack of global stability, a lack of tracking accuracy, or a dependence on smooth road surfaces, any one of which could lead to the loss of the vehicle in autonomous off-road

Gabriel M. Hoffmann; Claire J. Tomlin; Michael Montemerlo; Sebastian Thrun

2007-01-01

59

Night-time negative obstacle detection for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting negative obstacles (ditches, holes, wadis, and other depressions) is one of the most difficult problems in perception for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) off-road autonomous navigation. One reason for this is that the width of the visible portion of a negative obstacle may only span a few pixels at the stopping distance for vehicle speeds UGV programs aspire to operate

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

2007-01-01

60

Dust emission by off-road driving: Experiments on 17 arid soil types, Nevada, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in Nellis Dunes Recreational Area (Clark County, Nevada, USA) to investigate emission of dust produced by off-road driving. Experiments were carried out with three types of vehicles: 4-wheelers (quads), dirt bikes (motorcycles) and dune buggies, on 17 soil types characteristic for a desert environment. Tests were done at various driving speeds, and emissions were measured for

Dirk Goossens; Brenda Buck

2009-01-01

61

Stereo-Based Tree Traversability Analysis for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous off-road navigation through forested areas is particularly challenging when there exists a mixture of densely distributed thin and thick trees. To make progress through a dense forest, the robot must decide which trees it can push over and which trees it must circumvent. This paper describes a stereo-based tree traversability algorithm implemented and tested on a robotic vehicle under

Andres Huertas; Larry Matthies; Arturo L. Rankin

2005-01-01

62

Off-Road Terrain Traversability Analysis and Hazard Avoidance for UGVs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve complete autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in off-road terrain at high speeds, a robot must understand and analyze the terrain it is driving on in real-time just as a human analyzes the terrain and makes decisions of where to drive. M...

J. Larson M. Bruch M. Trivedi

2011-01-01

63

Run-Off-Road Collision Avoidance Conutermeasures Using IVHS Countermeasures. Task 4, Volume 2. RORSIM Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Run-Off-Road Collision Avoidance Using IVHS Countermeasures program is to address the single vehicle crash problem through application of technology to prevent and/or reduce the severity of these crashes. This report documents the RORSIM computer simu...

M. Koenig D. Pape D. Pomerleau

1995-01-01

64

Enhanced perception of terrain hazards in off-road path choice: stereoscopic 3D versus 2D displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road mobility at night is a critical factor in modern military operations. Soldiers traversing off-road terrain, both on foot and in combat vehicles, often use 2D viewing devices (such as a driver's thermal viewer, or biocular or monocular night-vision goggles) for tactical mobility under low-light conditions. Perceptual errors can occur when 2D displays fail to convey adequately the contours of

John O. Merritt; V. G. Cuqlock-Knopp; Kimberly Myles

1997-01-01

65

Secondary Organic Aerosol from On- and Off-Road Combustion Emissions: Scientific and Policy Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion emissions from on-road sources such as light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV), medium duty diesel vehicles (MDDV) and heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) as well as small off-road engines (SORE) such those used in lawn and garden equipment are a major source of fine particulate matter (PM) pollution in the ambient atmosphere. Existing regulations have restricted direct PM emissions, especially for on-road sources; however, recent studies suggest that organic PM formed from the photo-oxidation of gaseous precursor emissionsso-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA)contributes at least as much to the overall PM burden as PM "emitted from the tailpipe." A major limitation of many of these studies is that they attempt to induce from the behavior of simple emission surrogates (e.g., vaporized whole fuel) the behavior of actual combustion emissions from real world sources. This research investigates combustion emissions directly. The primary gas- and particle-phase emissions, SOA production and SOA yields from a range of different on-road and off-road combustion sources were characterized. LDGV, MDDV and HDDV were driven on chassis dynamometers over realistic, urban driving cycles. Off-road sources, including 2- and 4-stroke lawn and garden equipment and a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were tested using engine dynamometers operated over certification cycles. For nearly all gasoline engines (LDGV and SOREs), photo-oxidizing dilute combustion emissions for 3 hours produced at least as much SOA as the directly emitted primary PM. SOA increased net PM production for LDGV by a factor of 1-10, depending on the vehicle emission standard. SOA yields were found to increase with newer vehicles, which have lower primary emissions. SOA for diesel vehicles, while still large on an absolute basis, was a smaller fraction of the primary PM emissions (between 10-30%), due to the very high elemental carbon (EC) emissions from vehicles without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Aftertreatment systems utilizing a DPF and a diesel oxidation catalyst essentially eliminated primary PM and SOA. Among the off-road sources, SOA from 2-stroke emissions increased the net PM by roughly a factor of 2. Primary emission and SOA production factors from the various combustion sources tested in this work were combined with fuel consumption data for California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) to determine the impact on the aggregate PM from on- and off-road sources in the region. These estimated impacts were compared to the PM values derived from the regulatory models EMFAC and OFFROAD. Our data indicate that PM from on-road gasoline sources is significantly under-represented by existing emissions models due to the dominant role of SOA. When SOA production is included, newer LDGV are one of the largest sources of PM in SoCAB. Furthermore, LDGV will become an even more important PM source once existing regulations requiring DPF retrofits on both on- and off-road diesel sources are implemented over the next few years. While on-road diesel vehicles are currently an important source of PM based on total fuel consumption, LDGV are responsible for a larger fraction of total PM. The primary and secondary PM contribution of off-road sources also appear to be high, but the magnitude remains highly uncertain, pending further experimental data. Evidence is presented that suggests that existing models may dramatically overpredict primary PM emissions from off-road sources. Regulators are strongly urged to consider the impact of SOA on net PM production.

Gordon, Timothy D.

66

Regulated emissions from biodiesel fuels from on\\/off-road applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is one of the largest studies of biodiesel in both on-road and off-road uses. The testing was conducted for the military and encompassed a wide range of application types including two medium-duty trucks, two Humvees, a heavy heavy-duty diesel truck, a bus, two stationary backup generators (BUGs), a forklift, and an airport tow vehicle. The full range of

Thomas D. Durbin; David R. Cocker; Aniket A. Sawant; Kent Johnson; J. Wayne Miller; Bruce B. Holden; Norman L. Helgeson; Jason A. Jack

2007-01-01

67

Forecasting off-road trafficability from terrain appearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When people drive off-road, we look at the upcoming terrain and make a variety of judgments-whether to avoid or attempt to cross a patch of terrain, whether to slow down or speed up, etc. We consider a variety of factors including perceived slope, obstacles, resistance, traction, sinkage, roughness, and the limitations of our perception. We judge many of the handling factors based our recollections of driving on other terrain with similar visual appearance. Perception and terrain understanding algorithms with similar capabilities are needed for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous mobility. The objective of this research is to begin to develop methods that can be used by a UGV to learn to associate terrain appearance with handling on the terrain. We demonstrate methods to identify models of speed and acceleration as function of throttle command, and power consumption as a function of speed and acceleration using data collected by on-board sensors as the UGV executes test maneuvers. We demonstrate methods to characterize terrain type from visual appearance. We investigate the hypothesis that terrain with different handling characteristics can be discriminated based on visual appearance characterization.

Witus, Gary; Karlsen, Robert; Overholt, James; Gerhart, Grant

2005-05-01

68

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails...Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and...

2013-07-01

69

Enhanced perception of terrain hazards in off-road path choice: stereoscopic 3D versus 2D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-road mobility at night is a critical factor in modern military operations. Soldiers traversing off-road terrain, both on foot and in combat vehicles, often use 2D viewing devices (such as a driver's thermal viewer, or biocular or monocular night-vision goggles) for tactical mobility under low-light conditions. Perceptual errors can occur when 2D displays fail to convey adequately the contours of terrain. Some off-road driving accidents have been attributed to inadequate perception of terrain features due to using 2D displays (which do not provide binocular-parallax cues to depth perception). In this study, photographic images of terrain scenes were presented first in conventional 2D video, and then in stereoscopic 3D video. The percentage of possible correct answers for 2D and 3D were: 2D pretest equals 52%, 3D pretest equals 80%, 2D posttest equals 48%, 3D posttest equals 78%. Other recent studies conducted at the US Army Research Laboratory's Human Research and Engineering Directorate also show that stereoscopic 3D displays can significantly improve visual evaluation of terrain features, and thus may improve the safety and effectiveness of military off-road mobility operation, both on foot and in combat vehicles.

Merritt, John O.; Cuqlock-Knopp, V. G.; Myles, Kimberly

1997-06-01

70

Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

Kuehn, D. M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V. A.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Schuster, R. M.

2011-01-01

71

Modeling and control of an off-road truck using electrorheological dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the mathematical modeling and control of the semi-active suspension of an MAN off-road truck with a payload of 5 tons which comprises electrorheological dampers. Thereby, a cascaded control structure with four controllers for the control of a quarter-car in the inner control loop and a superimposed control strategy for the overall vehicle is used. The main goal of the control strategy is to reduce the motion of the chassis (especially roll, pitch and vertical movement) while increasing driving stability. The capability of the overall control strategy is demonstrated by means of simulation studies and measurement results.

Holzmann, K.; Kemmetmller, W.; Kugi, A.; Stork, M.; Rosenfeldt, H.; Schneider, S.

2009-02-01

72

Acute Injuries in Off-Road Bicycle Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive study was conducted to investigate inju ries sustained at a major off-road bicycling race at Mammoth Mountain, California, July 6 to 10, 1994. A total of 4027 individual starts in five events during the race were reported. Overall, the total number of com petitors in the 5 events was 3624, with some cyclists participating in multiple events. Injuries

Robert L. Kronisch; Tony K. Chow; Lauren M. Simon; Parthenia F. Wong

1996-01-01

73

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2010-07-01

74

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2009-07-01

75

78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use...Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off- Road Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use...applicable to in-use fleets that operate off- road (nonroad or NR), diesel-fueled...

2013-09-20

76

32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of...Georgia Traffic Code. (c) Off-road vehicles will only be operated in areas...will specify conditions for off-road operation. (d)...

2013-07-01

77

Traffic Flow of Interacting Self-Driven Particles: Rails and Trails, Vehicles and Vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One common feature of a vehicle, an ant and a kinesin motor is that they all convert chemical energy, derived from fuel or food, into mechanical energy required for their forward movement; such objects have been modelled in recent years as self-driven particles. Cytoskeletal filaments, e.g., microtubules, form a rail network for intra-cellular transport of vesicular cargo by molecular motors like, for example, kinesins. Similarly, ants move along trails while vehicles move along lanes. Therefore, the traffic of vehicles and organisms as well as that of molecular motors can be modelled as systems of interacting self-driven particles; these are of current interest in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this paper we point out the common features of these model systems and emphasize the crucial differences in their physical properties.

Chowdhury, Debashish

78

Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results.  

PubMed

Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65-85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed; exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older person's driving can actually be "normal driving behaviours". PMID:21545864

Selander, Helena; Lee, Hoe C; Johansson, Kurt; Falkmer, Torbjrn

2011-03-05

79

A pedal dynamometer for off-road bicycling.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design and accuracy evaluation of a dynamometric pedal, which measures the two pedal force components in the plane of the bicycle. To realize a design that could be used during actual off-road cycling, a popular clipless pedal available commercially was modified so that both the form and the function of the original design were maintained. To measure the load components of interest, the pedal spindle was replaced with a spindle fixed to the pedal body and instrumented with eight strain gages connected into two Wheatstone bridge circuits. The new spindle is supported by bearings in the crank arm. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check revealed root mean square errors of less than 1 percent full scale (FS) when only the force components of interest were applied. Application of unmeasured load components created an error less than 2 percent FS. The natural frequency with half the weight of a 75 kgf person standing on the pedal was greater than 135 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer suitable for measuring either pedaling loads due to the rider's muscular action or inertial loads due to surface-induced acceleration. To demonstrate this suitability, sample pedal load data are presented both for steady-state ergometer cycling and coasting over a rough surface while standing. PMID:9675695

Rowe, T; Hull, M L; Wang, E L

1998-02-01

80

Regulated emissions from biodiesel fuels from on/off-road applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is one of the largest studies of biodiesel in both on-road and off-road uses. The testing was conducted for the military and encompassed a wide range of application types including two medium-duty trucks, two Humvees, a heavy heavy-duty diesel truck, a bus, two stationary backup generators (BUGs), a forklift, and an airport tow vehicle. The full range of fuels tested included a California ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel, different blend ratios of two different yellow-grease biodiesels and one soy-based biodiesel, JP-8, and yellow-grease biodiesel blends with two different NO x reduction additives. The B20-YGA, B20-YGB, and B20-Soy did not show trends relative to ULSD that were consistent over all applications tested. Higher biodiesel blends were tested on only one vehicle, but showed a tendency for higher total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and lower particulate matter (PM) emissions. The JP-8 showed increases in THC and CO relative to the ULSD.

Durbin, Thomas D.; Cocker, David R.; Sawant, Aniket A.; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J. Wayne; Holden, Bruce B.; Helgeson, Norman L.; Jack, Jason A.

81

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2009-05-01

82

A Behavior-Based System For Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural ter- rain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which main- tains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module which

D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

1994-01-01

83

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; Deepak Kumar; Robert Walters; Jim Radford; Richard Mason

2008-01-01

84

Tracked-Vehicle Transportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the procedures for evaluating the transportability characteristics of tracked vehicles moving under their own power, or moved by carrier over highway, off-road terrain, rail, water, or by air. Keywords: Crane, Dynamometer, Lifting ...

1987-01-01

85

On-Line Learning of Long-Range Obstacle Detection for Off-Road Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of choice for vision-based driving in off-road mobile robots is to construct a traversibility map of the environment using stereo vision. In the most common approach, a stereo matching algorithm, applied to images from a pair of stereo cameras, produces a \\

Raia Hadsell; Pierre Sermanet; Jan Ben; Jeff Han; Sumit Chopra; Marc' Aurelio Ranzato; Yury Sulsky; Beat Flepp; Urs Muller; Yann LeCun

86

COMPARISON OF ON AND OFF ROAD DIESEL EXHAUST SOURCES ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AN INFLUENZA INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE), a major component of urban air pollution, and its modulatory role in human susceptibility to respiratory infections is of great concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of on- and off-road sources of DE exposure on the severity of an ...

87

EMS-Vision: combining on- and off-road driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, work at the Universitat der Bundeswehr Muenchen (UBM) has been focused on autonomous road vehicles. During the last four years the Expectation-based Multi-focal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system has been developed and implemented. EMS-Vision is the 3rd generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. The explicit representation of the own capabilities combined with a complex control and information flow allows the implementation of decision units for goal oriented activation of locomotion and perception. Due to this general approach and in contrast to former UBM systems that were specially designed and optimized for certain limited scenarios and domains, e.g., road following on Autobahnen, the EMS-Vision system can handle complex driving missions spanning multiple domains. It has been realized on a decentralized parallel hardware structure, exclusively built of commercial off-the-shelf components, in both UBM test vehicles VaMoRs and VaMP. Results from an autonomously performed mission on the UBM campus are discussed.

Gregor, Rudolf; Luetzeler, Michael; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

2001-09-01

88

All-terrain vehicle injury prevention: two-, three-, and four-wheeled unlicensed motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Since 1987, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has had a policy about the use of motorized cycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by children. The purpose of this policy statement is to update and strengthen previous policy. This statement describes the various kinds of motorized cycles and ATVs and outlines the epidemiologic characteristics of deaths and injuries related to their use by children in light of the 1987 consent decrees entered into by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the manufacturers of ATVs. Recommendations are made for public, patient, and parent education by pediatricians; equipment modifications; the use of safety equipment; and the development and improvement of safer off-road trails and responsive emergency medical systems. In addition, the AAP strengthens its recommendation for passage of legislation in all states prohibiting the use of 2- and 4-wheeled off-road vehicles by children younger than 16 years, as well as a ban on the sale of new and used 3-wheeled ATVs, with a recall of all used 3-wheeled ATVs. PMID:10835081

2000-06-01

89

The influence of speed, grade and mass during simulated off road bicycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of bicycle mass, speed, and grade on oxygen consumption (V?O2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during a simulated off-road riding paradigm. Nine adult subjects with meanSD age, mass, and V?O2 max of 26.15.6 years, 71.77.5kg, 56.65.2mlkg?1min?1, respectively, were trained to ride a fully suspended Trek Y-22

Michael J Berry; Timothy R Koves; John J Benedetto

2000-01-01

90

The influence of speed, grade and mass during simulated off road bicycling.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of bicycle mass, speed, and grade on oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during a simulated off-road riding paradigm. Nine adult subjects with mean +/- SD age, mass, and VO2 max of 26.1 +/- 5.6 years, 71.7 +/- 7.5 kg, 56.6 +/- 5.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) respectively, were trained to ride a fully suspended Trek Y-22 mountain bike on a treadmill with a 3.8 cm bump affixed to the belt. Riders completed a maximum of nine separate trials encompassing three different bike masses (11.6, 12.6 and 13.6 kg), 3 speeds (2.7, 3.6 and 4.5 m x s(-1)), and 3 grades (0, 2.5, and 5%). Throughout a trial, bike mass and speed remained constant while riding grade was increased every 5 min. During simulated off-road riding on a fully suspended mountain bike, increases in speed and grade significantly increased VO2, heart rate, and RPE. Increases in bike mass had no significant effects on VO2, heart rate or RPE. In addition, speed and grade changes interacted to differentially affect VO2, heart rate, and RPE at all speeds and grades. PMID:11059467

Berry, M J; Koves, T R; Benedetto, J J

2000-10-01

91

43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of off-road vehicles. On the basis of information so obtained,...

2012-10-01

92

An experimental autonomous land vehicle for off-road piloting and navigation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research facility for mobile robotics in outdoor conditions has been built by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). This work has been partly done within the ESPRIT II Panorama project EP2483 (Perception and Navigation System for Autonomous Mobile Applications). In this paper the research facility is described and several research topics

Kari Koskinen; H. Makela; Kari Rintanen; Aarne Halme; Mark Ojala; Jussi Suomela; Torsten Schonberg

1993-01-01

93

FEA of tire-soil model for off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D tire-soil FEA model was established based on software ABAQUS specifying 175R14 tire and soil interaction. The static-steady tire-soil model is analyzed for studies on the stress, strain and deformation of tire and soil under a certain sinkage taking into the consideration of tire structure and soil constitution. It also obtains the relationship between load and contact pressure which

Fei Han; Zheng Gui; Haosu Zhang

2010-01-01

94

Wind Tunnel Experiments of the Reentry Vehicle System with the Trailing Toroidal Ballute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic characteristics of the reentry vehicle system with the tilted toroidal ballute are investigated using ISAS\\/JAXA supersonic wind tunnel. The test condition is that the Mach number was set to be 3.0 and 4.0. The experimental results showed that the lift-to-drag ratio (L\\/D) increases almost in proportion to the tilt angle of the ballute and L\\/D of 0.4 was

Hirotaka Otsu

2009-01-01

95

Analysis and Simulation of Dynamical Vehicle-Terrain Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported study is part of a broad research program designed to acquire off-road mobility knowledge; develop analysis, prediction, and decision methodologies; and organize knowledge and methods to facilitate use by military planners, vehicle designers ...

D. Schuring M. R. Belsdorf

1969-01-01

96

The inhibitory effect of MSCs expressing TRAIL as a cellular delivery vehicle in combination with cisplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in many types of tumors, while many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display high resistance to TRAIL. Another outstanding limitation of TRAIL is the short half-life in vivo. Stem cell-based therapies provide a promising approach for the treatment of many types of tumors because of the ability of tropism. Therefore, as a new therapeutic strategy, the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and TRAIL gene modified MSCs (TRAIL-MSCs) would improve the therapeutic efficacy of HCC in vivo. This is the first time to show the potential of combination of chemotherapeutic agents and MSCs as a gene vector in the therapy of HCC.

Zhang, Bo; Shan, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Zheng-Ran; Zhu, Kang-Shun; Jiang, Zai-Bo

2012-01-01

97

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas...identified on a motor vehicle use map....

2013-07-01

98

Detection and classification of motor vehicle noise in a forested landscape.  

PubMed

Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management. PMID:23851702

Brown, Casey L; Reed, Sarah E; Dietz, Matthew S; Fristrup, Kurt M

2013-07-14

99

Vehicle movement patterns and vegetative impacts during military training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of off-road vehicles during military training exercises can affect the environmental conditions of training lands by removing or disturbing vegetation. The use of global positioning systems (GPS)-based vehicle tracking systems can help to characterize the movement of vehicles during training exercises for the purpose of quantifying vegetative impacts. The combination of GPS positions of vehicles in the field

Liv B. Haugen; Paul D. Ayers; Alan B. Anderson

2003-01-01

100

Three-way catalyst technology for off-road equipment powered by gasoline and LPG engines. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research was done to demonstrate the feasibility of using closed-loop three-way catalyst (TWC) technology in off-road large spark-ignited (LSI) engine applications to meet California State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission reduction goals. Available technology was investigated for applicability to engines in this category. Appropriate test cycles were recommended, and five representative engines were selected and baseline emission tested. Total feasible emission reductions were calculated. The retail price equivalent (RPE) for the recommended emission control technology was determined, and cost-effectiveness was calculated. Emission standards necessary to meet SIP goals were recommended.

White, J.J.; Ingalls, M.N.; Carroll, J.N.; Chan, L.M.

1999-04-01

101

36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

2013-07-01

102

36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

2010-07-01

103

36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

2009-07-01

104

Terrain Classification from Aerial Data to Support Ground Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory perception for unmanned ground vehicle navigation has received great attention from the robotics com- munity. However, sensors mounted on the vehicle are regularly viewpoint impaired. A vehicle navigating at high speeds in off- road environments may be unable to react to negative obstacles such as large holes and cliffs. One approach to address this problem is to complement the

Boris Sofman; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anthony Stentz; Nicolas Vandapel

105

Differences in Off-Road Glances: Effects on Young Drivers Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young drivers display more risk-taking behavior than other age groups. Performing distracting tasks is a risky behavior that young drivers tend to engage in, but may not be able to compensate for appropriately. A driving simulator study with 53 young drivers (aged 18 to 21) was conducted to assess the level of engagement with an in-vehicle secondary task. A cluster

Birsen Donmez; Linda Ng Boyle; John D. Lee

2010-01-01

106

Off-road vehicle recreation management policy for public lands in the United States: A case history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three annual motorcycle races on the Johnson Valley-Parker course in California's Mojave Desert have resulted in conspicuous modifications of soil and vegetation in a Wilderness Study Area (WSA) and in other lands of high resource values. The extent of damage caused by the races, which have involved fewer than 400 participants, exceeded the expectations of the managing agency by 360% 640% and the allowable limits imposed by the agency by 40% 76%. After three races, no resource monitoring results have been obtained by which compliance with the regulations for interim management of the Wilderness Study Area may be judged. Designation of the remaining parts of the course on lands of high resource value was based on criteria subsequently determined by a federal court to be in violation of regulations derived from two Executive Orders.

Wilshire, Howard G.

1983-11-01

107

Trail Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

108

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g/km... (12) State: THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES]. (13) Identify...

2013-07-01

109

Passive perception system for day/night autonomous off-road navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive perception of terrain features is a vital requirement for military related unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a self-contained passive perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelf pan-tilt unit. The sensor head contained three color cameras for multi-baseline daytime stereo ranging, a pair of cooled mid-wave infrared cameras for nighttime stereo ranging, and supporting electronics to synchronize captured imagery. Narrow-baseline stereo provided improved range data density in cluttered terrain, while wide-baseline stereo provided more accurate ranging for operation at higher speeds in relatively open areas. The passive perception system processed stereo images and outputted over a local area network terrain maps containing elevation, terrain type, and detected hazards. A novel software architecture was designed and implemented to distribute the data processing on a 533MHz quad 7410 PowerPC single board computer under the VxWorks real-time operating system. This architecture, which is general enough to operate on N processors, has been subsequently tested on Pentium-based processors under Windows and Linux, and a Sparc based-processor under Unix. The passive perception system was operated during FY04 PerceptOR program evaluations at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper discusses the Team Raptor passive perception system hardware and software design, implementation, and performance, and describes a road map to faster and improved passive perception.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Bergh, Charles F.; Goldberg, Steven B.; Bellutta, Paolo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2005-05-01

110

Snail Trails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial

Galus, Pamela

2002-01-01

111

Trail Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Something of a veteran by Internet standards, the Trail Database has been around since 1997 and, as such, now bills itself as the "world's largest hiking trail database." "Henk," the Dutch hiker responsible for this compendium, updates the site regularly and has included a wide variety of links to helpful material here. Users can search or browse the resources, which are arranged both under general topics, such as Knots or Equipment, and by country. Those planning European hikes will find the links off the front page to foot and mouth disease-related hiking restrictions useful (though we found some of these links to be broken). In all, an impressive collection of material. The site is available in Dutch or English.

1997-01-01

112

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles of CD20-specific TRAIL fusion protein delivery: a double-target therapy against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy. We have designed a promising double-target therapeutic system for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) therapy. The system is based on MSC homing capacity and scFvCD20 antigen-restriction to NHL. In this system, a novel secreted fusion protein scFvCD20-sTRAIL, which contains a CD20-specific single chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv) and a soluble tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL, aa residues 114-281) with an isoleucine zipper (ISZ) added to the N-terminal (ISZ-sTRAIL), was expressed in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). When compared with ISZ-sTRAIL protein, the scFvCD20-sTRAIL fusion protein demonstrated a potent inhibition of cell proliferation in CD20-positive BJAB cells, moderate inhibition in Raji cells, weak inhibition in CD20-negative Jurkat cells, and no effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The scFvCD20-sTRAIL fusion protein also caused significant increase of cellular apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. Using a NOD/SCID mouse subcutaneous BJAB lymphoma xenograft model, the tropism of the firefly luciferase (fLuc) labeled MSC was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) for fLuc activity. Our study indicated that HUMSCs selectively migrated to the tumor site after 24 h of intravenous injection and mice injected with the MSC.scFvCD20-sTRAIL significantly inhibited the tumor growth when compared with those treated with MSC.ISZ-sTRAIL. The treatment was tolerated well in mice, as no obvious toxicities were observed. Our study has suggested that scFvCD20-sTRAIL secreting HUMSCs is a novel and efficient therapeutic approach for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23121392

Yan, Cihui; Li, Shuangjing; Li, Zhenzhen; Peng, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiangfei; Jiang, Linlin; Zhang, Yanjun; Fan, Dongmei; Hu, Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xiong, Dongsheng

2012-12-07

113

43 CFR 8340.0-5 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General...accommodated within the following type of...use on existing roads and trails; use on...prohibited. Use of off-road vehicles in closed...be made only with the approval of the...

2012-10-01

114

Intelligent mobility for robotic vehicles in the army after next  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TARDEC Intelligent Mobility program addresses several essential technologies necessary to support the army after next (AAN) concept. Ground forces in the AAN time frame will deploy robotic unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in high-risk missions to avoid exposing soldiers to both friendly and unfriendly fire. Prospective robotic systems will include RSTA/scout vehicles, combat engineering/mine clearing vehicles, indirect fire artillery and missile launch platforms. The AAN concept requires high on-road and off-road mobility, survivability, transportability/deployability and low logistics burden. TARDEC is developing a robotic vehicle systems integration laboratory (SIL) to evaluate technologies and their integration into future UGV systems. Example technologies include the following: in-hub electric drive, omni-directional wheel and steering configurations, off-road tires, adaptive tire inflation, articulated vehicles, active suspension, mine blast protection, detection avoidance and evasive maneuver. This paper will describe current developments in these areas relative to the TARDEC intelligent mobility program.

Gerhart, Grant R.; Goetz, Richard C.; Gorsich, David J.

1999-07-01

115

Forecasting Aircraft Condensation Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) are caused by aircraft aerodynamics or engine exhaust in the proper atmospheric conditions. Engine-exhaust trails are the most common and are discussed in this report. Jet aircraft contrail-formation graphs facilit...

1981-01-01

116

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)|

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

117

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

118

Star Trail Photography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains information about taking photographs of star trails, which illustrate the rotation of the Earth. The site provides techniques to take successful star trail photos, including a technique using a series of short exposures and assembling them with computer software. Techniques for including foreground images of ground objects are given. Examples of star trail photos are provided.

Peiker, E. J.

2007-10-15

119

Injuries and Fatalities in All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a All-terrain vehicles (ATV) are gasoline-powered vehicles with a bicycle-like seat for the rider and handle bars for steering.\\u000a They have large soft tires designed to provide optimal traction in the irregular terrain encountered in off-road conditions.\\u000a Although compared to road traffic accidents involving cars, bikes, and pedestrians, ATV crash victims constitute a relatively\\u000a small group of trauma victims, the forensic

Richard J. Mullins; J. H. Mullins

120

A rollover indicator based on the prediction of the load transfer in presence of sliding: application to an All Terrain Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral rollover of quad bikes represents a significant part of severe accidents in the field of agricultural work. The specifities of such vehicles (small wheelbase, track and weight), together with the terrain configuration (off-road environment) prevent from describing rollover occurence as it is proposed for car-like vehicles moving on asphalted roads. This paper proposes a rollover risk indicator dedicated

Nicolas Bouton; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Jean-christophe Fauroux

2007-01-01

121

Learning to Live with Off-Highway Vehicles: Lessons Learned from ...  

Treesearch

... that of any other public land management agency (USDA 2000; Havlick 2002). ... of trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), more than 2.3 million off-road motorcycles, ... The trend of increased OHV use is expected to continue, due in part to...

122

Military vehicle trafficking impacts on vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling on off-road sites during training are of concern to the Military establishment. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess t...

123

Pick A Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Wilderness Society, the Pick a Trail Web site offers general information about backpacking and hiking in the United States and different trails in other countries, such as the United Kingdom. The trails featured on the site are organized alphabetically, with a special emphasis placed on those trails leading through the US National Park System. Information on each trail includes a brief sketch of the host country, including basic climatic information, local topography, and the type of terrain that each trail traverses. Along with this material, there are short essays on subjects related to hiking, such as identifying local plant species, associated health risks, and what items to bring along. Rounding out the site is an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on each individual state to obtain an overall profile of the trails located there.

2002-01-01

124

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, January 24, 2003, Volume 52, Number 3. Norovirus Activity - United States, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Norovirus Activity - United States, 2002; Deaths Among Drivers of Off-Road Vehicles After Collisions with Trail Gates - New Hampshire, 1997-2002; Human Rabies - Iowa, 2002; Notice to Readers(Conference on Vaccine Research).

2003-01-01

125

A vision-based robotic follower vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a vision-based robotic follower system with the eventual goal of autonomous convoying. The follower vehicle, trained at run-time, tracks an arbitrary lead vehicle and estimates the leader's position from the sequence of video images. Pan, tilt and zoom keep the leader in the follower's field of view as it drives the leader's path. The system was demonstrated following vehicles in an on-road scenario, as well as dismounted human leaders off-road.

Giesbrecht, Jared L.; Goi, Hien K.; Barfoot, Timothy D.; Francis, Bruce A.

2009-05-01

126

Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

Reuel, Nigel (Rio Rancho, NM); Lionberger, Troy A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-03-11

127

Planning minimum-energy paths in an off-road environment with anisotropic traversal costs and motion constraints. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

For a vehicle operating across arbitrarily-contoured terrain, finding the most fuel-efficient route between two points can be viewed as a high-level global path-planning problem with traversal costs and stability dependent on the direction of travel (anisotropic). The problem assumes a two-dimensional polygonal map of homogeneous cost regions for terrain representation constructed from elevation information. The anisotropic energy cost of vehicle motion has a non-braking component dependent on horizontal distance, a braking component dependent on vertical distance, and a constant path-independent component. The behavior of minimum-energy paths is then proved to be restricted to a small, but optimal set of traversal types. An optimal-path-planning algorithm, using a heuristic search technique, reduces the infinite number of paths between the start and goal points to a finite number by generating sequences of goal-feasible window lists from analyzing the polygonal map and applying pruning criteria. The pruning criteria consist of visibility analysis, heading analysis, and region-boundary constraints. Each goal-feasible window lists specifies an associated convex optimization problem, and the best of all locally-optimal paths through the goal-feasible window lists is the globally-optimal path. These ideas have been implemented in a computer program, with results showing considerably better performance than the exponential average-case behavior predicted.

Ross, R.S.

1989-06-01

128

36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for...and distribution of traffic on roads; and (2) Compatibility of vehicle class with road geometry and road surfacing....

2013-07-01

129

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

130

Experimental Study of an Ultra-Mobile Vehicle for Off-Road Transportation. Appendix 2. Dissertation. Kinematic Optimal Design of a Six-Legged Walking Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chapter 2 is a review of previous work in the following two areas: The mechanical structure of walking machines and walking gaits. In Chapter 3, the mathematical and graphical background for gait analysis is presented. The gait selection problem in differ...

R. B. McGhee K. J. Waldron S. M. Song

1985-01-01

131

An experimental study of an ultra-mobile vehicle for off-road transportation. Appendix 2. Dissertation. Kinematic optimal design of a six-legged walking machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 2 is a review of previous work in the following two areas: The mechanical structure of walking machines and walking gaits. In Chapter 3, the mathematical and graphical background for gait analysis is presented. The gait selection problem in different types of terrain is also discussed. Detailed studies of the major gaits used in level walking are presented. In Chapter 4, gaits for walking on gradients and methods to improve stability are studied. Also, gaits which may be used in crossing three major obstacle types are studied. In Chapter 5, the design of leg geometries based on four-bar linkages is discussed. Major techniques to optimize leg linkages for optimal walking volume are introduced. In Chapter 6, the design of a different leg geometry, based on a pantograph mechanism, is presented. A theoretical background of the motion characteristics of pantographs is given first. In Chapter 7, some other related items of the leg design are discussed. One of these is the foot-ankle system. A few conceptual passive foot-ankle systems are introduced. The second is a numerical method to find the shortest crank for a four-finitely-separated-position-synthesis problem. The shortest crank usually results in a crank rocker, which is the most desirable linkage type in many applications. Finally, in Chapter 8, the research work presented in this dissertation is evaluated and the future development of walking machines is discussed.

McGhee, R. B.; Waldron, K. J.; Song, S. M.

1985-05-01

132

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.  

PubMed

Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10cm long, located 1.5cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

2011-10-01

133

National Trails System, Santa Fe: State of the Trails, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CONTENTS: Who We Are, What We Do; Milestones 2005: A Summary; Partnerships & Programs; El Camino Real de los Tejas; El Camino Real do Tierra Adentro; Old Spanish Trail; Santa Fe Trail; Trail of Tears; Long Walk Trail Feasibility Study; Site and Segment Ce...

2005-01-01

134

Obstacle detection for unmanned ground vehicles: a progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect obstacles during off-road autonomous navigation, unmanned ground vehicles (UGV's) must sense terrain geometry and composition (terrain type) under day, night, and low-visibility conditions. To sense terrain geometry, we have developed a real-time stereo vision system that uses a Datacube MV-200 and a 68040 CPU board to produce 256240-pixel range images in about 0.6 seconds\\/frame. To sense terrain type,

Larry Matthies; Alonzo Kelly; Todd Litwin; Greg Tharp

1995-01-01

135

Chain Vibration and Dynamic Stress in Three-Dimensional Multibody Tracked Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional computational finite element procedure for the vibration and dynamic stress analysis of the track link chains of off-road vehicles is presented in this paper. The numerical procedure developed in this investigation integrates classical constrained multibody dynamics methods with finite element capabilities. The nonlinear equations of motion of the three-dimensional tracked vehicle model in which the track link s

M. Campanelli; A. A. Shabana; J. H. Choi

1998-01-01

136

Application of the computer simulation model NTVPM-86 to the development of a new version of the infantry fighting vehicle ASCOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, the task of evaluating soft-ground mobility of off-road vehicles has been carried out primarily using empirical methods (or models), such as the NATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) or the Rowland method based on the mean maximum pressure (MMP). The databases for these empirical methods were mostly established decades ago. Consequently, in many cases, they cannot be used

J. Y. Wong

1995-01-01

137

Path following of a vehicle-trailer system in presence of sliding: Application to automatic guidance of a towed agricultural implement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of sliding parameter estimation and lateral control of an off-road vehicle-trailer system. The aim is to accurately guide the position of the trailer with respect to a planned trajectory, whatever ground conditions and trajectory shape. Relevant sliding parameter estimation is first proposed, based on the kinematic model of the system extended with side slip angles.

Christophe Cariou; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Philippe Martinet

2010-01-01

138

The Trails Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Kansas City, Missouri school district with support from the US Department of Education, this Website offers innovative approaches to and materials for the teaching of Western history. The Website focuses on the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, offering a variety of interactive elements for students to work with. Included here are Virtual Reality tours of selected sites along the trails, a selection of trail diaries, examples of essays written by students about the trails, and more. The true strength of the site, though, probably lies in its support materials for teachers. The site provides well-conceived, extensive lesson plans, instruction guides, and curriculum plans, and also promises a media database in the future that will include presentations, instructional materials, and pictures. However, since there has been little activity on-site in the last few months, we suggest teachers not count on that material appearing soon.

139

Brownian trail rectified  

SciTech Connect

The experiments described here indicate when one of Nature's best fractals -- the Brownian trail -- becomes nonfractal. In most ambient fluids, the trail of a Brownian particle is self-similar over many decades of length. For example, the trail of a submicron particle suspended in an ordinary liquid, recorded at equal time intervals, exhibits apparently discontinuous changes in velocity from macroscopic lengths down to molecular lengths: the trail is a random walk with no velocity memory'' from one step to the next. In ideal Brownian motion, the kinks in the trail persist to infinitesimal time intervals, i.e., it is a curve without tangents. Even in real Brownian motion in a liquid, the time interval must be shortened to {approximately}10{sup {minus}8}s before the velocity appears continuous. In sufficiently rarefied environments, this time resolution at which a Brownian trail is rectified from a curve without tangents to a smoothly varying trajectory is greatly lengthened, making it possible to study the kinetic regime by dynamic light scattering. Our recent experiments with particles in a plasma have demonstrated this capability. In this regime, the particle velocity persists over a finite step length'' allowing an analogy to an ideal gas with Maxwell-Boltzmann velocities; the particle mass could be obtained from equipartition. The crossover from ballistic flight to hydrodynamic diffusion was also seen. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Hurd, A.J.; Ho, P.

1989-01-01

140

R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.

Moorehead, Stewart J.; Wellington, Carl K.; Paulino, Heidi; Reid, John F.

2010-04-01

141

Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... tractors, lawn mowers, personal watercraft, mopeds, minibikes, trail bikes, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), and snowmobiles. Some of ... than thirty thousand crashes per year on trail bikes, with about one third of them occurring in ...

142

Real-world vehicle emissions: a summary of the Thirteenth Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.  

PubMed

The Coordinating Research Council held its thirteenth Vehicle Emissions Workshop in April 2003, when results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. Ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories is summarized here. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, the role of on-board diagnostic systems in inspection and maintenance programs, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research. PMID:14871009

Cadle, Steven H; Croes, Bart E; Minassian, Fred; Natarajan, Mani; Tierney, Eugene J; Lawson, Douglas R

2004-01-01

143

Real-world vehicle emissions: a summary of the 14th coordinating research council on-road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.  

PubMed

The Coordinating Research Council held its 14th Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2004, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research. PMID:15796104

Cadle, Steven H; Belian, Timothy C; Black, Kevin N; Minassian, Fred; Natarajan, Mani; Tierney, Eugene J; Lawson, Douglas R

2005-02-01

144

Real-world vehicle emissions: a summary of the Seventeenth Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.  

PubMed

The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) held its 17th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2007, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the role and contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the Workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as emerging issues and topics for future research. PMID:18236789

Cadle, Steven H; Ayala, Alberto; Black, Kevin N; Graze, R Rob; Koupal, John; Minassian, Fred; Murray, Hannah B; Natarajan, Mani; Tennant, Christopher J; Lawson, Douglas R

2008-01-01

145

Trails for All Americans: The Report of the National Trails Agenda Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Background; A National System of Trails; Local Government and Trails; Trails and the Role of the States; Trails and the Role of the States; Interstate Trails and the Federal Role; Conclusion; Recommendations.

1990-01-01

146

36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all terrain vehicles, bicycles, trailers, campers, or any other such equipment....

2009-07-01

147

36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all terrain vehicles, bicycles, trailers, campers, or any other such equipment....

2012-07-01

148

TRAIL shows potential cardioprotective activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryRecent clinical trials carried out in patients with advanced cancer have shown that recombinant TRAIL administration is usually\\u000a safe and well tolerated when used either alone or in association with chemotherapeutic drugs. Notably, anticancer chemotherapy\\u000a can be associated to cardiomiopathy. We have here demonstrated that TRAIL (administrated as either recombinant soluble TRAIL\\u000a or as AAV-TRAIL expression viral vector) reduced the

Barbara Toffoli; Stella Bernardi; Riccardo Candido; Serena Zacchigna; Bruno Fabris; Paola Secchiero

149

The National Math Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Math Trail makes available problems created by K-12 students as they explore their communities and ask math questions that relate to their own environments. Teachers submit the problems to the site, along with photos, drawings, sound recordings, and videos. Problems can be accessed through an interactive map of the United States.

2006-01-01

150

METOLIUS TRAILING BLACKBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Washington Agricultural Research Center have released 'Metolius', a new, very early ripening, trailing blackberry. 'Metolius' was selected in 1997 from a cross between Douglass and...

151

Design a Hiking Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides experience working on a real-life scenario by allowing students the opportunity to use topographic maps to design a hiking trail system based on access from road, range of habitats, and other specified criteria. They will also complete a data sheet and produce an informational brochure.

Remis, Becky; Hochmuth, Rose

152

Capabilities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's environmental emergency-response vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-wheel drive van has been outfitted for rapid and varied monitoring response to radiological emergencies. The vehicle's capabilities include 4-wheel drive plus auxiliary winch for access to rugged off-road terrain. On-board equipment is powered by a 6.5 kilowatt ac generator or by external ac power where available. Monitoring systems include two multichannel analyzers; one, a 2 K portable analyzer

D. Van Etten; D. Talley; T. Buhl; W. Hansen

1982-01-01

153

Santa Fe Trail Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper focuses on methodological problems associated to the famous Santa Fe Trail (SFT) problem, a very common benchmark\\u000a for evaluating Genetic Programming (GP) algorithms, introduced by Koza in its first book on GP. We put in evidence the difficulty\\u000a to ensure fair comparisons especially with new genotype representations as found in works on grammar-based automatic programming,\\u000a such as Grammatical

Denis Robilliard; Sbastien Mahler; Dominique Verhaghe; Cyril Fonlupt

2005-01-01

154

Tracking Online Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

155

Efficacy of adenovirally expressed soluble TRAIL in human glioma organotypic slice culture and glioma xenografts  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in malignant cells, including gliomas, and is currently in anticancer clinical trials. However, the full-length and tagged forms of TRAIL, unlike the untagged ligand (soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL)), exhibits toxicity against normal cells. Here, we report the generation and testing of an adenovirus (AdsTRAIL) that expresses untagged sTRAIL in an intracranial xenograft model and a human glioma organotypic slice culture model. AdsTRAIL efficiently induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines, including those resistant to sTRAIL, but not in normal human astrocytes (NHAs). It inhibited anchorage-independent glioma growth and exerted a bystander effect in transwell assays. Intratumoral injections of AdsTRAIL in a rodent intracranial glioma model resulted in reduced tumor growth and improved survival compared with Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)- or vehicle-treated controls without toxicity. Human glioma organotypic slices treated with AdsTRAIL demonstrated apoptosis induction and caspase activation.

Liu, Y; Lang, F; Xie, X; Prabhu, S; Xu, J; Sampath, D; Aldape, K; Fuller, G; Puduvalli, V K

2011-01-01

156

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management\\u000a in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in\\u000a 400m2 field plots in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was

David Maxwell Suckling; Robert W. Peck; Lloyd D. Stringer; Kirsten Snook; Paul C. Banko

2010-01-01

157

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having

Criswell

1993-01-01

158

The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip experiences). (JC)

Kauffman, Robert B.

1978-01-01

159

Meteor trail footprint statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Footprint statistics derived from field-test data are presented. The statistics are the probability that two receivers will lie in the same footprint. The dependence of the footprint statistics on the transmitter range, link orientation, and antenna polarization are examined. Empirical expressions for the footprint statistics are presented. The need to distinguish the instantaneous footprint, which is the area illuminated at a particular instant, from the composite footprint, which is the total area illuminated during the lifetime of the meteor trail, is explained. The statistics for the instantaneous and composite footprints have been found to be similar. The only significant difference lies in the parameter that represents the probability of two colocated receivers being in the same footprint. The composite footprint statistics can be used to calculate the space diversity gain of a multiple-receiver system. The instantaneous footprint statistics are useful in the evaluation of the interference probability in a network of meteor burst communication nodes.

Mui, S. Y.; Ellicott, R. C.

160

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

161

Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

Horuz, I. [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-08-01

162

Bottom Trawl Measurement Trails Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of various Yankee 35 bottom trawl trails, which were conducted in Narragansett Bay by the University of Rhode Island (URI) research vessel, Gail Ann, are summarized. The trials were somewhat limited by vessel size, but produced information of inte...

G. A. Motte A. J. Hillier R. D. Beckwith

1973-01-01

163

Trail pheromone of Kalotermes flavicollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trail pheromone of the termiteKalotermes flavicollis Fabr. has been isolated with the aid of column, liquid, and gas chromatography. Four of its components have been identified by PMR and chromato-mass spectrometry: nonan-l-ol, decan-l-ol, undecan-l-ol, and dodecan-l-ol, which are present in the natural trail pheromone in a ratio of 1:2:4:4. This has been confirmed by comparison with standard substances by

S. G. Klochkov; A. N. Pushin

1989-01-01

164

Adenovirus-TRAIL can overcome TRAIL resistance and induce a bystander effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRAIL is a cytokine with a unique ability to induce apoptosis selectively in many transformed cell lines. The instability of TRAIL and the resistance of some cancer cells to TRAIL present the main obstacles for clinical experimentation. We generated an adenovirus expressing full-length TRAIL and tested its efficacy in several cancer cell lines. Ad-TRAIL-infected cancer cells localized full-length TRAIL protein

Ja Young Seol; Kyung-Ho Park; Chang-Il Hwang; Woong-Yang Park; Chul-Gyu Yoo; Young Whan Kim; Sung Koo Han; Young-Soo Shim; Choon-Taek Lee

2003-01-01

165

Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.  

PubMed

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (23 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

2010-01-01

166

Western Trails: An Online Journey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on a collaboration of very diverse institutions (including the University of Wyoming and the Omaha Public Library), the Western Trails digital database provides access to thousands of primary documents associated with various aspects of Western US history. Visitors to the website may want to dive right in and view some of the trail themed collections, such as the Native American Trails or the Railroad Trails. Within each of these sections, visitors will be able to read a brief essay about each theme, complete with accompanying maps, images, and other primary sources. Next to each essay are links to some of the discrete exhibits created by participating institutions, such as those on the emigrant trails of Wyoming or the Mormon trails in the San Luis Valley. What is perhaps most impressive about the site is the very well-thought out search engine which allows users to search each independently created database by creator, title, keyword, or through a host of advanced options. The site is rounded out by a selection of resources for educators to use in conjunction with the digitized materials presented here.

Board., Kansas L.; Commission, Nebraska L.; Library, Wyoming S.

167

Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the DISC level.  

PubMed

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Apo2L (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer drug owing to its ability to trigger apoptosis by binding to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, two membrane-bound receptors that are often expressed by tumor cells. TRAIL can also bind non-functional receptors such as TRAIL-R4, but controversies still exist regarding their potential to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We show here that TRAIL-R4, expressed either endogenously or ectopically, inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with TRAIL restores tumor cell sensitivity to apoptosis in TRAIL-R4-expressing cells. This sensitization, which mainly occurs at the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) level, through enhanced caspase-8 recruitment and activation, is compromised by c-FLIP expression and is independent of the mitochondria. Importantly, TRAIL-R4 expression prevents TRAIL-induced tumor regression in nude mice, but tumor regression induced by TRAIL can be restored with chemotherapy. Our results clearly support a negative regulatory function for TRAIL-R4 in controlling TRAIL signaling, and unveil the ability of TRAIL-R4 to cooperate with c-FLIP to inhibit TRAIL-induced cell death. PMID:21072058

Morizot, A; Mrino, D; Lalaoui, N; Jacquemin, G; Granci, V; Iessi, E; Lanneau, D; Bouyer, F; Solary, E; Chauffert, B; Saas, P; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

2010-11-12

168

Improved Asteroid Astrometry and Photometry with Trail Fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the trail fitting algorithm that introduces the trail equation. Our demonstration of trail and PSF fitting on synthetic and Pan-STARRS PS1 detected asteroid detections leads to improved astrometry and photometry of trailed detections.

Vere, P.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Wainscoat, R.; Holman, M. J.

2012-05-01

169

Trail Runner 1.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who enjoy a run of some distance across a variety of terrains, this application is definitely worth a look. With Trail Runner, users can create a geographic display of their workout area, plan routes interactively, and also export route descriptions onto their iPod. While the application does not actually contain digital maps itself, it does offer ample directions and instructions on where to obtain such maps online. This version of Trail Runner is compatible with all computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and newer.

2005-01-01

170

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

171

75 FR 37463 - Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...the official trail marker insignia of the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...document is John Maounis, Superintendent, Star-Spangled Banner National Historic...

2010-06-29

172

Purification of the Fire Ant Trail Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith), utilizes a trail substance as an aid in effective foraging1. Workers secrete a substance from the Dufour's gland which is deposited from the sting in the form of minute streaks. These mark a trail from a suitable food source to the nest. Workers are strongly attracted to this substance and follow the trail

Christopher T. Walsh; John H. Law

1965-01-01

173

Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

Dyrud, L. P.; Urbina, J.; Fentzke, J. T.; Hibbit, E.; Hinrichs, J.

2011-12-01

174

Carving a New Assessment Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRAILS (Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills), is a free online test of student information-handling skills. It was formulated by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education and Kent State University Libraries. Based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards and the philosophy of Information Power, it assesses

Morriston, Terry

2007-01-01

175

'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

176

Ho-Nee-Um Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling.

Irwin, Harriet; And Others

177

The Healthy Trail Food Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with

Miller, Dorcas S.

178

A Mathematics and Science Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to engage primary-school students in a hands-on, real-world problem-solving context, a large urban district, a mathematics and science institute housed in a college of education, and a corporate sponsor in the southwest United States, joined forces to create a mathematics and science trail for fourth- and fifth-grade students. A

Smith, Kathy Horak; Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

2012-01-01

179

Trading Securities Using Trailing Stops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common trading maximum is to cut your losses and let your profits run. To implement this policy, traders often use what is called a trailing stop. Suppose a trader buys a security for $100 in hopes that it will appreciate in price. At the time of purcha...

P. W. Glynn D. L. Iglehart

1992-01-01

180

Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.  

PubMed

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings. PMID:22482017

Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2012-01-01

181

Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails  

PubMed Central

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

Gruter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M.; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

2012-01-01

182

Off-Road Motorcycling and ATV Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the lessons, allowing beginning riders to experience the sport without needing to purchase equipment. The helmet should be designed for the sport with full face coverage including chin protection. The ...

183

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

Criswell, D.R.

1993-07-06

184

TRAIL: not just for tumors anymore?  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its network of receptors, the majority of attention has focused on the clinical potential of manipulating this pathway in cancer therapy. However, the widespread expression of TRAIL under inflammatory conditions and the ability to induce both apoptotic and prosurvival signaling pathways has suggested that TRAIL plays broader roles in regulating immune processes. Two new studies now show that expression of TRAIL by neutrophils in the lung facilitates defenses against bacterial pathogens, whereas expression of TRAIL by cells within arterioles exacerbates vascular disease. These differentiating results highlight that the context of TRAIL signaling can determine whether the outcome is beneficial or pathogenic for the host.

2012-01-01

185

Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition.  

PubMed

We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromone particles and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromone particles intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction frequency is increased can be evidenced. We propose both kinetic and fluid descriptions of this model and analyze the capabilities of the fluid model to develop trail patterns. We observe that the development of patterns by fluid models require extra trail amplification mechanisms that are not needed at the Individual-Based Model level. PMID:22526837

Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sebastien

2012-04-20

186

On the TRAIL of obesity and diabetes.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been extensively studied for its preferential ability to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Beyond the cytotoxic capacity of TRAIL, new physiological and pathological roles for TRAIL have been identified, and there is now growing evidence supporting its involvement in the development of obesity and diabetes. This review summarizes the most recent findings associating TRAIL with obesity and diabetes in both humans and experimental settings. We also present and discuss some of the reported controversies behind TRAIL signaling and function. Understanding TRAIL mechanism(s) in vivo and its involvement in disease may lead to novel strategies to combat the growing pandemic of obesity and diabetes worldwide. PMID:23948591

Harith, Hanis H; Morris, Margaret J; Kavurma, Mary M

2013-08-12

187

Assessing urban walking trail use and changes in the trail environment using systematic observational protocols.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the extent to which two systematic observation protocols which were modified for underserved communities (low income, minorities) could be utilized to reliably assess (a) use of walking trails and (b) physical environmental features of these trails. This study was a supplement to the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) walking trial. The modified tools were shown to be reliable methods for (a) measuring trail use and (b) assessing physical features of the trail in underserved environments. Reliability data for measuring trail use were found to be high (ICC=.98, p<.01). Reliabilities for measuring features of the trail ranged from fair to highly reliable (?=.77-1.00; ICC=.34-1.00). The observation tools that were customized for this study were shown to be reliable instruments for measuring trail use and assessing physical features of walking trails in underserved communities. PMID:22795357

Meyers, Duncan C; Wilson, Dawn K; Kugler, Kassandra A; Colabianchi, Natalie; McKenzie, Thomas L; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Reed, Julian; Schmidt, Sara C

2012-06-28

188

Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved\\u000a after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant\\u000a walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone.

D. M. Suckling; R. W. Peck; L. M. Manning; L. D. Stringer; J. Cappadonna; A. M. El-Sayed

2008-01-01

189

Interaction between Ants on a Scent Trail  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that many ants lay scent trails on the ground which can be followed by other ants1-3. When an ant is following such a trail it is guided primarily by the scent `marks', although other orientating factors, including visual stimuli, are sometimes also involved2,4. Carthy3 has suggested that another factor contributing to the dense trails formed by

J. H. Sudd

1959-01-01

190

Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromones and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromones intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the

Emmanuel Boissard; Pierre Degond; Sbastien Motsch

2011-01-01

191

Ionizing radiation can overcome resistance to TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the majority of cancer cells are killed by TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand treatment), certain types show resistance to it. Ionizing radiation also induces cell death in cancer cells and may share common intracellular pathways with TRAIL leading to apoptosis. In the present study, we examined whether ionizing radiation could overcome TRAIL resistance in the variant Jurkat clones.

Mi-Ra Kim; Jeong-Yim Lee; Moon-Taek Park; Yong-Jin Chun; Young-Joo Jang; Chang-Mo Kang; Hye Sun Kim; Chul-Koo Cho; Yun-Sil Lee; Hee-Young Jeong; Su-Jae Lee

2001-01-01

192

On the TRAIL to successful cancer therapy? Predicting and counteracting resistance against TRAIL-based therapeutics.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL death receptors (DR) kill tumor cells while causing virtually no damage to normal cells. Several novel drugs targeting TRAIL receptors are currently in clinical trials. However, TRAIL resistance is a common obstacle in TRAIL-based therapy and limits the efficiency of these drugs. In this review article we discuss different mechanisms of TRAIL resistance, and how they can be predicted and therapeutically circumvented. In addition, we provide a brief overview of all TRAIL-based clinical trials conducted so far. It is apparent that although the effects of TRAIL therapy are disappointingly modest overall, a small subset of patients responds very well to TRAIL. We argue that the true potential of targeting TRAIL DRs in cancer can only be reached when we find efficient ways to select for those patients that are most likely to benefit from the treatment. To achieve this, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that can help us predict TRAIL sensitivity. PMID:22580613

Dimberg, L Y; Anderson, C K; Camidge, R; Behbakht, K; Thorburn, A; Ford, H L

2012-05-14

193

Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the

Schwartz, Jonathan R.

194

Detecting trails in lidar point cloud data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to determine methods for detecting trails using statistics of LiDAR point cloud data, while avoiding reliance on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Creation of a DEM is a subjective process that requires assumptions be made about the density of the data points, the curvature of the ground, and other factors which can lead to very dierent results in the nal DEM product, with no single correct" result. Exploitation of point cloud data also lends itself well to automation. A LiDAR point cloud based trail detection scheme has been designed in which statistical measures of local neighborhoods of LiDAR points are calculated, image processing techniques employed to mask non-trail areas, and a constrained region growing scheme used to determine a nal trails map. Results of the LiDAR point cloud based trail detection scheme are presented and compared to a DEM-based trail detection scheme. Large trails are detected fairly reliably with some missing gaps, while smaller trails are detected less reliably. Overall results of the LiDAR point cloud based methods are comparable to the DEM-based results, with fewer false alarms.

Kim, Angela M.; Olsen, Richard C.

2012-05-01

195

TRAIL Induced Apoptosis - A Prostate Cancer Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five of six prostate cancer cell lines undergo apoptosis when incubated with% TRAIL. Cell viability curves of six prostate cancer cell lines using varying amounts of TRAIL protein were completed. Prostate cancer cell lines Alva 31, PC-3 and DU 145 are hig...

X. Lu D. M. Rodman

2000-01-01

196

The role of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptors system in hematopoiesis and endothelial cell biology.  

PubMed

TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that interacts with an unusually complex receptor system, comprising transmembrane (TRAIL-R1, -R2, -R3 and -R4) and soluble (osteoprotegerin) receptors. TRAIL has received considerable attention because of the finding that many cancer cell types are sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, increasing experimental evidence shows that TRAIL exhibits regulatory roles in various normal tissues, as well. Although the best-characterized biological activity of TRAIL is in the homeostatic regulation of the immune system, in this review we have summarized and discussed the physiological function of TRAIL and its receptors, in normal hematopoiesis and vascular physiopathology. PMID:16750931

Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

2006-06-05

197

Transformation, Translation and TRAIL: An unexpected intersection  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine with roles in tumor surveillance and tolerance. TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in many malignant but not normal cells but the underlying cause for spontaneous TRAIL sensitivity remains elusive. We propose a novel hypothesis that links TRAIL sensitivity to translational arrest following stresses that inactivate eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2). Affected cells experience a reduction in apoptotic threshold because, due to their short half-lives, levels of anti-apoptotic proteins quickly drop off once translation elongation is inhibited leaving pro-apoptotic proteins unchallenged. This change in protein profile renders affected cells sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and places EF2 into the role of a sensor for cellular damage.

White-Gilbertson, Shai; Rubinchik, Semyon; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

2008-01-01

198

Involvement of TRAIL/TRAIL-receptors in human intestinal cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors (TRAIL-Rs) are expressed in intestinal mucosa, little is known about the biological role of this system in intestinal cell physiology. The expression of surface TRAIL and TRAIL-R1, -R2, -R3, -R4 were examined by flow cytometry in the immortalized human cell line tsFHI under culture conditions promoting growth or growth arrest and expression of differentiated traits. A progressive increase of surface TRAIL expression paralleled tsFHI differentiation, consistently with immunohistochemistry analysis showing an increase of TRAIL immunostaining along the crypt-villus axis in normal jejuneal mucosa. In spite of the presence of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 "death receptors," recombinant TRAIL was not cytotoxic for tsFHI cells. Exposure of tsFHI to recombinant TRAIL rather increased/anticipated the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, which mediate the induction of growth arrest and the stabilization of differentiated traits, respectively, as well as of the canonical differentiation marker DPPIV. The differentiation inducing activity of TRAIL was abolished by pre-incubation with a Fc-TRAIL-R2 chimera. On the other hand, TRAIL did not significantly modulate the levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG), CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL9/MIG, and CXCL10/IP10 spontaneously released or induced by inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these data suggest that TRAIL might act as a paracrine trophic cytokine on intestinal epithelium, promoting intestinal cell differentiation. PMID:16245299

Rimondi, Erika; Secchiero, Paola; Quaroni, Andrea; Zerbinati, Carlotta; Capitani, Silvano; Zauli, Giorgio

2006-03-01

199

AXL mediates TRAIL resistance in esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The overexpression of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is a frequent finding that has been associated with poor prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As the majority of EAC are intrinsically resistant to DNA-damaging therapies, an alternative therapeutic approach based on the activation of death receptors may be warranted. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been evaluated in clinical trials and found promising as anticancer agent with mild side effects; unfortunately, resistance to TRAIL remains a major clinical problem. Herein, we explored the role of AXL in TRAIL resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Overexpression of AXL in OE33 and OE19 cells promoted cell survival and attenuated TRAIL-induced cellular and molecular markers of apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous AXL sensitized FLO-1 cells to TRAIL. The mechanism by which AXL regulates TRAIL resistance was examined. Protein and mRNA expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors was not downregulated by AXL. In addition, the possible involvement of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) in regulating the interaction of caspase-8 with Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) was excluded, as AXL did not enhance FLIP expression or FLIP/FADD association. Alternatively, protein association of AXL with DR5, independent of TRAIL, was confirmed, suggesting that AXL could regulate DR5 receptor activity. The AXL/DR5 association had no negative effect on TRAIL-induced interaction with FADD. However, the AXL/DR5 interaction blocked the recruitment of caspase-8 to the death-inducing signal complex (DISC). Collectively, our findings uncover a novel mechanism of TRAIL resistance mediated by AXL through regulation of the DISC and provide strong evidence that AXL could be exploited as a therapeutic target to circumvent TRAIL resistance. PMID:23479507

Hong, Jun; Belkhiri, Abbes

2013-03-01

200

TRAIL gene therapy: From preclinical development to clinical application  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have investigated the potential use of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a cancer therapeutic since its discovery in 1995 because TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells and tissues. Consequently, a great deal is known about TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression, the molecular components of TRAIL receptor signaling, and methods of altering tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our laboratory was the first to report the possibility of TRAIL gene transfer therapy as an alternative method of using TRAIL as an antitumor therapy. As with recombinant proteins administered systemically, intratumoral TRAIL gene delivery also has limitations that can restrict its full potential. Translating the preclinical TRAIL studies into the clinic has started, with the hope that TRAIL will exhibit robust tumoricidal activity against human primary tumors in situ with minimal toxic side effects.

Griffith, Thomas S.; Stokes, Brittany; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Earel, James K.; VanOosten, Rebecca L.; Brincks, Erik L.; Norian, Lyse A.

2009-01-01

201

TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics  

SciTech Connect

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter.

Huang Ying [Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)], E-mail: huangy@upstate.edu; Sheikh, M. Saeed [Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)], E-mail: sheikhm@upstate.edu

2007-11-01

202

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.  

PubMed

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

2008-11-26

203

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2013-07-01

204

Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone trails are used by many ants to guide foragers between nest and food. But how does a forager that has become displaced from a trail know which way to go on rejoining the trail? A laden forager, for example, should walk towards the nest. Polarized trails would enable ants to choose the appropriate direction, thereby saving time and reducing

Duncan E. Jackson; Mike Holcombe; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

2004-01-01

205

Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper, a study is described which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in south-western Virginia, USA. The monetary valuation results suggest that the

J. M. BOWKER; JOHN C. BERGSTROM; JOSHUA GILL

2007-01-01

206

Trail discrimination signal of Lasius japonicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Trail-following behavior of Lasius japonicus was colony-specific in the field, while trail pheromone activity was not. We found that the footprint substance caused colony-specific trail-following behavior only when working in conjunction with the trail pheromone. The footprint substance alone did not lead the workers to follow trails. The substance consisted mainly of hydrocarbons with composition almost identical to that

Toshiharu Akino; Ryohei Yamaoka

2005-01-01

207

Federal Triangle Heritage Trail Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2008, the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) partnered with Cultural Tourism DC (CTDC), a local not-for-profit that specializes in the development of Neighborhood Heritage Trails within Washington, DC, to work together to evaluate th...

2010-01-01

208

TrailRunner 1.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone's looking for an improved running or walking path, and TrailRunner can help you do just that. TrailRunner 1.8 is essentially a route planning application designed for sports like running, biking, and inline skating. Visitors can create interactive maps, review alternate routes, and export the directions onto their iPod. This version is compatible with Mac OS X 10.3.

2008-01-01

209

A standard audit trail format  

SciTech Connect

The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

Bishop, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1995-02-01

210

+ Happy (Hypothetical) Trails to You: The Impact of Trail Characteristics and Access Fees on a Mountain Biker's Trail Selection and Consumer's Surplus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately thirty million North Americans own mountain bikes, and three million of them are avid trail riders. Some consequences are trail degradation and conflicts with other users. Resource managers often respond by closing trails and\\/or entire sites to mountain biking. When mountain biking is allowed, it is often on four-wheel drive roads rather than the narrow single-track trails many bikers

Terry Buchanan; Edward R. Morey; Donald M. Waldman

211

Iditarod Trail (Seward-Nome Route) and Other Alaskan Gold Rush Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study team found important historical and recreational values associated with each of the Alaska Gold Rush study routes. The Seward-Nome (Iditarod) route is proposed for designation as a National Historic Trail and inclusion in the national Trails Sys...

1997-01-01

212

State of the Trails, National Trails System, Salt Lake City, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National Trails, Salt Lake City (NTSL) is a National Park Service office created to administer the California, Mormon Pioneer, Oregon, and Pony Express National Historic Trails. Together with a sister office in Santa Fe, we are part of a larger National P...

2005-01-01

213

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

214

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour.

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-01-01

215

Persistent Leonid meteor trails: Types I and II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A campaign to study the trails left behind by bright Leonid meteors was conducted in November 1998 and 1999. These mysterious lingering trails have been observed for up to an hour. Such persistence allowed a visual observer at the Starfire Optical Range on Kirtland Air Force Base, near Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, to direct a sodium resonance laser, a CCD camera, and an intensified video camera to the trail within two minutes of the meteor's appearance. Subsequent study of this data has identified two kinds of trails, Type I and II, although both may be found in a single trail. Type I trails appear turbid, wider (1 km), and otpically thicker than Type II trails, and show very high diffusion rates of 800 m2s-1. Type I trails also have higher line emission rates, and Type II trails often appear parallel. This latter phenomenon is still unexplained.

Drummond, Jack D.; Milster, Scott; Grime, Brent W.; Barnaby, David; Gardner, Chester S.; Liu, Alan Z.; Chu, Xinzhao; Kelley, Michael C.; Kruschwitz, Craig; Kane, Timothy J.

2001-11-01

216

The trail pheromone of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis.  

PubMed

Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own. PMID:21529253

Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; Al-Abdullah, Mosa Abdullah; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed Saleh

2011-01-01

217

Radiotherapy and TRAIL for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

The use of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy substantially improved cure rates in patients with different malignant tumours. However, it is unlikely that further improvements based on conventional chemotherapy may be achieved in the future since increased rates of acute side effects already limit the value of these approaches. Additionally, the increased local control rates are counterweighted by still high rates of distant failures resulting in low net gains for the patients. Thus, there is a currently unmet need for the integration of target-specific drugs improving local control as well distant control into radiation based treatment protocols. In this regard, the death-receptor ligand TNF-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) and TRAIL-receptor agonistic antibodies were shown to display a high selectivity for tumour cells and act synergistically with conventional chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Up to now it has been shown that radiation strongly sensitises malignant cells to TRAIL and TRAIL-agonistic antibodies. Synergistic induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in a majority of malignant cell types and xenograft models. Especially in those cells types displaying only weak responses to either treatment alone, strong sensitising effects were described. Moreover, in merely all normal cells and tissues no synergistic effects were found. Depending on cell type and experimental setting, the efficacy of combined treatment is determined by the p53-status, the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and modulation of TRAIL-receptor signal transduction. PMID:21824725

Niemoeller, Olivier M; Belka, Claus

2011-07-12

218

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-03-01

219

Amelioration of autoimmune neuroinflammation by the fusion molecule Fn14?TRAIL  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, the management of which remains challenging. The recently described fusion protein, Fn14TRAIL, combining the extracellular domain of Fn14 (capable of blocking the pro-inflammatory TWEAK ligand) fused to the extracellular domain of the TRAIL ligand (capable of sending apoptotic signals through its receptors on activated inflammatory cells) was designed to modulate the immune system as an anti-inflammatory agent. The present study explores the efficacy of this purified protein as an anti-inflammatory agent, using the animal model of MS - experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Fn14TRAIL or vehicle were injected daily for 4 to 16 days, at different time points after disease induction. Animals were examined daily and evaluated for EAE clinical signs. Lymphocytes were analyzed for ex vivo re-stimulation, cytokine secretion, transcription factor expression and subtype cell analysis. Spinal cords were checked for inflammatory foci. The Mann- Whitney rank sum test, Students t-test or ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results Significant improvement of EAE in the group treated with Fn14TRAIL was noted from day 6 of disease onset and lasted until the end of follow-up (day 40 from disease induction), even in animals treated for 4 days only. Clinical improvement was linked to decreased lymphocyte infiltrates in the central nervous system (CNS) and to decreased Th1 and Th17 responses and to increased number of T- regulatory in the treated mice. No liver or kidney toxicity was evident. In vitro assays established the ability of Fn14TRAIL to induce apoptosis of T cell lines expressing TRAIL receptors and TWEAK. Conclusions In this study we established the potency of Fn14TRAIL, a unique fusion protein combining two potentially functional domains, in inhibiting the clinical course of EAE, even when given for a short time, without apparent toxicity. These findings make Fn14TRAIL a highly promising agent to be used for targeted amelioration of neuro-inflammatory processes, as well as other autoimmune pathologies.

2013-01-01

220

Electric and electromagnetic phenomena in meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines experimental and theoretical investigations of electric and electromagnetic phenomena in meteor trails conducted in the past, and makes a general overview of the problem. It is concluded that the problem has yet to be developed on a serious theoretical level. All the research done in the 1960s is based on different approaches and, as a rule, does not contain mutual criticism and discussion. It can be considered proven that a meteor body acquires during ablation a positive stabilized charge with a potential of several volts. A quasi-hydrodynamic approach to kinetic equations for electron and ion motion in a meteor trail can be used to analyze the first stage of the formation of a meteor trail and to verify the charge separation concept.

Bronshten, V. A.

1991-04-01

221

Ant foraging on complex trails: route learning and the role of trail pheromones in Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Ants are central place foragers and use multiple information sources to navigate between the nest and feeding sites. Individual ants rapidly learn a route, and often prioritize memory over pheromone trails when tested on a simple trail with a single bifurcation. However, in nature, ants often forage at locations that are reached via more complex routes with multiple trail bifurcations. Such routes may be more difficult to learn, and thus ants would benefit from additional information. We hypothesized that trail pheromones play a more significant role in ant foraging on complex routes, either by assisting in navigation or route learning or both. We studied Lasius niger workers foraging on a doubly bifurcating trail with four end points. Route learning was slower and errors greater on alternating (e.g. left-right) versus repeating routes (e.g. left-left), with error rates of 32 and 3%, respectively. However, errors on alternating routes decreased by 30% when trail pheromone was present. Trail pheromones also aid route learning, leading to reduced errors in subsequent journeys without pheromone. If an experienced forager makes an error when returning to a food source, it reacts by increasing pheromone deposition on the return journey. In addition, high levels of trail pheromone suppress further pheromone deposition. This negative feedback mechanism may act to conserve pheromone or to regulate recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate further complexity and sophistication in the foraging system of ant colonies, especially in the role of trail pheromones and their relationship with learning and the use of private information (memory) in a complex environment. PMID:22972897

Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grter, Christoph; Ellis, Laura; Wood, Elizabeth; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2012-09-12

222

30 CFR 75.828 - Trailing cable pulling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.828 Trailing cable pulling. The trailing cable must be...

2013-07-01

223

5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, OWL CREEK IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW LOOKING EAST - Hole-in-the-Rock Trail, Running From Bluff Vicinity to Escalante, Garfield County, Bluff, San Juan County, UT

224

Santa Fe National Historic Trail Final Strategic Plan, November 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Santa Fe Trail Association (SFTA), in partnership with the National Trails System-Intermountain Region of the National Park Service (NPS), developed this Strategic Plan to chart a course for future protection and interpretation of the Santa Fe Nationa...

2003-01-01

225

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation: The Santa Fe Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction (Authority and Purpose, Background, Scope): Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations (Historical findings, Recreational Findings); Description of the Route (Santa Fe Trail, Mormon Battalion Trail, Natural Landscape, cultural Lands...

1976-01-01

226

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2013-07-01

227

Atmospheric Motion Investigation for Vapor Trails and Radio Meteors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamics are investigated of the lower thermosphere through comparison of optical observations of motions of ejected vapor trails with radar observations of motions of ionized meteor trails. In particular, the winds obtained from a series of vapor tra...

J. Bedinger

1973-01-01

228

Is the color trails culture free?  

PubMed

Increasingly clinical neuropsychology has been addressing the effects of culture on neuropsychological functioning. However, that focus has been on comparing performance on standardized tests across two or more groups, often Hispanic. In this study, Arabic children were tested in Morocco using a "culture-free test," Children's Color Trails. Children of different ages and living in rural and urban centers were tested. The results suggest that the Color Trails Test scores from Arab children differed from U.S. norms available. Furthermore, the location of testing and the age of the child were of significance. The role of culture-specific tests was considered. PMID:24002171

Fasfous, Ahmed F; Puente, Antonio E; Prez-Marfil, Mara Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Peralta-Ramirez, Isabel; Prez-Garca, Miguel

2013-09-02

229

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...headlights and taillights. (viii) Drivers of off-road vehicles shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, saddle horses, pack trains, and animal-drawn vehicles. (ix) Any person who operates an off-road vehicle on public...

2010-10-01

230

Science Nation: Hydrogen Trail Blazers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just the last few years, Columbia, South Carolina has transformed itself into a hotbed of hydrogen research--thanks in large part to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Fuel Cells at the University of South Carolina, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Hydrogen is widely hailed as the fuel of the future--plentiful and non-polluting, discharging only water vapor into the environment. Perfecting the fuel cell, which converts hydrogen into a steady stream of electricity, will be one of the keys to making hydrogen vehicles commonplace. To support the push to hydrogen, the city of Columbia, the university, and local business and industry are coordinating to put these new hydrogen technologies to work around town. One example, city policeman patrol the downtown area on hydrogen hybrid Segways.

231

Trail and Campsite Erosion Survey for Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Part IV: The Description of Individual Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report (consisting of four volumes) details the results of a backcountry trail and campsite erosion survey conducted within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The report, volume IV, describes the individual trails and their vegetation, soil, an...

S. P. Bratton M. G. Hickler J. H. Graves

1977-01-01

232

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

233

Pheromone Trailing Behavior of the Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active

Michael J. Greene; Shantel L. Stark; Robert T. Mason

2001-01-01

234

Potential for TRAIL as a Therapeutic Agent in Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factorrelated apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known to induce apoptosis, otherwise known as programmed cell death, in many malignant cells without any known detrimental effects to normal cells. These aspects of TRAIL indicate the potential of TRAIL as a therapeutic agent in cancer. Ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecologic malignancy and is the fourth leading cause of death due

Touraj Abdollahi

2004-01-01

235

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

236

Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL  

PubMed Central

TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFN? (interferon ?) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials.

Kim, Hye Ryung; Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Jo, Ha Yeong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Chueh, Hee Won; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

2011-01-01

237

Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL.  

PubMed

TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFN? (interferon ?) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials. PMID:23124518

Kim, Hye Ryung; Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Jo, Ha Yeong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Chueh, Hee Won; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

2012-06-21

238

Flow Characteristics on Shared Hiking\\/Biking\\/Jogging Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trails shared by hikers, bicyclists, and joggers present the unusual traf- fic flow situation of a facility serving three classes of users with dis- tinctly different flow characteristics. Data on typical trail volumes are summarized. A procedure developed by Botma to describe quality of flow on shared pedestrian\\/bicycle paths is then discussed. Data from two sites, the MKT Trail in

MARK R. VIRKLER; Rajesh Balasubramanian

1998-01-01

239

Trail erosion patterns in Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the maintained trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park were surveyed for width, depth, and a variety of types of erosion. Trail erosion is related to a number of environmental variables, including vegetation type, elevation, trail slope, and section of the park. Open grass balds and spruce-fir forest are the most erosion-sensitive plant communities, and the xeric oak and

Susan P. Bratton; Matthew G. Hickler; James H. Graves

1979-01-01

240

Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL treatment even at high dose. Recent studies indicated that TRAIL-resistant cancer cells could be sensitized to TRAIL by combination therapy. Stress

Hongqin Zhuang; Weiwei Jiang; Wei Cheng; Kui Qian; Wei Dong; Lin Cao; Qilai Huang; Shufeng Li; Fei Dou; Jen-Fu Chiu; Xue-Xun Fang; Min Lu; Zi-Chun Hua

2010-01-01

241

Falls from Tractors and Trailing Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... platforms, foot-plates and steps clear of mud, snow, manure or other debris. Before moving, check the tractor and trailing equipment to see that no one has climbed aboard without your knowledge. Remove tools or other items that may cause a tripping hazard from the operator platform. Don' ...

242

On the Trail of the Missing Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by EPA's Region 9 Office in San Francisco, California, this book provides an introduction into why we need the ozone layer, the causes of ozone depletion, and some of the actions the world is taking to correct the problem. We hope you enjoy joining our intrepid reporter Farley on the trail of the missing ozone!

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (;)

2008-04-25

243

BiDirectional ANT Traffic on Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism

Ding-Wei Huang

2007-01-01

244

Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)|

Cameron, Layne

1998-01-01

245

THE INITIAL RADIUS OF METEORIC IONIZATION TRAILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation about the path of a meteor of regions of ionized and neutral atoms of meteoric material is investigated from the viewpoint of kinetic theory. It is found that the high initial velocity of the diffusing particles causes the trail to quickly reach an \\

L. A. Manning

1958-01-01

246

Effect of ambient turbulence on trailing vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ambient turbulence (generated by a bi-planar grid) on the migration and lifespan of trailing vortices were investigated in a towing tank through the use of two NACA-0012 foils moving at a constant angle of attack. The results have shown that the rise and demise of the vortices are controlled primarily by the rate of dissipation of the

Turgut Sarpkaya; John J. Daly

1987-01-01

247

Interactive Media Audit Trails: Approaches and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of uses for audit trails in instructional research begins by pointing out that interactive media provide the learner with the opportunity to shape the program, and consequently, the learning experience. The paper focuses on one of the new questions for instructional designers that have come with the advent of these technologies,

Misanchuk, Earl R.; Schwier, Richard

248

Allometric scaling of ant foraging trail networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregation of individuals into colonies raises important questions about scaling of structure and function. We model the metabolic benefits and costs of two-dimensional, fractal- like foraging trails, such as those used by ant colonies. Total area foraged by the colony and, consequently, resource flow to the nest and rate of colony metabolism, increase non-linearly with number of foragers (F)

Joseph Jun; John W. Pepper; Van M. Savage; James F. Gillooly; James H. Brown

2003-01-01

249

War for the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper studies the lines of communications (the Ho Chi Minh Trail) which went from North to South Vietnam, through Laos, during the Second Indochina War. The purpose of this paper is to study the proposal that the US, during the Vietnam War should hav...

G. T. Banner

1993-01-01

250

Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

Cameron, Layne

1998-01-01

251

Geodynamics: A tale of a trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mantle plume origin for the Samoan hotspot has been contested because the ages along its putative trail did not seem to increase monotonically. New dates from the island of Savai'i resolve the controversy and favour a plume origin.

Gordon, Richard G.

2008-09-01

252

Vision system testing for teleoperated vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study compared three forward-looking vision systems consisting of a fixed mount, black and white video camera system, a fixed mount, color video camera system and a steering-slaved color video camera system. Subjects were exposed to a variety of objects and obstacles over a marked, off-road, course while either viewing videotape or performing actual teleoperation of the vehicle. The subjects were required to detect and identify those objects which might require action while driving such as slowing down or maneuvering around the object. Subjects also estimated the same video systems as in the driving task. Two modes of driver interaction were tested: (1) actual remote driving, and (2) noninteractive video simulation. Remote driving has the advantage of realism, but is subject to variability in driving strategies and can be hazardous to equipment. Video simulation provides a more controlled environment in which to compare vision-system parameters, but at the expense of some realism. Results demonstrated that relative differences in performance among the visual systems are generally consistent in the two test modes of remote driving and simulation. A detection-range metric was found to be sensitive enough to demonstrate performance differences viewing large objects. It was also found that subjects typically overestimated distances, and when in error judging clearance, tended to overestimate the gap between the objects. 11 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

McGovern, D.E.; Miller, D.P.

1989-03-01

253

Vegetation moderates impacts of tourism usage on bird communities along roads and hiking trails.  

PubMed

Bird communities inhabiting ecosystems adjacent to recreational tracks may be adversely affected by disturbance from passing tourism traffic, vehicle-related mortality, habitat alteration and modified biotic relationships such as the increase of strong competitors. This study investigated the effects of tourist usage of roads vs. hiking trails on bird communities in gorges of the Flinders Ranges, a popular South Australian tourist destination in the arid-lands. High tourist usage along roads decreased the individual abundance and species richness of birds relative to low usage trails. The decrease in species richness, though less pronounced, also occurred at high-usage sites along trails. Changes in the species response to recreational disturbance/impacts varied depending on the ecology of the species. Bigger, more competitive birds with a generalist diet were overrepresented at high-usage sites along roads and trails. Species using microhabitats in lower vegetation layers were more sensitive. However, structural and floristic complexity of vegetation was a more important factor influencing bird abundance than tourist usage. Sites with a better developed shrub and tree layer sustained higher species abundance and richer communities. Importantly, vegetation qualities moderated the negative effect of high usage on the individual abundance of birds along roads, to the extent that such an effect was absent at sites with the best developed shrub and tree layer. To protect avifauna along recreational tracks in arid-lands gorges, we recommend the closure of some gorges or sections for vehicle or any access. Further, open space particularly for camping needs to be minimized as it creates areas of high tourist usage with modified habitat that provides birds with little buffer from disturbance. PMID:23954389

Wolf, Isabelle D; Hagenloh, Gerald; Croft, David B

2013-08-15

254

Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Klosek, Malgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P.; Krol, Wojciech

2012-01-01

255

Fn14oTrail Effectively Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth  

PubMed Central

Background New strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are needed, given that currently available chemotherapeutics are inefficient. Since tumor growth reflects the net balance between pro-proliferative and death signaling, agents shifting the equilibrium toward the latter are of considerable interest. The TWEAK:Fn14 signaling axis promotes tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, while TRAIL:TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R) interactions selectively induce apoptosis in malignant cells. Fn14TRAIL, a fusion protein bridging these two pathways, has the potential to inhibit tumor growth, by interfering with TWEAK:Fn14 signaling, while at the same time enforcing TRAIL:TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, Fn14TRAIL's capacity to inhibit HCC growth was tested. Results Fn14TRAIL induced robust apoptosis of multiple HCC cell lines, while sparing non-malignant hepatocyte cell lines. Differential susceptibility to this agent did not correlate with expression levels of TRAIL, TRAIL-R, TWEAK and Fn14 by these lines. Fn14TRAIL was more potent than soluble TRAIL, soluble Fn14, or a combination of the two. The requirement of both of Fn14TRAIL's molecular domains for function was established using blocking antibodies directed against each of them. Subcutaneous injection of Fn14TRAIL abrogated HCC growth in a xenograft model, and was well tolerated by the mice. Conclusions In this study, Fn14TRAIL, a multifunctional fusion protein originally designed to treat autoimmunity, was shown to inhibit the growth of HCC, both in vitro and in vivo. The demonstration of this fusion proteins potent anti-tumor activity suggests that simultaneous targeting of two signaling axes by a single fusion can serve as a basis for highly effective anti-cancer therapies.

Aronin, Alexandra; Amsili, Shira; Prigozhina, Tatyana B.; Tzdaka, Kobi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob; Shani, Noam; Tykocinski, Mark L.; Dranitzki Elhalel, Michal

2013-01-01

256

Experimental aerodynamics of mesoscale trailing-edge actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) are commonly designed with high-aspect ratio wings, which can be susceptible to significant aeroelastic vibrations. These modes can result in a loss of control or structural failure, and new techniques are necessary to alleviate them. A multidisciplinary effort at Stanford developed a distributed flow control method that used small trailing-edge actuators to alter the aerodynamic loads at specific spanwise locations along an airplane wing. This involved design and production of the actuators, computational and experimental study of their characteristics, and application to a flexible wing. This project focused on the experimental response. The actuators were based on a Gurney flap, which is a trailing-edge flap of small size and large deflection, typically about 2% of the chord and 90 degrees, respectively. Because of the large deflection, there is a significant change to the wing camber, increasing the lift. However, due to the small size, the drag does not increase substantially, and the performance is actually improved for high lift conditions. For this project, a 1.5% flap was divided into small span segments (5.2% of the chord), each individually controllable. These devices are termed microflaps or Micro Trailing-edge Effectors (MiTEs). The aerodynamic response was examined to determine the effects of small flap span, the influence of the device structure, and the transient response to relatively rapid MiTE actuation. Measurements included integrated loads, pressure profiles, wake surveys, and near-wake studies using particle image velocimetry. The basic response was similar to a Gurney flap, as full-span actuation of the devices produced a lift increment of about +0.25 when applied towards the pressure surface. For partial actuated spans, the load increment was approximately linear with the actuated span, regardless of configuration. The primary effects occurred within two device spans, indicating that most of the load was locally applied. The transient response was quasi-steady for dimensionless actuation times (tU/c) near unity. A shorter dimensionless actuation time of 0.2 produced a transient response with significant overshoot of the downwash velocity in the near-wake. This indicated a non-monotonic response of the aerodynamic loads for rapid actuation.

Solovitz, Stephen Adam

257

Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

2001-01-01

258

TRAIL limits excessive host immune responses in bacterial meningitis  

PubMed Central

Apart from potential roles in anti-tumor surveillance, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has important regulatory functions in the host immune response. We studied antiinflammatory effects of endogenous and recombinant TRAIL (rTRAIL) in experimental meningitis. Following intrathecal application of pneumococcal cell wall, a TLR2 ligand, we found prolonged inflammation, augmented clinical impairment, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of TRAIL/ mice. Administration of rTRAIL into the subarachnoid space of TRAIL/ mice or reconstitution of hematopoiesis with wild-type bone marrow cells reversed these effects, suggesting an autoregulatory role of TRAIL within the infiltrating leukocyte population. Importantly, intrathecal application of rTRAIL in wild-type mice with meningitis also decreased inflammation and apoptosis. Moreover, patients suffering from bacterial meningitis showed increased intrathecal synthesis of TRAIL. Our findings provide what we believe is the first evidence that TRAIL may act as a negative regulator of acute CNS inflammation. The ability of TRAIL to modify inflammatory responses and to reduce neuronal cell death in meningitis suggests that it may be used as a novel antiinflammatory agent in invasive infections.

Hoffmann, Olaf; Priller, Josef; Prozorovski, Timour; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf; Baeva, Nevena; Lunemann, Jan D.; Aktas, Orhan; Mahrhofer, Cordula; Stricker, Sarah; Zipp, Frauke; Weber, Joerg R.

2007-01-01

259

Tagged and untagged TRAIL show different activity against tumor cells.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) is a novel cytotoxic ligand belonging to the TNF superfamily which is currently being developed as a cancer therapeutic drug. Here, we observed the different functions of recombinant TRAIL protein with a foreign protein label and non-labeled TRAIL. We used a prokaryotic expression system to prepare two different versions of the extracellular TRAIL 114-281aa protein: TRAIL-HS, a protein modified with 6xHis-Tag and S-Tag; and TRAIL-FT, which had no foreign protein. The proteins were purified using Ni-NTA chromatography (TRAIL-HS) and cation ion-exchange column chromatography (TRAIL-FT) and identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. We compared the abilities of the proteins to bind to death receptor 5 (DR5) by ELISA and to induce apoptosis in a normal liver cell line (Chang liver) and a human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line (Jurkat) by MTT assay, GR staining and FACS. The results indicate that the biological functions of TRAIL-FT were superior to those of TRAIL-HS in binding and the induction of apoptosis, and may be useful to further the development and applications of TRAIL. PMID:23205127

Zhao, Kunpeng; Wang, Yan'ge; Wang, Xueyin; Wang, Yugang; Ma, Yuanfang

2012-09-11

260

Improved Asteroid Astrometry and Photometry with Trail Fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroid detections in astronomical images may appear as trails due to a combination of their apparent rate of motion and exposure duration. Nearby asteroids in particular typically have high apparent rates of motion and acceleration. Their recovery, especially on their discovery apparition, depends upon obtaining good astrometry from the trailed detections. We present an analytic function describing a trailed detection under the assumption of a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) and constant rate of motion. We have fit the function to both synthetic and real trailed asteroid detections from the Pan-STARRS1 survey telescope to obtain accurate astrometry and photometry. For short trails our trailing function yields the same astrometric and photometry accuracy as a functionally simpler two-dimensional Gaussian but the latter underestimates the length of the trail - a parameter that can be important for measuring the object's rate of motion and assessing its cometary activity. For trails longer than about 10 pixels (3 PSF) our trail fitting provides 3 better astrometric accuracy and up to two magnitudes improvement in the photometry. The trail fitting algorithm can be implemented at the source detection level for all detections to provide trail length and position angle that can be used to reduce the false tracklet rate.

Vere, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard; Holman, Matthew J.; Lin, Hsing-Wen

2012-11-01

261

TOTE Project. A Curriculum Source Book for Teaching Human Relations, Environmental Education, and Camping Skills in the Classroom and on the Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Backpacking serves as the vehicle for teaching basic secondary school subjects in this curriculum guide which suggests various learning activities for teaching human relations, environmental education, and camping. The activities, some for the classroom and some for the trail, are designed to help students observe, draw conclusions, and develop

Maughan, Durrell A.; And Others

262

TOTE Project. A Curriculum Source Book for Teaching Human Relations, Environmental Education, and Camping Skills in the Classroom and on the Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Backpacking serves as the vehicle for teaching basic secondary school subjects in this curriculum guide which suggests various learning activities for teaching human relations, environmental education, and camping. The activities, some for the classroom and some for the trail, are designed to help students observe, draw conclusions, and develop

Maughan, Durrell A.; And Others

263

Traffic Flow CA Model in Which Only the Cars Following the Trail of the Ahead Car Can Be Delayed  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and study a one-dimensional traffic flow cellular automaton (CA) model of high speed vehicles with rapid acceleration as in Fukui-Ishibashi (FI) model and with stochastic delay as in Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model. This model is different from the NS model in that only the cars following the trail of the ahead car can be delayed. In other words, a

Dan Mao; Bing-Hong Wang; Lei Wang; Pak-Ming Hui; Chin-Kun Hu

2003-01-01

264

Using modeling and simulation to evaluate stability and traction performance of a track-laying robotic vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DOD has been involved in the research, development and acquisition of unmanned ground vehicle systems to support the troops in the field while minimizing the risks associated with supplying these troops. Engineers and scientists at TARDEC are using computer based modeling and simulation (M&S) to investigate how modifications to unmanned ground vehicles impact their mobility and stability, and to predict performance levels attainable for these types of vehicle systems. The objective of this paper will be to describe the computerbased modeling, simulation, and limited field testing effort that has been undertaken to investigate the dynamic performance of an unmanned tracked vehicle system while conducting a full matrix of tests designed to evaluate system shock, vibration, dynamic stability and off road mobility characteristics. In this paper we will describe the multi-body modeling methodology used as well as the characteristic data incorporated to define the models and their subsystems. The analysis undertaken is applying M&S to baseline the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and comparing these results with performance levels recorded for several manned vehicle systems. We will identify the virtual test matrix over which we executed the models. Finally we will describe our efforts to visualize our findings through the use of computer generated animations of the vehicle system negotiating various virtual automotive tests making up the test matrix.

Gunter, D. D.; Bylsma, W. W.; Edgar, K.; Letherwood, M. D.; Gorsich, D. J.

2005-05-01

265

Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks.  

PubMed

Pheromone trails are used by many ants to guide foragers between nest and food. But how does a forager that has become displaced from a trail know which way to go on rejoining the trail? A laden forager, for example, should walk towards the nest. Polarized trails would enable ants to choose the appropriate direction, thereby saving time and reducing predation risk. However, previous research has found no evidence that ants can detect polarity from the pheromone trail alone. Pharaoh's ants (Monomorium pharaonis) produce elaborate trail networks throughout their foraging environment. Here we show that by using information from the geometry of trail bifurcations within this network, foragers joining a trail can adaptively reorientate themselves if they initially walk in the wrong direction. The frequency of correct reorientations is maximized when the trail bifurcation angle is approximately 60 degrees, as found in natural networks. These are the first data to demonstrate how ant trails can themselves provide polarity information. They also demonstrate previously unsuspected sophistication in the organization and information content of networks in insect societies. PMID:15602563

Jackson, Duncan E; Holcombe, Mike; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2004-12-16

266

Mating system shifts on the trailing edge  

PubMed Central

Background The trailing edges of species ranges are becoming a subject of increasing interest as the environment changes due to global warming. Trailing edge populations are likely to face extinction because of a decline in numbers and an inability to evolve new adaptations with sufficient speed. Discussions of character change in the trailing edge have focused on physiological, exomorphic and phenological traits. The mating pattern within populations has not been part of the discourse, in spite of the fact that the mating pattern may affect the ability of populations to respond to environmental change and to maintain their sizes. In this paper, the case is made that a substantial increase in self-fertilization rates may occur via plastic responses to stress. Scope and Conclusions Small populations on the trailing edge are especially vulnerable to environmental change because of inadequate levels of cross-fertilization. Evidence is presented that a deficiency of cross-seed production is due to inadequate pollinator services and a paucity of self-incompatibility alleles within populations. Evidence also is presented that if plants are self-compatible, self-fertilization may compensate in part for this deficiency through a stress-induced increase in levels of self-compatibility and stress-induced alterations in floral morphology that elevate self-pollination. Whereas increased self-fertility may afford populations the time to adapt to their changing environments, it can be concluded that increased selfing is not a panacea for the ills of environmental change, because it will lead to substantial reductions in genetic diversity, which may render adaptation unlikely.

Levin, Donald A.

2012-01-01

267

Observations on Multiple Trailing Vortex Merger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The merger of multiple trailing vortices is observed experimentally. Rectangular wing semi-spans of various aspect ratios are used to create wing-tip vortices in a miniature water towing tank. The wings are supported from a pair of streamlined struts positioned near the tank walls which are towed from the towing carriage. LIF and DPIV are the experimental measurement tools. Using multiple airfoils, up to 4 separate trailing vortices can be created in the tank at the same time. The vortices generated are of like sign (co-rotating). The effects of initial separation distance, circulation Reynolds number Re_?, relative vortex strength, and number of vortices (2, 3, or 4) are investigated. A single trailing vortex is used as a baseline. Chord-based Reynolds number Rec is varied from approximately 4 \\cdot 10^4 to 4 \\cdot 10^5 and Re_? is varied from approximately 5 \\cdot 10^3 to 3 \\cdot 10^5. As in previous observations,( Chen, Jacob, & Sava?), to appear in JFM. the merger of a pair of co-rotating vortices is observed in typically one orbit period. The extremes of Re_? show variations in the merger process while relative vortex stength has a large impact on merger details. The total circulation remains constant from roll-up completion through merger, as do kinetic energy and angular momentum. For 3 or 4 vortices, merger occurs between the closest vortices first; thereafter the system behaves similar to a co-rotating vortex pair.

Jacob, J. D.

1998-11-01

268

Stability of trailing vortices with radial stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the effects of the radial density stratification on the stability of the q-vortex, a commonly accepted model for aircraft trailing vortices. It has been demonstrated that the 2D Lamb--Oseen vortex develops a Rayleigh--Taylor instability when its core is heavier than the surrounding fluid (Joly, Fontane & Chassaing 2005, Sipp et al 2005). The underlying mechanism relies on baroclinic vorticity generation due to any misalignment between the density gradient and the centripetal acceleration field. The instability is triggered provided that the density decreases radially somewhere in the vortex core. This mechanism is also active in the 3D trailing vortex and affects its stability characteristics due to the addition of an axial component in the acceleration field. We show that the unstable center modes of the homogeneous case (Fabre & Jacquin 2004) are promoted in a q-vortex with a heavy core. Their growth rate increases while their m-spiral structure is preserved. For an Atwood number At=0.5, their predicted growth rate can be ten times the ones found in the homogeneous case. Furthermore, the unstable domain is extended far beyond the neutral curve in the homogeneous case, with unstable modes observed for Swirl numbers up to q=5. It is argued here that corresponding density perturbations could eventually lead to the development of new and original strategies to decrease the lifespan of aircraft trailing vortices and greatly reduce their unwanted side-effects on contrails persistence and air traffic regulations.

Fontane, Jerome; Joly, Laurent; Audouin, Auriane

2011-11-01

269

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-06-17

270

Preclinical studies for pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Ad-stTRAIL, an adenovirus delivering secretable trimeric TRAIL for gene therapy  

PubMed Central

Malignant glioma is the most frequent type in brain tumors. The prognosis of this tumor has not been significantly improved for the past decades and the average survival of patients is less than one year. Thus, an effective novel therapy is urgently needed. TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), known to have tumor cell-specific killing activity, has been investigated as a novel therapeutic for cancers. We have developed Ad-stTRAIL, an adenovirus delivering secretable trimeric TRAIL for gene therapy and demonstrated the potential to treat malignant gliomas. Currently, this Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy is under phase I clinical trial for malignant gliomas. Here, we report preclinical studies for Ad-stTRAIL carried out using rats. We delivered Ad-stTRAIL intracranially and determined its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Most Ad-stTRAIL remained in the delivered site and the relatively low number of viral genomes was detected in the opposite site of brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Similarly, only small portion of the viral particles injected was found in the blood plasma and major organs and tissues, probably due to the brain-blood barrier. Multiple administrations did not lead to accumulation of Ad-stTRAIL at the injection site and organs. Repeated delivery of Ad-stTRAIL did not show any serious side effects. Our data indicate that intracranially delivered Ad-stTRAIL is a safe approach, demonstrating the potential as a novel therapy for treating gliomas.

Kim, Chae-Young; Park, Soon-Hye; Jeong, Moonsup; Kwon, O-Seo; Doh, Hyounmie; Kang, Su-Hyung; Robbins, Paul D.; Kim, Byong-Moon

2011-01-01

271

Chemical trail systems, orientation, and territorial interactions in the ant Lasius neoniger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging and territoriality in the ant Lasius neonigerinvolves a series of trails which channel foragers away from adjacent colonies. Experimental studies suggest that the trails are composed of colony-specific, persistent orientation components of hindgut material that accumulate on trails during foraging. A less durable component of the hindgut trail pheromone regulates recruitment. Foraging directionality and the use of a trail

James F. A. Traniello

1989-01-01

272

Suppression of Trailing-Edge Noise Using a Plasma Actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suppression control of noise generation from an airfoil trailing edge is examined experimentally by using a plasma actuator for a NACA0012 airfoil at an angle of attack of -2, at a chord Reynolds number Re = 1.54 105. The boundary layer on the suction surface undergoes transition to turbulence at a location upstream of the trailing edge at the present flow condition and the generation of tonal trailing-edge noise is governed by vortex roll-up of boundary layer on the pressure surface in the vicinity of the trailing-edge which produces a strong acoustic (dipole) source by diffraction of vortex-induced fluctuations at the trailing-edge. When the plasma actuator is operated at an appropriate location on the pressure-side boundary layer, the trailing-edge noise is completely suppressed through delaying the development of the boundary-layer instability wave by the blowing effect of plasma actuator.

Inasawa, A.; Asai, M.; Itoh, K.; Kamijo, T.

2011-09-01

273

Aerodynamics of flapping wings with fluttering trailing edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous work on the aerodynamics of passive flexible flapping wings showed that there is a strong relationship between the dynamics of trailing edge and the size of the leading edge vortex, therefore aerodynamic forces. Here we investigated the aerodynamic effects of active trailing edges. The experiments were conducted on a model flapping wing in an oil tank. During static tests, the trailing edge bending angle was held constant from the angle of attack of the upper portion of the rigid wing. For dynamic cases, the trailing edge was controlled to flutter with a prescribed frequency and amplitude. Force measurements and PIV results show that trailing edge flexion/camber strongly correlates with the leading edge vortex and the aerodynamic forces. In addition, large instantaneous force variations are observed in the dynamic fluttering cases, suggesting that trailing edge can be used for force modulation in MAVs.

Zhao, Liang; Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

274

Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

1997-04-01

275

Traffic on bi-directional ant-trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize cellular automaton models for uni-directional ant-trails to bi-directional motion. Several extensions (1-lane,\\u000a 2-lane with and without common pheromone trail) corresponding to different realistic situations are compared. The interactions\\u000a between the ants give rise to interesting collective behavior which is reflected in the flow properties and the spatio-temporal\\u000a organization of the ants along the trail.

A. John; A. Kunwar; A. Namazi; D. Chowdhury; K. Nishinari; A. Schadschneider

276

Traffic Patterns and Flow Characteristics in an Ant Trail Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a minimal cellular automaton model for simulating traffic on preexisting ant trails. Uni- as well as bidirectional\\u000a trails are investigated and characteristic patterns in the distribution of workers on the trail are identified. Some of these\\u000a patterns have already been observed empirically. They give rise to unusual flow characteristics which are also discussed.\\u000a The question of possible

Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari

2006-01-01

277

Winding Angle Distribution of Lattice Trails in Two Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winding angle problem of two-dimensional lattice trails on a square lattice is studied intensively by the scanning Monte Carlo simulation at infinite, tricritical, and low-temperatures. The winding angle distribution PN(theta) and the even moments of winding angle < theta N2k> are calculated for the lengths of trails up to N=300. At infinite temperature, trails share the same universal winding

Iksoo Chang

2000-01-01

278

Free fatty acids sensitise hepatocytes to TRAIL mediated cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFA) contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis and promote hepatocyte apoptosis by incompletely defined mechanisms. Although the death ligand TRAIL has been implicated in a variety of pathological liver diseases, the role of TRAIL in mediating apoptosis of FFA induced steatotic hepatocytes is unknown. Aim We examined TRAIL cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of hepatocyte steatosis induced by FFA. Methods Hepatocytes (Huh 7 cells, HepG2 cells, and primary rat hepatocytes) were rendered steatotic by incubation with oleic acid. Apoptosis was assessed morphologically and biochemically by caspase activity. TRAIL receptor regulation was examined using immunoblot analysis and siRNA for targeted knockdown. c?jun N?terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition was attained with SP600125. Results Oleic acid sensitised the cells to TRAIL but not TNF?? cytotoxicity. FFA sensitisation to TRAIL occurred at much lower concentrations than required for FFA mediated sensitisation to Fas, or FFA induced lipoapoptosis. Oleic acid treatment led to upregulation of the cognate TRAIL receptor death receptor 5 (DR5) but not death receptor 4 (DR4). The upregulation of DR5 was JNK dependent. siRNA targeted knockdown of either DR5 or DR4 demonstrated that DR5 was responsible for FFA sensitisation to TRAIL killing. DR5 expression was enhanced in steatotic human liver samples. Conclusion Our results suggest that FFA induced hepatocyte steatosis sensitises to TRAIL by a DR5 mediated JNK dependent mechanism.

Malhi, Harmeet; Barreyro, Fernando J; Isomoto, Hajime; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J

2007-01-01

279

Resistance of mitochondrial DNA-deficient cells to TRAIL: role of Bax in TRAIL-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrion is one of the master players in both apoptosis and necrosis. We studied the role of mitochondrial function in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL killed SK-Hep1 cells with characteristic features of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 ploidy peak and cytochrome c translocation. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA-deficient SK-Hep1 ?0 cells were resistant to TRAIL. Dissipation of mitochondrial potential or cytochrome c

Ja-Young Kim; Yun-Hee Kim; Inik Chang; Sunshin Kim; Youngmi Kim Pak; Byung-Ha Oh; Hideo Yagita; Yong Keun Jung; Young Joon Oh; Myung-Shik Lee; M-S Lee

2002-01-01

280

HIKING SHARED-USE SINGLE-TRACK TRAILS: A LOOK AT HIKERS AND HUNTERS ALONG THE FALLS LAKE TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Falls Lake Trail, a 26.8-mile, single-track pedestrian trail located near the Research Triangle Region of North Carolina, traverses lands managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers; North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation; North Carolina Division of Wildlife Resources; and Wake County Parks, Recreation and Open Space. The non-profi t trail advocacy group, Friends of the Mountains

Roger L. Moore

2006-01-01

281

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

282

2-Deoxy-D-glucose enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells through XBP-1-mediated up-regulation of TRAIL-R2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that sensitivity of melanoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is largely correlated with the expression levels of TRAIL death receptors on the cell surface. However, fresh melanoma isolates and melanoma tissue sections express generally low levels of death receptors for TRAIL. The clinical potential of TRAIL in the treatment of melanoma may therefore be limited unless

Hao Liu; Chen Chen Jiang; Christopher J Lavis; Amanda Croft; Li Dong; Hsin-Yi Tseng; Fan Yang; Kwang Hong Tay; Peter Hersey; Xu Dong Zhang

2009-01-01

283

Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a membrane-bound ligand from the TNF family, has attracted significant attention due to its rather specific and effective ability to induce apoptotic death in various types of cancer cells via binding to and activating its pro-apoptotic death receptors. However, a significant number of primary cancer cells often develop resistance to TRAIL treatment, and the signalling platform behind this phenomenon is not fully understood. Upon blocking endosomal acidification by the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or concanamycin A, we observed a significantly reduced initial sensitivity of several, mainly colorectal, tumour cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In cells pretreated with these inhibitors, the TRAIL-induced processing of caspase-8 and the aggregation and trafficking of the TRAIL receptor complexes were temporarily attenuated. Nuclear factor ?B or mitogen activated protein/stress kinase signalling from the activated TRAIL receptors remained unchanged, and neither possible lysosomal permeabilization nor acid sphingomyelinase was involved in this process. The cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors and their TRAIL-induced internalization were not affected by V-ATPase inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of BafA1, however, was blunted by knockdown of the caspase-8 inhibitor cFLIP. Altogether, the data obtained provide the first evidence that endosomal acidification could represent an important regulatory node in the proximal part of TRAIL-induced pro-apoptotic signalling. PMID:23678861

Horova, Vladimira; Hradilova, Nada; Jelinkova, Iva; Koc, Michal; Svadlenka, Jan; Brazina, Jan; Klima, Martin; Slavik, Josef; Hyrslova Vaculova, Alena; Andera, Ladislav

2013-06-18

284

Trailing Edge Flow Modification on a Wing by a Near-Trailing-Edge Gurney Flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gurney flap is a small, perpendicular tab placed at or near the trailing edge of an airfoil. The effect of the tab is to augment the lift of the airfoil with no attendant increase in drag. A set of experiments were performed on a wing section at low-to- moderate angles of attack with a 2% x\\/C Gurney flap located

Douglas Smith; Patrick Shea

2008-01-01

285

A trail pheromone component of the ant Mayriella overbecki Viehmeyer (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The myrmicine ant Mayriella overbecki lays recruitment trails during foraging and nest emigrations. The trail pheromone originates from the poison gland. From ten identified components of the poison gland secretions only methyl 6-methylsalicylate 1 elicited trail following behavior.

Kohl, E.; Hlldobler, B.; Bestmann, H.-J.

286

Proposed Continental Divide/Kit Carson National Scenic Trails, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail study completed pursuant to the National Trails System Act of 1968, Public Law 90-543, recommends authorization and designation of the Continental Divide and Kit Carson Trails as components of the national trai...

1973-01-01

287

77 FR 1723 - Notice of Availability, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as a resource for NPS staff and Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail...Donald E. Briggs, Superintendent, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail...the Trail between the mouth of the Potomac River and the Allegheny Highlands in...

2012-01-11

288

Bi-Directional ANT Traffic on Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism to ensure that the ants follow the leader on a complex network. The breaking of following-the-leader is also discussed.

Huang, Ding-Wei

289

Safer Science: The Safety Legal Paper Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To avoid the potential for litigation, teachers need to be informed. They must know how to prevent accidents and should be proactive to protect both themselves and students from harm in the classroom. The following actions are recommended to help teachers maintain a safe working environment by protecting students from unreasonable risks of harm. Also, these actions will help teachers remain safe from litigation. If litigation does arise, these actions provide a paper trail that documents a teacher's efforts to prevent harm to students.

Roy, Ken

2009-02-01

290

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.  

PubMed

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

2010-06-15

291

Constraint-based semi-autonomy for unmanned ground vehicles using local sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleoperated vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in a variety of military functions. While advantageous in many respects over their manned counterparts, these vehicles also pose unique challenges when it comes to safely avoiding obstacles. Not only must operators cope with difficulties inherent to the manned driving task, but they must also perform many of the same functions with a restricted field of view, limited depth perception, potentially disorienting camera viewpoints, and significant time delays. In this work, a constraint-based method for enhancing operator performance by seamlessly coordinating human and controller commands is presented. This method uses onboard LIDAR sensing to identify environmental hazards, designs a collision-free path homotopy traversing that environment, and coordinates the control commands of a driver and an onboard controller to ensure that the vehicle trajectory remains within a safe homotopy. This system's performance is demonstrated via off-road teleoperation of a Kawasaki Mule in an open field among obstacles. In these tests, the system safely avoids collisions and maintains vehicle stability even in the presence of "routine" operator error, loss of operator attention, and complete loss of communications.

Anderson, Sterling J.; Karumanchi, Sisir B.; Johnson, Bryan; Perlin, Victor; Rohde, Mitchell; Iagnemma, Karl

2012-05-01

292

36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and areas designated for off-road motor vehicle use. (b) Routes and areas designated for off-road motor vehicle use shall be promulgated...or area designated for off-road motor vehicle use, from 1/2 hour...

2013-07-01

293

FADD\\/MORT1 and Caspase8 Are Recruited to TRAIL Receptors 1 and 2 and Are Essential for Apoptosis Mediated by TRAIL Receptor 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL\\/APO-2L) has been shown to exert important functions during various immunological processes. The involvement of the death adaptor proteins FADD\\/MORT1, TRADD, and RIP and the apoptosis-initiating caspases-8 and -10 in death signaling by the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2) are controversial. Analysis of the native TRAIL

Martin R Sprick; Markus A Weigand; Eva Rieser; Charles T Rauch; Peter Juo; John Blenis; Peter H Krammer; Henning Walczak

2000-01-01

294

TRAIL-induced eradication of primary tumour cells from multiple myeloma patient bone marrows is not related to TRAIL receptor expression or prior chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shares significant homology with CD95 (Fas) ligand and has the ability to induce apoptosis in sensitive cells through a caspase-mediated pathway. We have evaluated the activity of purified human recombinant soluble TRAIL (S-TRAIL, comprising residues 114281; Biomol, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA) and a leucine zipper construct of TRAIL (LZ-TRAIL; Immunex, Seattle WA, USA) against myeloma cell

LF Lincz; T-X Yeh; A Spencer

2001-01-01

295

ACTIVE WING FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING A TRAILING EDGE FLAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aeroservoelastic behaviour of a thin rectangular wing with a controllable trailing edge flap is investigated. A rather high aspect ratio motivates a numerical model based on linear beam theory for the structural dynamics and strip theory for the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Experimental flutter testing shows good agreement with the numerical stability analysis, and the impact of the trailing edge

D. Borglund; J. Kuttenkeuler

2002-01-01

296

Aerodynamics of flapping wings with fluttering trailing edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous work on the aerodynamics of passive flexible flapping wings showed that there is a strong relationship between the dynamics of trailing edge and the size of the leading edge vortex, therefore aerodynamic forces. Here we investigated the aerodynamic effects of active trailing edges. The experiments were conducted on a model flapping wing in an oil tank. During static

Liang Zhao; Zheng Hu; Jesse Roll; Xinyan Deng

2010-01-01

297

TRIPTOLIDE AND TRAIL COMBINATION ENHANCES APOPTOSIS IN CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma originates from bile duct epithelial cells in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary system. We recently observed that triptolide (a diterpenoid triepoxide) is effective in inducing apoptosis in pancreatic tumors. Death Receptors 4 and 5 are overexpressed in several cancer types, and their activation by TRAIL induces cell death. The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of combination therapy with TRAIL and triptolide in cholangiocarcinoma. Materials and Methods Two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were incubated with various doses of triptolide and TRAIL, alone and in combination; cell viability was assessed at 24 and 48 hours. Annexin staining and caspase-3 activity were measured after 24 hours of triptolide, TRAIL or combination treatment. Western blots assessed protein levels of PARP and XIAP. Results Combination treatment using TRAIL and triptolide decreased cell viability in all cell lines at 48 hours, with greater cell killing than that which was observed with either drug alone. This decrease in viability was associated with increases in Annexin staining and caspase-3 activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated increases in PARP cleavage and decreases in XIAP expression that were dose-dependent. Conclusions TRAIL and triptolide in combination decreased cell viability and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggests that triptolide sensitizes cells to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting expression of XIAP, a protein known to inhibit apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that combination of TRAIL and triptolide enhance apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

Clawson, K. A.; Borja-Cacho, D.; Antonoff, M. B.; Saluja, A.K.; Vickers, S. M.

2011-01-01

298

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recombinant gene was constructed, encoding the soluble form of the human Flt3L gene (hFlex) at the 5' end and the human TRAIL gene at the 3' end. This plasmid (phFlex/TRAIL) was administrated by the hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. As a result, tumor g...

J. J. Song

2004-01-01

299

Cancer gene therapy using a novel secretable trimeric TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF family, is a type II transmembrane cytokine molecule. Soluble TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells in vitro and to suppress tumor growth specifically without damaging normal cells and tissues in vivo. In our previous report, we have demonstrated that an

C-Y Kim; M Jeong; H Mushiake; B-M Kim; W-B Kim; J P Ko; M-H Kim; T-H Kim; P D Robbins; T R Billiar; D-W Seol

2006-01-01

300

TRAIL/Apo-2 ligand induces primary plasma cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis constitutes the primary mechanism by which noncycling plasma cells are eliminated after the secretion of Ag-specific Abs in a humoral immune response. The underlying mechanism is not known. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of both TRAIL/Apo-2 ligand and the death receptors (DR) DR5 and DR4, but not Fas, are sustained in IL-6-differentiated Ig-secreting human plasma cells as well as primary mouse plasma cells generated in a T-dependent immune response. Plasma cell apoptosis is induced by both endogenous and exogenous TRAIL ex vivo, suggesting that TRAIL-mediated killing may, in part, be plasma cell autonomous. By contrast, resting and activated B cells are resistant to TRAIL killing despite comparable expression of TRAIL and DRs. The preferential killing of plasma cells by TRAIL correlates with decreased expression of CD40 and inactivation of NF-kappaB. These results provide the first evidence that primary plasma cells synthesize TRAIL and are direct targets of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, which may relate to the inactivation of the NF-kappaB survival pathway. PMID:12421926

Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Zhang, Wenli; Altmeyer, Anne; Hatada, Eunice N; Do, Richard K G; Yagita, Hideo; Chen-Kiang, Selina

2002-11-15

301

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

302

Samoa reinstated as a primary hotspot trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical model for the generation of hotspot tracks maintainsthat stationary and deep-seated mantle plumes impinge on overridingtectonic plates, thereby generating age-progressive trails ofvolcanic islands and seamounts. Samoa has played a key rolein discrediting this model and the very existence of mantleplumes, because early geochronological work failed to demonstratea linear age progression along this chain of islands. Specificallyon Savai'i Island, the bulk of the subaerial volcanics is youngerthan 0.39 Ma, much younger than the 5.1 Ma age predicted fromthe classical hotspot model and a constant 7.1 cm/yr Pacificplate motion. This discrepancy led to alternative magma-producingmechanisms that involve the cracking of the lithosphere beneaththe Samoan islands, as a result of the extensional regime generatedby the nearby Tonga Trench. Here we report 40Ar/39Ar ages fromthe submarine flanks of Savai'i Island showing that its volcanicconstruction began as early as 5.0 Ma and in a true intraplatesetting. This reinstates Samoa as a primary hotspot trail associatedwith a deep mantle plume and a linear age progression.

Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Russell, Jamie A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Konter, Jasper; Staudigel, Hubert; Hart, Stanley R.

2008-06-01

303

An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Tarr, N. M.; Simons, T. R.; Pollock, K. H.

2010-01-01

304

Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.  

PubMed

Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

2013-08-14

305

AXL Mediates TRAIL Resistance in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma12  

PubMed Central

The overexpression of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is a frequent finding that has been associated with poor prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As the majority of EAC are intrinsically resistant to DNA-damaging therapies, an alternative therapeutic approach based on the activation of death receptors may be warranted. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been evaluated in clinical trials and found promising as anticancer agent with mild side effects; unfortunately, resistance to TRAIL remains a major clinical problem. Herein, we explored the role of AXL in TRAIL resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Overexpression of AXL in OE33 and OE19 cells promoted cell survival and attenuated TRAIL-induced cellular and molecular markers of apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous AXL sensitized FLO-1 cells to TRAIL. The mechanism by which AXL regulates TRAIL resistance was examined. Protein and mRNA expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors was not downregulated by AXL. In addition, the possible involvement of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) in regulating the interaction of caspase-8 with Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) was excluded, as AXL did not enhance FLIP expression or FLIP/FADD association. Alternatively, protein association of AXL with DR5, independent of TRAIL, was confirmed, suggesting that AXL could regulate DR5 receptor activity. The AXL/DR5 association had no negative effect on TRAIL-induced interaction with FADD. However, the AXL/DR5 interaction blocked the recruitment of caspase-8 to the death-inducing signal complex (DISC). Collectively, our findings uncover a novel mechanism of TRAIL resistance mediated by AXL through regulation of the DISC and provide strong evidence that AXL could be exploited as a therapeutic target to circumvent TRAIL resistance.

Hong, Jun; Belkhiri, Abbes

2013-01-01

306

Characteristics of Radio Echoes from Meteor Trails: I. The Intensity of the Radio Reflections and Electron Density in the Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent observations of radio echoes reflected from meteor trails have given a large amount of information about the electron densities in the trails and the physical processes occurring in the atmosphere after the passage of the meteor. In this paper, which is Part I of three papers dealing with the work, formulae are derived for the intensity of the radio

A C B Lovell; J A Clegg

1948-01-01

307

A Human scFv Antibody against TRAIL Receptor 2 Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Both TRAIL-Sensitive and TRAIL-Resistant Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptotic cell death in a variety of tumor cells without significant cytotoxicity on normal cells. However, many cancer cells with apoptotic defects are resistant to treatment with TRAIL alone, limiting its potential as an anticancer therapeutic. Here, we report on the tumor- icidal activity of a human single-chain fragment variable, HW1, which

Kyung-Jin Park; Seung-Hyun Lee; Tae-In Kim; Hae-Won Lee; Chang-Han Lee; Eun-Hee Kim; Ji-Young Jang; Kyeong Sook Choi; Myung-Hee Kwon

2007-01-01

308

Swarm cognition on off-road autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes with the first validation of swarm cognition as a useful framework for the design of autonomous robots\\u000a controllers. The proposed model is built upon the authors previous work validated on a simulated robot performing local navigation\\u000a on a 2-D deterministic world. Based on the ant foraging metaphor and motivated by the multiple covert attention hypothesis,\\u000a the model

Pedro Santana; Lus Correia

2011-01-01

309

The flavonolignan silibinin potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma and in derived TRAIL-resistant metastatic cells.  

PubMed

Silibinin, a flavonolignan, is the major active component of the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) and has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic properties. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer agent which selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is an important and frequent problem in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of silibinin and TRAIL in an in vitro model of human colon cancer progression, consisting of primary colon tumor cells (SW480) and their derived TRAIL-resistant metastatic cells (SW620). We showed by flow cytometry that silibinin and TRAIL synergistically induced cell death in the two cell lines. Up-regulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 by silibinin was shown by RT-PCR and by flow cytometry. Human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein that has a dominant-negative effect by competing with the endogenous receptors abrogated cell death induced by silibinin and TRAIL, demonstrating the activation of the death receptor pathway. Synergistic activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 by silibinin and TRAIL was shown by colorimetric assays. When caspase inhibitors were used, cell death was blocked. Furthermore, silibinin and TRAIL potentiated activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and XIAP. The involvement of XIAP in sensitization of the two cell lines to TRAIL was demonstrated using the XIAP inhibitor embelin. These findings demonstrate the synergistic action of silibinin and TRAIL, suggesting chemopreventive and therapeutic potential which should be further explored. PMID:22555452

Kauntz, Henriette; Bousserouel, Souad; Goss, Francine; Raul, Francis

2012-08-01

310

Equivalence of the Color Trails Test and Trail Making Test in nonnative English-speakers.  

PubMed

The Color Trails Test (CTT) has been described as a culture-fair test of visual attention, graphomotor sequencing, and effortful executive processing abilities relative to the Trail Making Test (TMT). In this study, the equivalence of the TMT and the CTT among a group of 64 bilingual Turkish university students was examined. No difference in performance on the CTT-1 and TMT Part A was found, suggesting functionally equivalent performance across both tasks. In contrast, the statistically significant differences in performance on CTT-2 and TMT Part B, as well as the interference indices for both tests, were interpreted as providing evidence for task nonequivalence of the CTT-2 and TMT Part B. Results have implications for both psychometric test development and clinical cultural neuropsychology. PMID:14590218

Dugbartey, A T; Townes, B D; Mahurin, R K

2000-07-01

311

Trailing vortices from low speed flyers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

2009-11-01

312

Complete trails of coauthorship network evolution.  

PubMed

The rise and fall of a research field is the cumulative outcome of its intrinsic scientific value and social coordination among scientists. The structure of the social component is quantifiable by the social network of researchers linked via coauthorship relations, which can be tracked through digital records. Here, we use such coauthorship data in theoretical physics and study their complete evolutionary trail since inception, with a particular emphasis on the early transient stages. We find that the coauthorship networks evolve through three common major processes in time: the nucleation of small isolated components, the formation of a treelike giant component through cluster aggregation, and the entanglement of the network by large-scale loops. The giant component is constantly changing yet robust upon link degradations, forming the network's dynamic core. The observed patterns are successfully reproducible through a network model. PMID:20866881

Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K-I; Kahng, B; Kim, D

2010-08-24

313

Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

Meltzner, Aron

314

Vehicle Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1966, a decision was made to go on a plant-wide pooling basis with no vehicles assigned to individuals. After investigation, it was decided that some of the vehicles formerly used as pools should be classified as functional. Pool vehicles are...

J. E. Harding

1976-01-01

315

Ibuprofen enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through DR5 upregulation.  

PubMed

Numerous human chemoprevention studies have demonstrated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) possess chemopreventive effects against a variety of malignant tumors. However, there have been many clinical studies on aspirin, but not ibuprofen, even though ibuprofen is one of the most clinically and safely used NSAIDs showing potent anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, we reported that many chemopreventive agents enhance the apoptosis-inducing effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is known to be crucial for cancer prevention. We, therefore, investigated whether ibuprofen enhances the cytocidal effect of TRAIL and found that ibuprofen markedly stimulated the apoptosis-inducing efficacy of TRAIL against human colon cancer HCT116 cells. As detected by western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR, ibuprofen upregulated the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5), a TRAIL receptor. TRAIL-induced apoptosis enhanced by ibuprofen was effectively decreased by a caspase inhibitor and dominant-negative DR5. Noteworthy, co-treatment of ibuprofen with TRAIL did not enhance apoptosis in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These results demonstrated that ibuprofen and TRAIL synergistically induced apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells but not in normal PBMCs, raising the possibility that ibuprofen may be promising as a safe chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. PMID:24002210

Todo, Momoko; Horinaka, Mano; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Ikawa, Haruna; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Sakai, Toshiyuki

2013-08-30

316

Identification of plant extracts sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive heterogeneous cancer subgroup with a higher rate of distant recurrence and a poorer prognosis compared to other subgroups. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive molecule that induces cell death in various tumor cells without causing cytotoxicity to normal cells; however, primary or acquired resistance to TRAIL often limits its efficacy in cancer patients. To develop combination therapies to improve TRAIL efficacy and/or to overcome the resistant mechanism, we screened 138 medicinal plant extracts against TRAIL-sensitive and -insensitive TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Among them, 5 plant extracts, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris, Cortia depressa, Dichasia bengalensis and Cinnamomum obtusifolium did not cause apparent cytotoxicity (<20%) as a single regimen, but showed significant synergistic effects in combination with TRAIL against both cell lines. Moreover, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris and Cinnamomum obtusifolium were found to suppress the phosphorylation of p65 that is involved in TRAIL-resistant mechanisms. These observations suggest that the identified plant extracts in combination with TRAIL could lead to potential therapeutic benefits for cancer patients in the clinical setting. PMID:23426404

Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hafiyani, Lia; Kalauni, Surya K; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Awale, Suresh; Saiki, Ikuo

2013-02-19

317

Minimum detected electron density of a meteor trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rigorous formulas are obtained which relate the minimum detected electron densities at an arbitrary point in a meteor trail and the most sensitive point in the trail for the oblique propagation of radio waves. Specifically, attention is given to the dependence of the minimum detected electron density of the trail on the direction from the center of the path toward an arbitrary point of the meteor zone. The interrelationship between all the physical factors that affect the formation of a radio echo is considered.

Gaidaev, A. A.

1987-12-01

318

Trails of Kilovolt Ions Created by Subsurface Channeling  

SciTech Connect

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe{sup +} ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2010-02-19

319

30 CFR 77.603 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. 77.603 Section 77...OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.603 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. Trailing cables...

2009-07-01

320

30 CFR 77.603 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. 77.603 Section 77...OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.603 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. Trailing cables...

2010-07-01

321

78 FR 59368 - Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Historic Trail Advisory Council and Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...and waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic...

2013-09-26

322

Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

2011-01-01

323

Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitmentyeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not to DR5, through the DHHC and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Expression level of GODZ affects apoptosis of tumor cells triggered by TRAIL, but not that induced by TNF-?/cycloheximide (CHX) or DNA-damaging drugs. In parallel, GODZ functions to localize DR4 to the plasma membrane (PM) via DHHC motif. Also, introduction of mutation into the cysteine-rich motif of DR4 results in its mistargeting and attenuates TRAIL- or GODZ-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, GODZ expression is highly downregulated in Hep-3B tumor cells, which show resistance to TRAIL. However, reconstitution of GODZ expression enhances the targeting of DR4 to cell surface and sensitizes Hep-3B cells to TRAIL. Taken together, these data establish that GODZ is a novel DR4-selective regulator responsible for targeting of DR4 to the PM, and thereby for TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Oh, Y; Jeon, Y-J; Hong, G-S; Kim, I; Woo, H-N; Jung, Y-K

2012-01-01

324

Trail interacts redundantly with nitric oxide in rat astrocytes: Potential contribution to neurodegenerative processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proapoptotic cytokine TRAIL has been shown to enhance amyloid-?-dependent neurotoxicity. Here are reported interactions between TRAIL and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured rat astrocytes in vitro. Rat astrocytes expressed all TRAIL receptor mRNAs and proteins. However, TRAIL failed in inducing apoptosis of astrocytes, whereas these cells released substantial amounts of nitrites. A TRAIL-neutralizing antibody was able to prevent LPS-induced

Giuseppina Cantarella; Laurence Lempereur; Maria Antonia D'Alcamo; Nunziata Risuglia; Vera Cardile; Giuseppa Pennisi; Giovanna Maria Scoto; Renato Bernardini

2007-01-01

325

30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing cables. (a) Guarding. (1) The high-voltage cable must be guarded in the following...

2013-07-01

326

30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage...

2013-07-01

327

30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage...

2010-07-01

328

36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Park Service administered Appalachian Trail corridor lands may be designated by the Park Manager in the Superintendent's Compendium of Orders when designated snowmobile routes are temporarily dislocated by timber haul road closures. (6) Maps...

2013-07-01

329

Cell Cycle Dependence of TRAIL Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341 Velcade) synergizes with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) acts via a p21- dependent mechanism to induce high levels of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our further investigation...

D. J. McConkey

2006-01-01

330

Comprehensive Management and Use Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement: California National Historic Trail; Pony Express National Historic Trail. Management and Use Plan Update/Final Environmental Impact Statement: Oregon National Historic Trail; Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents a proposed comprehensive management and use plan for the California and Pony Express National Historic Trails and updates the 1981 Oregon and Mormon Pioneer Comprehensive Management and Use Plans.

2006-01-01

331

170. View of large trail shelter built for the United ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

170. View of large trail shelter built for the United States Forest Service by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1938 on Craggy Knob. Facing northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

332

Partnerships panel: the New Jersey coastal heritage trail route: a ...  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy. Publication Information. Bookmark and Share. Title: Partnerships panel: the New Jersey coastal heritage trail route: a partnership ... natural and cultural sites associated with the coastal areas of New Jersey.

333

30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing cables. (a) Guarding. (1) The high-voltage cable must be guarded in the following locations: (i) From the power center cable coupler for a distance of 10...

2010-07-01

334

Texas Trailing Phlox(Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis) Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Status: The Texas trailing phlox is listed as endangered. Once occurring at 17 sites in Hardin, Polk, and Typer counties, only two populations are currently known to properties owned by the nature Conservancy and private landowners, and on highway...

M. J. Warnock

1995-01-01

335

147. GWMP AND TRAIL WITH POTOMAC RIVER IN BACK, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

147. GWMP AND TRAIL WITH POTOMAC RIVER IN BACK, FROM CEDAR KNOLL VICINITY LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

336

36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-07-01

337

The long and winding TRAIL to weight loss.  

PubMed

TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In the present issue of Clinical Science, Bernardi and co-workers report that the administration of TRAIL in mice fed on a high-fat diet resulted in reduced adiposity and improved metabolic responses to a glucose and insulin tolerance test compared with mice without TRAIL. The metabolic improvements were associated with a higher rate of apoptotic fat cells and with a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that TRAIL could be an exciting new therapeutic for treating obesity, but further studies are required to determine its major mechanisms of action. PMID:22738304

Blmer, Regje M E; Steinberg, Gregory R

2012-11-01

338

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

339

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

340

From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics Learning from Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many insects like, for example, ants communicate via chemical signals. This process, called chemotaxis, allows them to build\\u000a large trail systems which have many similarities with human transport networks. In order to investigate the dynamics and spatio-temporal\\u000a organization of ants on an existing trail system we have proposed a stochastic cellular automaton model. In contrast to the\\u000a situation in highway

A. Schadschneider; D. Chowdhury; K. Nishinari

341

Collective effects in traffic on bi-directional ant trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-directional ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict

Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari

2004-01-01

342

Anomalous Fundamental Diagrams in Traffic on Ant Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many insects like ants communicate chemically via chemotaxis. This allows them to build large trail systems which in many\\u000a respects are similar to human-build highway networks. Using a stochastic cellular automaton model we discuss the basic properties\\u000a of the traffic flow on existing trails. Surprisingly it is found that in certain regimes the average speed of the ants can\\u000a vary

Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Alexander John; Katsuhiro Nishinari

2003-01-01

343

Ultralight Helicopter with Trailing-Edge Flap for Primary Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analysis developed to evaluate plain trailing-edge flap systems for primary control is used to conduct a parametric study for a two-bladed teetering rotor of an ultralight helicopter. The analytical model includes a teetering rotor formulation, and a coupled trim procedure for determining trailing-edge flap inputs. A correlation study for the basic conventional rotor (primary pitch feather controls) was

Jinwei Shen; Inderjit Chopra

2002-01-01

344

Smart TERFENOL-D-powered trailing-edge experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airfoil with a TERFENOL-D powered smart trailing edge is being developed to minimize drag during transonic cruise. TERFENOL-D linear motors move segmented flaps that continuously modify the trailing-edge shape for optimum performance. The system is mechanized to maintain smooth upper-surface shapes.The flap sizes and geometric parameters are being optimized with a modified simulated annealing technique. A full potential solver

Fred Austin; Michael J. Siclari; Martin Kesselman; G. N. Weisensel

1998-01-01

345

Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

N?=?406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are\\u000a primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested\\u000a soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added\\u000a to biking experiences on average; trail design factors,

Mathew C. Symmonds; William E. Hammitt

2000-01-01

346

Proteasome inhibitors sensitize ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we have explored the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors. Particularly,\\u000a we have explored the capacity of proteasome inhibitors to bypass TRAIL resistance of ovarian cancer cells. For these studies\\u000a we have used the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line and its chemoresistant derivatives A2780\\/DDP and A2780\\/ADR, providing evidence\\u000a that: (i) the three

Ernestina Saulle; Alessia Petronelli; Luca Pasquini; Eleonora Petrucci; Gualtiero Mariani; Mauro Biffoni; Gianluigi Ferretti; Giovanni Scambia; Pierluigi Benedetti-Panici; Francesco Cognetti; Robin Humphreys; Cesare Peschle; Ugo Testa

2007-01-01

347

Fractal behavior of isosets and trails in superionic conductors  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations of ionic motion in Ag/sub 2/S reveal fractal aspects of trails and isosets of Brownian motion. For silver ions in the superionic state, and silver and sulfur ions in the molten phase, fractal dimensionalities of isosets and trails are found to be anti D = 0.5 and D = 2, respectively. These results are consistent with anti D = 1 - D/sup -1/.

Vashishta, P.; Ebbsjoe, I.; Kalia, R.K.; De Leeuw, S.W.

1985-08-01

348

Tumor-targeted delivery of biologically active TRAIL protein  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis, but concerns of considerable liver toxicity limit its uses in human cancer therapy. Here, we show that i.v. injected Escherichia coli DH5? (E. coli DH5?) specifically replicates in solid tumors and metastases in live animals. E. coli DH5? does not enter tumor cells and suits for being the vector for soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL), which induces apoptosis by activating cell-surface death receptors. With the high tumor-targeting' nature, we demonstrate that intratumoral (i.t.) and intravenous injection of sTRAIL-expressing E. coli DH5? results in the tumor-targeted release of biologically active molecules, which leads to a dramatic reduction in the tumor growth rate and the prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. TRAIL delivery by E. coli DH5? did not cause any detectable toxicity to any organs, suggesting that E. coli DH5?-delivered sTRAIL protein therapy may provide a feasible and effective form of treatment for solid tumors.

Zhang, H-Y; Man, J-H; Liang, B; Zhou, T; Wang, C-H; Li, T; Li, H-Y; Li, W-H; Jin, B-F; Zhang, P-J; Zhao, J; Pan, X; He, K; Gong, W-L; Zhang, X-M; Li, A-L

2010-01-01

349

The Shape Trail Test: Application of a New Variant of the Trail Making Test  

PubMed Central

Objective The Trail making test (TMT) is culture-loaded because of reliance on the Latin alphabet, limiting its application in Eastern populations. The Shape Trail Test (STT) has been developed as a new variant. This study is to examine the applicability of the STT in a senile Chinese population and to evaluate its potential advantages and disadvantages. Method A total of 2470 participants were recruited, including 1151 cognitively normal control (NC), 898 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 421 mild Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Besides the STT, the Mini mental state examination and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery involving memory, language, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability were administered to all the participants. In a subgroup of 100 NC and 50 AD patients, both the STT and the Color Trail Test (CTT) were performed. Results In NC, the time consumed for Part A and B (STT-A and STT-B) significantly correlated with age and negatively correlated with education (p<0.01). STT-A and B significantly differed among the AD, aMCI and NC. The number that successfully connected within one minute in Part B (STT-B-1 min) correlated well with STT-B (r?=?0.71, p<0.01) and distinguished well among NC, aMCI and AD. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the AUCs (area under the curve) for STT-A, STT-B, and STT-B-1min in identifying AD were 0.698, 0.694 and 0.709, respectively. The STT correlated with the CTT, but the time for completion was longer. Conclusion The TMT is a sensitive test of visual search and sequencing. The STT is a meaningful attempt to develop a culture-fair variant of the TMT in addition to the CTT.

Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Li, Fang; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Bei; Hong, Zhen

2013-01-01

350

Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

Lee, Hak-Tae

351

Cassini ISS Observations of Titan's Trailing Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During nine encounters in the first half of 2007, Cassini's Imaging Science Sub-system (ISS) observed Titan's trailing hemisphere between 180 and 270 West, focusing on the region around and to the north of Adiri. The images reveal a number of terrain types seen in other regions on Titan, including dark equatorial terrain, some of which was determined by RADAR to be covered in longitudinal sand dunes (Lorenz et al. 2006). High-resolution observations from June revealed dunes in ISS images for the first time. The lack of prior detections is likely due to low albedo contrast between the dunes and interdune areas. Observations from February and March 2007 revealed several dark lineaments near 45 N, 240 W. These features are likely tectonic in origin, but their proximity to a large polar sea discovered by RADAR and ISS in February suggest a possible connection to fluvial or lacustrine processes. ISS observations of this region reveal only three candidate impact craters, further evidence of Titan's youthful surface. One of these candidates ( 7 N, 199 W) strongly resembles Sinlap, one of the handful of confirmed impact craters on Titan (Lorenz et al. 2007). References: Lorenz, R. et al. 2006. Science 312, pp. 724-727; Lorenz, R. et al. 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07204.

Perry, Jason; Turtle, E. P.; McEwen, A. S.; Dawson, D. D.; Porco, C. C.

2007-10-01

352

TRAIL induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells with a mesenchymal phenotype.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in some but not all breast cancer cell lines. Breast cancers can be divided into those which express the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, those with HER-2 amplification, and those without expression of ER, PR, or HER-2 amplification (referred to as basal or triple-negative breast cancer). We tested a panel of 20 breast cancer cell lines representing the different types of breast cancer to evaluate if the molecular phenotype of the breast cancer cells determined their response to TRAIL. The most striking finding was that eight of eleven triple-negative cell lines are sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. The eight TRAIL-sensitive triple-negative cell lines have a mesenchymal phenotype while the three TRAIL-resistant triple-negative cell lines have an epithelial phenotype. Two of five cell lines with HER-2 amplification were sensitive to TRAIL and none of the five ER positive cell lines were sensitive. RNAi-mediated knockdown of TRAIL receptor expression demonstrated that TRAIL Receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) mediates the effects of TRAIL, even when both TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 are expressed. Finally, inhibition of EGFR, expressed in both TRAIL-sensitive and TRAIL-resistant triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, using a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478), enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive cell lines but did not convert resistant cells into TRAIL-sensitive cells. Together, these findings suggest that a subset of triple-negative breast cancer, those with mesenchymal features, may be the most likely to benefit from TRAIL targeted therapy. These findings could form the basis to select breast cancer patients for clinical trials of TRAIL-R2 ligands. PMID:18266105

Rahman, Monzur; Davis, Sean R; Pumphrey, Janet G; Bao, Jing; Nau, Marion M; Meltzer, Paul S; Lipkowitz, Stanley

2008-02-12

353

Trailing Edge Flow Modification on a Wing by a Near-Trailing-Edge Gurney Flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Gurney flap is a small, perpendicular tab placed at or near the trailing edge of an airfoil. The effect of the tab is to augment the lift of the airfoil with no attendant increase in drag. A set of experiments were performed on a wing section at low-to- moderate angles of attack with a 2% x/C Gurney flap located at x/C = 0.95 on the lower surface of the airfoil. The configuration was tested at Rec= 1.45 x10^5 to determine the sectional lift and quarter-chord pitching moment characteristics for the Gurney flap when not located exactly at the trailing edge. For this flap position, an increment in lift was still observed and was accompanied by an associated decrease in the pitching moment. Two-component velocity measurements were taken with PIV in the near wake region of the model to develop of an understanding of the flow physics in the wake of the Gurney flap. These measurements revealed that the closed recirculation region present in the lee of the flap at low angles of attack decreased in size as the angle of attack increased and eventually was eliminated completely when the angle of attack reached 12^o.

Smith, Douglas; Shea, Patrick

2008-11-01

354

Vehicle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-02-01

355

Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

Laframboise, J. F.

1987-09-01

356

Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

2013-09-01

357

Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

2013-05-01

358

Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence

K. T. Chau; Wei Cui; J. Z. Jiang; Zheng Wang

2006-01-01

359

Improvement of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Configuration for Winged Vehicles with Lateral Blowing in Subsonic Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics of basic configuration for winged vehicles with lateral blowing in subsonic flow has been conducted. Wing planform is 75\\/45 double delta wing whose cross section is modified NACA0010. Lateral blowing is realized by injecting a pair of sonic jets parallel to the trailing edge of the wing. The experiments have been

Kenji Tadakuma; Shigeru Aso; Yasuhiro Tani

2005-01-01

360

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the

Robert J. Englar

2001-01-01

361

Merging of aircraft vortex trails: Similarities to magnetic field merging  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in a MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1989-01-01

362

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

363

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

364

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

365

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

366

75 FR 27771 - Overland Trail Transmission, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-23-000] Overland Trail Transmission, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 7, 2010, Overland Trail Transmission, LLC submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-05-18

367

30 CFR 75.810 - High-voltage trailing cables; splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; splices. 75.810...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.810 High-voltage trailing cables; splices....

2013-07-01

368

Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing- Edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the rotor performance, trailing-edge deflections and actuation requirement of a helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap for primary flight control. The swashplateless design is implemented by modifying a two-bladed teetering rotor of...

I. Chopra J. Shen W. Johnson

2003-01-01

369

Mellein, a Trail Pheromone Component of the Ant Lasius fuliginosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-Dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (mellein) and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one are among the volatile constituents identified from the hindgut of the formicine ant Lasius (Dendrolasius) fuliginosus Mellein induces trail-following behavior in worker ants of this species and evokes electrophysiological responses from their antennae. The trail-following activity released by (R)-(-)-mellein is significantly higher than that elicited by its (S)-(+) antipode, or the racemic mixture. The above-mentioned pyranone

Friedrich Kern; Rdiger W. Klein; Edelgard Janssen; Hans-Jrgen Bestmann; Athula B. Attygalle; Doris Schfer; Ulrich Maschwitz

1997-01-01

370

Plume and plate controlled hotspot trails in the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering if hotspots observed on the Earth's surface are explained by underlying plumes rising from the deep mantle or by shallow plate-driven processes continues to be an essential goal in Earth Science. Key evidence underpinning the mantle plume concept is the existence of age-progressive volcanic trails recording past plate motion relative to surface hotspots and their causal plumes. Using the icebreaker RV Polarstern, we sampled scattered hotspot trails on the 2,000 km-wide southeast Atlantic hotspot swell, which projects down to one of the Earth's two largest and deepest regions of slower-than-average seismic wave speed - the Africa Low Shear Wave Velocity Province - caused by a massive thermo-chemical 'pile' on the core-mantle boundary. We showed recently using Ar/Ar isotopic ages - and crustal structure and seafloor ages - that these hotspot trails are age progressive and formed synchronously across the swell, consistent with African plate motion over plumes rising from the stable edge of a Low Shear Wave Velocity Province (LLSVP) (O'Connor et al., 2012). We showed furthermore that hotspot trails formed initially only at spreading boundaries at the outer edges of the swell until roughly 44 million years ago, when they started forming across the swell, far from spreading boundaries in lithosphere that was sufficiently weak (young) for plume melts to reach the surface. We concluded that if plume melts formed synchronous age progressive hotspot trails whenever they could penetrate the lithosphere, then hotspot trails in the South Atlantic are controlled by the interplay between deep plumes and the shallow motion and structure of the African plate. If the distribution of hotspot trails reflects where plume melts could or could not penetrate the continental or oceanic lithosphere then plumes could have been active for significantly longer than indicated by their volcanic chains. This provides a mechanism for extended late stage interplay between deep mantle processes and the passive margin and adjacent continents that might explain extensive magmatism, lithospheric thinning and phases of post-rift uplift on continental margins and nearby continents. O'Connor, J. M., Jokat, W., le Roex, A. P., Class, C., Wijbrans, J. R., Kessling, S., Kuiper, K. F. & Nebel, O. Hotspot trails in the South Atlantic controlled by plume and plate tectonic processes. Nature Geoscience, DOI:10:1038/NGEO1583 (2012). http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v5/n10/full/ngeo1583.html

O'Connor, John; Jokat, Wilfried; le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia; Wijbrans, Jan; Keling, Stefanie; Kuiper, Klaudia; Nebel, Oliver

2013-04-01

371

Simulation and Modelling of Turbulent Trailing-Edge Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computations of turbulent trailing-edge flow have been carried out at a Reynolds number of 1000 (based on the free-stream\\u000a quantities and the trailing-edge thickness) using an unsteady 3D Reynolds-Averaged NavierStokes (URANS) code, in which two-equation\\u000a (k?) turbulence models with various low-Re near wall treatments were implemented. Results from a direct numerical simulation\\u000a (DNS) of the same flow are available for

Y. F. Yao; A. M. Savill; N. D. Sandham; W. N. Dawes

2002-01-01

372

Development of a radioiodinated apoptosis-inducing ligand, rhTRAIL, and a radiolabelled agonist TRAIL receptor antibody for clinical imaging studies  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through activation of the death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Recombinant human (rh) TRAIL and the TRAIL-R1 directed monoclonal antibody mapatumumab are currently clinically evaluated as anticancer agents. The objective of this study was to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting the TRAIL-R1, suitable for clinical use to help understand and predict clinical efficacy in patients. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH rhTRAIL was radioiodinated with 125I, and conjugated mapatumumab was radiolabelled with 111In. The radiopharmaceuticals were characterized, their in vitro stability and death receptor targeting capacities were determined and in vivo biodistribution was studied in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts with different expression of TRAIL-R1. KEY RESULTS Labelling efficiencies, radiochemical purity, stability and binding properties were optimized for the radioimmunoconjugates. In vivo biodistribution showed rapid renal clearance of [125I]rhTRAIL, with highest kidney activity at 15 min and almost no detectable activity after 4 h. Activity rapidly decreased in almost all organs, except for the xenografts. Radiolabelled mapatumumab showed blood clearance between 24 and 168 h and a reduced decrease in radioactivity in the high receptor expression xenograft. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS rhTRAIL and mapatumumab can be efficiently radiolabelled. The new radiopharmaceuticals can be used clinically to study pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tumour targeting, which could support evaluation of the native targeted agents in phase I/II trials.

Duiker, EW; Dijkers, ECF; Lambers Heerspink, H; de Jong, S; van der Zee, AGJ; Jager, PL; Kosterink, JGW; de Vries, EGE; Lub-de Hooge, MN

2012-01-01

373

Development of trail network model and web-based bikeway routing service system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trail network data model provides an infrastructure that can be used for non-motorized transportation analysis and decision making. In this paper, a trail network model, TNM, is discussed, and a web-based bikeway routing service system, BikerRouting, is presented to provide routing services to bikers on the Virginia trail network implemented based on TNM. In this paper, 1) the trail

Qifeng Lu; Stephen Sedlock

2008-01-01

374

Curcumin sensitizes TRAIL-resistant xenografts: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that curcumin (a diferuloylmethane, the yellow pigment in turmeric) enhances apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer PC-3 cells, and sensitizes TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells in vitro through multiple mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin sensitized TRAIL-resistant LNCaP xenografts in vivo. METHODS: Prostate cancer TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells

Sharmila Shankar; Suthakar Ganapathy; Qinghe Chen; Rakesh K Srivastava

2008-01-01

375

Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

376

A trail pheromone component of the ant Mayriella overbecki Viehmeyer (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).  

PubMed

The myrmicine ant Mayriella overbecki lays recruitment trails during foraging and nest emigrations. The trail pheromone originates from the poison gland. From ten identified components of the poison gland secretions only methyl 6-methylsalicylate 1 elicited trail following behavior. PMID:11013881

Kohl, E; Hlldobler, B; Bestmann, H J

2000-07-01

377

Monomorium ant's trail pheromones: Glandular source, optimal concentration, longevity and specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ants use pheromone trails to organize collective foraging. Trail pheromones are produced from different glandular sources and they may be specific to a single species or shared by a number of species. I investigated the source of trail pheromones in three Monomorium ant species: Monomorium niloticum (Emery), M. najrane (Collingwood & Agosti) and M. mayri (Forel). I also examined

Ashraf Mohamed Ali Mashaly

2010-01-01

378

The effect of a non-uniform turning kernel on ant trail morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ordinary differential equation model is constructed for the formation of pheromone trails by ants on a pre-determined network. At each junction of the trails the probability that an ant will turn through any particular angle is given by a turning kernel. We prove analytically using analogies with thermodynamics that turning behaviour determines trail morphology when the turning kernel is

Andrew D. Vincent; Mary R. Myerscough

2004-01-01

379

Foraging efficiency in the wood ant, Formica rufa: is time of the essence in trail following?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central place foraging in ants is expected to maximize colony efficiency by minimizing the lengths of established trails. Short trails reduce both the time and energy costs of delivering food back to the nest, but which is most important? To examine trail route choice in the wood ant Formica rufa, we used a series of bridges, each with two alternative

Adrian Jay Denny; Jonathan Wright; Ben Grief

2001-01-01

380

Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

2012-09-20

381

Application of the wilderness travel simulation model to the Appalachian Trail in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wilderness travel simulation model estimates complex recreation use patterns in park and wilderness environments. The model was applied to a section of the Appalachian Trail in Vermont, a linear, long-distance, multiple-access trail system characteristic of the eastern United States. Many portions of the trail, including the study area, are now experiencing high use. The model estimated the average number

Fletcher I. Potter; Robert E. Manning

1984-01-01

382

Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

383

Trail laying behaviour during food recruitment in the ant Lasius niger (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The trail-laying behaviour of foragers of the antLasius niger was observed in the laboratory on a 20 cm bridge between the nest and the food source. We measured both the frequency of trail laying, as defined by the proportion of trips during which trail laying occurred, and its intensity, as defined by the number of marks laid during one

R. Beckers; J. L. Deneubourg; S. Goss

1992-01-01

384

Mossy Cave Trail Rehabilitation and Resource Protection Environmental Assessment, June 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bryce Canyon National Park proposes to rehabilitate portions of the Mossy Cave Trail in order to return the trail to good condition and provide safe access to the waterfall and Mossy Cave while protecting area resources. The Mossy Cave Trail is located in...

2006-01-01

385

Structure of small meteoroids deduced from two station low light level TV observations of meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of meteor trails in the earth's upper atmosphere. The meteor trails were imaged with low light level TV cameras simultaneously from two stations, and recorded on video tape at 50 frames\\/sec. This technique has several advantages over photographic techniques employed previously for recording meteor trails. The temporal resolution is much better. Television cameras can detect meteors

M. A. Hapgood; P. Rothwell

1982-01-01

386

30 CFR 75.605 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. 75.605 Section 75...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.605 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. [Statutory...

2010-07-01

387

30 CFR 75.605 - Clamping of trailing cables to equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. 75.605 Section 75...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.605 Clamping of trailing cables to equipment. [Statutory...

2009-07-01

388

Ant Trails - An Example for Robots to Follow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to operate effectively in their variable and unstructured real world environment insects employ many strategies. Generating and detecting odours is the basis of several of these strategies. It seems certain that similar techniques can be implemented to improve the competence of robotic systems. This paper describes a project to investigate transferring the pheromone trail tracking capabilities of ants

R. Andrew Russell

1999-01-01

389

Path efficiency of ant foraging trails in an artificial network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an individual-based model describing the foraging behavior of ants moving in an artificial network of tunnels in which several interconnected paths can be used to reach a single food source. Ants lay a trail pheromone while moving in the network and this pheromone acts as a system of mass recruitment that attracts other ants in

Karla Vittori; Grgoire Talbot; Jacques Gautrais; Vincent Fourcassieb; Aluizio F. R. Arajo; Guy Theraulaz

2006-01-01

390

Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.  

PubMed

In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25, 35, 45, or 55 C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures. PMID:22573108

van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphal; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

2012-05-10

391

A theoretical model for uni-directional ant trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of uni-directional ant traffic, motivated by the motion of ants in trail is proposed. Two different type of ants, one of which smells very well and the other does not, are considered. The flux of ants in this model is investigated as functions of the probability of evaporation rate of pheromone. The obtained results indicate that the

Ozhan Kayacan

2011-01-01

392

A mathematical and experimental study of ant foraging trail dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present a mathematical model coupled to an experimental study of ant foraging trails. Our laboratory experiments on Tetramorium caespitum do not find a strong relationship between ant densities and velocities, a common assumption in traffic modeling. Rather, we find that higher order effects play a major role in observed behavior, and our model reflects this by

Katie Johnson; Louis F. Rossi

2006-01-01

393

Activity Dispatching for Cooperative Trails-based Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Siobhan Clarke, for her support and guidance during the course of this project. Also, I would like to acknowledge Eamonn Linehan and Cormac Driver for their help and assistance. Ben Steichen University of Dublin, Trinity College September 2007 iv Activity Dispatching for Cooperative Trails-based Applications Ben Steichen, M.Sc. University of Dublin,

Ben Steichen

2007-01-01

394

The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning

Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

2011-01-01

395

Historic Resource Study: Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To place the Mormons and the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail in historical perspective is difficult, for they were both unique as well as uniquely American. Most Mormons tend to emphasize that which is unique in their history. In no way do Mormons ...

S. B. Kimball

1991-01-01

396

Basic Sequence Analysis Techniques for Use with Audit Trail Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audit trail analysis can provide valuable insights to researchers and evaluators interested in comparing and contrasting designers' expectations of use and students' actual patterns of use of educational technology environments (ETEs). Sequence analysis techniques are particularly effective but have been neglected to some extent because of real

Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor

2008-01-01

397

Investigation of leachate quality from the Trail Road Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate data for the Trail Road sanitary landfill were obtained for stages three (3) and four (4) of the landfill, located in the City of Ottawa, for the period of 10 years from 1996 to 2005. Data included several parameters such as pH, BOD, COD, Ca, Fe, Cl, SO?, some selected heavy metals such as: Cu, Zn, Pb, and other

Ziad Bataineh

2007-01-01

398

Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany  

PubMed Central

To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme diseasecausing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

2011-01-01

399

Normal Thymocyte Negative Selection in TRAIL-deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of thymocyte negative selection, which plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining immunological tolerance, is not yet resolved. In particular, the importance of the death receptor subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family has been the subject of many investigations, with equivocal results. A recent report suggested that TRAIL was a criti- cal factor in this

Erika Cretney; Adam P. Uldrich; Stuart P. Berzins; Andreas Strasser; Dale I. Godfrey; Mark J. Smyth

2003-01-01

400

What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

401

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

PubMed

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Glser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2010-10-20

402

Swashplateless Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-Edge Flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A helicopter primary control system with trailing-edge flaps was investigated numerically for its potential to replace a conventional swashplate system. Eliminating the swashplate and associated control system can lead to significant reductions in weight, drag, and cost and an improvement of rotor performance. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis was developed for analyzing the swashplateless rotor configuration and was implemented to examine

Jinwei Shen; Inderjit Chopra

2004-01-01

403

Gust alleviation using rapidly deployed trailing-edge flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental investigation into the use of a small, rapidly actuated, actively controlled trailing-edge flap (4% chord) to alleviate the unsteady loading experienced by wind turbine blades due to atmospheric turbulence and the atmospheric boundary layer.The computational investigation demonstrated that the rejection of realistic flow disturbances should be feasible with the use

M. Frederick; E. C. Kerrigan; J. M. R. Graham

2010-01-01

404

Time Dependence of CTE from Cosmic Ray Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a method to measure the counts in cosmic ray trails (CRTs), which result from imperfect charge transfer efficiency (CTE). Like previous measures of CTE, the counts in the CRTs are a strong function of the number of serial and parallel transfers, background, source counts, and lifetime of the instrument. Analysis of the CRTs reveals that some charge

Adam Riess; John Biretta; Stefano Casertano

1999-01-01

405

NACA 0015 Wing Pressure and Trailing Vortex Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A NACA 0015 semispan wing was placed in a low-speed wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. Pressure data were obtai...

K. W. Mcalister R. K. Takahashi

1991-01-01

406

14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD RISING FROM BENEATH CHAPIN PASS (AT EXTREME RIGHT) TO FALL RIVER PASS (FAR LEFT). - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

407

12. Photocopy of drawing (Original from 'The Sante Fe Trail' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of drawing (Original from 'The Sante Fe Trail' by H.M.T. Powell, 1850) Photographer unknown, April 1940 GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

408

The inviscid stability of a trailing line vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A finite difference method has been developed to study the inviscid stability of swirling flows to small non-axisymmetric disturbances. We apply the method to Batchelor's trailing line vortex solution [3]. The method appears to be more efficient, and simpler to implement for this class of problem, than previously reported methods.

P. W. Duck; M. R. Foster

1980-01-01

409

Characteristics of a trailing flap flow with small separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed measurements of pressure and velocity characteristics are reported for the flow on and downstream of a trailing flap, whose 16 degree angle of incidence resulted in boundary layer separation, a small region of recirculating flow, and a curved downstream wake. Emphasis is placed on the region of recirculating flow and on the downstream wake. The characteristics were quantified by

D. Adair

1987-01-01

410

In Search of the Ways of Knowing Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Flash animated adventure, learners explore the Ituri Forest and the village of Epulu in central Africa. Learners "travel" with four other kids and can use the Forest Factbook containing definitions and pronunciations to help them along the way. Through this interactive game, learners will solve problems, discover the rich biodiversity of the area, and learn the "secret" of the knowing trail.

Zoo, Brookfield; Society, Chicago Z.

2012-06-26

411

The chainsaw supply chain in cameroon: the northern trail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cameroon has the largest forest area in africa. industrial logging operations export timber products to Europe, america and asia, and informal chainsaw milling (Csm) operations supply the domestic market and many other african countries. The northern trail is an informal supply chain that supplies northern Cameroon and other african markets as far as nigeria, niger, Chad, sudan, Egypt, libya and

Patrick Langbour; Jean-Marc Roda; Yeboah Alexis Koffi

412

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We employed a glucose oxidase (GOD) to deplete glucose in the tumor. TRAIL cytotoxicity is potentiated in the presence of GOD. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that GOD has potent tumoricidal activity. Hydrogen peroxide produced by GOD is ef...

J. J. Song

2003-01-01

413

The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these

Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

2011-01-01

414

Simulations of temporal evolution of isolated trailing vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of turbulent trailing vortices is studied using pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulations of the vorticity transport equations. A range of initial conditions are used, covering a wide spectrum of swirl numbers, different base flow profiles and varied perturbations. In the inviscidly-unstable swirl number range, the flow is characterized by the dynamics of saturating helical instabilities, as has been

Karthikeyan Duraisamy; Sanjiva Lele

2006-01-01

415

Expression of TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptors in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is an intrinsic and fundamental biologic process that plays a critical role in the normal development of multicellular organisms and in the maintainance of tissue homeostasis. Some of the well known regulators of apoptosis are cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, such as Fas ligand (Fas L) and TNF, which induce apoptosis by activation of their corresponding receptors, Fas and TNFR-1. Recently, a new member of the TNF family known as TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) was identified and shown to induce p53-independent apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell lines but not in normal cells. Four human receptors for TRAIL were also recently identified and designated TRAIL-R1, -R2, -R3, and -R4. The aim of this study is to examine whether TRAIL and TRAIL receptors (-R1, -R2, -R3) are expressed in uterine cervical cancer and whether it is correlated with apoptosis, TRAIL, and TRAIL receptors. The subjects were 20 patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer. Western blotting was performed in nine cases and immunohistochemical staining for TRAIL and TRAIL receptors (-R1, -R2, -R3) and TUNEL method for detection of apoptosis was performed in 11 cases. There were proteins for TRAIL, TRAIL-R1, -R2, and -R3 in tissues from cervical cancer. All TRAIL receptors were expressed in both normal cervical epithelium and tumor cells, and TRAIL-R1 and -R2 were more strongly expressed in tumor cells than normal epithelium (P < 0.05). Apoptosis correlated with expression of TRAIL-R1 and -R2 (P < 0.05). This study suggests that TRAIL induces apoptosis in cervical cancer through its receptors. PMID:11240708

Ryu, H. S.; Chang, K. H.; Chang, S. J.; Kim, M. S.; Joo, H. J.; Oh, K. S.

2000-09-01

416

Mesenchymal Stem Cell delivery of TRAIL can eliminate Metastatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a leading cause of mortality throughout the world and new treatments are urgently needed. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to and incorporate within tumor tissue. We hypothesised that MSCs engineered to produce and deliver TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a transmembrane protein which causes selective apoptosis of tumor cells, would home to and kill cancer cells in a lung metastatic cancer model. Human MSCs were transduced with TRAIL and the IRES-eGFP reporter gene, under the control of a tetracycline promoter using a lentiviral vector. Transduced and activated MSCs caused lung (A549), breast (MDAMB231), squamous (H357), and cervical (Hela) cancer cell apoptosis and death in co-culture experiments. Subcutaneous xenograft experiments confirmed directly delivered TRAIL-expressing MSCs were able to significantly reduce tumor growth (0.12 cm3 (0.04-0.21) vs 0.66 cm3 (0.21-1.11) (p<0.001)). We then found using a pulmonary metatastasis model, systemically delivered MSCs localised to lung metastases and the controlled local delivery of TRAIL completely cleared the metastatic disease in 38% of mice compared to 0% of controls (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate a significant reduction in metastatic tumor burden with frequent eradication of metastases using inducible TRAIL-expressing MSCs. This has a wide potential therapeutic role, which includes the treatment of both primary tumors and their metastases, possibly as an adjuvant therapy in clearing micrometastatic disease following primary tumor resection.

Loebinger, Michael R.; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Davies, Derek; Janes, Sam M.

2009-01-01

417

Elephant trail runoff and sediment dynamics in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Although elephants may exert various impacts on the environment, no data are available on the effects of elephant trails on runoff, soil erosion, and sediment transport to streams during storms. We monitored water and sediment fluxes from an elephant trail in northern Thailand during seven monsoon storms representing a wide range of rainfall energies. Runoff varied from trivial amounts to 353 mm and increased rapidly in tandem with expanding contributing areas once a threshold of wetting occurred. Runoff coefficients during the two largest storms were much higher than could be generated from the trail itself, implying a 4.5- to 7.9-fold increase in the drainage areas contributing to storm runoff. Clockwise hysteresis patterns of suspended sediment observed during most storms was amplified by a "first flush" of sediment early on the hydrograph in which easily entrained sediment was transported. As runoff areas expanded during the latter part of large storms, discharge increased but sediment concentrations declined. Thus, sediment flux was better correlated to kinetic energy of rainfall on the falling limbs of most storm hydrographs compared to rising limbs. Based on a power function relationship between sediment flux and storm kinetic energy, the estimated annual sediment yield from the trail for 135 storms in 2005 was 308 to 375 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1), higher than from most disturbed land surfaces in the tropics. The eight largest storms (30% of total storm energy) in 2005 transported half of the total annual sediment. These measurements together with site investigations reveal that highly interconnected elephant trails, together with other source areas, directly link runoff and sediment to streams. PMID:20400583

Sidle, Roy C; Ziegler, Alan D

2010-04-13

418

Vehicle structure  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

Stroud, E.A.

1984-05-01

419

Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production  

PubMed Central

TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-?-gal, p21Waf1/Cip1, p16INK4a, and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects.

Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

2008-01-01

420

Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production  

SciTech Connect

TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-{beta}-gal, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}, p16{sup INK4a}, and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects.

Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard [Department of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gorelik, Elieser [Department of Pathology and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Immunology and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lokshin, Anna E. [Department of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Pathology and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)], E-mail: lokshina@pitt.edu

2008-04-15

421

The dynamics of foraging trails in the tropical arboreal ant Cephalotes goniodontus.  

PubMed

The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4-8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony's trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest. PMID:23209749

Gordon, Deborah M

2012-11-28

422

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL): A new path to anti-cancer therapies  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in 1995, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor super family, has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. Consequently, activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway from the death-inducing TRAIL receptors provides an attractive, biologically-targeted approach to cancer therapy. A great deal of research has focused on deciphering the TRAIL receptor signaling cascade and intracellular regulation of this pathway, as many human tumor cells possess mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This review focuses on the currently state of knowledge regarding TRAIL signaling and resistance, the preclinical development of therapies targeted at TRAIL receptors and modulators of the pathway, and the results of clinical trials for cancer treatment that have emerged from this base of knowledge. TRAIL-based approaches to cancer therapy vary from systemic administration of recombinant, soluble TRAIL protein with or without the combination of traditional chemotherapy, radiation or novel anticancer agents to agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed against functional TRAIL receptors to TRAIL gene transfer therapy. A better understanding of TRAIL resistance mechanisms may allow for the development of more effective therapies that exploit this cell-mediated pathway to apoptosis.

Holoch, Peter A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

2009-01-01

423

Rock Levitation by Water and Ice; an Explanation for Trails in Racetrack Playa, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a process that is nearly a century-old mystery, rock fragments race over a desiccated layer of sediment in the California desert, forming the infamous rock trails of the Racetrack playa, found in Death Valley, California. Rocks, randomly distributed over the playa, have indented grooves or trails next to them, appearing as if someone had dragged them over the playa surface when wet. Interestingly, no one has ever witnessed the movement of these rocks. Furthermore, the mechanism responsible for these trails behind the rocks has not yet been explained. Rocks have masses ranging from 0.5 kg to 300 kg, and the trails have a chaotic character, with some trails as long as 1/2 km. Each rock has a mound of raised clay on one side and a mud trail on the other; no other unusual marks are visible. A number of trails have no rocks at the end, with only a mound of solid clay where a rock once appeared to be, as if something was pushing the clay forwards to make the trail but disappeared after the trail was made. Measurements of the humidity and temperature of the sediment pointed towards a unique mechanism of how the trails could form on their own and how simple environmental changes could result in the aforementioned trails in the sediment.

Kletetschka, G.; Ryan, A.; McKinney, E.; Fercana, G.; Schwebler, K. P.; McIntire, L.; Miller, D.; Fox, V. K.; Marbourg, J. M.; Naquin, C. A.; Krzykowski, M.; Wilde, J. R.; Kopp, E. S.; Romine, G.; Yawn, K.; Schoch, I.; McAdam, M.; Burger, D.; Rilee, K.; Jackson, B. K.; Parsons, A. M.; Cheung, C. Y.; Lunar; Planetary Science Academy

2010-12-01

424

The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p {<=}0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

Maduro, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hollema, Harry [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mom, Constantijne H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-09-01

425

TRAIL-R deficiency in mice promotes susceptibility to chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Preclinical data support the potential of the death-signaling receptors for TRAIL as targets for cancer therapy. However, it is unclear whether these death-signaling receptors suppress the emergence and growth of malignant tumors in vivo. Herein we show that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), the only proapoptotic death-signaling receptor for TRAIL in the mouse, suppresses inflammation and tumorigenesis. Loss of a single TRAIL-R allele on the lymphoma-prone Emu-myc genetic background significantly reduced median lymphoma-free survival. TRAIL-R-deficient lymphomas developed with equal frequency irrespective of mono- or biallelic loss of TRAIL-R, had increased metastatic potential, and showed apoptotic defects relative to WT littermates. In addition, TRAIL-R-/- mice showed decreased long-term survival following a sublethal dose of ionizing radiation. Histological evaluation of moribund irradiated TRAIL-R-/- animals showed hallmarks of bronchopneumonia as well as tumor formation with increased NF-kappaB p65 expression. TRAIL-R also suppressed diethylnitrosamine-induced (DEN-induced) hepatocarcinogenesis, as an increased number of large tumors with apoptotic defects developed in the livers of DEN-treated TRAIL-R-/- mice. Thus TRAIL-R may function as an inflammation and tumor suppressor in multiple tissues in vivo. PMID:18079962

Finnberg, Niklas; Klein-Szanto, Andres J P; El-Deiry, Wafik S

2008-01-01

426

TRAIL-R deficiency in mice promotes susceptibility to chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Preclinical data support the potential of the death-signaling receptors for TRAIL as targets for cancer therapy. However, it is unclear whether these death-signaling receptors suppress the emergence and growth of malignant tumors in vivo. Herein we show that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), the only proapoptotic death-signaling receptor for TRAIL in the mouse, suppresses inflammation and tumorigenesis. Loss of a single TRAIL-R allele on the lymphoma-prone E?-myc genetic background significantly reduced median lymphoma-free survival. TRAIL-Rdeficient lymphomas developed with equal frequency irrespective of mono- or biallelic loss of TRAIL-R, had increased metastatic potential, and showed apoptotic defects relative to WT littermates. In addition, TRAIL-R/ mice showed decreased long-term survival following a sublethal dose of ionizing radiation. Histological evaluation of moribund irradiated TRAIL-R/ animals showed hallmarks of bronchopneumonia as well as tumor formation with increased NF-?B p65 expression. TRAIL-R also suppressed diethylnitrosamine-induced (DEN-induced) hepatocarcinogenesis, as an increased number of large tumors with apoptotic defects developed in the livers of DEN-treated TRAIL-R/ mice. Thus TRAIL-R may function as an inflammation and tumor suppressor in multiple tissues in vivo.

Finnberg, Niklas; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.P.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2007-01-01

427

Induction of apoptosis in glioma cell lines by TRAIL/Apo-2l.  

PubMed

TRAIL/Apo-2L, a novel cytokine, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and serves as an extracellular signal triggering apoptosis. TRAIL/Apo-2L is capable of killing various transformed cells but not unstimulated primary T cells. In this study, five human glioma cells (U87, U118, U178, U563, and A172) were examined for their susceptibility to the apoptotic effects of TRAIL/Apo-2L. TRAIL/Apo-2L cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR, and recombinant TRAIL/Apo-2L protein was purified by the pMAL-c2 system (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA). Exposure of A172 cells to bacterially expressed soluble TRAIL/Apo-2L fusion protein at a concentration of 1 microg/ml resulted in significant cell death over a 24-h period. Three experiments were performed to suggest that the TRAIL/Apo-2L killing was through the induction of apoptosis of A172 target cells. In addition, the expression of TRAIL/Apo-2L in different glioma cells was found to be variable, and TRAIL/Apo-2L-induced apoptosis was in a cell type-dependent manner. Some correlation between the susceptibility to TRAIL/Apo-2L and the expression level of one of its cognate receptors, DR4, was observed. In addition, cycloheximide worked synergistically with TRAIL/Apo-2L to induce apoptosis in glioma cells. PMID:10931534

Wu, M; Das, A; Tan, Y; Zhu, C; Cui, T; Wong, M C

2000-08-15

428

Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (7-14?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

2011-05-01

429

Trail interacts redundantly with nitric oxide in rat astrocytes: potential contribution to neurodegenerative processes.  

PubMed

The proapoptotic cytokine TRAIL has been shown to enhance amyloid-beta-dependent neurotoxicity. Here are reported interactions between TRAIL and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured rat astrocytes in vitro. Rat astrocytes expressed all TRAIL receptor mRNAs and proteins. However, TRAIL failed in inducing apoptosis of astrocytes, whereas these cells released substantial amounts of nitrites. A TRAIL-neutralizing antibody was able to prevent LPS-induced iNOS expression in astrocytes. Interestingly, TRAIL induced its own expression in astrocytes. These data suggest that redundancy between TRAIL and NO in astrocytes could be fueling neuronal damage/death processes, potentially uncovering novel molecular targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17067687

Cantarella, Giuseppina; Lempereur, Laurence; D'Alcamo, Maria Antonia; Risuglia, Nunziata; Cardile, Vera; Pennisi, Giuseppa; Scoto, Giovanna Maria; Bernardini, Renato

2006-10-24

430

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

431

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

432

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

433

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

434

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

435

Identification of platinum and palladium particles emitted from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment.  

PubMed

Platinum, palladium, and rhodium are emitted from vehicle catalytic converters. Until now, the form of precious metal particles in road dust and urban waste has not been identified. This study has located, imaged, and analyzed these particles in road dust and gully waste. Two fragments of catalytic converter have been observed in road dust. They are 40-80 ?m in size and covered in many minute particles (<0.3 ?m) of either platinum with minor rhodium or palladium. One fragment identified in gully sediment is smaller, 25 ?m in diameter, hosting only one attached particle of palladium with minor rhodium. As fragments are washed off roads they begin to disintegrate and the precious metals become detached. Also precious metal-bearing particles have been located in incinerated sewage ash including a 20 ?m diameter cluster of <3 ?m sized platinum particles that may be the remains of a catalytic converter fragment that has survived incineration. The form of these precious metal-bearing particles described here reveals that as they are dispersed from roads they are likely to be present predominantly as two particle sizes. Either they are attached to larger fragments of catalytic converter or they are released as individual detached tiny <0.3 ?m to nanoparticle sizes. PMID:22313190

Prichard, Hazel M; Fisher, Peter C

2012-03-07

436

All-terrain vehicle fatalities--West Virginia, 1999-2006.  

PubMed

An all-terrain vehicle (ATV) is a motorized vehicle designed for off-road use with low-pressure tires, a seat that is straddled by the operator, and handlebars for steering. Currently, only four-wheeled models are produced in the United States; production of three-wheeled ATVs ended in 1987 because of safety concerns. During the 1990s, West Virginia led the United States in per capita deaths from ATV crashes, with rates approximately eight times higher than the national average. In an attempt to curtail this trend, West Virginia enacted legislation in 2004 to regulate ATV use. This law prohibited ATV operation on paved roads with a center line, unless the vehicle was traveling a distance of < or =10 miles and at a speed of < or =25 miles per hour. The statute also required helmet use and training for ATV riders aged <18 years, regardless of where the ATV was ridden. To guide further prevention campaigns and identify appropriate populations for targeted educational interventions, the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources used data from death certificates of 1999-2006 ATV fatalities to analyze demographic and socioeconomic trends. Trends by age and crash classification (i.e., traffic versus nontraffic) also were evaluated in the context of the 2004 law. Results of that analysis indicated that, after the ATV law was enacted in West Virginia, the ATV-related death rate in the state among children did not decline, and total ATV-related traffic fatalities increased from 0.72 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 1.32 in 2006. Higher annual ATV death rates occurred among males, persons aged 10-17 years, residents of the most impoverished counties, and persons aged > or =25 years who had not completed high school. Further preventive measures aimed at reducing ATV-related fatalities should be considered, such as targeted educational interventions and more stringent provisions of the law. PMID:18368006

2008-03-28

437

Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Wilshire, H. G.; Nakata, J. K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

1978-01-01

438

Mutation analysis and mRNA expression of trail-receptors in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

The chromosome region 8p12-p22 shows frequent allelic loss in a variety of human malignancies, including breast cancer (BC). The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-receptors TRAIL-R1, -R2, -R3 and -R4 are located on 8p21-p22 and might be candidate tumor suppressor genes in this region. To evaluate the involvement of TRAIL receptors in breast carcinogenesis, we have analyzed the entire coding region of TRAIL-R2 and the death domain (DD) regions of TRAIL-R1 and -R4 for the detection of somatic mutations in a series of breast tumors, lymph node metastases and BC cell lines. Overall, we detected 1, 11 and 3 alterations in the TRAIL-R1, -R2 and -R4 genes, respectively. Although functional studies have not yet been performed, we assume that most of these alterations do not alter the function of TRAIL-receptors. Additionally, we analyzed individuals from BC families for the detection of TRAIL-R2 germline mutations. One alteration has been found in the Kozak consensus motif at position -4 with respect to the translation initiation AUG [1-4 (C-->A)]. We further studied the mRNA expression of TRAIL and the 4 TRAIL receptors. In BC cell lines, a strongly decreased mRNA expression of TRAIL, TRAIL-R1, -R3 and -R4 was found, whereas the expression of TRAIL-R2 was only slightly reduced. In breast tumors, a 1.2-3.6-fold reduction of mRNA signals of the 5 genes was observed. No correlation was found between the expression level of TRAIL and the receptor mRNAs and clinicopathologic variables and between the expression of TRAIL-R2 and TP53 mutation status and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 8p21-p22. Taken together, we cannot exclude the involvement of TRAIL-receptors in BC. Our mutation studies indicate that DD receptor mutations occur at low frequency and are not the primary cause for the altered mRNA expression of TRAIL and TRAIL-receptors in BC. PMID:12385006

Seitz, Susanne; Wassmuth, Peter; Fischer, Jrg; Nothnagel, Anita; Jandrig, Burkhard; Schlag, Peter M; Scherneck, Siegfried

2002-11-10

439

A mathematical and experimental study of ant foraging trail dynamics.  

PubMed

In this article, we present a mathematical model coupled to an experimental study of ant foraging trails. Our laboratory experiments on Tetramorium caespitum do not find a strong relationship between ant densities and velocities, a common assumption in traffic modeling. Rather, we find that higher order effects play a major role in observed behavior, and our model reflects this by including inertial terms in the evolution equation. A linearization of the resulting system yields left- and right-moving waves, in agreement with laboratory measurements. The linearized system depends upon Froude numbers reflecting a ratio of the energy stored in the foraging trail to the kinetic energy of the ants. The model predicts and the measurements support the existence of two distinct phase velocities. PMID:16442564

Johnson, Katie; Rossi, Louis F

2006-01-27

440

Collective effects in traffic on bi-directional ant trails.  

PubMed

Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-directional ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict some unusual features of the flow rate that can be tested experimentally. As in the uni-directional model a non-monotonic density-dependence of the average velocity can be observed in certain parameter regimes. As a consequence of the interaction between oppositely moving ants the flow rate can become approximately constant over some density interval. PMID:15380392

John, Alexander; Schadschneider, Andreas; Chowdhury, Debashish; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

2004-11-21

441

A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al.

Bjrn Andersen, Peter; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hartvig Hansen, Morten

2007-07-01

442

Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.  

PubMed

The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

Desmond, Bree

443

Mountain Trail Formation and the Active Walker Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the active walker model to address the formation of paths on gradients, which have been observed to have a zigzag form. Our extension includes a new rule, which prohibits direct descent or ascent on steep inclines, simulating aversion to falling. Further augmentation of the model stops walkers from changing direction very rapidly as that would likely lead to a fall. The extended model predicts paths with qualitatively similar forms to the observed trails, but only if the terms suppressing sudden direction changes are included. The need to include terms into the model that stop rapid direction change when simulating mountain trails indicates that a similar rule should also be included in the standard active walker model.

Gilks, S. J.; Hague, J. P.

444

The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).  

PubMed

The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed. PMID:20952623

Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

2010-11-01

445

The dietary isoflavone biochanin-A sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Biochanin-A, a major dietary isoflavone in soy and red clover, possesses anticancer and chemopreventive properties. Induction of apoptosis by naturally occurring dietary agents is an important event for cancer chemoprevention. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis selectively in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Soluble or expressed in immune cells, molecules TRAIL plays a significant role in surveillance and defense mechanisms against tumours. Prostate cancer is an ideal disease for nutritional prevention. The TRAIL-mediated apoptosis pathway in prostate cancer cells is an attractive target for chemopreventive activities of dietary agents. LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We showed that biochanin-A markedly augmented TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in both prostate cancer cell lines. Then, we investigated the mechanisms by which biochanin-A enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis using the LNCaP cell line. The isoflavone sensitized the TRAIL-resistant LNCaP cells through the inhibition of transcription factor NF-?B(p65) activity, increased the expression of the death receptor TRAIL-R2 (DR5), and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Our study confirmed that biochanin-A overcame TRAIL-resistance by engaging both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and by regulating the NF-?B activity. The results suggested a potential role of biochanin-A in prostate cancer chemoprevention through the enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:21803611

Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Mertas, Anna; Paradysz, Andrzej; Krol, Wojciech

2011-07-30

446

TRAIL attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice  

PubMed Central

TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is most often reported to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. It is expressed in artery walls but its role and regulation in vascular pathologies is little studied. We aimed to measure the effect of genetic deletion of TRAIL on atherosclerosis in a mouse model. TRAIL was mainly expressed in endothelium, smooth muscle cells and macrophages within plaques. The absence of TRAIL in chow and in fat-fed mice led to greater lesion coverage in aortae (8 weeks, % areaSEM), n=78, 1.240.2 (no TRAIL, chow diet) vs. 0.420.1, p<0.01 and 3.40.8 (no TRAIL, Western diet) vs. 0.940.2, p<0.01 and larger, smooth muscle cell rich lesions at aortic roots than control mice (8 weeks, mean lesion area/total cross sectional areaSEM, n=78, 0.170.01 (no TRAIL, chow diet) vs. 0.1350.006, p<0.05 and 0.360.03 (no TRAIL, Western diet) vs. 0.230.02, p<0.05) particularly at early time points. The larger early lesions appeared to be as a result of increased smooth muscle cells in lesions of TRAIL deficient, pro-atherosclerotic animals. We conclude that TRAIL attenuates plaque size at early stages of atherosclerosis.

Watt, Victoria; Chamberlain, Janet; Steiner, Tanja; Francis, Sheila; Crossman, David

2011-01-01

447

Traffic on Bidirectional Ant Trails: Coarsening Behaviour and Fundamental Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate traffic on preexisting ant trails using minimal cellular automaton models. We focus on generic properties of\\u000a the models like the coarsening of particles and the fundamental diagrams. Crucial differences between the biand the unidirectional\\u000a model are also discussed. However, based on the coarsening behaviour both models belong to the same universality class. Furthermore\\u000a it will be shown how

Alexander John; Ambarish Kunwar; Alireza Namazi; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katushiro Nishinari

448

Traffic Flow on Ant Trails: Empirical Results vs. Theoretical Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present empirical results for traffic flow on ant trails. The observed spatio-temporal organization of the ants as well\\u000a as quantitative results for the fundamental diagram and headway distributions are compared with predictions of a cellular\\u000a automaton model. In sharp contrast to highway traffic, no jammed phase is observed and the average velocity is almost independent\\u000a of the density of

Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Katsuhiro Nishinari; Debashish Chowdhury

449

Isolation and Identification of Termite Trail-following Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

INSECT pheromones that control chemically the behaviour of highly specialized social insect species have been well documented1. One of these pheromones, termite trail-following substance, is secreted by the sternal glands of various species of termite workers apparently to mark the source of suitable wood for other workers of the same species2,3. When the secretion is streaked across the surface of

F. Matsumura; H. C. Coppel; Akira Tai

1968-01-01

450

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour\\u000a seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic\\u000a trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single

Nele Glser; Sven Wieskotten; Christian Otter; Guido Dehnhardt; Wolf Hanke

2011-01-01

451

Investigating intrusion detection systems that use trails of system calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three intrusion detection systems that use trails of system calls have been investigated. The three techniques used to generate the pattern database have been adapted from sequence method, lookahead-pairs method and variable-length-with-overlap-relationship method. Testing against Trojan horse and denial of service attacks was analyzed. None of the systems is capable of defeating the system-call denial-of-service-attack. Modification is necessary to indicate

Suhair Hafez Amer; John A. Hamilton

2008-01-01

452

Recommending Internet-Domains Using Trails and Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of artificial neural networks, trained with patterns extracted from trail data, as recommender\\u000a systems. Feed-forward Multilayer-Perceptrons trained with the Backpropagation Algorithm were used to assign a rating to pairs\\u000a of domains, based on the number of people that had traversed between them. The artificial neural network constructed in this\\u000a project was capable of learning the

Tobias Berka; Wernher Behrendt; Erich Gams; Siegfried Reich

2002-01-01

453

TRAIL - A tokamak rail gun limiter for fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter (TRAIL) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m\\/sec) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled, after cooling, to the injector in an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of about 30,000 W\\/sq cm can

J. R. Powell; W.-S. Yu; J. A. Fillo; J. L. Usher

1982-01-01

454

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

455

Vehicle Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

1985-01-01

456

Are all-terrain vehicle riders willing to pay trail user fees to ride on ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... In a case study in the US state of Wisconsin, the contingent valuation method was used to examine riders' willingness to pay (WTP) to ride on public lands. ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

457

Sorafenib Sensitizes Solid Tumors to Apo2L/TRAIL and Apo2L/TRAIL Receptor Agonist Antibodies by the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 Axis  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.

Abdulghani, Junaid; Allen, Joshua E.; Dicker, David T.; Liu, Yingqiu Yvette; Goldenberg, David; Smith, Charles D.; Humphreys, Robin; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2013-01-01

458

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10min (five temperature treatments from 25C to 60C), cooled down to 25C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures. PMID:22038287

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphal; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerd, Xim

2011-10-27

459

Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima#  

PubMed Central

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methyl anthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6?-biplumbagin (8) were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 46 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a three-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone.

Whitson, Emily L.; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Sayers, Thomas J.; McMahon, James B.; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C.

2012-01-01

460

Equilibrium State of Trailing Vortices: Statistical Mechanics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a system composed of a large number of 2D point vortices is employed to describe the vortex system shed from aircraft wings. According to this theory, these higher energy states of the vortex system can only be achieved by segregating the point vortices of like kind into two clusters that descend with a constant velocity. The equilibrium statistics of this vortex system is worked out to give the distribution of vortices in the clusters. The solution is given in terms of the integral constraints for each cluster: total circulation, center of inertia and kinetic energy. The negative non-dimensional inverse temperature of the system and the length scale related to angular momentum of a single trailing vortex are obtained versus initial interaction energy of the vortex system. Comparison of the theoretical results with available experimental data shows good agreement between the calculated tangential velocity distribution in the trailing vortex and the data. The flow characteristics for three different wing loads are also compared to emphasize the effect of the initial circulation distribution along a lifting wing on the vorticity distribution in the equilibrium trailing vortices.

Likhachev, O. A.

1999-11-01

461

Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.  

PubMed

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

2012-11-30

462

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25C to 60C), cooled down to 25C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphal; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerd, Xim

2011-12-01

463

Biomarkers of breast cancer apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and TRAIL.  

PubMed

Treatment of breast cancer is complex and challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. To avoid significant toxicity and adverse side-effects of chemotherapy in patients who respond poorly, biomarkers predicting therapeutic response are essential. This study has utilized a proteomic approach integrating 2D-DIGE, LC-MS/MS, and bioinformatics to analyze the proteome of breast cancer (ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231) and breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cell lines induced to undergo apoptosis using a combination of doxorubicin and TRAIL administered in sequence (Dox-TRAIL). Apoptosis induction was confirmed using a caspase-3 activity assay. Comparative proteomic analysis between whole cell lysates of Dox-TRAIL and control samples revealed 56 differentially expressed spots (?2-fold change and p < 0.05) common to at least two cell lines. Of these, 19 proteins were identified yielding 11 unique protein identities: CFL1, EIF5A, HNRNPK, KRT8, KRT18, LMNA, MYH9, NACA, RPLP0, RPLP2, and RAD23B. A subset of the identified proteins was validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and Western blotting. Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially abundant proteins were associated with cell death, cellular organization, integrin-linked kinase signaling, and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways. The 2D-DIGE analysis has yielded candidate biomarkers of response to treatment in breast cancer cell models. Their clinical utility will depend on validation using patient breast biopsies pre- and post-treatment with anticancer drugs. PMID:22133146

Leong, Sharon; McKay, Matthew J; Christopherson, Richard I; Baxter, Robert C

2011-12-14

464

Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 6589 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and serious on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using off-road predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder.

Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

2012-01-01

465

Microsatellite Instability, KRAS Mutations and Cellular Distribution of TRAIL-Receptors in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The fact that the receptors for the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) are almost invariably expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the rationale for the employment of TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds for the therapy of patients affected by this tumor. Yet, first reports on the use of these bioactive agents provided disappointing results. We therefore hypothesized that loss of membrane-bound TRAIL-R might be a feature of some CRC and that the evaluation of membrane staining rather than that of the overall expression of TRAIL-R might predict the response to TRAIL-R targeting compounds in this tumor. Aim and Methods Thus, we evaluated the immunofluorescence pattern of TRAIL-receptors and E-cadherin to assess the fraction of membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors in 231 selected patients with early-stage CRC undergoing surgical treatment only. Moreover, we investigated whether membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors as well as the presence of KRAS mutations or of microsatellite instability (MSI) had an effect on survival and thus a prognostic effect. Results As expected, almost all CRC samples stained positive for TRAIL-R1 and 2. Instead, membrane staining for these receptors was positive in only 71% and 16% of samples respectively. No correlation between KRAS mutation status or MSI-phenotype and prognosis could be detected. TRAIL-R1 staining intensity correlated with survival in univariate analysis, but only membranous staining of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on cell membranes was an independent predictor of survival (cox multivariate analysis: TRAIL-R1: p?=?0.019, RR 2.06[1.123.77]; TRAIL-R2: p?=?0.033, RR 3.63[1.1111.84]). Conclusions In contrast to the current assumptions, loss of membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors is a common feature of early stage CRC which supersedes the prognostic significance of their staining intensity. Failure to achieve therapeutic effects in recent clinical trials using TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds might be due to insufficient selection of patients bearing tumors with membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors.

Kriegl, Lydia; Jung, Andreas; Horst, David; Rizzani, Antonia; Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko; Gallmeier, Eike; Gerbes, Alexander L.; Kirchner, Thomas; Goke, Burkhard; De Toni, Enrico N.

2012-01-01

466

Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein UL141 Targets the TRAIL Death Receptors to Thwart Host Innate Antiviral Defenses  

PubMed Central

Summary Death receptors (DRs) of the TNFR superfamily contribute to antiviral immunity by promoting apoptosis and regulating immune homeostasis during infection, and viral inhibition of DR signaling can alter immune defenses. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 glycoprotein as necessary and sufficient to restrict TRAIL DR function. Despite showing no primary sequence homology to TNF family cytokines, UL141 binds the ectodomains of both human TRAIL DRs with affinities comparable to the natural ligand TRAIL. UL141 binding promotes intracellular retention of the DRs, thus protecting virus infected cells from TRAIL and TRAIL-dependent NK cell-mediated killing. The identification of UL141 as a herpesvirus modulator of the TRAIL DRs strongly implicates this pathway as a regulator of host defense to HCMV and highlights UL141 as a pleiotropic inhibitor of NK cell effector function.

Smith, Wendell; Tomasec, Peter; Aicheler, Rebecca; Loewendorf, Andrea; Nemcovicova, Ivana; Wang, Eddie C.Y.; Stanton, Richard J.; Macauley, Matt; Norris, Paula; Willen, Laure; Ruckova, Eva; Nomoto, Akio; Schneider, Pascal; Hahn, Gabriele; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Ware, Carl F.; Wilkinson, Gavin W.G.; Benedict, Chris A.

2013-01-01

467

The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants.  

PubMed

Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when small, thereby overcoming the hurdles to grow large? In this paper, we study the case of combined group and mass recruitment displayed by some ant species. Using mathematical models, we explore to what extent early group recruitment may aid deployment of scent trails, making such trails available at much smaller colony sizes. We show that a competition between group and mass recruitment may cause oscillatory behaviour mediated by scent trails. This results in a further reduction of colony size to establish trails successfully. PMID:23925728

Planqu, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

2013-08-08

468

Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.  

SciTech Connect

Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

Barone, Matthew Franklin

2011-08-01

469

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

470

Effect of Piezoelectric Hysteresis on Helicopter Vibration Control Using Trailing-Edge Flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.2514\\/1.17655 Thisstudy investigates the effect of piezoelectric actuator hysteresis onhelicopter vibration control using trailing- edge flaps. An aeroelastic analysis is used represent the helicopter with trailing-edge flaps. A compressible unsteady aerodynamic model is used to predict the incremental airloads due to trailing-edge flap motion. The material and mechanical hysteresis in the piezoelectric actuator is modeled using the classical Preisach

S. R. Viswamurthy; Ranjan Ganguli

2006-01-01

471

Species-dependent serum interference in a sandwich ELISA for Apo2L\\/TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support pre-clinical studies of Apo2L\\/TRAIL in rodents and non-human primates, a sandwich ELISA was developed using two mouse monoclonal anti-Apo2L\\/TRAIL antibodies. Mouse, rat, cynomolgus monkey, and chimpanzee serum at concentrations of ?1% were found to interfere with accurate quantitation of Apo2L\\/TRAIL. Moreover, the characteristics of the serum interference for each species were different. In order to resolve the observed

Laura E. DeForge; Danny H. Shih; Derek Kennedy; Klara Totpal; Anan Chuntharapai; Gregory L. Bennett; Jason H. Drummond; Patricia Siguenza; Wai Lee T. Wong

2007-01-01

472

Activation of the Akt Survival Pathway Contributes to TRAIL Resistance in Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance in cancer cells is not fully understood. Here, we show that the Akt survival pathway plays an important role in TRAIL resistance in human cancer cells. Specifically, we found that TRAIL treatment activates the Akt survival pathway and that inhibition of this pathway by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or knockdown

Jing Xu; Jun-Ying Zhou; Wei-Zen Wei; Gen Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Jin

2010-01-01

473

Dependence of radar signal strength on frequency and aspect angle of nonspecular meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a meteoroid penetrates Earth's atmosphere, it forms a high-density ionized plasma column immersed in the ionosphere between approximately 70 and 140 km altitude. High-power, large-aperture (HPLA) radars detect nonspecular trails when VHF or UHF radio waves reflect off structures in a turbulent meteor trail. These trails persist from a few milliseconds to many minutes and the return from these

S. Close; T. Hamlin; M. Oppenheim; L. Cox; P. Colestock

2008-01-01

474

TRAIL (Apo2L) suppresses growth of primary human leukemia and myelodysplasia progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, APO2L) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a number of tumor cell lines as well as in some primary tumors whereas cells from most normal tissues are highly resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We have studied the susceptibility of primary malignant and normal bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Extracellular domain of human

M Plasilova; J Zivny; J Jelinek; R Neuwirtova; J Cermak; E Necas; L Andera; T Stopka

2002-01-01

475

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Physical Activity Using Bike\\/Pedestrian Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a public health perspective, a cost-benefit analysis of using bike\\/pedestrian trails in Lincoln, Nebraska, to reduce health care costs associated with inactivity was conducted. Data was obtained from the city's 1998 Recreational Trails Census Report and the literature. Per capita annual cost of using the trails was U.S.$209.28 ($59.28 construction and maintenance, $150 of equipment and travel). Per capita

Guijing Wang; Caroline A. Macera; Barbara Scudder-Soucie; Tom Schmid; Michael Pratt; David Buchner

2005-01-01

476

P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

2013-06-14

477

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

478

Curcumin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) has promising anti-cancer therapeutic activity, although significant percentage of primary tumors resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis remains an obstacle to the extensive use of TRAIL-based mono-therapies. Natural compound curcumin could potentially sensitize resistant cancer cells to TRAIL. We found that the combination of TRAIL with curcumin can synergistically induces apoptosis in three TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines. The mechanism behind this synergistic cell death was investigated by examining an effect of curcumin on the expression and activation of TRAIL-associated cell death proteins. Immunoblotting, RNA interference, and use of chemical inhibitors of TRAIL-activate signaling revealed differential effects of curcumin on the expression of Mcl-1 and activities of ERK and Akt. Curcumin-induced production of reactive oxygen species did not affect total expression of DR5 but it enhanced mobilization of DR5 to the plasma membrane. In these breast cancer cells curcumin also induced downregulation of IAP proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that a combination of TRAIL and curcumin is a potentially promising treatment for breast cancer, although the specific mechanisms involved in this sensitization could differ even among breast cancer cells of different origins. PMID:2384