Sample records for off-road vehicle trails

  1. Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oller, Adam

    The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

  2. 77 FR 6581 - Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee...meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee for 2012. DATES...Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail East,...

  3. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may...

  4. RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M Lab at the University of Kaiserslautern started the development of an entirely autonomous vehicle, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1). A sophisticated hazard detection

  5. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle...National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as...

  6. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle...National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as...

  7. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle...National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as...

  8. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle...National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as...

  9. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle...National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as...

  10. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted in...

  11. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted in...

  12. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted in...

  13. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted in...

  14. 75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan AGENCY: National...the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan...Hatteras National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/...

  15. 75 FR 1809 - 2010 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee...meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee for 2010. DATES...Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail East,...

  16. 76 FR 35468 - Cancellation of June 23, 2011, Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee...meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee previously announced...Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail East,...

  17. 76 FR 3653 - 2011 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee...meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee for 2011. DATES...Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail East,...

  18. 77 FR 77090 - 2013 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee...meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee for 2013. DATES...Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail East,...

  19. Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, David C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

  20. Banning Off-Road Vehicles from the Nation's Parks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    On June 9, the US Park Service ordered a ban on snowmobiles in a core area of Denali National Park. This announcement came in the wake of successful public outcry against Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) -- including the banning of snowmobiles from most US national parks (except Alaska) in late April, and a similar banning of jet skis in late March. At a time when most Americans are parking their fuel-efficient cars in favor of gas-guzzling Sport Utility Vehicles, the recent limitations placed on recreational vehicles are welcomed by many environmentalists. However, other environmental groups are disappointed by what they consider overly mild restrictions. This week's In The News takes a look at the June order and offers information on Off-Road Vehicle use and the US National Park system.

  1. 78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...NPS-IMR-LAMR-10224; 2310-0091-422] Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental...Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Off- Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan), Lake...of four alternatives that address off-road vehicle (ORV) management in the...

  2. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

  3. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

  4. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

  5. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

  6. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

  7. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

  8. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 true Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

  9. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

  10. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

  11. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 ...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 ...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 ...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 ...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 ...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13...Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road...

  17. Fugitive dust emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers on military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-road vehicle training can contribute to air quality degradation because of increased wind erosion as a result of soil disruption during high wind events. However, limited information exists regarding the impacts of off-road vehicle maneuvering on wind erosion potential of soils. This study was c...

  18. Injuries related to off-road vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; McAteer, Heather; Brown, Steve; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven; Hing, Marisela Mainegra

    2015-02-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs; this includes snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles or ATVs and dirt bikes) were once used primarily for work and travel. Such use remains common in Canada, although their recreational use has also gained popularity in recent years. An epidemiological injury profile of ORV users is important for better understanding injuries and their risk factors to help inform injury prevention initiatives. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) partnered with the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to analyze the epidemiology of ORV-related injuries. The primary aim was to assess crashes and injuries in Canada, including the extent of alcohol involvement. Secondly, the burden of injury among children and teen ORV drivers in Canada, as well as passengers, was investigated. Descriptive and inferential epidemiological statistics were generated using the following data sources: first, TIRF's National Fatality Database, which is a comprehensive, pan-Canadian, set of core data on all fatal motor vehicle crashes; second, TIRF's Serious Injury Database, which contains information on persons seriously injured in crashes; and, third, PHAC's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a surveillance system currently operating in the emergency departments of some pediatric and general hospitals across Canada. Exposure data have been used in the analyzes where available. Between 1990 and 2010, fatality rates increased among ATV and dirt bike operators. The fatality rate among snowmobilers declined during this period. Of particular concern, among fatally injured female ATV users, children aged 0-15 years comprised the highest proportion of any age group at 33.8%. Regarding alcohol use, among fatally injured snowmobile and ATV/dirt bike operators tested for alcohol, 66% and 55% tested positive, respectively. Alcohol involvement in adult ORV crashes remains an important factor. In light of the growing popularity of ORVs, prevention and mitigation measures are required to address this issue. PMID:25528439

  19. 76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...Preserve's 1991 General Management Plan. The National Park Service agreed to prepare an ORV management plan as part of a settlement...1995 between the Florida Biodiversity Project and several Federal...The Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000 (p. 29)...

  20. Failure analysis of a final drive transmission in off-road vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Makevet; I Roman

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in failure analysis of a final drive transmission in an off-road vehicle. The failure involved a satellite gear mounting shaft that departed from the differential assembly as a result of fracturing of a retaining pin. An investigation of the mechanical condition of various transmission components, consisting primarily of visual (macroscopic) inspection, geometrical investigation and

  1. A fuzzy controller to prevent wheel slippage in heavy duty off road vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Hasemann; K. Kansala

    1994-01-01

    A new solution for preventing slippage in heavy duty off road vehicles with hydrostatic power transmission is proposed. An embedded distributed fuzzy logic control system has been employed to detect slipping wheels and to control the braking of slipping wheels in order to minimize wheel slippage. The whole system has been integrated in a 2-ton city tractor and resides on

  2. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    PubMed Central

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  3. Toward Reliable Off Road Autonomous Vehicles Operating in Challenging Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alonzo Kelly; Anthony Stentz; Omead Amidi; Mike Bode; David Bradley; Antonio Diaz-calderon; Michael Happold; Herman Herman; Robert Mandelbaum; Thomas Pilarski; Peter Rander; Scott Thayer; Nick Vallidis; Randy Warner

    2006-01-01

    The DARPA PerceptOR program has implemented a rigorous eval- uative test program which fosters the development of field relevant outdoor mobile robots. Autonomous ground vehicles were deployed on diverse test courses throughout the USA and quantitatively eval- uated on such factors as autonomy level, waypoint acquisition, fail- ure rate, speed, and communications bandwidth. Our efforts over the three year program

  4. Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

    2001-04-18

    Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

  5. Exposure of Fauna to Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Traffic on Sandy Beaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke M. C. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Driving of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on sandy beaches is common and widespread, but is not universally embraced due to putative environmental impacts on beach biota. For ORVs to impact the beach fauna, traffic areas must overlap with faunal habitat: a fundamental pre-requisite for impact assessments but as yet un-quantified for sandy beaches. Thus, this study quantified the spatial and temporal

  6. An embedded fuzzy anti-slippage system for heavy duty off road vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Klaus; Michael Hasemann

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a fuzzy logic anti-slip system for Heavy Duty Off Road Vehicles. The anti-slippage system is based on distributed detection and local\\/global fuzzy control of slippage within an interconnected system of mechatronic wheel motors.Within this paper, the system layout, implementation, sensor data preprocessing, slip detection, four different local\\/global and test results under real working conditions are described. The

  7. 77 FR 20843 - Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...announces the availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) that documents decisions regarding off-road vehicle management in...The ROD also describes the rationale used in making the decision and identifies the environmentally...

  8. Analysis of possibilities of waste heat recovery in off-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Zybala, R.; Leszczynski, J.; Nieroda, P.; Schmidt, M.; Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of the waste heat recovery investigations for an agricultural tractor engine (7.4 dm3) and excavator engine (7.2 dm3) in real operating conditions. The temperature of exhaust gases and exhaust mass flow rate has been measured by precise portable exhaust emissions analyzer SEMTECH DS (SENSORS Inc.). The analysis shows that engines of tested vehicles operate approximately at constant speed and load. The average temperature of exhaust gases is in the range from 300 to 400 °C for maximum gas mass flows of 1100 kg/h and 1400 kg/h for tractor and excavator engine respectively. Preliminary tests show that application of TEGs in tested off-road vehicles offers much more beneficial conditions for waste heat recovery than in case of automotive engines.

  9. 78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...Preserve's 1991 General Management Plan. The National Park Service agreed to prepare an ORV management plan as part of a settlement...1995 between the Florida Biodiversity Project and several Federal...The Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, 2000 (p. 29)...

  10. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  11. 75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (FEIS/GMP/WS/ORV Plan), Big Cypress National Preserve...Statement for the GMP/WS/ORV Plan for the Big Cypress National Preserve...approximately 147,000 acres added to the Preserve in 1988 by...

  12. Application of an off-road mobility model to autonomous cross-country routing of unmanned ground vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Cummins; Randolph A. Jones; Burhman Q. Gates Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an Army-standard legacy off-road mobility model to cross-country route planning and negotiation by unmanned ground vehicles. A planned route is created from a movement map generated from existing terrain data. An unmanned ground vehicle negotiates the planned route and makes local routing adjustments based on a trafficability assessment of terrain features which are observed

  13. Off-Road Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video, from WGBH, takes a look at the Baha SAE off-road competition, organized by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International. The video explains how students take an off-road vehicle all the way from the design phase to completion and the competition. Here, visitors will see the different tools and techniques that students use to design and build their vehicles. This video is helpful for anyone looking into the automotive engineering field and the skills necessary to be successful in it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:52.

  14. A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie F. Burr; Veronica Jamnik; Norman Gledhill

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders – off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian

  15. Vegetation versus man-made object detection from imagery for unmanned vehicles in off-road environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harguess, Josh; Larson, Jacoby

    2013-05-01

    There have been several major advances in autonomous navigation for unmanned ground vehicles in controlled urban environments in recent years. However, off-road environments still pose several perception and classification challenges. This paper addresses two of these challenges: detection and classification of vegetation vs. man-made objects. In order for a vehicle or remote operator to traverse cross-country terrain, automated decisions must be made about obstacles in the vehicle's path. The most common obstacle is vegetation, but some vegetation may be traversable, depending on the size of the vehicle and the type of vegetation. However, man­ made objects should generally be detected and avoided in navigation. We present recent research towards the goal of vegetation and man-made object detection in the visible spectrum. First, we look at a state-of-the-art approach to image segmentation and image saliency using natural scene statistics. Then we apply recent work in multi-class image labeling to several images taken from a small unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This work will attempt to highlight the recent advances and challenges that lie ahead in the ultimate goal of vegetation and man-made object detection and classification in the visual spectrum from UGV.

  16. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2012-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  17. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2011-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  18. Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: Resistance in different U.S. deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are an important component of desert ecosystems, as they influence soil stability and fertility. This study examined and compared the short-term vehicular impacts on lichen cover and nitrogenase activity (NA) of biological soil crusts. Experimental disturbance was applied to different types of soil in regions throughout the western U.S. (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, Chihuahuan, and Mojave deserts). Results show that pre-disturbance cover of soil lichens is significantly correlated with the silt content of soils, and negatively correlated with sand and clay. While disturbance appeared to reduce NA at all sites, differences were statistically significant at only 12 of the 26 sites. Cool desert sites showed a greater decline than hot desert sites, which may indicate non-heterocystic cyanobacterial species are more susceptible to disturbance than non-heterocystic species. Sandy soils showed greater reduction of NA as sand content increased, while fine-textured soils showed a greater decline as sand content increased. At all sites, higher NA before the disturbance resulted in less impact to NA post-disturbance. These results may be useful in predicting the impacts of off-road vehicles in different regions and different soils. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Obstacle Detection with Stereo Vision for Off-Road Vehicle Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Broggi; Claudio Caraffi; Rean Isabella Fedriga; Paolo Grisleri

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present an artificial vision algorithm for real-time obstacle detection in unstructured environments. The images have been taken using a stereoscopical vision system. The system uses a new approach, of low computational load, to calculate a V-disparity image between left and right corresponding images, in order to estimate the cameras pitch oscillation caused by the vehicle movement.

  20. Off-Road Vehicle Impact on Sediment Displacement and Disruption at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland 

    E-print Network

    Labude, Brian

    2012-08-15

    -scale impact. This study quantifies the sediment disturbance made by tire tracks, as well as the tire track form, width, depth, and evolution with relation to the number of vehicle passes and location on the beach at Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS...

  1. The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Vollmer; B. G. Maza; P. A. Medica; F. B. Turner; S. A. Bamberg

    1977-01-01

    The effects of operating a 4-wheel drive truck in a 9-ha area of the Mojave Desert were evaluated. A truck was driven over the same 0.9-km track 21 times between November 1973 and May 1974. The vehicle was also driven randomly around the area (1.3 to 3.4 km) 17 times between December 1973 and May 1974.

  2. Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

    2013-05-01

    We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

  3. Primitive Road/Off-Road Agreement To Transportation Services Customers, RFS # ______

    E-print Network

    Primitive Road/Off-Road Agreement 12/1/2009 To Transportation Services Customers, RFS # ______ The use of our vehicles on primitive roads (unpaved or unimproved roads), for off-road purposes or for use is on primitive roads or off-road use. · Transportation and Parking Services will not be responsible for any

  4. Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road was offered for the individual or team that could build an autonomous ground vehicle capable of traversing to accelerate research and development in autonomous ground vehicles." No vehicle was able to travel more than

  5. Integrated Air/Ground Vehicle System for Semi-Autonomous Off-Road Navigation Tony Stentz (Carnegie Mellon University); axs@cmu.edu

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    addressing the Robotics Supporting Technology area of the US Army's Future Combat System (FCS). The Percept pursuing semi-autonomous vehicle systems in the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. FCS places high-Road Mobility (PerceptOR) Program Team Blitz, consisting of the National Robotics Engineering Consortium

  6. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. ...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...

  7. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. ...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...

  8. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. ...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...

  9. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. ...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...

  10. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. ...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...

  11. Stereo-Based Tree Traversability Analysis for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Huertas; Larry Matthies; Arturo L. Rankin

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation through forested areas is particularly challenging when there exists a mixture of densely distributed thin and thick trees. To make progress through a dense forest, the robot must decide which trees it can push over and which trees it must circumvent. This paper describes a stereo-based tree traversability algorithm implemented and tested on a robotic vehicle under

  12. Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

  13. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  14. Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on- and off-road incident rates.

    PubMed

    Aultman-Hall, L; Hall, F L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis overcomes the known limitations of police and emergency room bicycle accident databases through use of a survey that asked cyclists to indicate their accident history as well as their regular commute route to work or school. By relating the route information of the 1604 respondents (52.5% of the distributed questionnaires) to facility attributes in a Geographic Information System, defensible estimates of travel exposure on roads, off-road paths and sidewalks were developed. The relative rates of collisions on the three different facility types were not statistically different from 1.0. The relative rates for falls and injuries suggest it is safest to cycle on-road followed by off-road paths and trails, and finally least safe on sidewalks. While there were no major injuries reported on sidewalks, the relative rate for these events on paths was greater than the rate for roads. The absolute event rates per bicycle kilometre were found to be between 10 and 41 times higher than similar rates for automobile travel. Results suggest a need to discourage sidewalk cycling, and to further investigate the safety of off-road paths/trails. The analysis also demonstrates the need for bicycle travel exposure information and the use of more than just collision databases for bicycle safety analysis. PMID:9542542

  15. The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

  16. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  17. 43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on...trail bikes, and any other off road vehicle the operator shall wear safety equipment, generally...d) No person may operate an off-road vehicle: (1) In...

  18. Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

    2013-04-30

    Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

  19. Evaluation of stereo vision obstacle detection algorithms for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reliable detection of non-traversable hazards is a key requirement for off-road autonomous navigation. A detailed description of each obstacle detection algorithm and their performance on the surveyed obstacle course is presented in this paper.

  20. 3D obstacle detection and avoidance in vegetated off-road terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge Schaefer; Andreas Hach; Martin Proetzsch; Karsten Berns

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a laser-based obstacle detection facility for off-road robotics in vegetated terrain. In the context of this work the mobile off-road platform RAVON was equipped with a 3D laser scanner and accompanying evaluation routines working on individual vertical scans. Identified terrain characteristics are used to build up a local representation of the environment. Introducing the abstraction concept of

  1. A Fuel-Based Assessment of Off-Road Diesel Engine Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Kean; Robert F. Sawyer; Robert A. Harley

    2000-01-01

    The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of

  2. Factors that Influence Tractive Performance of Wheels, Tracks, and Vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traction of agricultural vehicles and other off-road vehicles is important in allowing these vehicles to perform their desired tasks. This book chapter describes factors affecting the off-road tractive performance of tires and rubber tracks. Tractive performance is affected by soil type, soil cond...

  3. Night-time negative obstacle detection for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2007-04-01

    Detecting negative obstacles (ditches, holes, wadis, and other depressions) is one of the most difficult problems in perception for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) off-road autonomous navigation. One reason for this is that the width of the visible portion of a negative obstacle may only span a few pixels at the stopping distance for vehicle speeds UGV programs aspire to operate at (up to 50kph). The problem can be further compounded when negative obstacles are obscured by vegetation or when negative obstacles are embedded in undulating terrain. Because of the variety of appearances of negative obstacles, a multi-cue detection approach is desired. In previous nighttime negative obstacle detection work, we have described combining geometry based cues from stereo range data and a thermal signature based cue from thermal infrared imagery. Thermal signature is a powerful cue during the night since the interiors of negative obstacles generally remain warmer than surrounding terrain throughout the night. In this paper, we further couple the thermal signature based cue and geometry based cues from stereo range data for nighttime negative obstacle detection. Edge detection is used to generate closed contour candidate negative obstacle regions that are geometrically filtered to determine if they lie within the ground plane. Cues for negative obstacles from thermal signature, geometry-based analysis of range images, and geometry-based analysis of terrain maps are fused. The focus of this work is to increase the range at which UGVs can reliably detect negative obstacles on cross-country terrain, thereby increasing the speed at which UGVs can safely operate.

  4. On the 3D normal tire/off-road vibro-contact problem with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Bri?an, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Sireteanu, Tudor; Petre, Simona

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a virtual experiment concerning driving on off-roads is investigated via 3D normal vibro-contact problem with friction. The dynamic road concept is introduced in order to characterize a particular stretch of road by total longitudinal, lateral, and normal forces and their geometric distributions in the contact patches. The off-road profiles are built by image sonification technique. The cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the contact between the tire and the road, the distribution of contact and friction forces in the contact domain, the natural frequencies and modes when the tire is in ground contact, are estimated. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The feasibility of image sonification technique is useful to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with an increased degree of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.

  5. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  6. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (?(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (?(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR events. PMID:26005742

  7. A Reactive System For Off-Road Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

    1994-01-01

    In this paper; we describe a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural ter- rain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which main- tains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module which

  8. 3.d. TYPE (Street or Off-road) COMMANDER'S MOTORCYCLE SAFETY INTERVIEW

    E-print Network

    3.d. TYPE (Street or Off-road) COMMANDER'S MOTORCYCLE SAFETY INTERVIEW AETC FORM 708, APR 98 (EF-V2-207/AETC Sup 1. PURPOSE: To gather data and background information for use in managing the unit motorcycle be susceptible to a motorcycle accident. The intent is to identify potential problems that could lead to injury

  9. Efficient Off-Road Localization Using Visually Corrected Odometry Matthew Grimes and Yann LeCun

    E-print Network

    LeCun, Yann

    Efficient Off-Road Localization Using Visually Corrected Odometry Matthew Grimes and Yann Le environments. Our system augments wheel odometry with visual orientation tracking to yield localization accuracy comparable with "pure" visual odometry at a fraction of the cost. Such a system is well

  10. Efficient OffRoad Localization Using Visually Corrected Odometry Matthew Grimes and Yann LeCun

    E-print Network

    LeCun, Yann

    Efficient Off­Road Localization Using Visually Corrected Odometry Matthew Grimes and Yann Le visual environments. Our system augments wheel odometry with visual orientation tracking to yield localization accuracy comparable with ``pure'' visual odometry at a fraction of the cost. Such a system is well

  11. Effect of off-road competitive motocross race on plasma oxidative stress and damage markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Ascensao; Rita Ferreira; Franklim Marques; Eduardo Oliveira; Victor Azevedo

    Aim: To analyse the effect of an off-road motocross heat on plasma levels of oxidative stress and damage, blood leucocyte counts and urine catecholamine concentration. Methods: Plasma contents of total, reduced and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, %GSSG, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and sulphydryl groups, total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid, and blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were evaluated in 10 male

  12. Mechanized Off-Road Equipment Safety. Module SH-17. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on mechanized off-road equipment safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module aims to encourage the development of a positive approach to safety as it concerns the heavy equipment industry. Following the introduction, 15 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to…

  13. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and plume capture experiments. Extensive in-use emissions data are available for NOx, especially for on-road engines. Measurements of exhaust PM2.5 emission factors are sparse in comparison. For NOx, there have been dramatic (factor of 2) decreases in emission factors for on-road gasoline engines between 1996 and 2006, due to use of improved catalytic converters on most engines. In contrast, diesel NOx emission factors decreased more gradually over the same time period. Exhaust PM2.5 emission factors appear to have decreased for most engine categories, but emission uncertainties are large for this pollutant. Pollutant emissions were estimated by combining fuel sales with emission factors expressed per unit of fuel burned. Diesel engines are the dominant mobile source of both NOx and PM2.5; the diesel contribution to NOx has increased over time as gasoline engine emissions have declined. Comparing fuel-based emission estimates with EPA’s national emission inventory led to the following conclusions: (1) total emissions of both NOx and PM2.5 estimated by two different methods were similar, (2) the distribution of source contributions to these totals differ significantly, with higher relative contributions coming from on-road diesel engines in this study compared to EPA.

  14. Correlations between physiological variables and performance in high level cross country off road cyclists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F M Impellizzeri; S M Marcora; E Rampinini; P Mognoni; A Sassi

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness and off road cycling performance in a homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers.Methods: 12 internationally competitive mountain bikers completed the study. Maximum oxygen uptake (V?o2max), peak power output (PPO), power output (PO), and oxygen uptake (V?o2) at first (VT) and second (RCT) ventilatory thresholds were measured

  15. Effect of off-road competitive motocross race on plasma oxidative stress and damage markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anto?nio Ascensa?o; Rita Ferreira; Franklim Marques; Eduardo Oliveira; Victor Azevedo; Jose? Soares; Jose? Magalha?es

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the effect of an off-road motocross heat on plasma levels of oxidative stress and damage, blood leucocyte counts and urine catecholamine concentration.Methods: Plasma contents of total, reduced and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, %GSSG, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and sulphydryl groups, total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid, and blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were evaluated in 10 male top-level

  16. Trails, lanes, or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adaptive stated preference survey

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    a better facility with a higher travel time against a less attractive facility at a lower travel time that respondents are willing to travel up to twenty minutes more to switch from an unmarked on-road facility with side parking to an off-road bicycle trail, with smaller changes associated with less dramatic

  17. Ballistic motion of dust particles in the Lunar Roving Vehicle dust trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Horányi, Mihály

    2012-05-01

    We have selected video images from the Apollo 16 mission and analyzed the motion of dust clouds kicked up by the wheels of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Applying the equations of ballistic motion, we estimate both the velocity of the dust and the gravitational field strength at the lunar surface. From measurements of the rotation of an LRV wheel, we estimate the speed of the LRV. Such exercises can be useful when discussing ballistic trajectories and angular motion in a high school or introductory level college physics class.

  18. TRACKING PAINTED PEBBLES IN THE MOJAVE-OFFROAD VEHICLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    extensive off-road vehicular use. We find that off-road vehicle use dramatically accelerates pebble movement systems is between 4 and 6.5 cm/year but as high as 18 cm/year at the Chemeheuvi site, where runoff in one

  19. Off road vehicle impact in Cape Cod national seashore: Disruption and recovery of dune vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Brodhead; P. J. Godfrey

    1977-01-01

    An on-going investigation of the rates of vegetation breakdown and natural recovery under controlled conditions has been established at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, U.S.A. In this study, the effects of controlled impacts on a variety of coastal habitats were measured in terms of above and below ground biomass. Dune sites, ranging from unstabilized to moderately stabilized, were driven on

  20. Off-Road Vehicle Impact on Sediment Displacement and Disruption at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    E-print Network

    Labude, Brian

    2012-08-15

    ), Maryland. To measure ORV impact, ground-based LiDAR was used to collect detailed profiles across a three by three meter test plot at each site. Based on the quantification of the displaced sediment and redistribution of that sediment from the tracks, a...

  1. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...capacity to carry occupants other than the driver and operating crew. (b) Tractors. The provisions of this section may apply for tractors only if each tractor qualifies as a vocational tractor under § 1037.630. (c)...

  2. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...capacity to carry occupants other than the driver and operating crew. (b) Tractors. The provisions of this section may apply for tractors only if each tractor qualifies as a vocational tractor under § 1037.630. (c)...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...capacity to carry occupants other than the driver and operating crew. (b) Tractors. The provisions of this section may apply for tractors only if each tractor qualifies as a vocational tractor under § 1037.630. (c)...

  4. Anytime computation of time-optimal off-road vehicle maneuvers using the RRT*

    E-print Network

    Jeon, Jeong hwan

    Incremental sampling-based motion planning algorithms such as the Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful in efficiently solving computationally challenging motion planning problems involving complex ...

  5. Finding trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Morris; Kobus Barnard

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical learning approach for finding recreational trails in aerial images. While the problem of recognizing relatively straight and well defined roadways in digital images has been well studied in the literature, the more difficult problem of extracting trails has received no attention. However, trails and rough roads are less likely to be adequately mapped, and change more

  6. Detection and Classification of Motor Vehicle Noise in a Forested Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Dietz, Matthew S.; Fristrup, Kurt M.

    2013-11-01

    Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

  7. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated...

  8. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

  9. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

  10. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

  11. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

  12. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests...Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor...

  13. Airbag Trails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails. These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  14. Trail Construction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

  15. Basics of Automotive Vehicle Braking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Fijalkowski

    \\u000a It is necessary to have knowledge of the technology correlated with contemporary auto-motive vehicles’ BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a to understand the wheel-tyre to on\\/off-road interface, vehicle dynamics during braking, and the components of a BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a mechatronic control system. This section examines these issues to enhance the level of that knowledge.

  16. The clinical trail of TRAIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Duiker; C. H. Mom; S. de Jong; P. H. B. Willemse; J. A. Gietema; E. G. E. de Vries

    2006-01-01

    The naturally occurring tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two death receptors, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), that are expressed on the cell membrane. Binding of the ligand to the death receptors leads to activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Chemotherapy on the other hand stimulates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway via activation

  17. Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type rear suspensions in off-road bicycles.

    PubMed

    Karchin, Ari; Hull, M L

    2002-02-01

    Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle, [Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, "An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics," Journal of Mechanical Design 119, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8 km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38 x 14, the corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture, the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average heightfor the standing posture was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 9 of the 11 subjects. While the optimum height was relatively insensitive to pedaling mechanics in both the seated and standing postures, the choice of the optimal pivot point height in production bicycles necessitates some compromise in performance given the disparity in the averages between the seated and standing postures. PMID:11871595

  18. Evaluation of off-road terrain with static stereo and monoscopic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorchak, John P.; Hartley, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently funding research into the design of a Mars rover vehicle. This unmanned rover will be used to explore a number of scientific and geologic sites on the Martian surface. Since the rover can not be driven from Earth in real-time, due to lengthy communication time delays, a locomotion strategy that optimizes vehicle range and minimizes potential risk must be developed. In order to assess the degree of on-board artificial intelligence (AI) required for a rover to carry out its' mission, researchers conducted an experiment to define a no AI baseline. In the experiment 24 subjects, divided into stereo and monoscopic groups, were shown video snapshots of four terrain scenes. The subjects' task was to choose a suitable path for the vehicle through each of the four scenes. Paths were scored based on distance travelled and hazard avoidance. Study results are presented with respect to: (1) risk versus range; (2) stereo versus monocular video; (3) vehicle camera height; and (4) camera field-of-view.

  19. A Laser Based Rut Detection and Following System for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Collins, Emmanuel

    A Laser Based Rut Detection and Following System for Autonomous Ground Vehicles Camilo Ordonez and following system is proposed so that autonomous ground vehicles can benefit from the application of this off Tallahassee, Florida 32310 Abstract An important off road driving rule is to keep the vehicle wheels

  20. Algorithmic solution for autonomous vision-based off-road navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, Marina; Paar, Gerhard; Bauer, Arnold; Ulm, Michael

    1998-07-01

    A vision based navigation system is a basic tool to provide autonomous operations of unmanned vehicles. For offroad navigation that means that the vehicle equipped with a stereo vision system and perhaps a laser ranging device shall be able to maintain a high level of autonomy under various illumination conditions and with little a priori information about the underlying scene. The task becomes particularly important for unmanned planetary exploration with the help of autonomous rovers. For example in the LEDA Moon exploration project currently under focus by the European Space Agency (ESA), during the autonomous mode the vehicle (rover) should perform the following operations: on-board absolute localization, elevation model (DEM) generation, obstacle detection and relative localization, global path planning and execution. Focus of this article is a computational solution for fully autonomous path planning and path execution. An operational DEM generation method based on stereoscopy is introduced. Self-localization on the DEM and robust natural feature tracking are used as basic navigation steps, supported by inertial sensor systems. The following operations are performed on the basis of stereo image sequences: 3D scene reconstruction, risk map generation, local path planning, camera position update during the motion on the basis of landmarks tracking, obstacle avoidance. Experimental verification is done with the help of a laboratory terrain mockup and a high precision camera mounting device. It is shown that standalone tracking using automatically identified landmarks is robust enough to give navigation data for further stereoscopic reconstruction of the surrounding terrain. Iterative tracking and reconstruction leads to a complete description of the vehicle path and its surrounding with an accuracy high enough to meet the specifications for autonomous outdoor navigation.

  1. Passive perception system for day\\/night autonomous off-road navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo L. Rankin; Charles F. Bergh; Steven B. Goldberg; Paolo Bellutta; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

    ABSTRACT Passive perception of terrain ,features is a ,vital requirement ,for military related unmanned ,autonomous ,vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed ,a self-contained passive ,perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally,protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelfpan-tilt unit.

  2. Final Report Impacts of off-road vehicle use on wildlife in the prairie ecosystems of Big

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Cypress National Preserve. This survey documented the site occupancy of all amphibian species by habitat whether ORV use is affecting the distribution of amphibians on a regional scale. We are also collecting to better understand the effect hydrology has on species distributions without habitat as a confounding

  3. 75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...are available at park headquarters, or may be requested from Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park...Service or other mail delivery service or hand-delivered to Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National...

  4. Impact analysis of off-road-vehicle use on vegetation in the Grand Mere dune environment. [Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultink, G. (principal investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A linear regression between percent nonvegetative land and the time variable was completed for the two sample areas. Sample area no. 1 showed an average vegetation loss of 1.901% per year, while the loss for sample area no. 2 amounted to 5.889% per year. Two basic reasons for the difference were assumed to play a role: the difference in access potential and the amount of already fragmented vegetation complexes in existence during the first year of the comparative analysis - 1970. Sample area no. 2 was located closer to potential access points and was more fragmented initially.

  5. 76 FR 55840 - Cape Hatteras National Seashore Proposed Rule: Off-Road Vehicle Management-Reopening of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...for those who may have been affected by Hurricane Irene to submit comments. DATES: Comments...proposal closed on September 6, 2011. Hurricane Irene made landfall in the area of the...east coast into New England. Because hurricane damage may have prevented some...

  6. Analysis of unregulated emissions from an off-road diesel engine during realistic work operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Magnus; Arrhenius, Karine; Larsson, Gunnar; Bäfver, Linda; Arvidsson, Hans; Wetterberg, Christian; Hansson, Per-Anders; Rosell, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Emissions from vehicle diesel engines constitute a considerable share of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants, including many non-regulated compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes. One way to reduce these emissions might be to use fuels with low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesels. Therefore this study compared Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel (EC1) with the F-T diesel fuel Ecopar™ in terms of emissions under varied conditions (steady state, controlled transients and realistic work operations) in order to identify factors influencing emissions in actual operation. Using F-T diesel reduced emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons, but not alkenes. Emissions were equally dependent on work operation character (load, engine speed, occurrence of transients) for both fuels. There were indications that the emissions originated from unburnt fuel, rather than from combustion products.

  7. Passive perception system for day/night autonomous off-road navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Bergh, Charles F.; Goldberg, Steven B.; Bellutta, Paolo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2005-05-01

    Passive perception of terrain features is a vital requirement for military related unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a self-contained passive perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelf pan-tilt unit. The sensor head contained three color cameras for multi-baseline daytime stereo ranging, a pair of cooled mid-wave infrared cameras for nighttime stereo ranging, and supporting electronics to synchronize captured imagery. Narrow-baseline stereo provided improved range data density in cluttered terrain, while wide-baseline stereo provided more accurate ranging for operation at higher speeds in relatively open areas. The passive perception system processed stereo images and outputted over a local area network terrain maps containing elevation, terrain type, and detected hazards. A novel software architecture was designed and implemented to distribute the data processing on a 533MHz quad 7410 PowerPC single board computer under the VxWorks real-time operating system. This architecture, which is general enough to operate on N processors, has been subsequently tested on Pentium-based processors under Windows and Linux, and a Sparc based-processor under Unix. The passive perception system was operated during FY04 PerceptOR program evaluations at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper discusses the Team Raptor passive perception system hardware and software design, implementation, and performance, and describes a road map to faster and improved passive perception.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of predicted disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in complex landscapes at fort hood.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shoufan; Wente, Stephen; Gertner, George Z; Wang, Guangxing; Anderson, Alan

    2002-08-01

    The US Army Engineering Research Development Center (ERDC) uses a modified form of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate spatially explicit rates of soil erosion by water across military training facilities. One modification involves the RUSLE support practice factor (P factor), which is used to account for the effect of disturbance by human activities on erosion rates. Since disturbance from off-road military vehicular traffic moving through complex landscapes varies spatially, a spatially explicit nonlinear regression model (disturbance model) is used to predict the distribution of P factor values across a training facility. This research analyzes the uncertainty in this model's disturbance predictions for the Fort Hood training facility in order to determine both the spatial distribution of prediction uncertainty and the contribution of different error sources to that uncertainty. This analysis shows that a three-category vegetation map used by the disturbance model was the greatest source of prediction uncertainty, especially for the map categories shrub and tree. In areas mapped as grass, modeling error (uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimates) was the largest uncertainty source. These results indicate that the use of a high-quality vegetation map that is periodically updated to reflect current vegetation distributions, would produce the greatest reductions in disturbance prediction uncertainty. PMID:12105761

  9. A BIO-DIESEL BAJA VEHICLE AND STUDENT COMPETITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SAE Mini Baja® competition is an extremely popular design competition for students in engineering programs around the world. The competition focuses on the design of an off-road vehicle for performance and cost-of-production. The objective of the proposed effort is to ...

  10. The Oregon Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Fiefia

    2010-02-04

    Today you will look at some webistes and listen to some documentaries about the Oregon Trail. We are going to go on an exploration through the internet about the Oregon Trail. When you are done watching the videos and reading the material I want you to write a paragraph that tells what life was like onthe Oregon Trail. 1. Click on this link: The Oregon Trail Documentary (2 minutes) 2. Write down ...

  11. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section...AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a)...

  12. Pick A Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Developed by the Wilderness Society, the Pick a Trail Web site offers general information about backpacking and hiking in the United States and different trails in other countries, such as the United Kingdom. The trails featured on the site are organized alphabetically, with a special emphasis placed on those trails leading through the US National Park System. Information on each trail includes a brief sketch of the host country, including basic climatic information, local topography, and the type of terrain that each trail traverses. Along with this material, there are short essays on subjects related to hiking, such as identifying local plant species, associated health risks, and what items to bring along. Rounding out the site is an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on each individual state to obtain an overall profile of the trails located there.

  13. Military vehicle trafficking impacts on vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling on off-road sites during training are of concern to the Military establishment. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess t...

  14. Military vehicle trafficking impacts vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling off-road during training are of concern to the United States military. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess the traffi...

  15. Fire ant trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Fire ants mark their trail with a substance from the Dufour's gland. The trail used by a group of fire ants is shown. Several examples of groups of ants following each other are shown. File size is large and a highspeed connection is recommended.

  16. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  17. Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

    2011-10-01

    Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

  18. Computational investigation of blast survivability and off-road performance of an up-armoured high-mobility

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA The manuscript was received on 10 November 2008 of the vehicle to survive detonation of a landmine shallow buried into sand underneath the right wheel analysis, the kinematic and structural responses (including large- scale rotation and deformation, buckling

  19. Potential Ozone Impacts of Excess NO2 Emissions from Diesel Particulate Filters for On and Off-Road Diesel Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Bar-Ilan; Jeremiah R. Johnson; Allison DenBleyker; Lit-Mian Chan; Gregory Yarwood; David Hitchcock; Joseph P. Pinto; Abderrahmane Touati; Matthew Clayton; Tsung-Wen Chien; Hsin-Ta Hsueh; Hsin Chu; Wei-Chieh Hsu; Yueh-Yuan Tu; Hsien-Shiou Tsai; Kuo-Yi Chen; Richard Derwent; Michael Jenkin; Michael Pilling; William Carter; Ajith Kaduwela; Hanna Kierzkowska-Pawlak; Andrzej Chacuk; Andrzej Chmielewski; Anna Ostapczuk; Janusz Licki; Kenneth Casey; Richard Gates; Richard Shores; Eben Thoma; D. Harris; Tomasz Mroz; Ana Elías; Astrid Barona; Gorka Gallastegi; Naiara Rojo; Luis Gurtubay; Gabriel Ibarra-Berastegi; Teresa Barone; John Storey; Norberto Domingo; Katarzyna Piekarska; Andrey Zagoruiko; Bair Balzhinimaev; Sergey Vanag; Vladimir Goncharov; Sergey Lopatin; Alexander Zykov; Sergey Anichkov; Yurii Zhukov; Vassily Yankilevich; Nikolay Proskokov; Nick Hutson; Michal Glomba

    2010-01-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas\\/Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying

  20. Anacostia Tributary Trail System Paint Branch Trail

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    , 10a Severn Bldg. - Lots 4k, K6 Lots 4m, VM To Metro rail station (Green Line), Patapsco bldg Challenge Course Terrapin Trail G arage 255 097 096 098 099 B elA ir 122 121 Cambridge Community Center C am Garage DOTS Offices Computer Lab 224 227 C om puter& Space Scie nces Physics Geology 237 147 413 144 231

  1. DRBE comet trails

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 ?m surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup ?1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  2. DIRBE Comet Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 ?m surface brightnesses of \\lt 0.1 and \\lt 0.15 MJy sr-1, respectively, which is \\lt 1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  3. Techniques for inferring terrain parameters related to ground vehicle mobility using UAV born IFSAR and lidar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Durst; Alex Baylot; Burney McKinley

    2011-01-01

    Predicting ground vehicle performance requires in-depth knowledge, captured as numeric parameters, of the terrain on which the vehicles will be operating. For off-road performance, predictions are based on rough terrain ride comfort, which is described using a parameter entitled root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness. Likewise, on-road vehicle performance depends heavily on the slopes of the individual road segments. Traditional methods of

  4. The Manzanita Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide includes directions and a list of stops for the Manzanita Trail in the San Gabriel Mountains of California. Hikers can follow the trace of the Punchbowl Fault and see a variety of features, including fault gouge, slickensides and easy-to-identify juxtapositions of quite different rock types on either side of the fault. The trail also passes through many vegetation zones, which exhibit a variety of plant communities. The guide includes a detailed trip log with mileages and photos of features that can be seen from the trail.

  5. Puzzle Trail Anifeiliaid

    E-print Network

    Follow the clues and the map around the red trail keeping your eyes peeled for the animals. In hundreds% recovered waste and 50% virgin fibre. FSC SGS-COC-0912 Mae coetiroedd y Comisiwn Coedwigaeth wedi cael eu

  6. Animal marks and trails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-13

    Items in nature, such as twigs and leaves, can show bite and chew marks where animals have been eating off of plants. Animals make trails by traveling over the same area several times to get to a destination.

  7. Long Trail Photographs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Long Trail in Vermont is the oldest long-distance hiking trail in the United States. In the early 20th century, the Green Mountain Club began to build extensive trail facilities along the way, including shelters and other such structures. The Club also documented their activities, and this collection from the University of Vermont contains over 900 black-and-white and hand-colored lantern slides. These items were originally used in slideshow presentations by Club member Theron S. Dean, who was a great promoter of the Trail. Visitors can use the "Browse the Collection" area to look for items by subject and they can also use the Google Maps feature to look for items by location. Visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed to track when new items are added to the collection.

  8. The Trails Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by the Kansas City, Missouri school district with support from the US Department of Education, this Website offers innovative approaches to and materials for the teaching of Western history. The Website focuses on the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, offering a variety of interactive elements for students to work with. Included here are Virtual Reality tours of selected sites along the trails, a selection of trail diaries, examples of essays written by students about the trails, and more. The true strength of the site, though, probably lies in its support materials for teachers. The site provides well-conceived, extensive lesson plans, instruction guides, and curriculum plans, and also promises a media database in the future that will include presentations, instructional materials, and pictures. However, since there has been little activity on-site in the last few months, we suggest teachers not count on that material appearing soon.

  9. The Hunter Skills Trail

    E-print Network

    Trail, Tamara; Hysmith, Larry; Harmel-Garza, Denise

    2001-08-03

    students to make safe, legal, ethical decisions in actual hunting situations. Instructors may evaluate, encourage and correct student behavior instantly through effective field exercises and tests. These exercises let students practice what they have... are taken down the trail for testing or competition, discussion of the scenarios works best at the end of the trail. Participants are often put in ?shoot or don?t shoot? situations. They must rely on their knowledge and skills to answer three questions: 1...

  10. Mesenchymal progenitors expressing TRAIL induce apoptosis in sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Giulia; Spano, Carlotta; D'souza, Naomi; Rasini, Valeria; Veronesi, Elena; Prapa, Malvina; Petrachi, Tiziana; Piccinno, Serena; Rossignoli, Filippo; Burns, Jorge S; Fiorcari, Stefania; Granchi, Donatella; Baldini, Nicola; Horwitz, Edwin M; Guarneri, Valentina; Conte, Pierfranco; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-03-01

    Sarcomas are frequent tumors in children and young adults that, despite a relative chemo-sensitivity, show high relapse rates with up to 80% of metastatic patients dying in 5 years from diagnosis. The real ontogeny of sarcomas is still debated and evidences suggest they may derive from precursors identified within mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) fractions. Recent studies on sarcoma microenvironment additionally indicated that MSC could take active part in generation of a supportive stroma. Based on this knowledge, we conceived to use modified MSC to deliver tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) targeting different sarcoma histotypes. Gene modified MSC expressing TRAIL were cocultured with different osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) cell lines assessing viability and caspase-8 activation. An in vivo model focused on ES was then implemented considering the impact of MSC-TRAIL on tumor size, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. MSC expressing TRAIL induced significantly high apoptosis in all tested lines. Sarcoma death was specifically associated with caspase-8 activation starting from 8 hours of coculture with MSC-TRAIL. When injected into pre-established ES xenotransplants, MSC-TRAIL persisted within its stroma, causing significant tumor apoptosis versus control groups. Additional histological and in vitro studies reveal that MSC-TRAIL could also exert potent antiangiogenic functions. Our results suggest that MSC as TRAIL vehicles could open novel therapeutic opportunities for sarcoma by multiple mechanisms. PMID:25420617

  11. The Freedom Trail Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâ??s primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâ??s most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the â??See the 16 sitesâ? section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul Revereâ??s House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

  12. Evaluating the Effect of Therapeutic Stem Cells on TRAIL Resistant and Sensitive Medulloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Anderegg, Maarten; Shah, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential in medulloblastomas (MB) has not been explored to date. In this study, we engineered human MSC to express a potent and secretable variant of a tumor specific agent, tumor necrosis factor-apoptosis-inducing ligand (S-TRAIL) and assessed the ability of MSC-S-TRAIL mediated MB killing alone or in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of histone-deacetylase, MS-275, in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant MB in vitro and in vivo. We show that TRAIL sensitivity/resistance correlates with the expression of its cognate death receptor (DR)5 and MSC-S-TRAIL induces caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive MB lines. In TRAIL-resistant MB, we show upregulation of DR4/5 levels when pre-treated with MS-275 and a subsequent sensitization to MSC-S-TRAIL mediated apoptosis. Using intracranially implanted MB and MSC lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that MSC-S-TRAIL has significant anti-tumor effects in mice bearing TRAIL-sensitive and MS-275 pre-treated TRAIL-resistant MBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the use of human MSC as MB-targeting therapeutic-vehicles in vivo in TRAIL-sensitive and resistant tumors, and has implications for developing effective therapies for patients with medulloblastomas. PMID:23145127

  13. Evaluating the effect of therapeutic stem cells on TRAIL resistant and sensitive medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Irina; Wanningen, Simone; Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Anderegg, Maarten; Shah, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential in medulloblastomas (MB) has not been explored to date. In this study, we engineered human MSC to express a potent and secretable variant of a tumor specific agent, tumor necrosis factor-apoptosis-inducing ligand (S-TRAIL) and assessed the ability of MSC-S-TRAIL mediated MB killing alone or in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of histone-deacetylase, MS-275, in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant MB in vitro and in vivo. We show that TRAIL sensitivity/resistance correlates with the expression of its cognate death receptor (DR)5 and MSC-S-TRAIL induces caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive MB lines. In TRAIL-resistant MB, we show upregulation of DR4/5 levels when pre-treated with MS-275 and a subsequent sensitization to MSC-S-TRAIL mediated apoptosis. Using intracranially implanted MB and MSC lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that MSC-S-TRAIL has significant anti-tumor effects in mice bearing TRAIL-sensitive and MS-275 pre-treated TRAIL-resistant MBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the use of human MSC as MB-targeting therapeutic-vehicles in vivo in TRAIL-sensitive and resistant tumors, and has implications for developing effective therapies for patients with medulloblastomas. PMID:23145127

  14. An experimental study of an ultra-mobile vehicle for off-road transportation. Appendix 2. Dissertation. Kinematic optimal design of a six-legged walking machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, R. B.; Waldron, K. J.; Song, S. M.

    1985-05-01

    Chapter 2 is a review of previous work in the following two areas: The mechanical structure of walking machines and walking gaits. In Chapter 3, the mathematical and graphical background for gait analysis is presented. The gait selection problem in different types of terrain is also discussed. Detailed studies of the major gaits used in level walking are presented. In Chapter 4, gaits for walking on gradients and methods to improve stability are studied. Also, gaits which may be used in crossing three major obstacle types are studied. In Chapter 5, the design of leg geometries based on four-bar linkages is discussed. Major techniques to optimize leg linkages for optimal walking volume are introduced. In Chapter 6, the design of a different leg geometry, based on a pantograph mechanism, is presented. A theoretical background of the motion characteristics of pantographs is given first. In Chapter 7, some other related items of the leg design are discussed. One of these is the foot-ankle system. A few conceptual passive foot-ankle systems are introduced. The second is a numerical method to find the shortest crank for a four-finitely-separated-position-synthesis problem. The shortest crank usually results in a crank rocker, which is the most desirable linkage type in many applications. Finally, in Chapter 8, the research work presented in this dissertation is evaluated and the future development of walking machines is discussed.

  15. The confining trailing string

    E-print Network

    E. Kiritsis; L. Mazzanti; F. Nitti

    2014-12-03

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  16. Real-world vehicle emissions: a summary of the Seventeenth Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.

    PubMed

    Cadle, Steven H; Ayala, Alberto; Black, Kevin N; Graze, R Rob; Koupal, John; Minassian, Fred; Murray, Hannah B; Natarajan, Mani; Tennant, Christopher J; Lawson, Douglas R

    2008-01-01

    The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) held its 17th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2007, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the role and contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the Workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as emerging issues and topics for future research. PMID:18236789

  17. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of periodic disturbances on vortex trails is considered. In addition to following small initial perturbations, large amplitude initial disturbances of the vortex trails are also studied. It is shown that the equations support a rich variety of essentially nonlinear solutions including unbounded and quasisteady ones. These solutions are found to correspond to various modes of vortex clustering in the physical plane. At the close of the paper, comparisons of these results with recent numerical and experimental findings on the wakes behind stationary cylinders, and also transversely oscillating bluff objects, are made.

  18. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1988-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution of periodic disturbances on vortex trails is considered. In addition to following small initial perturbations, large amplitude initial disturbances of the vortex trails are also studied. It is shown that the equations support a rich variety of essentially nonlinear solutions including unbounded and quasisteady ones. These solutions are found to correspond to various modes of vortex clustering in the physical plane. At the close of the paper, comparisons of these results with recent numerical and experimental findings on the wakes behind stationary cylinders, and also transversely oscillating bluff objects, are made.

  19. Exploring the Oregon Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Miles

    2005-10-20

    As we are studying the pioneer trek along the Oregon Trail, I want you to create a character and write a journal as if you were taking the journey. First, you should get a good idea of what the Oregon Trail was like. Read the personal accounts and experiences from actual pioneers at the websites below: "Jumping Off" "Power" "Hardships" "Camping" The following is a memoir from an actual pioneer (you will want to write your journal in this style). "Across the Plains in 1844" To help you get a ...

  20. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

  1. The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail at the Arboretum at UC Santa: Taxonomy is partly the study of the naming and clas- sification of plants. For this more technical to produce a preview edition of the Manual in 1989. By establishing this Taxonomy trail as a memorial, we

  2. 'OBSIDIAN' TRAILING BLACKBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Washington Agricultural Research Center announce the release of a new very early ripening trailing blackberry 'Obsidian'. 'Obsidian' was selected in 1996 from a cross between ORUS 82...

  3. Airbag Trails-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails (upper left). These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  4. UCDSCULPTURE TRAIL Roebuck Road

    E-print Network

    UCDSCULPTURE TRAIL #12;P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P Roebuck Road Fosters Hogan, Hibernia with the Bust of Lord Cloncurry, 1844, marble. Belfield House Hogan (b.Waterford 1800­d the City Hall). It entered the UCD collection with the purchase of Lyons House in 1963. The work is one

  5. Cooking with Trail Mix 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    bars) What you need ? cup sugar ? cup applesauce 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 egg ? cup milk 1 cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon baking... soda ? teaspoon baking powder ? teaspoon cinnamon (if you like) ? cup trail mix What you need ? cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon...

  6. Cooking with Trail Mix

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    bars) What you need ? cup sugar ? cup applesauce 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 egg ? cup milk 1 cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon baking... soda ? teaspoon baking powder ? teaspoon cinnamon (if you like) ? cup trail mix What you need ? cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon...

  7. ‘METOLIUS’ TRAILING BLACKBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Washington Agricultural Research Center have released 'Metolius', a new, very early ripening, trailing blackberry. 'Metolius' was selected in 1997 from a cross between ‘Douglass’ and...

  8. Design a Hiking Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Becky Remis

    This lesson provides experience working on a real-life scenario by allowing students the opportunity to use topographic maps to design a hiking trail system based on access from road, range of habitats, and other specified criteria. They will also complete a data sheet and produce an informational brochure.

  9. Experimental aerodynamics of mesoscale trailing-edge actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Adam Solovitz

    2003-01-01

    Uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) are commonly designed with high-aspect ratio wings, which can be susceptible to significant aeroelastic vibrations. These modes can result in a loss of control or structural failure, and new techniques are necessary to alleviate them. A multidisciplinary effort at Stanford developed a distributed flow control method that used small trailing-edge actuators to alter the aerodynamic loads

  10. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  11. The Oregon Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boettcher, Steve.

    Authored and maintained by Professors Mike Trinklein and Steve Boettcher, Authored and maintained by Professors Mike Trinklein and Steve Boettcher, creators of the award-winning PBS documentary of the same title, this recently updated Website provides access to a wealth of information and documentation that the creators say they couldn't fit into the film. Included here is a "complete primer" on the Trail, images and text covering over two dozen historic sites along the trail, a collection of fascinating anecdotes about incidents and (mis)adventures suffered by pioneers along the way, and, last but by no means least, an archive of diaries, memoirs, and period books written during the overland period. A serviceable, if somewhat typical, teacher's guide is also provided. In a more commercial vein, the site features an online shop featuring videos, books, games, and audiocassettes.

  12. Trail following by gliding bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Burchard, R P

    1982-01-01

    Slime trails, which are deposited on surfaces by gliding bacteria and which serve as preferential pathways for gliding motility, were tested for the species specificity of their support of movement. Among the pairs of bacteria tested, a variety of gliding bacteria and a flagellated bacterium moved along trails of unrelated species. Thus, the trails did not serve as pheromones. Rather, they may have guided gliding elasticotactically. Some biological implications of this finding are considered. Images PMID:6811562

  13. Analyzing trails in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2007-10-01

    Even more interesting than the intricate organization of complex networks is the dynamical behavior of systems underlain by such structures. Among the many types of dynamics, one particularly interesting category involves the evolution of trails left by moving agents progressing through random walks and dilating processes in a complex network. The emergence of trails is present in many dynamical process, such as pedestrian traffic, information flow, and metabolic pathways. Important problems related to trails include the reconstruction of the trail and the identification of its source, when complete knowledge of the trail is missing. In addition, the following of trails in multiagent systems represents a particularly interesting situation related to pedestrian dynamics and swarming intelligence. The present work addresses these three issues while taking into account permanent and transient marks left in the visited nodes. Different topologies are considered for trail reconstruction and trail source identification, including four complex network models and four real networks, namely, the Internet, the U.S. airlines network, an email network, and the scientific collaboration network of complex network researchers. Our results show that the topology of the network influences trail reconstruction, source identification, and agent dynamics.

  14. Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Page /1 14 Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL with chemotherapy. Our results clearly support a negative regulatory function for TRAIL-R4 in controlling TRAIL. Author Keywords TRAIL ; chemotherapy ; cancer Introduction TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand

  15. sTRAIL coupled to liposomes improves its pharmacokinetic profile and overcomes neuroblastoma tumour resistance in combination with Bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Loi, M; Becherini, P; Emionite, L; Giacomini, A; Cossu, I; Destefanis, E; Brignole, C; Di Paolo, D; Piaggio, F; Perri, P; Cilli, M; Pastorino, F; Ponzoni, M

    2014-10-28

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common and deadly extracranial solid tumour of childhood, represents a challenging in paediatric oncology. Soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) is a cancer cell-specific molecule exerting remarkable anti-tumour activities against paediatric malignancies both in vitro and in preclinical settings. However, due to its too fast elimination and to the undesired related side effects, the improvement of sTRAIL in vivo bioavailability and the specific delivery to the tumour is mandatory for increasing its therapeutic efficacy. In this manuscript, we developed an innovative pegylated liposomal formulation carrying the sTRAIL at the outer surface (sTRAIL-SL) with the intent to improve its serum half-life and increase its efficacy in vivo, while reducing side effects. Furthermore, the possibility to combine sTRAIL-SL with the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib (BTZ) was investigated, being BTZ able to sensitize tumour cells toward TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We demonstrated that sTRAIL preserved and improved its anti-tumour activity when coupled to nanocarriers. Moreover, sTRAIL-SL ameliorated its PK profile in blood allowing sTRAIL to exert a more potent anti-tumour activity, which led, upon BTZ priming, to a statistically significant enhanced life spans in two models of sTRAIL-resistant NB-bearing mice. Finally, mechanistic studies indicated that the combination of sTRAIL with BTZ sensitized sTRAIL-resistant NB tumour cells to sTRAIL-induced cell death, both in vitro and in vivo, through the Akt/GSK3/?-catenin axis-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, our results suggest that sTRAIL-SL might be an efficient vehicle for sTRAIL delivery and that its use in clinic, in combination with BTZ, might represent an adjuvant strategy for the treatment of stage IV, sTRAIL-resistant, NB patients. PMID:25041999

  16. TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in HIV1Infected Macrophages Is Dependent on the Inhibition of Akt1 Phosphorylation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunlong Huang; Nathan Erdmann; Hui Peng; Shelley Herek; John S. Davis; Xu Luo; Tsuneya Ikezu; Jialin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 uses mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells) as a vehicle for its own dissemination and as a reservoir for continuous viral replication. The mechanism by which the host immune system clears HIV-1-infected macrophages is not understood. TRAIL may play a role in this process. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can

  17. Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by closed circuit television (CCTV), with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Experimentation studying the effects of vision-system characteristics on off-road, remote driving has been performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering coupled camera and color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience has been gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. This paper discusses the preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience.

  18. The aeroacoustics of trailing edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, William K.; Gershfeld, Jonathan L.

    The physics of aerodynamic sound generation by trailing edge flows is reviewed, emphasizing the importance of surface geometry, upstream boundary layer, and trailing edge wake in determining the nature of aeroacoustic sources. Measurement techniques are discussed, and recent results are examined which elucidate the relevant features of flow structure. The trailing edge flow sources are then examined in detail. In particular, attention is given to the autospectra of pressures at a point, statistical measures of surface pressure, sound due to vortex shedding from instability, random aerodynamic sound, and spanwise integral lengths and transfer functions determined from the acoustic field.

  19. 75 FR 37462 - Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    This notice issues the official trail marker insignias of the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail. The insignia for this trail was completed in August 2008. The National Park Service has officially used an earlier version of this insignia since the trail was designated in 2006. It has been slightly redesigned since then so that lettering and framing match other National Trail......

  20. Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the DISC level Morizot A. 1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4-mediated TRAIL resistance at the DISC level Morizot A. 1 , Mérino@u-bourgogne.fr. Running Title : Chemotherapy overcomes TRAIL-R4 inhibition inserm-00525443,version1-18May2011 Author with chemotherapy. Our results clearly support a negative regulatory function for TRAIL-R4 in controlling TRAIL

  1. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  2. DR4 specific TRAIL variants are more efficacious than wild-type TRAIL in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rui; Albarenque, Stella Maris; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J; Mohr, Andrea; Zwacka, Ralf M

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for pancreatic carcinoma afford only modest survival benefits. TRAIL, as a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells, would be a promising new treatment option. However, since not all pancreatic cancer cells respond to TRAIL, further improvements and optimizations are still needed. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of TRAIL-based therapies is to specifically target one of the 2 cell death inducing TRAIL-receptors, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 to overcome resistance. To this end, we designed constructs expressing soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) variants that were rendered specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 by amino acid changes in the TRAIL ectodomain. When we expressed these constructs, including wild-type sTRAIL (sTRAIL(wt)), TRAIL-R1 (sTRAIL(DR4)) and TRAIL-R2 (sTRAIL(DR5)) specific variants, in 293 producer cells we found all to be readily expressed and secreted into the supernatant. These supernatants were subsequently transferred onto target cancer cells and apoptosis measured. We found that the TRAIL-R1 specific variant had higher apoptosis-inducing activity in human pancreatic carcinoma Colo357 cells as well as PancTu1 cells that were additionally sensitized by targeting of XIAP. Finally, we tested TRAIL-R1 specific recombinant TRAIL protein (rTRAIL(DR4)) on Colo357 xenografts in nude mice and found them to be more efficacious than rTRAIL(wt). Our results demonstrate the benefits of synthetic biological approaches and show that TRAIL-R1 specific variants can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that they can possibly become part of individualized and tumor specific combination treatments in the future. PMID:25482930

  3. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  4. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s?1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  5. HUBBLE: ON THE ASTEROID TRAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers Karl Stapelfeldt and Robin Evans have tracked down about 100 small asteroids by hunting through more than 28,000 archival images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Here is a sample of what they have found: four archival images that show the curved trails left by asteroids. [Top left]: Hubble captured a bright asteroid, with a visual magnitude of 18.7, roaming in the constellation Centaurus. Background stars are shown in white, while the asteroid trail is depicted in blue at top center. The trail has a length of 19 arc seconds. This asteroid has a diameter of one and one-quarter miles (2 kilometers), and was located 87 million miles from Earth and 156 million miles from the sun. Numerous orange and blue specks in this image and the following two images were created by cosmic rays, energetic subatomic particles that struck the camera's detector. [Top right]: Here is an asteroid with a visual magnitude of 21.8 passing a galaxy in the constellation Leo. The trail is seen in two consecutive exposures, the first shown in blue and the second in red. This asteroid has a diameter of half a mile (0.8 kilometers), and was located 188 million miles from Earth and 233 million miles from the sun. [Lower left]: This asteroid in the constellation Taurus has a visual magnitude of 23, and is one of the faintest seen so far in the Hubble archive. It moves from upper right to lower left in two consecutive exposures; the first trail is shown in blue and the second in red. Because of the asteroid's relatively straight trail, astronomers could not accurately determine its distance. The estimated diameter is half a mile (0.8 kilometers) at an Earth distance of 205 million miles and a sun distance of 298 million miles. [Lower right]: This is a broken asteroid trail crossing the outer regions of galaxy NGC 4548 in Coma Berenices. Five trail segments (shown in white) were extracted from individual exposures and added to a cleaned color image of the galaxy. The asteroid enters the image at top center and moves down toward the lower left. Large gaps in the trail occur because the telescope is orbiting the Earth and cannot continuously observe the galaxy. This asteroid has a visual magnitude of 20.8, a diameter of one mile (1.6 kilometers), and was seen at a distance of 254 million miles from Earth and 292 million miles from the sun. Credit: R. Evans and K. Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and NASA

  6. Insulin down-regulates TRAIL expression in vascular smooth muscle cells both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Corallini, Federica; Celeghini, Claudio; Rizzardi, Clara; Pandolfi, Assunta; Di Silvestre, Sara; Vaccarezza, Mauro; Zauli, Giorgio

    2007-07-01

    To dissect the effect of hyperinsulinemia versus hyperglycemia on TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression in the macrovascular district, we measured TRAIL mRNA and protein in four groups of animals: streptozotocin (SZT)-induced diabetic rats, vehicle-treated control animals, diabetic rats treated with insulin and non-diabetic rats treated with insulin. While the aortas of diabetic rats did not show significant differences in TRAIL expression with respect to vehicle-treated control animals, the aortas of both diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated in vivo for 16 days with insulin showed a significant decrease in TRAIL expression with respect to either diabetic and control rats. Moreover, in vitro treatment of both rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with insulin induced the down-regulation of TRAIL protein. While the addition of recombinant TRAIL to rat VSMC promoted the dose-dependent release of bioactive nitric oxide (NO), this effect was significantly counteracted by pre-exposure of VSMC to insulin. These findings suggest that TRAIL might act as an endogenous regulator of the vascular tone and that chronic elevation of insulin might contribute to the vascular abnormalities characterizing type-2 diabetes mellitus by down-regulating TRAIL expression and activity. PMID:17352408

  7. The Tempel 2 dust trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Lien, D. J.; Walker, R. G.

    1990-07-01

    The IAS satellite's extensive observations of Comet Tempel 2 dust trail suggest that it is composed of particles of greater-than-1 mm diameter, whose velocities relative to the comet (assuming isotropic emission) are in the range of several m/sec. Excess color temperatures obtained relative to a blackbody indicate that either (1) the particles are large enough to support a temperature gradient over their surfaces, or (2) a small-particle population exists whose diameters are smaller than 100 A. If these small particles had not originated from the large particles, their acceleration to km/sec velocities by the gas outflow would have prevented their ejection into trail orbits.

  8. A Mathematics and Science Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathy Horak; Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to engage primary-school students in a hands-on, real-world problem-solving context, a large urban district, a mathematics and science institute housed in a college of education, and a corporate sponsor in the southwest United States, joined forces to create a mathematics and science trail for fourth- and fifth-grade students. A…

  9. Life on the Oregon Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Level Learning: Teaching and Learning Social Studies in the Middle Grades, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to "Social Education" and "Social Studies & the Young Learner" seeks to support creative and rigorous social studies teaching in middle schools. The articles show how students can revisit the Oregon Trail through the diaries of children, learn about the five themes of geography (location, place, human/environment interaction,…

  10. 'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

  11. Bryce Canyon's Navajo Loop Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

  12. ‘BLACK PEARL’ THORNLESS TRAILING BLACKBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington Agricultural Research Center have released 'Black Pearl' a thornless (botanically termed spineless) trailing blackberry for the processing market. 'Black Pearl' was selecte...

  13. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  14. Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-10-01

    Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by closed circuit television (CCTV), with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision-system characteristics on off-road, remote driving has been performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering coupled camera and color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience has been gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. This paper discusses the preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience.

  15. Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgovern, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by close-circuit television with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision system characteristics on off-road, remote driving was performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering-coupled camera and of color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience was gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. The preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience are discussed.

  16. Policy influences on community trail development.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Levinger, David; Maddock, Jay E; Pluto, Delores; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Richards, Katherine L; Steinman, Lesley E

    2008-06-01

    This study explores processes and policies that facilitate the development of community trails. With funding from Active Living Research and the research framework of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN), we conducted a multiple-site case study. A total of six trails in Hawaii, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington were chosen for study. The goals of this case study were to identify the policy influences on trail development, explore the roles of key players in trail development, and compare and contrast findings from the different trails. Trail development can be a long process. Some of the trails took over a decade to complete because of funding, opposition, and roadblocks in the form of design standard policies. Work in trail development requires a team of many players, and it is necessary to balance their varied motives to accomplish a shared overall goal. Foresight through the master planning process is also a vital component of successful trail development. Finally, community involvement is key. Communities contemplating trail development should explore the effects of policy on the trail projects reported here to proactively identify potential influence. PMID:18469168

  17. The science of trail surveys: Recreation ecology provides new tools for managing wilderness trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, Logan O.

    2011-01-01

    Recreation ecology examines the effects of recreation on protected area ecosystems. One core focus of recreation ecology research is trail science, including the development of efficient protocols to assess and monitor the type and severity of resource impacts, analyses to improve knowledge of factors that influence trail conditions, and studies to assist land managers in improving trail design, maintenance, and visitor management. This article reviews alternative trail survey methodologies most useful for the management of wilderness and backcountry trail networks. Illustrations and implications from survey data for trail planning, design, and management are included.

  18. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

  19. Macrophages From Cancer Patients: Analysis of TRAIL, TRAIL Receptors, and Colon Tumor Cell Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Herbeuval; Claude Lambert; Odile Sabido; Michèle Cottier; Pierre Fournel; Michel Dy; Christian Genin

    2003-01-01

    Background: Tumor-infiltrating macrophages secrete cyto- kines, including Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells; however, regulation of TRAIL and its receptors in cancer patients is relatively uncharacterized. We investi- gated whether macrophages from cancer patients produce TRAIL and whether apoptosis in cultured colon adenocar- cinoma

  20. Tales of the Trails Try our walking trails and tell us what you think

    E-print Network

    on the information board, pick one of the trails and walk it. The descriptions tell you a little bit about the trails near Aberfoyle. · Callendar Wood in Falkirk between Thursday 15th August and Sunday the 18th August. The three trails all leave from the Callendar House car park near the centre of Falkirk. · Glenmore Forest

  1. DARPA FCS unmanned ground vehicle research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Scott

    2002-07-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Army (ASAALT) have jointly funded several FCS research initiatives in ground robotics. The Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle (UGCV) and Perception for Off-Road Mobility (PerceptOR) programs are the major elements of this joint ground robotic effort. These programs were initiated in fiscal year 2001 and have progressed through their first phase. The UGCV program, now in Phase IB, has downselected from 11 concepts designs to 4. Phase IB focuses on detailed design of teams' concepts in anticipation of the prototype construction Phase II and initial vehicle roll-out near the end of the 2002 calendar year. This paper highlights program findings to date as a result of the initial phase, and illustrates plans for Phase II prototype testing. The PerceptOR program, currently in Phase II, has completed its Phase I which involved development of a perception system for operation on a commercial All Terrain Vehicle. This paper describes the effort of the first phase, and outlines the plans for vehicle testing in Phases II and III.

  2. Trail inventory and assessment approaches to trail system planning at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, P.B.; Marion, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Trail system planning and management require accurate assessments of existing trail resources and their condition. A standardized and efficient process for surveying, inventorying, and assessing trail systems was developed and applied in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Two approaches employed were (1) a Trail System Inventory, and (2) Prescriptive Work Logs. These complimentary approaches provide resource managers with valuable information regarding the location and length of individual trails, their current condition and needed maintenance work, and material and labor estimates necessary to conduct such work.

  3. Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

    This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

    This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

  4. In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

  5. Na Ala Hele (Trails for Walking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Planning and Economic Development, Honolulu.

    This proposal for the development of a system of administering hiking trails in the state of Hawaii when such trails would involve various public and private jurisdictions emphasizes three elements: (a) proposing means of administration involving multiple jurisdictions; (b) demonstrating by means of a proposed project on the west coast of the Big…

  6. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  7. Radio propagation by reflection from meteor trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Sugar

    1964-01-01

    This paper is a survey of those characteristics of meteors, and of meteor propagation, which are important to the understanding and use of meteor ionization insofar as it provides a means of radio transmission. The subjects discussed include the utility of meteor bursts for intermittent radio communication, physical properties of meteors and meteor trails, reflection properties of individual trails, short-term

  8. Remote Sensing-based Models of Soil Vulnerability to Compaction and Erosion from Off-highway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, M. L.; Webb, R. H.; Norman, L.; Psillas, J.; Rosenberg, A.; Carmichael, S.; Petrakis, R.; Sparks, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intensive off-road vehicle use for immigration, smuggling, and security of the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from vehicle disturbances, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), with particular focus on the management factor (P-factor) and vegetation cover (C-factor). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, a soil compaction index (applied as the P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to remote sensing-based maps of vehicle tracks and digital soils maps. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2 = 0.77) than data derived from regional land cover maps (r2 = 0.06). RUSLE factors were normalized to give equal weight to all contributing factors, which provided more management-specific information on vulnerable areas where vehicle compaction of sensitive soils intersects with steep slopes and low vegetation cover. Resulting spatial data on vulnerability and erosion potential provide land managers with information to identify critically disturbed areas and potential restoration sites where off-road driving should be restricted to reduce further degradation.

  9. The Off-Road Axle Detection Sensor (ORADS) is a dual-beam co-axial laser radar (LADAR) sensor that measures lane position and passage of vehicle tires to determine axle

    E-print Network

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    " port on the TCC-550. ORADS uses an internal rechargeable sealed lead acid battery. This battery is a 33 amp- hour, 12 volt battery. The ORADS is also equipped with a 12-watt, 12 volt solar panel attached to the lid of the unit. The solar panel provides auxiliary power to charge the internal battery during

  10. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail discrimination, including the mechanisms by which many snails determine the polarity of the trail, are yet to be experimentally determined. Given the multiple functions of trail-following we propose that future studies should adopt an integrated approach, taking into account the possibility of the simultaneous occurrence of many selectively advantageous roles of trail-following behaviour in gastropods. We also believe that future opportunities to link phenotypic and genotypic traits will make possible a new generation of research projects in which gastropod trail-following, its multitude of functions and evolutionary trade-offs can be further elucidated. PMID:23374161

  11. Increased OPG expression and impaired OPG/TRAIL ratio in the aorta of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vaccarezza, Mauro; Bortul, Roberta; Fadda, Roberto; Zweyer, Marina

    2007-07-01

    Despite accumulating evidence showing that TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) plays a role in vascular biology and that its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) is expressed in the vessel wall, modulation of these TNF and TNF-R family members in the early phases of diabetes mellitus has not been investigated. The expression of TRAIL and of OPG was examined both at the mRNA and protein levels in control and streptozotocin (SZT)-induced diabetic rats at early time points after the induction of diabetes mellitus. No differences in the steady-state mRNA levels of TRAIL were noticed by quantitative RT-PCR among the two groups of animals. On the other hand, diabetic rats showed a rapid and significant increase of the steady-state mRNA levels of OPG in the aortic wall of diabetic animals with respect to vehicle-treated (control) animals. These findings were confirmed at the protein level by analysing the amount of TRAIL and OPG proteins in aortic lysates by either Western blot or immunohistochemistry. Thus, an abnormal elevation of the OPG/TRAIL ratio in the vessel wall characterizes the early onset of diabetes mellitus and might represent a molecular mechanism involved in the vascular dysfunction characterizing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17627577

  12. A robust nonlinear skid-steering control design applied to the MULE (6x6) unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloust, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The paper presents a robust nonlinear skid-steering control design concept. The control concept is based on the recursive/backstepping control design technique and is capable of compensating for uncertainties associated with sensor noise measurements and/or system dynamic state uncertainties. The objective of this control design is to demonstrate the performance of the nonlinear controller under uncertainty associate with road traction (rough off-road and on-road terrain). The MULE vehicle is used in the simulation modeling and results.

  13. TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Ying [Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)], E-mail: huangy@upstate.edu; Sheikh, M. Saeed [Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)], E-mail: sheikhm@upstate.edu

    2007-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter.

  14. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  16. Trail-following behavior of Reticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kenneth Grace; David L. Wood; Gordon W. Frankie

    1988-01-01

    The behavior ofReticulitermes hesperus Banks pseudergates (workers) was assessed on artificial trails containing different concentrations of sternal gland extract. On nongiadient trails, more pseudergates were recruited to trails of greater pheromone concentration, they traveled a greater distance without pausing, and their rate of locomotion increased over that observed on trails of lesser concentration (positive orthokinesis). Of the individuals pausing before

  17. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

  18. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

  19. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

  20. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

  1. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin Street bridge, mile 0.5 at Michigan City, shall be...

  2. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  3. Crystalline calcium in littorinid mucus trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Davies; Susan J. Hutchinson

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the feet of terrestrial and freshwater snails are important in calcium regulation, often secreting\\u000a granules of CaCO3. This phenomenon has not, until now, been observed in marine snails. Here we report the presence of CaCO3 granules in the trail mucus of Littorina littorea (L.), L. saxatilis (Olivi) and L. obtusata (L.) Fixed mucus trails on

  4. Wave propagation on the von Karman trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1986-12-01

    The presence of wave propagation on vortex trails has been pointed out by Tritton [J. Fluid Mech. 6, 547 (1959)] who measured their speeds in the wake of a cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers. It is shown here that the von Karman model of the vortex trail leads to such disturbance waves and, moreover, that they can be of growing amplitude. The theoretical values of the wave speeds are found to lie within the experimental error bounds.

  5. TrailRunner 1.8

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Everyone's looking for an improved running or walking path, and TrailRunner can help you do just that. TrailRunner 1.8 is essentially a route planning application designed for sports like running, biking, and inline skating. Visitors can create interactive maps, review alternate routes, and export the directions onto their iPod. This version is compatible with Mac OS X 10.3.

  6. A standard audit trail format

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1995-02-01

    The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

  7. Aeroelastic analysis of rotor systems using trailing edge flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, In-Gyu; Lee, In

    2009-04-01

    An aeroelastic analysis of rotor blades with trailing edge flaps was conducted using large deflection-type beam theory for forward flight conditions with a focus on reducing vibration while minimizing control effort. The aerodynamic forces of the rotor blade were calculated using two-dimensional quasi-steady strip theory. For the analysis of forward flight, the nonlinear periodic blade steady response was obtained by integrating the full finite element equation in time through a coupled trim procedure with a vehicle trim. The objective function, which includes vibratory hub loads and active flap control inputs, was minimized by an optimal control process. Numerical simulations were performed for the steady-state forward flight of various advance ratios. Numerical results of the steady blade and flap deflections as well as the vibratory hub loads were also presented for various advance ratios and were compared with previously published analysis results obtained from modal analyses based on a moderate deflection-type beam theory.

  8. Aeroelastic Analysis of Bearingless Rotor Systems with Trailing Edge Flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, In-Gyu; Lee, In

    An aeroelastic analysis of bearingless rotor systems with trailing edge flaps was conducted using large deflection-type beam theory for forward flight conditions with a focus on reducing vibration while minimizing control effort. The aerodynamic forces of the rotor blade were calculated using two-dimensional quasi-steady strip theory. For the analysis of forward flight, the nonlinear periodic blade steady response was obtained by integrating the full finite element equation in time through a coupled trim procedure with a vehicle trim. The objective function, which includes vibratory hub loads and active flap control inputs, was minimized by an optimal control process. Numerical simulations were performed for the steady-state forward flight of various advance ratios. Numerical results of the steady blade and flap deflections as well as the vibratory hub loads were also presented for various advance ratios and were compared with previously published analysis results obtained from modal analyses based on a moderate deflection-type beam theory.

  9. Trail Impacts and Trail Impact Management Related to Visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy A. Farrell; Jeffrey L. Marion

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation and ecotourism in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water, and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency

  10. Animal Trail Follow the clues and the map around the red trail

    E-print Network

    Tan y Coed Animal Trail Clues Follow the clues and the map around the red trail keeping your eyes peeled for the animals. Machynlleth Dolgellau Bala Ffestiniog Porthmadog A A A470 A487 A470 B A487.forestry.gov.uk/cymru Canolfan Cyswllt CC Cymru: 0845 604 0845 (diwrnodiau'r wythnos yn unig) How to find us.. The Animal Puzzle

  11. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...powered by off-road engines and the auxiliary engines on two-engine sweepers. By...powered by off-road engines and the auxiliary engines on two-engine sweepers provisions...operations) and the [[Page 50504

  12. Tempel 2 Dust Trail. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.V.; Walker, R.G.; Lien, D.J.

    1989-09-28

    Observations of cometary dust at visual wavelengths are dominated by particles microns in size. At thermal wavelengths emissions from submillimeter and larger particles become important. Dust trails are phenomena which were first detected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), and have been identified as large debris covering portions of the orbits of short-period comets. The Tempel 2 Dust Trail was extensively observed by the IRAS. Evidence is presented suggesting that the trail is composed of particles on the order of 1 mm and large in diameter with velocities of several meters per second relative to the parent comet, assuming isotropic emission. Trail particles forward of the comets orbital position have a minimum diameter of approx. 6 mm. These particles were emitted by the nucleus over a few hundred years. Excess color temperatures relative to a blackbody indicate that the particles either are large enough to support a temperature gradient over their surfaces or that a small particle population exists with diameters < 100A. In the case of the latter, such small particles would have to have originated from the large particles, otherwise their acceleration by the gas outflow to km/s velocities would have prevented their ejection into trail orbits.

  13. Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

  14. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  15. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  16. Modelling the evolution of human trail systems.

    PubMed

    Helbing, D; Keltsch, J; Molnár, P

    1997-07-01

    Many human social phenomena, such as cooperation, the growth of settlements, traffic dynamics and pedestrian movement, appear to be accessible to mathematical descriptions that invoke self-organization. Here we develop a model of pedestrian motion to explore the evolution of trails in urban green spaces such as parks. Our aim is to address such questions as what the topological structures of these trail systems are, and whether optimal path systems can be predicted for urban planning. We use an 'active walker' model that takes into account pedestrian motion and orientation and the concomitant feedbacks with the surrounding environment. Such models have previously been applied to the study of complex structure formation in physical, chemical and biological systems. We find that our model is able to reproduce many of the observed large-scale spatial features of trail systems. PMID:9214501

  17. The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

  18. Ant foraging on complex trails: route learning and the role of trail pheromones in Lasius niger.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ellis, Laura; Wood, Elizabeth; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-01-15

    Ants are central place foragers and use multiple information sources to navigate between the nest and feeding sites. Individual ants rapidly learn a route, and often prioritize memory over pheromone trails when tested on a simple trail with a single bifurcation. However, in nature, ants often forage at locations that are reached via more complex routes with multiple trail bifurcations. Such routes may be more difficult to learn, and thus ants would benefit from additional information. We hypothesized that trail pheromones play a more significant role in ant foraging on complex routes, either by assisting in navigation or route learning or both. We studied Lasius niger workers foraging on a doubly bifurcating trail with four end points. Route learning was slower and errors greater on alternating (e.g. left-right) versus repeating routes (e.g. left-left), with error rates of 32 and 3%, respectively. However, errors on alternating routes decreased by 30% when trail pheromone was present. Trail pheromones also aid route learning, leading to reduced errors in subsequent journeys without pheromone. If an experienced forager makes an error when returning to a food source, it reacts by increasing pheromone deposition on the return journey. In addition, high levels of trail pheromone suppress further pheromone deposition. This negative feedback mechanism may act to conserve pheromone or to regulate recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate further complexity and sophistication in the foraging system of ant colonies, especially in the role of trail pheromones and their relationship with learning and the use of private information (memory) in a complex environment. PMID:22972897

  19. 7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SHOWING METHOD OF SLEDDING WIND CABLE DOWN YAKI TRAIL TO THE BRIDGE, WEIGHT OF CABLE AND DRUM APPROXIMATELY 2200 POUNDS - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a suitable manner to...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a suitable manner to...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the TRAIL-R3 gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    TRAIL-R3 is a decoy receptor for TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. TRAIL induces apoptosis in a broad range of cancer cell lines, but not in many normal cells-a finding that generated extraordinary excitement about its potential as a specific antitumor agent. In several cell types, decoy receptors inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis by binding to it and preventing its binding to TRAIL proapoptotic or death receptors. However, recently published data regarding the role of these receptors in TRAIL-induced cellular death are contradictory. The key to resolving this controversy may lie in the regulation and cellular localization of TRAIL receptors. In this regard, cloning and analysis of the TRAIL-R3 promoter will help to identify the cellular factors that regulate its transcriptional expression. This chapter summarizes current knowledge in this field and outlines directions for future research. PMID:15110171

  8. Science Nation: Hydrogen Trail Blazers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In just the last few years, Columbia, South Carolina has transformed itself into a hotbed of hydrogen research--thanks in large part to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Fuel Cells at the University of South Carolina, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Hydrogen is widely hailed as the fuel of the future--plentiful and non-polluting, discharging only water vapor into the environment. Perfecting the fuel cell, which converts hydrogen into a steady stream of electricity, will be one of the keys to making hydrogen vehicles commonplace. To support the push to hydrogen, the city of Columbia, the university, and local business and industry are coordinating to put these new hydrogen technologies to work around town. One example, city policeman patrol the downtown area on hydrogen hybrid Segways.

  9. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 56.12038 Section 56.12038 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 56.12038 Section 56.12038 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 57.12038 Section 57.12038 Mineral...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 57.12038 Section 57.12038 Mineral...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  13. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Adaptive Morphing Trailing Edge Wing

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Adaptive Morphing Trailing Edge Wing Zhoujie Lyu Joaquim R. R morphing trailing edge wings have the potential to reduce the fuel burn of transport air- craft. In this paper, we quantify the aerodynamic performance benefits of a morphing trailing using aerodynamic design

  14. SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY Westcott Art Trail

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    June 2013 SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY 1 Westcott Art Trail 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Westcott Art Trail Syracuse Chiefs Game Taste of Syracuse Syracuse Chiefs Game Taste of Syracuse: 10:00 AM ­ 6:00 PM MAY-NOVEMBER WESTCOTT ART TRAIL 10 AM - 5 PM SAT & SUN HTTP

  15. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 57.12038 Section 57.12038 Mineral...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 57.12038 Section 57.12038 Mineral...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 56.12038 Section 56.12038 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached...

  18. Flow Characteristics on Shared Hiking\\/Biking\\/Jogging Trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK R. VIRKLER; Rajesh Balasubramanian

    1998-01-01

    Trails shared by hikers, bicyclists, and joggers present the unusual traf- fic flow situation of a facility serving three classes of users with dis- tinctly different flow characteristics. Data on typical trail volumes are summarized. A procedure developed by Botma to describe quality of flow on shared pedestrian\\/bicycle paths is then discussed. Data from two sites, the MKT Trail in

  19. Pheromone Trailing Behavior of the Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Greene; Shantel L. Stark; Robert T. Mason

    2001-01-01

    The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active

  20. Novel techniques for deploying monitoring trails (m-trails) for fault localization in all-optical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled M. Maamoun; Hussein T. Mouftah

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, desirable performance of fault localization process in all-optical networks is presented by employing the recently introduced Monitoring-Trail (m-trail) (that was proved to yield better performance by establishing monitoring resources in a shape of trails). As well, new techniques for deploying m-trails on networks along with its established lightpaths to perform fault localization are introduced. A novel technique

  1. Food Stories Exhibition Trail Leader's Notes

    E-print Network

    Levi, Ran

    Food Stories Exhibition Trail Leader's Notes 1. Take a look at the stone fragment. Where do you a story about a celebration involving food? (No answer required) 3. This is a food hook from Papua New of grass, palm leaves and bamboo. The food hook would hang from the ceiling of the hut. Why do you think

  2. Sandstone Formation on the Navajo Loop Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

  3. Hoodoo on the Navajo Loop Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

  4. Snow on the Navajo Loop Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

  5. Interactive Media Audit Trails: Approaches and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misanchuk, Earl R.; Schwier, Richard

    This discussion of uses for audit trails in instructional research begins by pointing out that interactive media provide the learner with the opportunity to shape the program, and consequently, the learning experience. The paper focuses on one of the new questions for instructional designers that have come with the advent of these technologies,…

  6. The OBIS Trail Module. Trial Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to allow youngsters aged 10 to 15 to experience the challenges and problems environmental investigators might face making an environmental impact study, the trial version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trail Module focuses on aspects of construction-related environment problems. Four activities are included in the…

  7. Evolution of Dust Trails into Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.; Bottke, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the production of dust trails by asteroid disruption events. Our work shows that asteroid trails evolve into pairs of dust bands over time. Coherent trails typically survive several tens of kyr before evolving into complete bands after ~1 Myr. The transition timescale depends sensitively on the location of the source breakup event in the main asteroid belt. Bands develop more efficiently from sources in the middle/outer belt than in the inner belt, which may not produce observable pairs of bands at all. The infrared structures produced by recent disruption events (<1 Myr) are characterized by a complicated and changing set of incomplete arcs and cusps. Their geometry depends both on the observer's position and on the source's location in terms of heliocentric distance and inclination to the ecliptic. We postulate that the broad orphan trails named C and D by Sykes in 1988 might have been produced by the formation of the Datura asteroid family 450+/-50 kyr ago. Additional work will be needed to test this link.

  8. Axial flow in trailing line vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinder S. Uberoi; Bhimsen K. Shivamoggi; Sin-Sung Chen

    1979-01-01

    Axial flow in the core of a laminar steady trailing vortex from the tip of a semi-infinite wing is analyzed assuming small departure of the axial velocity from the free-stream velocity. It is further assumed that the axial pressure gradient is determined by the swirl velocities of an ideal infinite line vortex in which the radial and the associated axial

  9. Food Stories Exhibition Trail Curriculum Links

    E-print Network

    Levi, Ran

    Food Stories Exhibition Trail Curriculum Links Level 1 Outcomes Level 2 Outcomes Level 3 Outcomes understand that food practices and preferences are influenced by factors such as food sources, finance developed an awareness of the ways we remember and preserve Scotland's history. SOC 1-02a I can use evidence

  10. Role of serum TRAIL level and TRAIL apoptosis gene expression in multiple sclerosis and relation to brain atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tawdy, Mohamed H; Abd El Nasser, Maged M; Abd El Shafy, Sanaa S; Nada, Mona A F; El Sirafy, Mohamed Nasr I; Magd, Amany Hussien Abol

    2014-09-01

    One of the presumed pathological mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the failure of apoptosis of autoreactive T lymphocytes. This study aimed to determine the relationship of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA gene expression ratio and serum TRAIL levels with MS and brain atrophy. This study was conducted on 53 relapsing-remitting Egyptian MS patients and 25 matched healthy volunteers. The expression of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum levels of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and brain MRI measured "black holes" and the bicaudate ratio as a measure of brain atrophy in all patients. The serum TRAIL level was lower in MS patients compared to controls but no difference was seen in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio. No significant correlation was detected between the serum TRAIL level and the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio in either group. No statistically significant correlation was found between serum TRAIL levels or the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio with the number of black holes or the bicaudate ratio on MRI. Apoptosis of T lymphocytes is decreased in MS patients, which could be useful when designing treatments. There was no difference in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio between MS patients and controls. PMID:24913933

  11. Experimental aerodynamics of mesoscale trailing-edge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovitz, Stephen Adam

    Uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) are commonly designed with high-aspect ratio wings, which can be susceptible to significant aeroelastic vibrations. These modes can result in a loss of control or structural failure, and new techniques are necessary to alleviate them. A multidisciplinary effort at Stanford developed a distributed flow control method that used small trailing-edge actuators to alter the aerodynamic loads at specific spanwise locations along an airplane wing. This involved design and production of the actuators, computational and experimental study of their characteristics, and application to a flexible wing. This project focused on the experimental response. The actuators were based on a Gurney flap, which is a trailing-edge flap of small size and large deflection, typically about 2% of the chord and 90 degrees, respectively. Because of the large deflection, there is a significant change to the wing camber, increasing the lift. However, due to the small size, the drag does not increase substantially, and the performance is actually improved for high lift conditions. For this project, a 1.5% flap was divided into small span segments (5.2% of the chord), each individually controllable. These devices are termed microflaps or Micro Trailing-edge Effectors (MiTEs). The aerodynamic response was examined to determine the effects of small flap span, the influence of the device structure, and the transient response to relatively rapid MiTE actuation. Measurements included integrated loads, pressure profiles, wake surveys, and near-wake studies using particle image velocimetry. The basic response was similar to a Gurney flap, as full-span actuation of the devices produced a lift increment of about +0.25 when applied towards the pressure surface. For partial actuated spans, the load increment was approximately linear with the actuated span, regardless of configuration. The primary effects occurred within two device spans, indicating that most of the load was locally applied. The transient response was quasi-steady for dimensionless actuation times (tU/c) near unity. A shorter dimensionless actuation time of 0.2 produced a transient response with significant overshoot of the downwash velocity in the near-wake. This indicated a non-monotonic response of the aerodynamic loads for rapid actuation.

  12. Fn14•Trail Effectively Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth

    PubMed Central

    Aronin, Alexandra; Amsili, Shira; Prigozhina, Tatyana B.; Tzdaka, Kobi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob; Shani, Noam; Tykocinski, Mark L.; Dranitzki Elhalel, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Background New strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are needed, given that currently available chemotherapeutics are inefficient. Since tumor growth reflects the net balance between pro-proliferative and death signaling, agents shifting the equilibrium toward the latter are of considerable interest. The TWEAK:Fn14 signaling axis promotes tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, while TRAIL:TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R) interactions selectively induce apoptosis in malignant cells. Fn14•TRAIL, a fusion protein bridging these two pathways, has the potential to inhibit tumor growth, by interfering with TWEAK:Fn14 signaling, while at the same time enforcing TRAIL:TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, Fn14•TRAIL's capacity to inhibit HCC growth was tested. Results Fn14•TRAIL induced robust apoptosis of multiple HCC cell lines, while sparing non-malignant hepatocyte cell lines. Differential susceptibility to this agent did not correlate with expression levels of TRAIL, TRAIL-R, TWEAK and Fn14 by these lines. Fn14•TRAIL was more potent than soluble TRAIL, soluble Fn14, or a combination of the two. The requirement of both of Fn14•TRAIL's molecular domains for function was established using blocking antibodies directed against each of them. Subcutaneous injection of Fn14•TRAIL abrogated HCC growth in a xenograft model, and was well tolerated by the mice. Conclusions In this study, Fn14•TRAIL, a multifunctional fusion protein originally designed to treat autoimmunity, was shown to inhibit the growth of HCC, both in vitro and in vivo. The demonstration of this fusion protein’s potent anti-tumor activity suggests that simultaneous targeting of two signaling axes by a single fusion can serve as a basis for highly effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:24130833

  13. Vegetation moderates impacts of tourism usage on bird communities along roads and hiking trails.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Hagenloh, Gerald; Croft, David B

    2013-11-15

    Bird communities inhabiting ecosystems adjacent to recreational tracks may be adversely affected by disturbance from passing tourism traffic, vehicle-related mortality, habitat alteration and modified biotic relationships such as the increase of strong competitors. This study investigated the effects of tourist usage of roads vs. hiking trails on bird communities in gorges of the Flinders Ranges, a popular South Australian tourist destination in the arid-lands. High tourist usage along roads decreased the individual abundance and species richness of birds relative to low usage trails. The decrease in species richness, though less pronounced, also occurred at high-usage sites along trails. Changes in the species response to recreational disturbance/impacts varied depending on the ecology of the species. Bigger, more competitive birds with a generalist diet were overrepresented at high-usage sites along roads and trails. Species using microhabitats in lower vegetation layers were more sensitive. However, structural and floristic complexity of vegetation was a more important factor influencing bird abundance than tourist usage. Sites with a better developed shrub and tree layer sustained higher species abundance and richer communities. Importantly, vegetation qualities moderated the negative effect of high usage on the individual abundance of birds along roads, to the extent that such an effect was absent at sites with the best developed shrub and tree layer. To protect avifauna along recreational tracks in arid-lands gorges, we recommend the closure of some gorges or sections for vehicle or any access. Further, open space particularly for camping needs to be minimized as it creates areas of high tourist usage with modified habitat that provides birds with little buffer from disturbance. PMID:23954389

  14. SAHM:VisTrails (Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for VisTrails): training course

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    VisTrails is an open-source management and scientific workflow system designed to integrate the best of both scientific workflow and scientific visualization systems. Developers can extend the functionality of the VisTrails system by creating custom modules for bundled VisTrails packages. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s North Central Climate Science Center have teamed up to develop and implement such a module—the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). SAHM expedites habitat modeling and helps maintain a record of the various input data, the steps before and after processing, and the modeling options incorporated in the construction of an ecological response model. There are four main advantages to using the SAHM:VisTrails combined package for species distribution modeling: (1) formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process; (2) easier collaboration through a common modeling framework; (3) a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output; and (4) extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. In order to meet increased interest in the SAHM:VisTrails package, the FORT offers a training course twice a year. The course includes a combination of lecture, hands-on work, and discussion. Please join us and other ecological modelers to learn the capabilities of the SAHM:VisTrails package.

  15. Expression of human soluble TRAIL in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongqi Yang; yinü Li; Feng Chen; Dong Li; Zhifang Zhang; Yanxin Liu; Dexian Zheng; Yong Wang; Guifang Shen

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces selectively apoptosis in various tumor cells and virus-infected\\u000a cells, but rarely in normal cells. A chloroplast expression vector, p64TRAIL, containing the cDNA coding for the soluble TRAIL\\u000a (sTRAIL), was constructed with clpP-trnL-petB-chlL-rpl23-rpl2 as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid homologous recombinant fragments and spectinomycin-resistant aadA gene as a select marker. The plasmid p64TRAIL was transferred into

  16. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  17. Rut Detection and Following For Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilo Ordonez

    2010-01-01

    When driving on off road terrains, experienced drivers utilize driving rules that have been developed through experience to handle difficult driving conditions such as traversing soft terrains, descending steep hills, and traversing water bodies among others. As robots move to challenging outdoor applications, it becomes imperative to adapt these off road driving rules to the robot control paradigms and hence

  18. TOTE Project. A Curriculum Source Book for Teaching Human Relations, Environmental Education, and Camping Skills in the Classroom and on the Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Durrell A.; And Others

    Backpacking serves as the vehicle for teaching basic secondary school subjects in this curriculum guide which suggests various learning activities for teaching human relations, environmental education, and camping. The activities, some for the classroom and some for the trail, are designed to help students observe, draw conclusions, and develop…

  19. Shear-Layer Effects on Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Crosswind shear can influence the trailing vortex trajectories significantly, according to both field measurement and numerical simulations. Point vortex models are used in this paper to study the fluid dynamic mechanism in the interactions between trailing vortex pair and shear layers. It has been shown that the shear-layer deformation causes the vortex descent history difference in the two vortices of the vortex pair. When a shear layer is below the vortex pair with the same sign as the left vortex, the right vortex descends less than the left vortex. When the same shear layer is above the vortex pair, the right vortex descends more. The descent altitudes of the two vortices are the same when they go through a constant, non-deformed shear layer. Those trends are in agreement with Navier-Stokes simulations.

  20. Differential expression of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in allergic asthmatics following segmental antigen challenge: evidence for a role of TRAIL in eosinophil survival.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Noreen M; Zangrilli, James G; Steplewski, Andrzej; Hastie, Annette; Lindemeyer, Rochelle G; Planeta, Maria A; Smith, Mary K; Innocent, Nathalie; Musani, Ali; Pascual, Rodolfo; Peters, Stephen; Litwack, Gerald

    2002-11-15

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease exhibiting airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammation, characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and the underlying tissue. Prolonged eosinophilic inflammation depends on the balance between the cell's inherent tendency to undergo apoptosis and the local eosinophil-viability enhancing activity. TRAIL, a member of the TNF family, induces apoptosis in most transformed cells; however, its role in health and disease remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that Ag-induced inflammation is associated with TRAIL/TRAIL-R interactions, we used a segmental Ag challenge (SAC) model in ragweed-allergic asthmatics and nonasthmatic patients and analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) material for 2 wk. In asthmatic patients, the level of TRAIL in BAL fluid dramatically increased 24 h after SAC, which significantly correlated with BAL eosinophil counts. Immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsies from asthmatic patients demonstrated that TRAIL staining was increased in epithelial, airway smooth muscle, and vascular smooth muscle cells and throughout the interstitial tissue after SAC. This was confirmed by quantitative immunocytochemical image analysis of BAL eosinophils and alveolar macrophages, which demonstrated that expression levels of TRAIL and DcR2 increased, whereas expression levels of the TRAIL-Rs DR4 and DR5 decreased in asthmatic subjects after SAC. We also determined that TRAIL prolongs eosinophil survival ex vivo. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that TRAIL expression is increased in asthmatics following Ag provocation and suggest that modulation of TRAIL and TRAIL-R interactions may play a crucial role in promoting eosinophil survival in asthma. PMID:12421985

  1. Mating system shifts on the trailing edge

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The trailing edges of species ranges are becoming a subject of increasing interest as the environment changes due to global warming. Trailing edge populations are likely to face extinction because of a decline in numbers and an inability to evolve new adaptations with sufficient speed. Discussions of character change in the trailing edge have focused on physiological, exomorphic and phenological traits. The mating pattern within populations has not been part of the discourse, in spite of the fact that the mating pattern may affect the ability of populations to respond to environmental change and to maintain their sizes. In this paper, the case is made that a substantial increase in self-fertilization rates may occur via plastic responses to stress. Scope and Conclusions Small populations on the trailing edge are especially vulnerable to environmental change because of inadequate levels of cross-fertilization. Evidence is presented that a deficiency of cross-seed production is due to inadequate pollinator services and a paucity of self-incompatibility alleles within populations. Evidence also is presented that if plants are self-compatible, self-fertilization may compensate in part for this deficiency through a stress-induced increase in levels of self-compatibility and stress-induced alterations in floral morphology that elevate self-pollination. Whereas increased self-fertility may afford populations the time to adapt to their changing environments, it can be concluded that increased selfing is not a panacea for the ills of environmental change, because it will lead to substantial reductions in genetic diversity, which may render adaptation unlikely. PMID:21980190

  2. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics. II - Analytic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1993-03-01

    Spatially periodic large amplitude solutions of the von Karman model are obtained in the neighborhood of singularities. These singularities correspond to vortex clusters in the physical plane. The quasi-periodic and unbounded solutions found analytically confirm earlier numerical work and show qualitative agreement with experimental observations of large-scale phenomena of vortex trails. Separatrices or heteroclinic orbits were explicitly found for an integrable approximate equation, which indicate that the von Karman model itself supports chaotic solutions.

  3. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics. II - Analytic solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Spatially periodic large amplitude solutions of the von Karman model are obtained in the neighborhood of singularities. These singularities correspond to vortex clusters in the physical plane. The quasi-periodic and unbounded solutions found analytically confirm earlier numerical work and show qualitative agreement with experimental observations of large-scale phenomena of vortex trails. Separatrices or heteroclinic orbits were explicitly found for an integrable approximate equation, which indicate that the von Karman model itself supports chaotic solutions.

  4. Blockade of Death Ligand TRAIL Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takaomi; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Gondai, Tatsuro; Yagita, Hideo; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many investigators have reported that cell death via apoptosis significantly contributed to the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and induces apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of TRAIL in renal IRI is unclear. Here, we investigated whether TRAIL contributes to renal IRI and whether TRAIL blockade could attenuate renal IRI. AKI was induced by unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 60 min in male FVB/N mice. We found that the expression of TRAIL and its receptors were highly upregulated in renal tubular cells in renal IRI. Neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibody or its control IgG was given 24 hr before ischemia and a half-dose booster injection was administered into the peritoneal cavity immediately after reperfusion. We found that TRAIL blockade inhibited tubular apoptosis and reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, TRAIL blockade attenuated renal fibrosis and atrophy after IRI. In conclusion, our study suggests that TRAIL is a critical pathogenic factor in renal IRI, and that TRAIL could be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of renal IRI. PMID:24610963

  5. Investigations of transonic trailing edge flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrie, S. L.; Emmer, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of several of the trailing edge and wake turbulence properties for a NACA 64A010 airfoil section was completed. The experiments were conducted at the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory in the 6 inch x 22 inch transonic wind tunnel facility. The data were obtained at a free stream Mach number of 0.80 and a flow Reynolds number (based on chord length) of 5 million. The principal diagnostic tool was a dual-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The experimental data included surface static pressures, chordwise and vertical mean velocities, RMS turbulence intensities, local flow angles, and a determination of turbulence kinetic energy in the wake at chordwise locations between the transonic shock wave and the trailing edge, in the near wake just downstream of the trailing edge and in the far wake. At the two angles of attack tested (0 and 2 degrees), the turbulence intensities and turbulence kinetic energy were observed to decay in the streamwise direction. In the far wake, for the non-lifting case, the turbulence intensities were nearly isotropic. For the two degree case, the horizontal component of the turbulence intensity was observed to be substantially higher than the vertical component.

  6. Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

  7. Pheromone trailing behavior of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.

    PubMed

    Greene, M J; Stark, S L; Mason, R T

    2001-11-01

    The ability of snakes to follow pheromone trails has significant consequences for survival and reproduction. Of particular importance is the ability of snakes to locate conspecifics during the breeding season via the detection of pheromone trails. In this study, the ability of male brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis), a tropical, rear-fanged colubrid, to follow pheromone trails produced by reproductively active conspecifics was tested in the laboratory by using a Y maze. Males displayed a trailing response to both female and male pheromone trails over blank controls. As males of this species display ritualized combat behavior, these responses likely represent both direct and indirect mechanisms, respectively, for the location of potential mates in the wild. Males did not, however, discriminate between male and female trails when given a choice on the Y maze. PMID:11817075

  8. The influence of surface rounding on trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1988-11-01

    The sound produced by low Mach number turbulent flow over an asymmetrically rounded trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Results are given for angles of the trailing edge wedge of 90 deg and less. It is found that, for a given turbulence intensity, surface beveling has a significant effect on the radiation only at sufficiently high frequencies that the trailing edge may be regarded as a straight-sided wedge over distances of the order of the turbulence length scale.

  9. Trail-following in termites: Evidence for a multicomponent system.

    PubMed

    Kaib, M; Bruinsma, O; Leuthold, R H

    1982-09-01

    Several African termite species from different subfamilies and different habitats are sensitive to trail-active extracts or to naturally laid trails from other species. Using single-extract bioassays, it is shown that the response threshold for trail-following is nearly identical for all tested species (except forHodotermes mossambicus). However, when termite workers have a choice between trails from their own species and from other species, conspecific trail-following is exclusively observed. This phenomenon can be counteracted by dilution (1?10) of the conspecific trail-pheromone extract. Tests of the trail activity of various synthetic alcohols show that among these, the highest sensitivity of termite workers is to (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol. Based on our experimental data, we postulate that, in addition to a generally active trail-pheromone constituent (an unsaturated primary C12 alcohol) or a pool of chemically closely related alcohols, other species-specific components are present in termite trails. PMID:24413962

  10. An aerial-photographic assessment of reenacted handcart treks on a section of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Fremont County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Nielsen, Charlene C.; Hanson, Leanne; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2008-01-01

    Based on these results, there are identifiable management considerations. Toilet and rest sites need to be carefully located relative to where sensitive vegetation or soils occur. The analyses presented here indicate that limiting motorized vehicle use needs to be a priority over that of adjusting the number of trekkers. Additionally, monitoring of the Trail from Sixth Crossing to Rock Creek Hollow segment needs to consider explicit management targets, such as minimum acceptable levels of bare ground or trail width, and the establishment of permanent monitoring plots to evaluate targets and measure responses to altered management activities.

  11. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

  12. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes.

    PubMed

    Horova, Vladimira; Hradilova, Nada; Jelinkova, Iva; Koc, Michal; Svadlenka, Jan; Brazina, Jan; Klima, Martin; Slavik, Josef; Hyrslova Vaculova, Alena; Andera, Ladislav

    2013-07-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a membrane-bound ligand from the TNF family, has attracted significant attention due to its rather specific and effective ability to induce apoptotic death in various types of cancer cells via binding to and activating its pro-apoptotic death receptors. However, a significant number of primary cancer cells often develop resistance to TRAIL treatment, and the signalling platform behind this phenomenon is not fully understood. Upon blocking endosomal acidification by the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or concanamycin A, we observed a significantly reduced initial sensitivity of several, mainly colorectal, tumour cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In cells pretreated with these inhibitors, the TRAIL-induced processing of caspase-8 and the aggregation and trafficking of the TRAIL receptor complexes were temporarily attenuated. Nuclear factor ?B or mitogen activated protein/stress kinase signalling from the activated TRAIL receptors remained unchanged, and neither possible lysosomal permeabilization nor acid sphingomyelinase was involved in this process. The cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors and their TRAIL-induced internalization were not affected by V-ATPase inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of BafA1, however, was blunted by knockdown of the caspase-8 inhibitor cFLIP. Altogether, the data obtained provide the first evidence that endosomal acidification could represent an important regulatory node in the proximal part of TRAIL-induced pro-apoptotic signalling. PMID:23678861

  13. Bi-Directional ANT Traffic on Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism to ensure that the ants follow the leader on a complex network. The breaking of following-the-leader is also discussed.

  14. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and...906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and...Provisions] Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain...circuit or other no less effective device approved by the Secretary...

  15. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2010-07-01

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

  16. Electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Riezenman

    1992-01-01

    The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

  17. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with such use as permitted by...

  18. Experimental analyses of trailing edge flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrie, S. L.; Emmer, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of several of the trailing edge and wake turbulence properties for a NACA 64A010 airfoil section was completed. The experiment was conducted at the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory in the 6 inch X 22 inch transonic wind tunnel facility. The data were obtained at a free stream Mach number of 0.80 and a flow Reynolds number (based on chord length) of 5 million. The principle diagnostic tool was a dual-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The experimental data included surface static pressures, chordwise and vertical mean velocities, RMS turbulence intensities, local flow angles, and a determination of turbulence kinetic energy in the wake. Two angles of attack (0 and 2 degrees) were investigated. At these incidence angles, four flow field surveys were obtained ranging in position from the surface of the airfoil, between the transonic shock and the trailing edge, to the far-wake. At both angles of attack, the turbulence intensities and turbulence kinetic energy were observed to decay in the streamwise direction. In the far wake, for the non-lifting case, the turbulence intensities were nearly isotropic. For the two degree case, the horizontal component of the turbulence intensity was observed to be substantially higher than the vertical component.

  19. Trail following in ants: individual properties determine population behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Edelstein-Keshet; James Watmough; G. Bard Ermentrout

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the purposeful marking of trails as a mechanism for coordinating movement. Patterns of motion are adapted to the environmental conditions, the functions to be carried out, and the condition of the organism; therefore, the networks of trails must change both quantitatively and qualitatively over time. The nature of such changes, and how they are controlled at

  20. Leukemia . Author manuscript Controlling TRAIL-mediated caspase-3 activation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Leukemia . Author manuscript Page /1 3 Controlling TRAIL-mediated caspase-3 activation Olivier ; Caspases ; metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; drug effects ; Humans ; Leukemia ; enzymology ; pathology of ( Differential involvement ofLeukemia ` Bax and Bak in TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of leukemic T cells

  1. CANDIDATES FOR ASTEROID DUST TRAILS David Nesvorny,1

    E-print Network

    Bottke, William F.

    CANDIDATES FOR ASTEROID DUST TRAILS David Nesvorny´,1 Mark Sykes,2 David J. Lien,2 John Stansberry asteroid dust bands, which are thought to have been produced by recent asteroid collisions, and cometary, eccentricities, and inclinations like those of the main-belt asteroids. We therefore propose that trails t1 and t

  2. 36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...State-approved snowmobile trails in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts...The spur snowmobile route that leads from Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands Debsconeag Pond...that leads from Lake Hebron near Monson, Maine to the Maine Interconnecting Trail...

  3. 36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...State-approved snowmobile trails in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts...The spur snowmobile route that leads from Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands Debsconeag Pond...that leads from Lake Hebron near Monson, Maine to the Maine Interconnecting Trail...

  4. 36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...State-approved snowmobile trails in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts...The spur snowmobile route that leads from Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands Debsconeag Pond...that leads from Lake Hebron near Monson, Maine to the Maine Interconnecting Trail...

  5. 36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...State-approved snowmobile trails in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts...The spur snowmobile route that leads from Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands Debsconeag Pond...that leads from Lake Hebron near Monson, Maine to the Maine Interconnecting Trail...

  6. DIRECTIONS TO ROSEMOUNT COMMUNITY CENTER 13885 South Robert Trail

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    DIRECTIONS TO ROSEMOUNT COMMUNITY CENTER 13885 South Robert Trail Rosemount MN 55068 651-322-6000 The Rosemount Community Center is located in the City of Rosemount on HWY 3/SOUTH ROBERT TRAIL approximately ONE MILE NORTH of the intersection of HWY 3 and COUNTY ROAD 42, just north of the Rosemount High School

  7. Into the Woods: A 6th-Grade Nature Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburn, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Describes an ecology project in which sixth-grade students built and operated a nature trail on the edge of school property. Classes toured the trail and participated in grade-appropriate follow-up activities (e.g., art lessons and soil analysis activities). (RH)

  8. An experimental investigation of trailing-edge noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    Airfoil trailing-edge noise up to a Reynolds number based on chord of 2.96 x 10 to the 6th power was studied. Comparisons are made with current theory, particularly with regard to the nature of the pressure field in the vicinity of the trailing-edge and its influence on the radiated noise.

  9. Persistent Leonid meteor trails: Types I and II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack D. Drummond; Scott Milster; Brent W. Grime; David Barnaby; Chester S. Gardner; Alan Z. Liu; Xinzhao Chu; Michael C. Kelley; Craig Kruschwitz; Timothy J. Kane

    2001-01-01

    A campaign to study the trails left behind by bright Leonid meteors was conducted in November 1998 and 1999. These mysterious lingering trails have been observed for up to an hour. Such persistence allowed a visual observer at the Starfire Optical Range on Kirtland Air Force Base, near Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, to direct a sodium resonance laser, a CCD

  10. Safety and tolerability of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-05-01

    Targeting the death receptor pathway of apoptosis represents a promising approach for the development of novel cancer therapeutics, since death receptors on the cell surface are directly linked to the apoptotic machinery. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor/ligand system is of particular interest among the death receptor superfamily for therapeutic targeting in cancer, since TRAIL has been reported to preferentially induce apoptosis in cancer cells, while sparing non-malignant cells. Evaluation of TRAIL receptor agonists in clinical trials has revealed that they are, in principle, well-tolerated but exert limited efficacy in unselective patient populations. Currently, the challenge resides in the development of rational TRAIL-based combination therapies with potent TRAIL receptor agonists in order to exploit the potential of death receptor targeting for cancer therapy. PMID:25704217

  11. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  12. Trailing edge flow conditions as a factor in airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Some new developments relevant to the design of single-element airfoils using potential flow methods are presented. In particular, the role played by the non-dimensional trailing edge velocity in design is considered and the relationship between the specified value and the resulting airfoil geometry is explored. In addition, the ramifications of the unbounded trailing edge pressure gradients generally present in the potential flow solution of the flow over an airfoil are examined, and the conditions necessary to obtain a class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients developed. The incorporation of these conditions into the inverse method of Eppler is presented and the modified scheme employed to generate a number of airfoils for consideration. The detailed viscous analysis of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients demonstrates a reduction in the strong inviscid-viscid interactions generally present near the trailing edge of an airfoil.

  13. TRAIL on Trial: Preclinical advances for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Daniel W.; Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, or TRAIL, is a promising anti-cancer agent as it can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers whilst generally sparing non-malignant cells. However, the translation of TRAIL into the clinic has been confounded by its short half-life, inadequate delivery methods and TRAIL-resistant cancer cell populations. In this review we discuss how TRAIL has been functionalized to diversify its traditional tumor-killing role and novel strategies to facilitate its effective deployment in preclinical cancer models. The successes and failures of the most recent clinical trials using TRAIL agonists are discussed and we provide a perspective for improving its clinical implementation. PMID:24076237

  14. TRAIL on trial: preclinical advances in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Daniel W; Shah, Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, or TRAIL, is a promising anticancer agent as it can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers whilst generally sparing non-malignant cells. However, the translation of TRAIL into the clinic has been confounded by its short half-life, inadequate delivery methods, and TRAIL-resistant cancer cell populations. In this review, we discuss how TRAIL has been functionalized to diversify its traditional tumor-killing role and novel strategies to facilitate its effective deployment in preclinical cancer models. The successes and failures of the most recent clinical trials using TRAIL agonists are highlighted and we provide a perspective for improving its clinical implementation. PMID:24076237

  15. Trail-following responses of the Argentine ant,Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr), to a synthetic trail pheromone component and analogs.

    PubMed

    Van Vorhis Key, S E; Baker, T C

    1982-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16?ALD) is a trail pheromone component ofIridomyrmex humilis, and that the true trail pheromone may be multicomponent. Trail-following responses ofI. humilis workers to several concentrations of syntheticZ9-16?ALD, a constituent of the Pavan's gland, were found to be comparable to responses to gaster extract trails containing ca. 100 times lessZ9-16?ALD. Of the five aldehyde analogs tested, only (Z)-7-hexadecenal (Z7-16?ALD) elicited significant trail-following. However, following responses to severalZ9-16?ALD-Z7-16?ALD combinations were lower than responses toZ9-16?ALD alone. Trails on filter paper of biologically relevant concentrations ofZ9-16?ALD lose activity within 2 hr in the laboratory. The release rate ofZ9-16?ALD measured from filter paper trails was 0.25 ± 0.10 pg/cm-sec. This was used to estimate the trail-following threshold for this compound of Argentine ant workers. PMID:24414579

  16. Constraint-based semi-autonomy for unmanned ground vehicles using local sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sterling J.; Karumanchi, Sisir B.; Johnson, Bryan; Perlin, Victor; Rohde, Mitchell; Iagnemma, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Teleoperated vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in a variety of military functions. While advantageous in many respects over their manned counterparts, these vehicles also pose unique challenges when it comes to safely avoiding obstacles. Not only must operators cope with difficulties inherent to the manned driving task, but they must also perform many of the same functions with a restricted field of view, limited depth perception, potentially disorienting camera viewpoints, and significant time delays. In this work, a constraint-based method for enhancing operator performance by seamlessly coordinating human and controller commands is presented. This method uses onboard LIDAR sensing to identify environmental hazards, designs a collision-free path homotopy traversing that environment, and coordinates the control commands of a driver and an onboard controller to ensure that the vehicle trajectory remains within a safe homotopy. This system's performance is demonstrated via off-road teleoperation of a Kawasaki Mule in an open field among obstacles. In these tests, the system safely avoids collisions and maintains vehicle stability even in the presence of "routine" operator error, loss of operator attention, and complete loss of communications.

  17. Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power requirements; small lift oscillations when deployed in a time-dependent manner; and significant flexibility with respect to the specific devices selected.

  18. Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail: A Geologic Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aron Meltzner

    This set of guides covers the geology, seismology, hydrology, and physical geography of the San Andreas Fault in the area of Wallace Creek in San Luis Obispo County, California. Materials available here include a downloadable trail guide for Wallace Creek; an interactive guide with information on the earthquakes, the fault, and plate tectonics; a downloadable guide from the Geologic Society of America (GSA); and a downloadable self-guided automobile tour for the Carrizo Plain. There are also field exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site, and a link to a bulletin from the GSA that explores the research done at Wallace Creek and explains how the slip rate for the San Andreas fault was measured.

  19. Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

  20. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  1. Close-up of Europa's Trailing Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This complex terrain on Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows an area centered at 8 degrees north latitude, 275.4 degrees west longitude, in the trailing hemisphere. As Europa moves in its orbit around Jupiter, the trailing hemisphere is the portion which is always on the moon's backside opposite to its direction of motion. The area shown is about 100 kilometers by 140 kilometers (62 miles by 87 miles). The complex ridge crossing the picture in the upper left corner is part of a feature that can be traced hundreds of miles across the surface of Europa, extending beyond the edge of the picture. The upper right part of the picture shows terrain that has been disrupted by an unknown process, superficially resembling blocks of sea ice during a springtime thaw. Also visible are semicircular mounds surrounded by shallow depressions. These might represent the intrusion of material punching through the surface from below and partial melting of Europa's icy crust. The resolution of this image is about 180 meters (200 yards); this means that the smallest visible object is about a quarter of a mile across.

    This picture of Europa was taken by Galileo's Solid State Imaging system from a distance of 17,900 kilometers (11,100 miles) on the spacecraft's sixth orbit around Jupiter, on February 20, 1997.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. Piperlongumine and immune cytokine TRAIL synergize to promote tumor death.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; King, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation results in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Adaption to this toxic stress allows cancer cells to proliferate. Recently, piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid, was identified to exhibit novel anticancer effects by targeting ROS signaling. PL induces apoptosis specifically in cancer cells by downregulating several anti-apoptotic proteins. Notably, the same anti-apoptotic proteins were previously found to reduce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that PL would synergize with TRAIL to stimulate potent apoptosis in cancer cells. We demonstrate for the first time that PL and TRAIL exhibit a synergistic anti-cancer effect in cancer cell lines of various origins. PL resulted in the upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, which potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, such upregulation was found to be dependent on ROS and the activation of JNK and p38 kinases. Treatment with combined PL and TRAIL demonstrated significant anti-proliferative effects in a triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. This work provides a novel therapeutic approach for inducing cancer cell death. Combination of PL and TRAIL may suggest a novel paradigm for treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25984950

  3. Machine performance and site disturbance in skidding on designated trails

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, E.D.; Seifert, J.C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Overstorey trees (predominantly western red cedar Thuja plicata) in a stand in Idaho were removed in 1981 using 4 machines and 2 methods: skidding whole trees on undesignated trails; and skidding tree lengths on trails designated in advance. A caterpillar 518 rubber-tyred skidder (RTS) handling whole trees on undesignated trails had the lowest cost and the highest production. An FMC 200 CA torsion-bar track machine (low ground pressure) was the most expensive because of high initial and operating costs, and high incidence of breakdowns. A caterpillar D6D rigid track, medium-horsepower crawler and an international TD-8E rigid track, low-horsepower crawler were intermediate in cost. Output was generally increased when tree lengths were skidded on designated trails. Again the RTS had the lowest cost, and the highest production on haulage distances up to about 900 feet. For longer haulage distances, the D6D hauled more tree-length logs on designated skid trails. For all machine types, 17% of the area of conventionally logged whole tree units and 9% of the units where tree-length logs were skidded on designated trails were calculated to be occupied by roads. Trail designation reduced machine damage to regeneration by about 5%. 3 references.

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-? SST, transitional k-? SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions.

  5. Modelling landscape-scale erosion potential related to vehicle disturbances along the U.S.-Mexico border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel; Webb, Robert H.; Norman, Laura M.; Psillas, Jennifer L.; Rosenberg, Abigail S.; Carmichael, Shinji; Petrakis, Roy E.; Sparks, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Decades of intensive off-road vehicle use for border security, immigration, smuggling, recreation, and military training along the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from anthropogenic activities, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, we refined two factors whose categorical and spatial representations limit the application of the USLE for non-agricultural landscapes: the C-factor (vegetation cover) and the P-factor (support practice/management). A soil compaction index (P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to maps of vehicle disturbances digitized from aerial photography. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2?=?0.77) than data derived from land cover (r2?=?0.06). We identified 9,780?km of unauthorized off-road tracks in the 2,800?km2 study area. Maps of these disturbances, when integrated with soil compaction data using the USLE, provided landscape-scale information on areas vulnerable to erosion from both natural processes and human activities, and are detailed enough for adaptive management and restoration planning. The models revealed erosion potential hotspots adjacent to the border and within areas managed as critical habitat for the threatened flat-tailed horned lizard and endangered Sonoran Pronghorn.

  6. Polarization and scattering of a long-duration meteor trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, S.; Kelley, M.; Vertatschitsch, L.; Colestock, P.; Oppenheim, M.; Yee, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-power, large-aperture (HPLA) radars have been used over the past two decades to characterize the plasmas formed both around and behind meteoroids as they enter Earth's atmosphere. These plasmas, referred to as heads and trails, respectively, occur with relative frequency (peak head echo detection rate of ˜1/s) but are extremely diverse and have been difficult to define in a general sense. One particular type of plasma, referred to as the nonspecular trail, occurs when the meteoroid travels quasi-parallel to the radar beam with the radar beam lying quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Reflection is believed to occur from field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) that form after the trail becomes unstable. While FAI scattering pertains to the majority of nonspecular trails that are short in duration, a subset of these trails, referred to as long-duration trails, still remains open to interpretation. In this paper we present a case study analysis of a long-duration, nonspecular trail and its associated head echo detected with the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) Long-Range Tracking and Identification Radar (ALTAIR), which is an HPLA radar. These data are unique in that they are high resolution (with monopulse angles), dual frequency, and, most importantly, dual polarized, which allows for unprecedented insight into the scattering process from both heads and trails. First, we determine the velocity and mass of the parent meteoroid, which is a particle weighing more than a milligram and is one of the largest meteoroids ever detected by ALTAIR. Second, we determine the peak plasma density and polarization of the head echo and characterize the unique, yet strong returns in the opposite polarization, which may be due to multiple scattering centers within the range gate. Finally, we examine the polarization properties of the trail and discuss the first conclusive evidence of polarization flipping along the trail striations, which we believe corresponds to sharp gradients at the edges of the trail related to turbulent mixing of a dusty plasma that is elongating along the magnetic field. We look into a new idea, namely, the notion that some nonspecular echoes might correspond to a high Schmidt number, dusty plasma, as is found in and above noctilucent clouds. Our results show how polarized return can aid in scattering diagnostics and that single polarization radars must be used with caution for determining head and trail plasma densities given that some of the return can occur in the “unexpected” channel.

  7. Effective dynamics of microorganisms that interact with their own trail

    E-print Network

    W. Till Kranz; Anatolij Gelimson; Ramin Golestanian

    2015-04-26

    Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. Using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle, we explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behaviour of individual microorganisms. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a delayed stochastic dynamical equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. Depending on the strength of the coupling, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position, orientational oscillations, and a localization transition with a divergent orientational correlation time.

  8. Bounded and unbounded solutions of the von Karman vortex trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1989-09-01

    The general initial value problem for the linearized von Karman vortex trail is solved. In particular, the fundamental differences between von Karman's normal mode solutions and aperiodic solutions with compact support are discussed. Within the natural space l(2), it is shown that the von Karman trail at its special aspect ratio (neutrally stable case) supports unbounded solutions. Two invariants of the equations determine whether a solution is bounded or unbounded. The asymptotic behavior of aperiodic solutions is discussed. In addition, a Loschmidt's demon is constructed for the reversible dispersive equations which demonstrates the focusing effect in the von Karman trail.

  9. Trails of Kilovolt Ions Created by Subsurface Channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-02-19

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe{sup +} ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

  10. Aesthetic responses to urban greenway trail corridors: Implications for sustainable development in tourism and recreation settings 

    E-print Network

    Chon, Jin Hyung

    2005-08-29

    and Likability in Buffalo Bayou Trail ??.. Results of Testing Differences between Groups Who Viewed Manipulated and Non-manipulated Characteristics along Buffalo Bayou Greenway Trail ????????????? Results of Testing Differences of Likability between Groups... Who Viewed Manipulated and Non-manipulated Characteristics along Buffalo Bayou Greenway Trail ??????????.. Differences of Perceptions and Likability in Town Lake Trail ???? Results of Testing Differences between Groups Who Viewed Manipulated...

  11. Effect of Trail Bifurcation Asymmetry and Pheromone Presence or Absence on Trail Choice by Lasius niger Ants.

    PubMed

    Forster, Antonia; Czaczkes, Tomer J; Warner, Emma; Woodall, Tom; Martin, Emily; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Herberstein, M

    2014-08-01

    During foraging, ant workers are known to make use of multiple information sources, such as private information (personal memory) and social information (trail pheromones). Environmental effects on foraging, and how these interact with other information sources, have, however, been little studied. One environmental effect is trail bifurcation asymmetry. Ants forage on branching trail networks and must often decide which branch to take at a junction (bifurcation). This is an important decision, as finding food sources relies on making the correct choices at bifurcations. Bifurcation angle may provide important information when making this choice. We used a Y-maze with a pivoting 90° bifurcation to study trail choice of Lasius niger foragers at varying branch asymmetries (0°, [both branches 45° from straight ahead], 30° [branches at 30° and 60° from straight ahead], 45°, 60° and 90° [one branch straight ahead, the other at 90°]). The experiment was carried out either with equal amounts of trail pheromone on both branches of the bifurcation or with pheromone present on only one branch. Our results show that with equal pheromone, trail asymmetry has a significant effect on trail choice. Ants preferentially follow the branch deviating least from straight, and this effect increases as asymmetry increases (47% at 0°, 54% at 30°, 57% at 45°, 66% at 60° and 73% at 90°). However, when pheromone is only present on one branch, the graded effect of asymmetry disappears. Overall, however, there is an effect of asymmetry as the preference of ants for the pheromone-marked branch over the unmarked branch is reduced from 65%, when it is the less deviating branch, to 53%, when it is the more deviating branch. These results demonstrate that trail asymmetry influences ant decision-making at bifurcations and that this information interacts with trail pheromone presence in a non-hierarchical manner. PMID:25400307

  12. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  13. Using versions of the trail making test as alternate forms.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Ryan, Jeanne P; Kryza, Maria; Charette, Laci M

    2011-10-01

    Alternate forms of neuropsychological instruments are often made parallel by developing tests with similar numbers of items, formats, and psychometric properties. The present study offers an alternative approach by examining three different trail-making tests that could potentially be used as alternate forms. Over a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DK-TMT), Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), and Connections Task (CT) were individually administered to 154 undergraduate psychology students in each of six possible orders. Consistent with hypotheses, the three tests share the same underlying factors of sequencing and shifting as alternatives to one- and three-factor models; statistical evidence is provided to support that the two-factor solution is invariant regardless of test order. These findings support the notion that three different trail-making tests can be administered without discernable practice effects, increasing the flexibility of a serial neuropsychological assessment battery. PMID:21780990

  14. Analyzing audit trails in the Aeolus security platform

    E-print Network

    Blankstein, Aaron (Aaron M.)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of an analysis system for audit trails generated by Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. Previous work focused on collecting these ...

  15. Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost 117 vicinity, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  16. 30 CFR 56.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or...

  4. 170. View of large trail shelter built for the United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. View of large trail shelter built for the United States Forest Service by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1938 on Craggy Knob. Facing northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. 30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage trailing...approval requirements of the high-voltage continuous mining machine; and (b) Meet existing ground-check conductor...

  6. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...for which the portable (trailing) cable furnishes electric power. (6) Have nominal outside dimensions...

  7. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...for which the portable (trailing) cable furnishes electric power. (6) Have nominal outside dimensions...

  8. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...for which the portable (trailing) cable furnishes electric power. (6) Have nominal outside dimensions...

  9. Proper equation for angular momentum of trailing vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the invariably neglected radial convection and the associated axial convection of angular momentum are the most important terms in the equation for the change of angular momentum of a trailing vortex.

  10. Audit Trails in the Aeolus Distributed Security Platform

    E-print Network

    Popic, Victoria

    2010-09-29

    This thesis provides a complete design and implementation of audit trail collection and storage for Aeolus, a distributed security platform based on information flow control. An information flow control system regulates ...

  11. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

  13. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy application provider must establish...Attempted unauthorized access to the pharmacy application, or successful unauthorized access to the pharmacy application where the determination...

  14. The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

  15. Anomalous Fundamental Diagrams in Traffic on Ant Trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Alexander John; Katsuhiro Nishinari

    2003-01-01

    Many insects like ants communicate chemically via chemotaxis. This allows them to build large trail systems which in many\\u000a respects are similar to human-build highway networks. Using a stochastic cellular automaton model we discuss the basic properties\\u000a of the traffic flow on existing trails. Surprisingly it is found that in certain regimes the average speed of the ants can\\u000a vary

  16. Scent trailing by virgin females ofPseudococcm calceolariae.

    PubMed

    Rotundo, G; Tremblay, E

    1981-01-01

    Virgin females of the citrophilous mealybugPseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.) deposit scent marks as trails on the substrate on which they rest or move. These substances elicit attraction and sexual behavior by conspecific males. The same responses were obtained when males were bioassayed on extracts from filter paper disks on which females had rested. The significance of scent trailing in mealybugs is discussed. PMID:24420428

  17. GRASSLAND SONGBIRD ABUNDANCE ALONG ROADS AND TRAILS IN SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GLENN C. SUTTER; STEPHEN K. DAVIS; DAVID C. DUNCAN

    We conducted roadside and trail-side point count surveys to determine whether grassland bird abundance differs along ditched and non-ditched sampling points in south- western Saskatchewan. Savannah and Vesper Sparrows were more abundant along roads, while Baird's Sparrows, Chestnut-collared Longspurs, and Sprague's Pipits were more abun- dant along trails. Clay-colored Sparrows, Horned Larks, and Western Meadowlarks were de- tected equally along

  18. Off-the-road four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, D.C.; Grinde, J.E.

    1987-03-17

    An off-road recreational vehicle is described comprising, in combination: (a) a frame; (b) front and rear pairs of wheels, each having relatively wide, ultra-low pressure tires mounted thereon, each of the wheel being secured to an axle member; (c) a limited slip differential means including a drive input disposed between the axle members of the front pair of wheels; (d) driving means drivenly connected to the axle members of the rear pair of wheels; (e) means for independently suspending the frame relative to the axle members of the front pair of wheels and for resiliently securing the frame to the driving means connected to the axle members of the rear pair of wheels; (f) an engine supported on the frame between the front and rear pairs of wheels, the engine having an output shaft directly coupled to the drive means connected to the rear axle member; and (g) over-running clutch means operatively coupled to the output shaft of the engine and interposed between the output shaft of the engine and the drive input of the limited slip differential for applying a driving force to the front pair of wheels only when slipage exists between the rear pair of wheels and the ground.

  19. In vivo anti-lymphoma activity of an agonistic human recombinant anti-TRAIL-R2 minibody.

    PubMed

    Zauli, Giorgio; Corallini, Federica; Zorzet, Sonia; Grill, Vittorio; Marzari, Roberto; Secchiero, Paola

    2012-02-01

    A new single-chain fragment variable (scFv) to TRAIL-R2 receptor produced as minibody (MB2.23) was characterized for anti-lymphoma activity in vivo. For this purpose, a disseminated lymphoma model was generated by intraperitoneal inoculation of BJAB cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Two weekly injections with MB2.23 (10 mg/kg) were able to significantly increase the median survival time of lymphoma-bearing animals with respect to the vehicle-treated control mice, providing a rationale for further investigating the use of MB2.23 in anticancer therapy. PMID:20714918

  20. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  1. Interferon-gamma and TRAIL in human breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by death receptor activation is a novel therapeutic strategy. However, in systemic antitumor treatments, severe toxic effects have been observed with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and CD95 ligand. TNF-alpha causes a lethal inflammatory response and CD95L produces lethal liver damage. Preclinical studies in mice and nonhuman primates showed no systemic cytotoxicity upon injection of recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) at doses that effectively suppressed solid tumors such as colon and mammary carcinomas. Although unwanted effects of some TRAIL preparations have been reported in normal cells, these data suggest that TRAIL could be a suitable approach in cancer therapy. However, several mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis have been described in tumor cells such as lack of TRAIL apoptotic receptors, enhanced expression of TRAIL-decoy receptors, and expression of apoptosis inhibitors. In combination regimes, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) could provide a promising antitumor therapeutic approach as it has been described to enhance cellular susceptibility to apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. The mechanism by which IFN-gamma promotes cell death seems to be via the regulation of the expression of different proteins involved in apoptosis. Altogether, these data suggest a combination strategy to selectively kill tumor cells that need to be further explored. PMID:15110183

  2. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  3. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  4. Vehicle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass\\/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  5. TRAIL-activated EGFR by Cbl-b-regulated EGFR redistribution in lipid rafts antagonises TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Ye; Liu, Jing; Qu, Jinglei; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Huachuan; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yunpeng

    2012-11-01

    Most gastric cancer cells are resistant to tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Since TRAIL resistance is associated with lipid rafts, in which both death receptors and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are enriched, our aim is to identify how lipid raft-regulated receptor redistribution influences the sensitivity of TRAIL in gastric cancer cells. In TRAIL-resistant gastric cancer cells, TRAIL did not induce effective death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) formation in lipid rafts, accompanied with EGFR translocation into lipid rafts, and activation of EGFR pathway. Knockdown of casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by promoting DISC formation in lipid rafts. However, knockdown of Cbl-b also enhanced EGFR translocation into lipid rafts and EGFR pathway activation induced by TRAIL. Either using inhibitors of EGFR or depletion of EGFR with small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented EGFR pathway activation, and thus increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis, especially in Cbl-b knockdown clones. Taken together, TRAIL-induced EGFR activation through Cbl-b-regulated EGFR redistribution in lipid rafts antagonised TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The contribution of DISC formation and the inhibition of EGFR signal triggered in lipid rafts are both essential for increasing the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL. PMID:22456178

  6. Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

  7. Center determination for trailed sources in astronomical observation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun Ju; Hu, Shao Ming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Di Fu

    2014-11-01

    Images with trailed sources can be obtained when observing near-Earth objects, such as small astroids, space debris, major planets and their satellites, no matter the telescopes track on sidereal speed or the speed of target. The low centering accuracy of these trailed sources is one of the most important sources of the astrometric uncertainty, but how to determine the central positions of the trailed sources accurately remains a significant challenge to image processing techniques, especially in the study of faint or fast moving objects. According to the conditions of one-meter telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, moment and point-spread-function (PSF) fitting were chosen to develop the image processing pipeline for space debris. The principles and the implementations of both two methods are introduced in this paper. And some simulated images containing trailed sources are analyzed with each technique. The results show that two methods are comparable to obtain the accurate central positions of trailed sources when the signal to noise (SNR) is high. But moment tends to fail for the objects with low SNR. Compared with moment, PSF fitting seems to be more robust and versatile. However, PSF fitting is quite time-consuming. Therefore, if there are enough bright stars in the field, or the high astronometric accuracy is not necessary, moment is competent. Otherwise, the combination of moment and PSF fitting is recommended.

  8. Cohort Profile Update: The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    PubMed Central

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma AM; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-01-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N?=?2230) and a clinical cohort (N?=?543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). PMID:25431468

  9. Swarm cognition on off-road autonomous robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Santana; Luís Correia

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes with the first validation of swarm cognition as a useful framework for the design of autonomous robots\\u000a controllers. The proposed model is built upon the authors’ previous work validated on a simulated robot performing local navigation\\u000a on a 2-D deterministic world. Based on the ant foraging metaphor and motivated by the multiple covert attention hypothesis,\\u000a the model

  10. Perception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    ¨ohst1 , and Karsten Berns1 Robotics Research Lab, Department of Computer Sciences, University, carrying capacity, slippage, etc. By means of these properties a classifier is developed that supports the local environment of a land robot in terms of traversability and how this environment can be represented

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170...Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?...

  14. RAD001 (everolimus) enhances TRAIL cytotoxicity in human leukemic Jurkat T cells by upregulating DR5.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Eom, Ji-Eun; Ko, Young Jong; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, is a promising new strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR survival signaling may confer TRAIL resistance by altering the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. In the present study, we showed that the Akt/mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human leukemic Jurkat T cells, which show PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation and basal expression levels of death receptor (DR) 5 (TRAIL-R2). Investigation of the effect of RAD001 treatment on the expression of TRAIL receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in Jurkat T cells showed that RAD001 significantly upregulated DR5 by up to 51.22%, but not other TRAIL-Rs such as DR4 (TRAIL-R1), decoy receptor (DcR) 1 (TRAIL-R3), and DcR2 (TRAIL-R4). Pretreatment with DR5:Fc chimera abrogated the RAD001-induced increase of TRAIL cytotoxicity, indicating that the upregulation of DR5 by RAD001 plays a role in enhancing the susceptibility of Jurkat T cells to TRAIL. Our results indicate that combination treatment with RAD001 and TRAIL may be a novel therapeutic strategy in leukemia. PMID:26074143

  15. Application of Passive Porous Treatment to Slat Trailing Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2003-01-01

    Porous trailing-edge treatment is investigated as a passive means for slat noise reduction by using time-accurate simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For the model scale high-lift configuration used during previous experiments in the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, application of the proposed treatment over a minute fraction of the slat surface area is shown to mitigate the noise impact of the trailing edge, with no measurable aerodynamic penalty. Assessment of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the treated edge indicates a potential noise reduction in excess of 20 dB. The primary mechanism underlying this reduction is related to the reduced strength of Strouhal shedding from the finite thickness trailing edge. A secondary effect of the treatment involves an upward shift in the Strouhal-shedding frequency to a frequency band of reduced auditory sensitivity in a full-scale application.

  16. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  17. Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  18. Clearing aerosol in the condensation trail behind aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, A. N.

    1999-11-01

    Clearing of water aerosol by laser beam vaporization of particles is investigated and in the condensation trail behind aircraft. Physical parameters are calculated for the condensation trail behind subsonic and supersonic. Russian and American aircraft in cruise. Solutions are derived for the intensity of laser radiation, moisture (ice content) and optical thickness of the aerosol in the flow, which is parallel to the beam path. These physical values are described as a function of time and coordinate at the distances of significant medium clearing and radiation extinction.

  19. 49 CFR 230.98 - Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. 230.98...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders ...Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 230.98 - Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. 230.98...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders ...Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 230.98 - Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. 230.98...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders ...Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 230.98 - Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. 230.98...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders ...Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 230.98 - Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. 230.98...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders ...Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles. (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 75.810 - High-voltage trailing cables; splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; splices. 75.810 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.810 High-voltage trailing cables; splices. [Statutory...

  5. Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Olive, N.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes results from a comprehensive assessment of resource conditions on a large (24%) sample of the trail system within Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (BSF). Components include research to develop state-of-knowledge trail impact assessment and monitoring methods, application of survey methods to BSF trails, analysis and summary of results, and recommendations for trail management decision making and future monitoring. Findings reveal a trail system with some substantial degradation, particularly soil erosion, which additionally threatens water quality in areas adjacent to streams and rivers. Factors that contribute to or influence these problems are analyzed and described. Principal among these are trail design factors (trail topographic position, soil texture, grade and slope alignment angle), use-related factors (type and amount of use), and maintenance factors (water drainage). Recommendations are offered to assist managers in improving the sustainability of the trails system to accommodate visitation while enhancing natural resource protection.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  10. Chemical cues used by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) to follow trails of rodent prey.

    PubMed

    Chiszar, D; Melcer, T; Lee, R; Radcliffe, C W; Duvall, D

    1990-01-01

    Each of 10 prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) was exposed to three types of trails after striking rodent prey (Mus musculus). One trail was made with mouse urine, another was made with tap water, and the third consisted of materials from mouse integument. The snakes exhibited trailing behavior only when integumentary trails were available. It was concluded that prairie rattlesnakes do not utilize urinary cues; instead they attend to materials associated with rodent skin and fur. PMID:24264897

  11. Combination therapy of established cancer using a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a TRAIL receptor agonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ailsa J. Frew; Ralph K. Lindemann; Ben P. Martin; Christopher J. P. Clarke; Janelle Sharkey; Desiree A. Anthony; Kellie-Marie Banks; Nicole M. Haynes; Pradnya Gangatirkar; Kym Stanley; Jessica E. Bolden; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Hideo Yagita; J. Paul Secrist; Mark J. Smyth; Ricky W. Johnstone

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and agents such as recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) antibodies are anticancer agents that have shown promise in preclinical settings and in early phase clinical trials as monotherapies. Although HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway have different molecular targets and mechanisms of action, they share the ability to

  12. Compartmentalization of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor functions: emerging role of nuclear TRAIL-R2

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, U; Röder, C; Kalthoff, H; Trauzold, A

    2014-01-01

    Localized in the plasma membrane, death domain-containing TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, induce apoptosis and non-apoptotic signaling when crosslinked by the ligand TRAIL or by agonistic receptor-specific antibodies. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated that TRAIL receptors are additionally found in noncanonical intracellular locations in a wide range of cell types, preferentially cancer cells. Thus, besides their canonical locations in the plasma membrane and in intracellular membranes of the secretory pathway as well as endosomes and lysosomes, TRAIL receptors may also exist in autophagosomes, in nonmembraneous cytosolic compartment as well as in the nucleus. Such intracellular locations have been mainly regarded as hide-outs for these receptors representing a strategy for cancer cells to resist TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Recently, a novel function of intracellular TRAIL-R2 has been revealed. When present in the nuclei of tumor cells, TRAIL-R2 inhibits the processing of the primary let-7 miRNA (pri-let-7) via interaction with accessory proteins of the Microprocessor complex. The nuclear TRAIL-R2-driven decrease in mature let-7 enhances the malignancy of cancer cells. This finding represents a new example of nuclear activity of typically plasma membrane-located cytokine and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, this extends the list of nucleic acid targets of the cell surface receptors by pri-miRNA in addition to DNA and mRNA. Here we review the diverse functions of TRAIL-R2 depending on its intracellular localization and we particularly discuss the nuclear TRAIL-R2 (nTRAIL-R2) function in the context of known nuclear activities of other normally plasma membrane-localized receptors. PMID:25165876

  13. TIPS for Environmental Education: Teacher Aids for Using a Discovery Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeph, Paul T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a self-guided package developed for teacher use on nature trails at Aullwood Audubon Center. The packet contains booklet of trail activities, backpack of simple field discovery equipment, and laminated visual aids. Activities are provided for each station and this format enables teachers to become effective instructors on the trail. (DH)

  14. The last but not the least: The origin and significance of trailing adhesions in fibroblastic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaela Rid; Natalia Schiefermeier; Ilya Grigoriev; J. Victor Small; Irina Kaverina

    2005-01-01

    Mature adhesions in a motile fibroblast can be classified as stationary ''towing'' adhesions in the front and sliding trailing adhesions that resist the traction force. Adhesions formed at the front of motile fibroblasts rarely reach the trailing zone, due to disassembly promoted by intensive microtubule targeting. Here, we show that the majority of adhesions found at the trailing edge originate

  15. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Circuits § 75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground...Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

  16. Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Liu; Q. A. Shams

    A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those

  17. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

  18. Journal of Chemical Ecolog~),Vol 8, No 7, 1982 SPECIFICITY OF LABORATORY TRAIL

    E-print Network

    trails of (Z)-9-hexadecenal (0 2 ng/cm) Moreover, a 10-fold increase in synthetic trail concentration tests between natural and synthetic trails were not performed 0098-0331/82/0700-1057$030010 @ 1982- cone) on Chromosorb W, AW-DMCS, 1001120mesh (2.5 X 2mm), at 150° and a carrier flow rate of 25 ml

  19. Role of trail pheromone in foraging and processionary behavior of pine processionary caterpillars Thaumetopoea pityocampa.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    2003-03-01

    Although caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocamnpa may mark their pathways with silk, this study shows that the material is essential to neither the elicitation nor maintenance of trail-following or processionary behavior. Trail following is dependent upon a pheromone the caterpillars deposit by brushing the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens against the substate. Earlier instars are strongly bound to their trail system; in the laboratory, caterpillars followed circular trails continuously for as long as 12 hr before breaking away from them. The trail pheromone is long-lived and soluble in nonpolar solvents, but its volatilization or degradation allows the caterpillars to distinguish new from aged trails. In contrast to trail following, processionary behavior, the head-to-tail, single-file movement of the caterpillars is dependent on neither silk nor the trail pheromone. Stimuli associated with setae found on the tip of the abdomen of the precedent caterpillar serve to hold processions together, and such stimuli take priority over those associated with either the trail pheromone or silk. Although the caterpillars discern trail strength and choose stronger over weaker trails, the trail marking system of the processionary caterpillar appears less sophisticated than those of other, previously studied species of social caterpillars, and colonies are relatively inefficient in abandoning exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. In laboratory studies, females were more likely to lead processions than males, and leaders, regardless of gender, expended more energy in locomotion than followers. PMID:12757316

  20. Targeting c-Met receptor overcomes TRAIL-resistance in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Du, Wanlu; Uslar, Liubov; Sevala, Sindhura; Shah, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. However, with approximately half of all known tumor lines being resistant to TRAIL, the identification of TRAIL sensitizers and their mechanism of action become critical to broadly use TRAIL as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we explored whether c-Met protein contributes to TRAIL sensitivity. We found a direct correlation between the c-Met expression level and TRAIL resistance. We show that the knock down c-Met protein, but not inhibition, sensitized brain tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by interrupting the interaction between c-Met and TRAIL cognate death receptor (DR) 5. This interruption greatly induces the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and subsequent downstream apoptosis signaling. Using intracranially implanted brain tumor cells and stem cell (SC) lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that SC expressing a potent and secretable TRAIL (S-TRAIL) have a significant anti-tumor effect in mice bearing c-Met knock down of TRAIL-resistant brain tumors. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates c-Met contributes to TRAIL sensitivity of brain tumor cells and has implications for developing effective therapies for brain tumor patients. PMID:24748276

  1. Targeting c-Met Receptor Overcomes TRAIL-Resistance in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wanlu; Uslar, Liubov; Sevala, Sindhura; Shah, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. However, with approximately half of all known tumor lines being resistant to TRAIL, the identification of TRAIL sensitizers and their mechanism of action become critical to broadly use TRAIL as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we explored whether c-Met protein contributes to TRAIL sensitivity. We found a direct correlation between the c-Met expression level and TRAIL resistance. We show that the knock down c-Met protein, but not inhibition, sensitized brain tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by interrupting the interaction between c-Met and TRAIL cognate death receptor (DR) 5. This interruption greatly induces the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and subsequent downstream apoptosis signaling. Using intracranially implanted brain tumor cells and stem cell (SC) lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that SC expressing a potent and secretable TRAIL (S-TRAIL) have a significant anti-tumor effect in mice bearing c-Met knock down of TRAIL-resistant brain tumors. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates c-Met contributes to TRAIL sensitivity of brain tumor cells and has implications for developing effective therapies for brain tumor patients. PMID:24748276

  2. CD \\/ YM 690 DISCIPLESHIP DEVELOPMENT THROUGH TRAIL CAMPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Venable

    2005-01-01

    REQUIRED TEXTS: Hiking and Backpacking: A Complete Guide. New Edition by Karen Berger – a reference guide to remind you of crucial info while on the trail AMC Guide to Outdoor Leadership by Alex Koseff – handbook on developing leadership skills for outdoor activities Empower Your Kids to be Adults by Donald Joy – a reflection on the need for

  3. Chattanooga Math Trail: Community Mathematics Modules, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A.; Mealer, Adrian; Moyer, Peggy S.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Peoples, John B.

    This collection of community mathematics modules, or "math trail", is appropriate for middle grades and high school students (grades 5-12). Collectively, the modules pay attention to all 10 of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards which include five content standards (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry,…

  4. ON SURVIVABLE DESIGN IN LIGHT TRAIL OPTICAL NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    multiplexing (WDM), survivability, op- timization, integer linear programming (ILP) Abstract The recently proposed light trail architecture offers a promising candi- date for carrying IP centric traffic over protection model is formulated as an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem. The numer- ical

  5. Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices Karthik Duraisamy1,a

    E-print Network

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices Karthik Duraisamy1,a and Sanjiva K. Lele2,b 1 evolution of a low swirl-number turbulent Batchelor vortex is studied using pseudospectral direct numerical application of boundary conditions. The physics of the evolution is investigated with an emphasis

  6. Awareness and Use of a University Recreational Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess awareness and use of a university recreational trail. The authors used an Internet questionnaire developed by the university's Institutional Research Department, with questions derived from the Environmental Supports for Physical Activity Questionnaire and the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

  7. Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity?

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    before- after-control-impact (BACI) experiment. RESULTS · Simulated human recreational activityWill human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity? Will human is currently proposed to be opened to human recreational traffic. The levee separates the bay from adjacent

  8. What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

  9. A Method for Creating Collaborative Mobile Learning Trails Kevin Walker

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Levene (2003) and developed in the Kaleidoscope project 'Personal and collaborative trails of digital in the Kaleidoscope network, specifically in the following activities: · the Mobile Support for Integrated Learning Enhanced Learning SIG (which has focused on mobile learning); · The Kaleidoscope mobile learning initiative

  10. Two Bridges Formation on the Navajo Loop Trail

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

  11. Laser beam propagation through a condensation trail behind aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, A. N.

    2002-07-01

    The aero-optical problem of laser beam propagation through a contrail is solved by using a rigorous numerical calculation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and an asymptotic description of a turbulent condensation trail behind a large civil aircraft, including particle sizes distribution of the polydispersive water aerosols.

  12. Social itinerary recommendation from user-generated digital trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyoseok Yoon; Yu Zheng; Xing Xie; Woontack Woo

    2012-01-01

    Planning travel to unfamiliar regions is a difficult task for novice travelers. The burden can be eased if the resident of the area offers to help. In this paper, we propose a social itinerary recommendation by learning from multiple user-generated digital trails, such as GPS trajectories of residents and travel experts. In order to recommend satisfying itinerary to users, we

  13. 9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  14. 30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing...10 feet outby the last strain clamp on the continuous mining machine; and, (iii) At any location where the cable could...

  15. Research Article The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements

    E-print Network

    canadensis) are sympatric throughout much of the lynx's southern range. Researchers and managers have latrans, competition, coyote, lynx, Lynx canadensis, recreation, snow compaction, snowmobile, snowshoeResearch Article The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements Within Lynx Home Ranges JAY A

  16. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geel, Tessa M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Meiss, Gregor [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania)] [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania); Kokkinidis, Michael [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece)] [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece); Pingoud, Alfred [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ruiters, Marcel H. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Synvolux therapeutics, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Netherlands; McLaughlin, Pamela M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Rots, Marianne G., E-mail: m.g.rots@med.umcg.nl [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  17. Odorized Air Current Trailing by Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Mark Waters

    1993-01-01

    The response of adult red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, to airborne odor trails was studied. An airtight T-maze was used, through which a constant airflow was drawn by a vacuum pump. The arms of the 'T' provided a choice between earthworm extract and distilled water. Experiment 1 tested the snake's responses to varying concentrations of earthworm extract. Snakes accurately

  18. 17 CFR 242.613 - Consolidated audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY...including broker-dealers and customers) that are allocated NMS securities...consolidated audit trail, including identification of such rules and systems...regarding the scope and nature of Customer-IDs; expanding the...

  19. 17 CFR 242.613 - Consolidated audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY...including broker-dealers and customers) that are allocated NMS securities...consolidated audit trail, including identification of such rules and systems...regarding the scope and nature of Customer-IDs; expanding the...

  20. Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the drug (hallucinogen persisting perception disorder) [1­ 4]. LSD users perceive a series of discrete­3,23], consumption of other hallucinogens like psilocin and mescaline has not been linked with such visual that mediate trailing is not as potent, or LSD acts at sites that other hallucinogens do not bind with (for

  1. Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphaël; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

    2012-06-01

    In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures. PMID:22573108

  2. The inviscid stability of a trailing line vortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Duck; M. R. Foster

    1980-01-01

    Summary A finite difference method has been developed to study the inviscid stability of swirling flows to small non-axisymmetric disturbances. We apply the method to Batchelor's trailing line vortex solution [3]. The method appears to be more efficient, and simpler to implement for this class of problem, than previously reported methods.

  3. Mining, Modeling, and Analyzing Real-Time Social Trails 

    E-print Network

    Kamath, Krishna Y

    2013-05-28

    -time social trails that reflect the digital footprints of crowds of real-time web users in response to real-world events or online phenomena. These digital footprints correspond to the artifacts strewn across the real-time web like posting of messages...

  4. Blaze a new trail to success with emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly D. Quinn-hughes; Deborah J. Fisher; Cindy Dooling

    2008-01-01

    Release the full potential of your user services team and drive them to new heights using emotional intelligence as a guide. You and your team already possess untapped skills that will allow you to lead users to new territories and provide superior support along the trail. We will draw on real life examples and discuss how we use emotional intelligence

  5. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  6. Vismodegib Suppresses TRAIL-mediated Liver Injury in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.; Bronk, Steven F.; Yagita, Hideo; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling pathway activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Despite this concept, hedgehog pathway inhibitors have not been explored. Thus, we examined the effect of vismodegib, a hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, in a diet-induced model of NASH. C57BL/6 mice were placed on 3-month chow or FFC (high saturated fats, fructose, and cholesterol) diet. One week prior to sacrifice, mice were treated with vismodegib or vehicle. Mice fed the FFC diet developed significant steatosis, which was unchanged by vismodegib therapy. In contrast, vismodegib significantly attenuated FFC-induced liver injury as manifested by reduced serum ALT and hepatic TUNEL-positive cells. In line with the decreased apoptosis, vismodegib prevented FFC-induced strong upregulation of death receptor DR5 and its ligand TRAIL. In addition, FFC-fed mice, but not chow-fed animals, underwent significant liver injury and apoptosis following treatment with a DR5 agonist; however, this injury was prevented by pre-treatment with vismodegib. Consistent with a reduction in liver injury, vismodegib normalized FFC-induced markers of inflammation including mRNA for TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and a variety of macrophage markers. Furthermore, vismodegib in FFC-fed mice abrogated indices of hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with vismodegib appears to reduce TRAIL-mediated liver injury in a nutrient excess model of NASH, thereby attenuating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. We speculate that hedgehog signaling inhibition may be salutary in human NASH. PMID:23894677

  7. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  8. Techniques for inferring terrain parameters related to ground vehicle mobility using UAV born IFSAR and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Baylot, Alex; McKinley, Burney

    2011-05-01

    Predicting ground vehicle performance requires in-depth knowledge, captured as numeric parameters, of the terrain on which the vehicles will be operating. For off-road performance, predictions are based on rough terrain ride comfort, which is described using a parameter entitled root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness. Likewise, on-road vehicle performance depends heavily on the slopes of the individual road segments. Traditional methods of computing RMS and road slope values call for high-resolution (inch-scale) surface elevation data. At this scale, surface elevation data is both difficult and time consuming to collect. Nevertheless, a current need exists to attribute large geographic areas with RMS and road slope values in order to better support vehicle mobility predictions, and high-resolution surface data is neither available nor collectible for many of these regions. On the other hand, meter scale data can be quickly and easily collected for these areas using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based IFSAR and LIDAR sensors. A statistical technique for inferring RMS values for large areas using a combination of fractal dimension and spectral analysis of five-meter elevation data is presented. Validation of the RMS prediction technique was based on 43 vehicle ride courses with 30-centimeter surface elevation data. Also presented is a model for classifying road slopes for long road sections using five-meter elevation data. The road slope model was validated against one-meter LIDAR surface elevation profiles. These inference algorithms have been successfully implemented for regions of northern Afghanistan, and some initial results are presented.

  9. Vehicle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

  10. The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maduro, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hollema, Harry [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mom, Constantijne H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p {<=}0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

  11. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL): A new path to anti-cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Holoch, Peter A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1995, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor super family, has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. Consequently, activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway from the death-inducing TRAIL receptors provides an attractive, biologically-targeted approach to cancer therapy. A great deal of research has focused on deciphering the TRAIL receptor signaling cascade and intracellular regulation of this pathway, as many human tumor cells possess mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This review focuses on the currently state of knowledge regarding TRAIL signaling and resistance, the preclinical development of therapies targeted at TRAIL receptors and modulators of the pathway, and the results of clinical trials for cancer treatment that have emerged from this base of knowledge. TRAIL-based approaches to cancer therapy vary from systemic administration of recombinant, soluble TRAIL protein with or without the combination of traditional chemotherapy, radiation or novel anticancer agents to agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed against functional TRAIL receptors to TRAIL gene transfer therapy. A better understanding of TRAIL resistance mechanisms may allow for the development of more effective therapies that exploit this cell-mediated pathway to apoptosis. PMID:19836385

  12. Dealing naturally with stumbling blocks on highways and byways of TRAIL induced signaling.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aamir; Attar, Rukset; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Donato, Violante Di; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of how TRAIL signals through death receptors to induce apoptosis in cancer cells using high throughput technologies has added new layers of knowledge. However, the wealth of information has also highlighted the fact that TRAIL induced apoptosis may be impaired as evidenced by experimental findings obtained from TRAIL resistant cancer cell lines. Overwhelmingly, increasing understanding of TRAIL mediated apoptosis has helped in identifying synthetic and natural compounds which can restore TRAIL induced apoptosis via functionalization of either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways. Increasingly it is being realized that biologically active phytochemicals modulate TRAIL induced apoptosis, as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of how different phytonutrients have shown efficacy in restoring apoptosis in TRAIL resistant cancer cells. We partition this review into how the TRAIL mediated signaling landscape has broadened over the years and how TRAIL induced signaling machinery crosstalks with autophagic protein networks. Subsequently, we provide a generalized view of considerable biological activity of coumarins against a wide range of cancer cell lines and how coumarins (psoralidin and esculetin) isolated from natural sources have improved TRAIL induced apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. We summarize recent updates on piperlongumine, phenethyl isothiocyanate and luteolin induced activation of TRAIL mediated apoptosis. The data obtained from pre-clinical studies will be helpful in translation of information from benchtop to the bedside. PMID:25338981

  13. Aplysin Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL by Suppressing P38 MAPK/Survivin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Ma, Leina; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ge; Zheng, Lanhong; Lin, Xiukun

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL. PMID:25257790

  14. Development, parameterization, and validation of a visco-plastic material model for sand with different

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    as the assessment of the off-road (uneven-terrain) vehicle dynamics (including vehicle rollover stability, crew@ces.clemson.edu with the target structures/vehicles as well as of the off-road vehicle dynamics is still not mature. As discussed and is suitable for both mine-blast and off-road vehicle dynamics computational analyses. JMDA237 © IMechE 2009

  15. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

  16. The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Dowd, Jennifer L. B.; Aubry, Lise M.

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  1. Vehicle emissions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  2. Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthes, Larry; Belluta, Paolo; McHenry, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Four methods of detection of bodies of water are under development as means to enable autonomous robotic ground vehicles to avoid water hazards when traversing off-road terrain. The methods involve processing of digitized outputs of optoelectronic sensors aboard the vehicles. It is planned to implement these methods in hardware and software that would operate in conjunction with the hardware and software for navigation and for avoidance of solid terrain obstacles and hazards. The first method, intended for use during the day, is based on the observation that, under most off-road conditions, reflections of sky from water are easily discriminated from the adjacent terrain by their color and brightness, regardless of the weather and of the state of surface waves on the water. Accordingly, this method involves collection of color imagery by a video camera and processing of the image data by an algorithm that classifies each pixel as soil, water, or vegetation according to its color and brightness values (see figure). Among the issues that arise is the fact that in the presence of reflections of objects on the opposite shore, it is difficult to distinguish water by color and brightness alone. Another issue is that once a body of water has been identified by means of color and brightness, its boundary must be mapped for use in navigation. Techniques for addressing these issues are under investigation. The second method, which is not limited by time of day, is based on the observation that ladar returns from bodies of water are usually too weak to be detected. In this method, ladar scans of the terrain are analyzed for returns and the absence thereof. In appropriate regions, the presence of water can be inferred from the absence of returns. Under some conditions in which reflections from the bottom are detectable, ladar returns could, in principle, be used to determine depth. The third method involves the recognition of bodies of water as dark areas in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) images. This method is based on the fact, well known among experts in remote sensing, that water bodies of any appreciable depth appear very dark in near-infrared, overhead imagery. Even under a thick layer of marine fog, SWIR illumination is present. Hence, this method may work even in the presence of clouds, though it is unlikely to work at night. Snow and ice also exhibit very strong absorption at wavelengths greater than about 1.4 m. Hence, the wavelength range of about 1.5 to 1.6 m might be useable in this method for recognizing water, snow, and ice. One notable drawback of this method is that useful look-ahead distance could be limited by surface reflections. The fourth method, intended for use at night, involves the contrast between water and terrain in thermal-infrared (medium-wavelength infrared) imagery. This method is based on the fact that at night, water is usually warmer than the adjacent terrain. Look-ahead distance could be limited in this method because, for reasons not yet fully understood, water appears to darken in the thermal infrared with increasing distance.

  3. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels,

  4. A Protective Role of PKC? against TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)Induced Apoptosis in Glioma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisaaki Shinohara; Nobuhiko Kayagaki; Hideo Yagita; Naoki Oyaizu; Motoi Ohba; Toshio Kuroki; Yoji Ikawa

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the TRAIL-induced apoptosis sensitivity, we conducted the following experiments utilizing TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant glioma cells. We examined the expression of TRAIL receptors mRNA, but no significant differences were detected in those cells. TRAIL-resistant cells were sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by staurosporine pretreatment and preferentially expressed PKC?. Since several lines of evidence suggest that

  5. Simulation of Acoustic Scattering from a Trailing Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Three model problems were examined to assess the difficulties involved in using a hybrid scheme coupling flow computation with the the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to predict noise generated by vortices passing over a sharp edge. The results indicate that the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation correctly propagates the acoustic signals when provided with accurate flow information on the integration surface. The most difficult of the model problems investigated inviscid flow over a two-dimensional thin NACA airfoil with a blunt-body vortex generator positioned at 98 percent chord. Vortices rolled up downstream of the blunt body. The shed vortices possessed similarities to large coherent eddies in boundary layers. They interacted and occasionally paired as they convected past the sharp trailing edge of the airfoil. The calculations showed acoustic waves emanating from the airfoil trailing edge. Acoustic directivity and Mach number scaling are shown.

  6. Stator Loading Measurements Behind a Fan With Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of aircraft noise pollution around airports has become increasingly important as those areas have become more densely populated. Currently, the removal of older noisier aircraft from operation is reducing noise levels around airports; however, with air traffic projected to increase by about 5% over the next decade the number of commercial aircraft operating in the world is expected to be about 17,700 by the year 2007. To keep noise levels around airports from increasing as a result of traffic increases, it is important to investigate new methods of noise reduction. The objective of this work is to provide a better understanding of the effects that trailing edge blowing has on stator unsteady loading. This is done by presenting flowfield and stator loading data from experiments conducted with and without trailing edge blowing.

  7. Single cell motility and trail formation in populations of microglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin

    2009-03-01

    Microglia are a special type of glia cell in brain that has immune responses. They constitute about 20 % of the total glia population within the brain. Compared to other glia cells, microglia are very motile, constantly moving to destroy pathogens and to remove dead neurons. While doing so, they exhibit interesting body shapes, have cell-to-cell communications, and have chemotatic responses to each other. Interestingly, our recent in vitro studies show that their unusual motile behaviors can self-organize to form trails, similar to those in populations of ants. We have studied the changes in the physical properties of these trails by varying the cell population density and by changing the degree of spatial inhomogeneities (``pathogens''). Our experimental observations can be quite faithfully reproduced by a simple mathematical model involving many motile cells whose mechanical motion are driven by actin polymerization and depolymerization process within the individual cell body and by external chemical gradients.

  8. Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Bree

    2011-01-01

    The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people. PMID:22400465

  9. Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (7-14?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  10. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (8-12?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  11. Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

  12. Tramping Trail with Elroy in the Early Years of CELP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Krafka, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is sipping tea on the eve of a week-long winter trip--over a decade since she first tramped trail with Mike Elrick into the winter wilderness. This evening holds for her the same electricity that it did in 1997--anxiety and excitement--when Elroy guided a motley crew of teens (his gang) into the woods and frozen waters of Algonquin…

  13. Traffic on Bidirectional Ant Trails: Coarsening Behaviour and Fundamental Diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander John; Ambarish Kunwar; Alireza Namazi; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katushiro Nishinari

    We investigate traffic on preexisting ant trails using minimal cellular automaton models. We focus on generic properties of\\u000a the models like the coarsening of particles and the fundamental diagrams. Crucial differences between the biand the unidirectional\\u000a model are also discussed. However, based on the coarsening behaviour both models belong to the same universality class. Furthermore\\u000a it will be shown how

  14. CARIBOU WILDERNESS AND TRAIL LAKE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; McHugh, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Caribou Wilderness and Trail Lake Roadless Area conducted in 1979 revealed no indications of a potential for mineral or fossil fuel resources in the areas. The wilderness is in the Cascade volcanic province, a setting locally favorable for geothermal resources, but no geothermal resource potential was identified in the wilderness or roadless area. Regional studies and drilling would be necessary to identify geothermal resource potential.

  15. The TRAIL apoptotic pathway in cancer onset, progression and therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ailsa J. Frew; Ricky W. Johnstone; Mark J. Smyth

    2008-01-01

    Triggering of tumour cell apoptosis is the foundation of many cancer therapies. Death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily have been largely characterized, as have the signals that are generated when these receptors are activated. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (TRAILR1 and TRAILR2) are promising targets for cancer therapy. Herein we review what is known about the molecular

  16. Chemical trail marking and following by caterpillars ofMalacosoma neustria.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S C

    1988-03-01

    Chemical trail marking and following by gregarious caterpillars,Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), was studied in the laboratory. As in other species ofMalacosoma, larvae deposit a trail pheromone from a sternal secretory site when searching the host for food. Larvae in the vanguard of foraging columns establish chemical trails as they explore new territory. Marking behavior diminishes as successive unfed foragers utilize the trail. These exploratory trails are subsequently overmarked by fed larvae returning to the tent. Other foragers follow the trails of fed larvae in preference to trails of unfed larvae. Thus, like the eastern tent caterpillar,M. americanum, successful foragers ofM. neustria recruit colony-mates to feeding sites. The chemical activity of both recruitment and exploratory trails degrades slowly, suggesting that the trail pheromone ofM. neustria is a nonvolatile substance. Caterpillars ofM. neustria readily follow the nonvolatile trail pheromone which has been identified fromM. americanum, 5?-cholestane-3,24-dione. PMID:24276133

  17. Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

    2006-07-01

    Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees. PMID:16718558

  18. Effects of all-terrain vehicle trails on stream channel characteristics, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Deven Michelle

    2001-01-01

    most temperate environments, arid regions require substantial amounts of time to recover from the impacts, while snow or tundra environments have unique effects 16 altogether. Deserts weather, alter, and recover very slowly as compared to other... biomes. In these zones, soil development occurs at a temporal scale closer to geologic time rather than human time scales, for example, the creation of desert soils and desert pavement (Dregne, 1983), Soils are also very thin, and susceptible...

  19. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  20. Identification of platinum and palladium particles emitted from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Hazel M; Fisher, Peter C

    2012-03-20

    Platinum, palladium, and rhodium are emitted from vehicle catalytic converters. Until now, the form of precious metal particles in road dust and urban waste has not been identified. This study has located, imaged, and analyzed these particles in road dust and gully waste. Two fragments of catalytic converter have been observed in road dust. They are 40-80 ?m in size and covered in many minute particles (<0.3 ?m) of either platinum with minor rhodium or palladium. One fragment identified in gully sediment is smaller, 25 ?m in diameter, hosting only one attached particle of palladium with minor rhodium. As fragments are washed off roads they begin to disintegrate and the precious metals become detached. Also precious metal-bearing particles have been located in incinerated sewage ash including a 20 ?m diameter cluster of <3 ?m sized platinum particles that may be the remains of a catalytic converter fragment that has survived incineration. The form of these precious metal-bearing particles described here reveals that as they are dispersed from roads they are likely to be present predominantly as two particle sizes. Either they are attached to larger fragments of catalytic converter or they are released as individual detached tiny <0.3 ?m to nanoparticle sizes. PMID:22313190

  1. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  2. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21) high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community. PMID:22289653

  3. All-terrain vehicle fatalities--West Virginia, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    2008-03-28

    An all-terrain vehicle (ATV) is a motorized vehicle designed for off-road use with low-pressure tires, a seat that is straddled by the operator, and handlebars for steering. Currently, only four-wheeled models are produced in the United States; production of three-wheeled ATVs ended in 1987 because of safety concerns. During the 1990s, West Virginia led the United States in per capita deaths from ATV crashes, with rates approximately eight times higher than the national average. In an attempt to curtail this trend, West Virginia enacted legislation in 2004 to regulate ATV use. This law prohibited ATV operation on paved roads with a center line, unless the vehicle was traveling a distance of < or =10 miles and at a speed of < or =25 miles per hour. The statute also required helmet use and training for ATV riders aged <18 years, regardless of where the ATV was ridden. To guide further prevention campaigns and identify appropriate populations for targeted educational interventions, the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources used data from death certificates of 1999-2006 ATV fatalities to analyze demographic and socioeconomic trends. Trends by age and crash classification (i.e., traffic versus nontraffic) also were evaluated in the context of the 2004 law. Results of that analysis indicated that, after the ATV law was enacted in West Virginia, the ATV-related death rate in the state among children did not decline, and total ATV-related traffic fatalities increased from 0.72 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 1.32 in 2006. Higher annual ATV death rates occurred among males, persons aged 10-17 years, residents of the most impoverished counties, and persons aged > or =25 years who had not completed high school. Further preventive measures aimed at reducing ATV-related fatalities should be considered, such as targeted educational interventions and more stringent provisions of the law. PMID:18368006

  4. A Possible Physical Mechanism for Luminosity in Sprite Streamer Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.

    2009-12-01

    Many recent modeling and observational works investigate the chemical and photochemical effects of sprite streamers in the upper atmosphere [e.g., Sentman et al., JGR, 113, D11112, 2008; Gordillo-Vázquez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, 234016, 2008; Enell et al., Ann. Geophys., 26, 13, 2008; Arnone et al., GRL, 35, L05807, 2008; Rodger et al., GRL, 35, L07803, 2008; Sentman and Stenbaek-Nielsen, PSST, 18, 034012, 2009]. One of the active research topics is to study the physical mechanisms responsible for the luminosity of the trailing columns of the streamers [Sentman et al., 2008; Sentman and Stenbaek-Nielsen, 2009; Stenbaek-Nielsen and McHarg, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, 41, 234009, 2008]. The luminous trails of sprite streamers have been found to be present in high speed video observations revealing the detailed time dynamics of the propagation of the streamers [McHarg et al., GRL, 34, L06804, 2007; Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 34, L11105, 2007; Stenbaek-Nielsen and McHarg, 2008]. On the other hand, numerical modeling results of streamers also indicate after a dark portion of the streamer channel, which immediately follows the bright streamer head, there is a luminous trail. As the model streamer continues to propagate, the luminous trail extends toward the streamer head [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004; Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E02, 2009a; Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009b]. The physical mechanisms, which could lead to the production of the luminous trails, include the production of the excited species leading to sprite emission due to the energy transfer from the N2 and O2 metastable electronic states, energy pooling between low energy metastable states and between those states with vibrationally excited N2 ground states [e.g., Morrill et al., JASTP, 60, 811, 1998; Bucsela et al., JASTP, 65, 583, 2003; Pasko, PSST, 16, S13, 2007; Sentman et al., 2008; Sentman and Stenbaek-Nielsen, 2009]. In this talk, we report analysis of streamer modeling results and investigate the origin of the luminous trail of the model streamer. As has been discussed in [Liu and Pasko, 2004; Liu et al., 2009a, b], many physical parameters (e.g., radius, speed, brightness) of a streamer propagating in strong electric fields exponentially increase with time. We will show that the total current of the discharge also exponentially increases with time. As a result, it is necessary for the electric field in the streamer channel far behind the streamer head to increase in order to maintain a constant total current across the streamer body. The increase in the electric field results in effective excitation of excited species in that region, which leads to the glowing trail. We will also report modeling results from a recently developed chemistry model and study sprite streamers using this model.

  5. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  6. Visitor impacts on trails in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Sanjay K; Nepal, Stella Amor

    2004-08-01

    This study summarizes findings of a visitor impact study conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. The effect of visitor use, and the influence of environmental characteristics on trail conditions are investigated. Seven trails divided into 208 trail segments, and with a total length of 90 kilometers were included in the assessment. A four-class rating system has been used for the assessment of trail conditions. Arc/Info and Arc/View geographic information system (GIS) are used to analyze spatial patterns of impacts. The study indicates a strong correlation between visitor use and trail degradation. However, locational and environmental factors are equally important variables. The study concludes that more systematic, and experimental studies are needed that can make a clear distinction between human-induced trail damage and the effects of natural factors. PMID:15387069

  7. With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter during a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  8. 77 FR 64352 - Notice of Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment to the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241), the trail consists of ``a series of water routes extending approximately 3,000 miles along the......

  9. 76 FR 52691 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment to the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241), the trail consists of ``a series of water routes extending approximately 3,000 miles along the......

  10. 77 FR 2317 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting via conference call. Designated through an amendment to the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241), the trail consists of ``a series of water routes extending approximately 3,000......

  11. 76 FR 26767 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment to the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241), the trail consists of ``a series of water routes extending approximately 3,000 miles along the......

  12. 77 FR 12324 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment to the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1241), the trail consists of ``a series of water routes extending approximately 3,000 miles along the......

  13. Caspase 8-dependent sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis following reovirus-infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Clarke; Suzanne M Meintzer; Aaron C Spalding; Gary L Johnson; Kenneth L Tyler

    2001-01-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces apoptosis in susceptible cells by binding to death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5). TRAIL preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells and the identification of mechanisms by which TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be enhanced may lead to novel cancer chemotherapeutic strategies. Here we show that reovirus infection induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines derived from human

  14. Ship trail\\/cloud dynamic effects from Apollo-Soyuz photograph July 16, 1975

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Porch; Chih-yue J. Kao; T. G. Kyle; R. G. Jr. Kelley

    1988-01-01

    We describe in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of a ship trail photograph taken by the Apollo-Soyuz crew at 22:21 GMT on 16 July 1975. The photograph was taken from an altitude of 174 km and shows three separate ship trails with two of the trails intersecting. Because these photographs were taken from a non-geosynchronous satellite with

  15. Dynamics of Leonid dust trails (the cause of storms) Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland

    E-print Network

    is not especially high, within the stream are dense, narrow trails of meteoroids and dust, the debris of Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. 1 DYNAMICS OF YOUNG DUST TRAILS Trail formation Each time an active, periodic comet such as 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, compared to #24;42km s 1 (at perihelion) for 55P/Tempel-Tuttle's orbital velocity around the Sun

  16. TRAIL (Apo2L) suppresses growth of primary human leukemia and myelodysplasia progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Plasilova; J Zivny; J Jelinek; R Neuwirtova; J Cermak; E Necas; L Andera; T Stopka

    2002-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, APO2L) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a number of tumor cell lines as well as in some primary tumors whereas cells from most normal tissues are highly resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We have studied the susceptibility of primary malignant and normal bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Extracellular domain of human

  17. Recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targets B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Qazi, Sanjive; Ozer, Zahide; Rose, Rebecca; D’Cruz, Osmond J.; Ma, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) respond well to chemotherapy at initial diagnosis; however, therapeutic options are limited for individuals with BPL who relapse. Almost all BPL cells express CD19, and we recently cloned the gene encoding a natural ligand of the human CD19 receptor (CD19L). We hypothesized that fusion of CD19L to the soluble extracellular domain of proapoptotic TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) would markedly enhance the potency of sTRAIL and specifically induce BPL cell apoptosis due to membrane anchoring of sTRAIL and simultaneous activation of the CD19 and TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) apoptosis signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL was substantially more potent than sTRAIL and induced apoptosis in primary leukemia cells taken directly from BPL patients. CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targeted and eliminated in vivo clonogenic BPL xenograft cells, even at femtomolar-picomolar concentrations. In mice, CD19L-sTRAIL exhibited a more favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile than sTRAIL and was nontoxic at doses ranging from 32 fmol/kg to 3.2 pmol/kg. CD19L-sTRAIL showed potent in vivo antileukemic activity in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft models of relapsed and chemotherapy-resistant BPL at nontoxic fmol/kg dose levels. Together, these results suggest that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL has clinical potential as a biotherapeutic agent against BPL. PMID:25621496

  18. Singularities in BIEs for the Laplace equation; Joukowski trailing-edge conjecture revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Morino; Giovanni Bernardini

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with trailing-edge issues connected with the analysis of three-dimensional incompressible quasi-potential flows (i.e. flows that are potential everywhere, except for a zero-thickness vortex layer, called the wake). Specifically, following the Joukowski conjecture of smooth flow at the trailing edge, all the trailing-edge conditions that are required to avoid singularities in the boundary integral representation for the velocity,

  19. P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

    2013-09-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

  20. Allometric scaling of foraging rate with trail dimensions in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Andrew I.; Burd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) create physical pathways to support the transport of resources on which colony growth and reproduction depend. We determined the scaling relationship between the rate of resource acquisition and the size of the trail system and foraging workforce for 18 colonies of Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes. We examined conventional power-law scaling patterns, but did so in a multivariate analysis that reveals the simultaneous effects of forager number, trail length and trail width. Foraging rate (number of resource-laden ants returning to the nest per unit time) scaled at the 0.93 power of worker numbers, the –1.02 power of total trail length and the 0.65 power of trail width. These scaling exponents indicate that individual performance declines only slightly as more foragers are recruited to the workforce, but that trail length imposes a severe penalty on the foraging rate. A model of mass traffic flow predicts the allometric patterns for workforce and trail length, although the effect of trail width is unexpected and points to the importance of the little-known mechanisms that regulate a colony's investment in trail clearance. These results provide a point of comparison for the role that resource flows may play in allometric scaling patterns in other transport-dependent entities, such as human cities. PMID:22337696

  1. Effects of the Built Environment on Childhood Obesity: the Case of Urban Recreational Trails and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Robert; Tchernis, Rusty; Wilson, Jeff; Liu, Gilbert; Zhou, Xilin

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of urban environment on childhood obesity by concentrating on the effects of walking trails and crime close to children’s homes on their BMI and obesity status. We use a unique dataset, which combines information on recreational trails in Indianapolis with data on violent crimes and anthropomorphic and diagnostic data from children’s clinic visits between 1996 and 2005. We find that having a trail near a home reduces children’s weight. However, the effect depends on the amount of nearby violent crimes. Significant reductions occur only in low crime areas and trails could have opposite effects on weight in high crime areas. These effects are primarily among boys, older children, and children who live in higher income neighborhoods. Evaluated at the mean length of trails this effect for older children in no crime areas would be a reduction of two pounds of the body weight. Falsification tests using planned trails instead of existing trails, show that trails are more likely to be located in areas with heavier children, suggesting that our results on effects of trails represent a lower bound. PMID:22459489

  2. Population dynamics of American dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along park trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.

  3. Site of secretion of the trail marker of the eastern tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Edgerly, J S

    1982-01-01

    A new site of secretion of a chemical trail marker was found on the sternum at the tip of the last abdominal segment of the larva of the eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum. Larvae marked from this site by drawing their sterna along the substrate when they extended existing trails in search of food and again when they established recruitment trails to food-finds. Differences in the quantity or quality of the marker deposited by exploring and recruiting caterpillars may account for the greater activity of the recruitment trails. PMID:24414582

  4. Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5?-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests. PMID:24301883

  5. Trail and arena marking by caterpillars ofArchips cerasivoranus (lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    1993-07-01

    The activity ofArchips cerasivoranus caterpillars is largely limited to their colonial silk web and trails. Silk pulled directly from the spinnerets of caterpillars and wound onto paper strips to form artificial trails elicited locomotion from the larvae. Trails made from extracts of silk and silk glands also elicited locomotion. These and other observations reported here indicate that the caterpillars are responsive to a water-soluble pheromone that is a component of the silk strand. Marker pheromones appear not to be secreted from other regions of the body, as has been reported for some other trail-following caterpillars. PMID:24249177

  6. Trail-following behavior ofReticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Grace, J K; Wood, D L; Frankie, G W

    1988-02-01

    The behavior ofReticulitermes hesperus Banks pseudergates (workers) was assessed on artificial trails containing different concentrations of sternal gland extract. On nongiadient trails, more pseudergates were recruited to trails of greater pheromone concentration, they traveled a greater distance without pausing, and their rate of locomotion increased over that observed on trails of lesser concentration (positive orthokinesis). Of the individuals pausing before completing trails of high concentration, fewer left the trails or reversed direction (negative klinokinesis) than on trails of lower concentration. Termites walking down concentration gradients failed to complete these trails to the low-concentration termini. At a point representing an average decrease of slightly more than 10-fold in the original concentration of pheromone, individuals reversed their direction of travel and returned to the high-concentration terminus. Termites walking up pheromone gradients proceeded to the high-concentration termini without reversing direction.R. hesperus pseudergates are thus able to orient along a gradient of trail pheromone by longitudinal klinotaxis. PMID:24276008

  7. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  8. REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Wlodawer, Alexander

    REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION Vehicle Make: Vehicle Model:: Vehicle Year:Body Style: Vehicle Color: VIN # : LICENSE INFORMATION Tag # : Expiration Date :State : INSURANCE INFORMATION Policy OrganizationCategoryGrade / Rank StateDOB Sex Race Height Weight Eye Color Hair Color Driver's License

  9. Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Adams

    This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

  10. Targeting XIAP bypasses Bcl-2-mediated resistance to TRAIL and cooperates with TRAIL to suppress pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Meike; Walczak, Henning; Stadel, Dominic; Haas, Tobias L; Genze, Felicitas; Jovanovic, Marjana; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Simmet, Thomas; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fulda, Simone

    2008-10-01

    Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer, a leading cause of cancer deaths. Therefore, novel strategies are required to target apoptosis resistance. Here, we report that the combination of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) inhibition and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an effective approach to trigger apoptosis despite Bcl-2 overexpression and to suppress pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of XIAP by RNA interference cooperates with TRAIL to induce caspase activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release are extensively inhibited by a broad range or caspase-3 selective caspase inhibitor and by RNAi-mediated silencing of caspase-3, indicating that XIAP inhibition enhances TRAIL-induced mitochondrial damage in a caspase-3-dependent manner. XIAP inhibition combined with TRAIL even breaks Bcl-2-imposed resistance by converting type II cells that depend on the mitochondrial contribution to the death receptor pathway to type I cells in which TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and apoptosis proceeds irrespective of high Bcl-2 levels. Most importantly, XIAP inhibition potentiates TRAIL-induced antitumor activity in two preclinical models of pancreatic cancer in vivo. In the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model, XIAP inhibition significantly enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth. In a tumor regression model in xenograft-bearing mice, XIAP inhibition acts in concert with TRAIL to cause even regression of established pancreatic carcinoma. Thus, this combination of XIAP inhibition plus TRAIL is a promising strategy to overcome apoptosis resistance of pancreatic cancer that warrants further investigation. PMID:18829553

  11. Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2006-12-10

    AP-1/cJun, NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-{kappa}B and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-{kappa}B by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment.

  12. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails. The results demonstrate that different types of recreational trails vary in the type and range of impacts they cause to forests. They highlight the importance of careful consideration towards management options when dealing with trail networks especially in areas of high conservation value. PMID:26058001

  13. Analysis of the quality of hospital information systems audit trails

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Audit Trails (AT) are fundamental to information security in order to guarantee access traceability but can also be used to improve Health information System’s (HIS) quality namely to assess how they are used or misused. This paper aims at analysing the existence and quality of AT, describing scenarios in hospitals and making some recommendations to improve the quality of information. Methods The responsibles of HIS for eight Portuguese hospitals were contacted in order to arrange an interview about the importance of AT and to collect audit trail data from their HIS. Five institutions agreed to participate in this study; four of them accepted to be interviewed, and four sent AT data. The interviews were performed in 2011 and audit trail data sent in 2011 and 2012. Each AT was evaluated and compared in relation to data quality standards, namely for completeness, comprehensibility, traceability among others. Only one of the AT had enough information for us to apply a consistency evaluation by modelling user behaviour. Results The interviewees in these hospitals only knew a few AT (average of 1 AT per hospital in an estimate of 21 existing HIS), although they all recognize some advantages of analysing AT. Four hospitals sent a total of 7 AT – 2 from Radiology Information System (RIS), 2 from Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), 3 from Patient Records. Three of the AT were understandable and three of the AT were complete. The AT from the patient records are better structured and more complete than the RIS/PACS. Conclusions Existing AT do not have enough quality to guarantee traceability or be used in HIS improvement. Its quality reflects the importance given to them by the CIO of healthcare institutions. Existing standards (e.g. ASTM:E2147, ISO/TS 18308:2004, ISO/IEC 27001:2006) are still not broadly used in Portugal. PMID:23919501

  14. The structure of trailing vortices generated by model rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, C.; Pucci, S. L.; Caradonna, F. X.; Morse, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Hot-wire anemometry to analyze the structure and geometry of rotary wing trailing vortices is studied. Tests cover a range of aspect ratios and blade twist. For all configurations, measured vortex strength correlates well with maximum blade-bound circulation. Measurements of wake geometry are in agreement with classical data for high-aspect ratios. The detailed vortex structure is similar to that found for fixed wings and consists of four well defined regions--a viscous core, a turbulent mixing region, a merging region, and an inviscid outer region. A single set of empirical formulas for the entire set of test data is described.

  15. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers on the following subjects are presented: (1) multivariable flight control synthesis and literal robustness analysis for an aeroelastic vehicles; (2) numerical and literal aeroelastic-vehicle-model reduction for feedback control synthesis; and (3) dynamics of aerospace vehicles.

  16. Robotica (2012) volume 30, pp. 491503. Cambridge University Press 2011 doi:10.1017/S0263574711000798

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    2012-01-01

    code for vehicle dynamics, simulation studies of various off-road conditions in three by Wong6,7 to form an important element of off-road vehicle dynamics. In ref. [8], Wong proposed extensive work is required to fit this model into other vehicle configurations. Also, specific vehicle

  17. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  18. Trail Communication Regulated by Two Trail Pheromone Components in the Fungus-Growing Termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2014-01-01

    The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily regulated within a limited microenvironment formed by the tunnels or chambers. PMID:24670407

  19. The influence of trailed vorticity on flutter speed estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrung, Georg R.; Madsen, Helge Aa; Kim, Taeseong

    2014-06-01

    This paper briefly describes the implementation of a coupled near and far wake model for wind turbine rotor induction in the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and its application for flutter analysis of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine. The model consists of a far wake part based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, which is coupled with Beddoes' near wake model for trailed vorticity. The first part of this work outlines the implementation in HAWC2, with a focus on the interaction of the induction from the blade based near wake model with the induction from the polar grid based BEM model in HAWC2. The influence of the near wake model on the aeroelastic stability of the blades of the NREL 5 MW turbine in overspeed conditions is investigated in the second part of the paper. The analysis is based on a runaway case in which the turbine is free to speed up without generator torque and vibrations start building up at a critical rotor speed. Blades with modified torsional and flapwise stiffness are also investigated. A flutter analysis is often part of the stability investigations for new blades but is normally carried out with engineering models that do not include the influence of unsteady trailed vorticity. Including this influence results in a slightly increased safety margin against classical flutter in all simulated cases.

  20. CFD analysis of wing trailing edge vortex generator using serrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawadhi, H. A.; Alex, A. G.; Kim, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents computational results of a NACA0012 base wing with the trailing edge modified to incorporate triangular serrations. The effect of the serrations were investigated in three stages, the deflection angle of the serration with respect to the wing chord were examined from -90° to 90° at 10° intervals; the results obtained showed that although larger deflection induces a stronger vorticity magnitude, the strength of the vortex decays faster than compared to smaller deflections. Moreover, the vorticity profile downstream of the wing varies with deflection angle of the serration. Next, the addition of a Clark Y flap to the base wing to analyze the flow pattern and the effect on the flow separation; without serrations attached to the base wing trailing edge, at a high angle of attack, the flow will separate early and would render the flap less effective. The Vortex generator energizes the boundary layer and encourages the flow to remain attached to the flap, allowing for a greater range flap deflection. A wind tunnel experiment was developed and conducted to substantiate the computational analysis in a real world scenario. There was a positive correlation between the results obtained experimentally and computationally.