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1

Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

Oller, Adam

2

Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study undertaken to determine the ecological effects of off-road vehicles, such as four-wheel drive trucks and dirt bikes in the Big Cottonwood Canyon area near Salt Lake City. Applications of the study to other investigations of off-road vehicles are discussed. (DB)

Kay, Jeanne; And Others

1981-01-01

3

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of...

2013-07-01

4

Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

Reid, David C.; And Others

1988-01-01

5

Banning Off-Road Vehicles from the Nation's Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 9, the US Park Service ordered a ban on snowmobiles in a core area of Denali National Park. This announcement came in the wake of successful public outcry against Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) -- including the banning of snowmobiles from most US national parks (except Alaska) in late April, and a similar banning of jet skis in late March. At a time when most Americans are parking their fuel-efficient cars in favor of gas-guzzling Sport Utility Vehicles, the recent limitations placed on recreational vehicles are welcomed by many environmentalists. However, other environmental groups are disappointed by what they consider overly mild restrictions. This week's In The News takes a look at the June order and offers information on Off-Road Vehicle use and the US National Park system.

Payne, Laura X.

6

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420...Section 420.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF...INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated...designating areas for off-road vehicle use. ...practicable, hold public hearings to...

2013-10-01

7

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria for off-road vehicle areas...Section 420.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF...INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated...potential hazards to public health and safety...involved in off-road vehicle use....

2013-10-01

8

Sensor fusion method for off-road vehicle position estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FOG-aided GPS fusion system was developed for positioning an off-road vehicle, which consists of a six-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Garmin global positioning system (GPS). An observation-based Kalman filter was designed to integrate the readings from both sensors so that the noise in GPS signal was smoothed out, the redundant information was fused and a high update

Linsong Guo; Qin Zhang; Shufeng Han

2002-01-01

9

Off-road perception testbed vehicle design and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-road robotics efforts such as DARPA"s PerceptOR program have motivated the development of testbed vehicles capable of sustained operation in a variety of terrain and environments. This paper describes the retrofitting of a minimally-modified ATV chassis into such a testbed which has been used by multiple programs for autonomous mobility development and sensor characterization. Modular mechanical interfaces for sensors and equipment enclosures enabled integration of multiple payload configurations. The electric power subsystem was capable of short-term operation on batteries with refueled generation for continuous operation. Processing subsystems were mounted in sealed, shock-dampened enclosures with heat exchangers for internal cooling to protect against external dust and moisture. The computational architecture was divided into a real-time vehicle control layer and an expandable high level processing and perception layer. The navigation subsystem integrated real time kinematic GPS with a three-axis IMU for accurate vehicle localization and sensor registration. The vehicle software system was based on the MarsScape architecture developed under DARPA"s MARS program. Vehicle mobility software capabilities included route planning, waypoint navigation, teleoperation, and obstacle detection and avoidance. The paper describes the vehicle design in detail and summarizes its performance during field testing.

Spofford, John R.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Anhalt, David J.; Morgenthaler, Matthew K.; DeHerrera, Clinton

2003-09-01

10

Sensor fusion method for off-road vehicle position estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A FOG-aided GPS fusion system was developed for positioning an off-road vehicle, which consists of a six-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Garmin global positioning system (GPS). An observation-based Kalman filter was designed to integrate the readings from both sensors so that the noise in GPS signal was smoothed out, the redundant information was fused and a high update rate of output signals was obtained. The drift error of FOG was also compensated. By using this system, a low cost GPS can be used to replace expensive GPS with a higher accuracy. Measurement and fusion results showed that the positioning error of the vehicle estimated using this fusion system was greatly reduced from a GPS-only system. At a vehicle speed of about 1.34 m/s, the mean bias in East axis of the fusion system was 0.48 m comparing to the GPS mean bias of 1.28 m, and the mean bias in North axis was reduced to 0.32 m from 1.48 m. The update frequency of the fusion system was increased to 9 Hz from 1 Hz of the GPS. A prototype system was installed on a sprayer for vehicle positioning measurement.

Guo, Linsong; Zhang, Qin; Han, Shufeng

2002-07-01

11

77 FR 20843 - Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and...decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and...documents decisions regarding off-road vehicle management in the Nabesna...and mitigation (including monitoring) that will implement...

2012-04-06

12

76 FR 52690 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement (FEIS) on Off-Road Vehicle Management in the Nabesna...alternatives for management of off-road vehicles in the Nabesna District...alternatives for managing off-road vehicles (ORVs) for recreational...use would continue subject to monitoring and management activities...

2011-08-23

13

Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic

Thomas A. Schlacher; Darren Richardson; Ian McLean

2008-01-01

14

MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE OFF-ROAD MOBILITY OF SMALL ROBOTIC GROUND VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

rg ABSTRACT This paper describes a testbed and methods used in performing experiments and collecting quantitative data on the off-road mobility of two small ground robotic vehicles. The data is unique in the sense that it is: 1) unbiased, having been collected and interpreted by personnel independent of the vehicle developers, 2) locomotion-independent, since the same test procedures are followed

Bill McBride; Raul Longoria; Eric Krotkov

2003-01-01

15

Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles. A Review of the Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this review is to separate a multitude of observations and opinions on environmental effects of off-road vehicles (ORV's) into subject categories. The review itself is not to be construed as a primary information source, but rather as a dir...

N. J. Lodico

1973-01-01

16

Active Vibration Control System for the Driver's Seat for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an electrohydraulic active vibration control system for the driver's seat for off-road vehicles. After a general description of the problem a serial electrohydraulic active vibration control system, working on the compensation principle, is mathematically analyzed. Results of computer simulation, based on an analogue model, indicate, that the system could effectively absorb vibrations in a chosen frequency

G. J. STEIN; I. BALLO

1991-01-01

17

75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternatives for managing off-road vehicles (ORVs) for recreational...areas designated for off-road vehicle use be promulgated...use would continue subject to monitoring and management activities in...would continue to be subject to monitoring and adaptive management...

2010-08-11

18

Analysis of Semi-Active and Passive Suspensions System for Off-Road Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of off-road vehicles over rough terrain is generally determined by the ride quality not by the engine power. For this reason, researches are currently being undertaking to improve the ride dynamics of these vehicles using an advanced suspension system. This study intends to provide a preliminary evaluation of whether semi-active suspensions are beneficial to improving ride and handling in off-road vehicles. One of the greatest challenges in designing off-road vehicle suspension system is maintaining a good balance between vehicle ride and handling. Three configurations of these vehicles; 2-axle, 3-xle and 4-axles have been studied and their performances are compared. The application of several control policies of semi-active suspension system, namely skyhook; ground-hook and hybrid controls have been analyzed and compared with passive systems. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and ground-hook control policies. Results show an improvement in ride comfort and vehicle handling using 4-axle over 3-axle and 2-axle when emphasis is placed on the response of the vehicle body acceleration, suspension and tyre deflection.

Benlahcene, Zohir; Faris, Waleed F.; Khan, M. D. Raisuddin

2009-03-01

19

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 261.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads...sunrise unless equipped with working head and tail lights....

2013-07-01

20

Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

2001-04-18

21

Study on ESP Control Principle of Light Off-road Vehicle Based on Brake / Drive Integrated Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Set up the dynamic model of light off-road vehicle, including body dynamics model, wheel model, engine model, and so on. For light off-road vehicle, project the ESP control principle based on the integrated control of brake and drive, the ASR engine control principle based on the PID control and the ASR differential brake intervention control principle. Based on the Matlab/Simulink, establish the dynamic simulation model of the ESP control system for the Beijing JEEP2500 light off-road vehicle. Using the simulation model, we respectively simulate and analyse the vehicle performance of low engine throttle opening control, ASR control and ESP control when the vehicle straight runs and turns on the bisectional road. The study results indicate that the proposed ESP control principle can obviously improve the comprehensive driving performances of light off-road vehicle, including the driving stability under different conditions.

Guoye, Wang; Juanli, Zhang; Yanli, Fen; Yanru, Zhang

22

Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades. Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing. Wheeled and tracked ORVs, many used exclusively for recreation or subsistence harvesting by individuals, are now ubiquitous in Alaska. This increased use has led to concern over the cumulative effects of such vehicles on vegetation, soils, and environmental variables including off-site values. Factors affecting impact and subsequent restoration include specific environmental setting; vegetation; presence and ice content of permafrost; microtopography; vehicle design, weight, and ground pressure; traffic frequency; season of traffic; and individual operator practices. Approaches for mitigating adverse effects of ORVs include regulation and zoning, terrain analysis and sensitivity mapping, route selection, surface protection, and operator training.

Slaughter, Charles W.; Racine, Charles H.; Walker, Donald A.; Johnson, Larry A.; Abele, Gunars

1990-01-01

23

Off-Road Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, takes a look at the Baha SAE off-road competition, organized by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International. The video explains how students take an off-road vehicle all the way from the design phase to completion and the competition. Here, visitors will see the different tools and techniques that students use to design and build their vehicles. This video is helpful for anyone looking into the automotive engineering field and the skills necessary to be successful in it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:52.

2010-12-07

24

Application of an off-road mobility model to autonomous cross-country routing of unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of an Army-standard legacy off-road mobility model to cross-country route planning and negotiation by unmanned ground vehicles. A planned route is created from a movement map generated from existing terrain data. An unmanned ground vehicle negotiates the planned route and makes local routing adjustments based on a trafficability assessment of terrain features which are observed from the platform. This research leverages results from other work investigating the scalability of the existing legacy off-road mobility model to small vehicles (<500 kg). The legacy mobility model is the NATO Reference Mobility Model II (NRMM II), a standard for combat mobility modeling and procurement since the mid-90's.

Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Gates, Burhman Q., Jr.

2006-06-01

25

Suspension settings for optimal ride comfort of off-road vehicles travelling on roads with different roughness and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that will ensure optimal ride comfort of an off-road vehicle, on different road profiles and at different speeds. These settings are required for the design of a four stage semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring damper suspension system (4S4). Spring and damper settings in the 4S4 can be set either

P. E. Uys; P. S. Els; M. Thoresson

2007-01-01

26

Soil-friendly off-road suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the potential of controlled vehicle suspension for off-road vehicles. The primary question is whether the controlled vehicle suspension can reduce the deformation of the deformable off-road (soil) and can become a soil-friendly suspension. The article represents the preliminary study of this problem, in the sense that the realistic but simple models for the vehicle, the tyre—off-road contact,

M. Valasek; J. Sveda; Z. Sika

2006-01-01

27

POSITIONING AN AUTONOMOUS OFF-ROAD VEHICLE BY USING FUSED DGPS AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with positioning system for an autonomous vehicle ARSKA. Localization of the vehicle is based on fusion of internal dead reckoning navigation and periodic absolute position measurements. Fusion is done by using Kalman-filtering technique. Similar kind of approach is used in correcting the heading measurement. This is important because the position error is mostly result of the accumulated

T. Schönberg; M. Ojala; J. Suomela; A. Torpo; A. Halme

1995-01-01

28

Integrated Air\\/Ground Vehicle System for SemiAutonomous Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Abstract Current unmanned vehicle systems enable exploration of and travel through remote areas, but demand significant ,communications resources and constant human operation. DARPA and the US Army have,recognized these limitations and are now,pursuing semi-autonomous vehicle systems in the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. FCS places high demands on robotic systems, which must assess mobility hazards under all weather conditions, day

Tony Stentz; Alonzo Kelly; Robert Mandelbaum; Peter Rander

2002-01-01

29

Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

2012-01-01

30

Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

2011-01-01

31

Impacts of Off-Highway Motorized Vehicle Trails on the Reptiles and Vegetation of the Owyhee Front.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used drift fences to trap reptiles near to and far from off road motorized vehicle (OHMV) trails in the Owyhee Front. We also assessed vegetation. We found that at the less intensively used OHMV site (Fossil Butte), there was a tendency for more reptil...

A. A. Ames B. R. Barnett J. C. Munger S. J. Novak

2003-01-01

32

Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

2013-05-01

33

Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model  

SciTech Connect

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA required that certain tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-road recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Funds to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual States equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1993 to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-road recreation in the State level by different vehicle types. A modification of the methodology developed by ORNL has been used to apportion funds to the States since that time.

Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.; Hu, P.S.

1999-07-01

34

Vehicles versus conservation of invertebrates on sandy beaches: mortalities inflicted by off-road vehicles on ghost crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches face increasing anthropogenic pressures, with vehicle traffic being ecologically highly harmful. Ghost crabs (Fam. Ocypodidae) are conspic- uous on many beaches, and they have been used as a bio-monitoring tool to measure the ecological responses to human disturbance. However, the mechan- isms causing declines in crab numbers are unknown, yet conservation must tar- get the actual impact mechanisms.

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke Thompson; Sam Price

2007-01-01

35

Run-Off-Road Crashes: An On-Scene Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Run-off-road (ROR) crashes, which usually involve only a single vehicle, contribute to a large portion of fatalities and serious injuries to motor vehicle occupants. In this study, the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) data collected ...

C. Lin T. J. Ye

2011-01-01

36

Effects of off-road vehicle use on the hydrology and landscape of arid environments in central and southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two widely separated sites in California used for motorcycle hill-climbing were studied to evaluate the impact on the landscape and hydrology. At Panoche Hills in central California, an area formerly used by motorcycles together with an adjacent unused area were monitored from 1971 to 1975. Observations in both areas included measurements of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, soil bulk density, plant cover, and erosion surveys. At Dove Spring Canyon in souther California erosion was measured on a site that is currently being used for motorcycle hill-climbing. At the Panoche Hills site, the area used by motorcycles produced about eight times as nuch runoff as the unused area. Similarly, sediment yield from the used areas was 857 cubic meters/sq km, while the quantity of sediment from the unused area was not measurable by standard methods. At the Dove Spring Canyon site, which is still being used for hill-climbing, erosion surveys show that degradation in trails has been as much as 0.3 m in the period 1973-75. Compaction of soils and reduction of permeability appears to be the most serious hydrologic impact of motorcycle use at Panoche Hills. Increased bulk density of soils reduces depth of moisture penetration which deprives plants of moisture needed for growth. (Woodard-USGS)

Snyder, Charles T.; Frickel, D. G.; Hadley, R. F.; Miller, R. F.

1976-01-01

37

Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.  

PubMed

Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns. PMID:24370998

Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

2014-03-01

38

Assessment of propeller and off-road vehicle scarring in seagrass beds and wind-tidal flats of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used aerial photography and GIS to establish a quantitative baseline of propeller and off-road vehicle (ORV) scarring in seagrass and wind-tidal flats of the upper Laguna Madre in the Padre Island National Seashore (Texas, USA). We also examined scar recovery through comparison of recent (2002, 2005) and historical (1967) aerial photographs of the study area. Scarring intensity was calculated using two different methods. In the first, polygons were visually drawn around groups of scars on digital images. Scarring intensity was estimated as light (20%), based on the total coverage of scars within each polygon (taking into account the length, width, and density of scars). We developed a more objective method that employed creation of vector grid cells and buffers that incorporated the localized ecological impact of scars. Results of spatial and temporal analysis revealed that the polygon approach greatly underestimated the magnitude of scarring. For example, in a single photograph, 7% of seagrass area was lightly scarred according to the polygon method; but light scarring increased to 51% according to grid analysis of the same image. Our results also indicated that propeller scars in Halodule wrightii beds appear to recover in less than three years and ORV tracks have persisted in the wind-tidal flats for at least 38 years. Our approach provides resource managers with procedures for a more objective and efficient assessment of physical disturbances to seagrass and wind-tidal flats caused by boats and ORVs. ?? 2008 by Walter de Gruyter.

Martin, S. R.; Onuf, C. P.; Dunton, K. H.

2008-01-01

39

Impact of Off-road Vehicles (ORVs) on Ghost Crabs of Sandy Beaches with Traffic Restrictions: A Case Study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

2014-03-01

40

Autonomous Automobile Trajectory Tracking for Off-Road Driving: Controller Design, Experimental Validation and Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear control law for an automobile to autonomously track a trajectory, provided in real-time, on rapidly varying, off-road terrain. Existing methods can suffer from a lack of global stability, a lack of tracking accuracy, or a dependence on smooth road surfaces, any one of which could lead to the loss of the vehicle in autonomous off-road

Gabriel M. Hoffmann; Claire J. Tomlin; Michael Montemerlo; Sebastian Thrun

2007-01-01

41

Evaluation of Areas for Off-Road Recreational Motorcycle Use. Volume I. Evaluation Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To answer user demands for more areas on which to operate off-road recreational motorcycles (trail bikes), and to respond to Presidential Executive Orders which require that Federally-owned lands be evaluated for such use, Army land managers need a system...

R. M. Lacey H. E. Balbach R. S. Baran R. G. Graff

1980-01-01

42

Intelligent Off-Road Navigation Algorithms and Strategies of Team Desert Buckeyes in the DARPA Grand Challenge ’05  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes one aspect of our approach in developing an intelligent off-road autonomous vehicle, the Intelligent\\u000a Off-road Navigator (ION), as team Desert Buckeyes from the Ohio State University for the DARPA Grand Challenge 2005. The real-time\\u000a navigation is one of the critical components in an autonomous ground vehicle system. In this paper, we focus on the navigation\\u000a module, whose

Qi Chen; Ümit Özgüner

43

Dust emission by off-road driving: Experiments on 17 arid soil types, Nevada, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in Nellis Dunes Recreational Area (Clark County, Nevada, USA) to investigate emission of dust produced by off-road driving. Experiments were carried out with three types of vehicles: 4-wheelers (quads), dirt bikes (motorcycles) and dune buggies, on 17 soil types characteristic for a desert environment. Tests were done at various driving speeds, and emissions were measured for

Dirk Goossens; Brenda Buck

2009-01-01

44

Off-Road Terrain Traversability Analysis and Hazard Avoidance for UGVs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve complete autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in off-road terrain at high speeds, a robot must understand and analyze the terrain it is driving on in real-time just as a human analyzes the terrain and makes decisions of where to drive. M...

J. Larson M. Bruch M. Trivedi

2011-01-01

45

An environmental perception system to autonomous off-road navigation by using multi-sensor data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental perception is one of the most difficult problems on the research of off-road autonomous vehicles. This paper describes a multi-sensor data fusion based environmental perception system for off-road autonomous navigation. The system is composed of one camera, four laser range finders, one microwave radar, and several ultrasonic sensors. A hierarchical structure is used to organize the sensors from feature

Zhiyu Xiang

2005-01-01

46

Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

2013-01-01

47

Secondary Organic Aerosol from On- and Off-Road Combustion Emissions: Scientific and Policy Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion emissions from on-road sources such as light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV), medium duty diesel vehicles (MDDV) and heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) as well as small off-road engines (SORE) such those used in lawn and garden equipment are a major source of fine particulate matter (PM) pollution in the ambient atmosphere. Existing regulations have restricted direct PM emissions, especially for on-road sources; however, recent studies suggest that organic PM formed from the photo-oxidation of gaseous precursor emissions—so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA)—contributes at least as much to the overall PM burden as PM "emitted from the tailpipe." A major limitation of many of these studies is that they attempt to induce from the behavior of simple emission surrogates (e.g., vaporized whole fuel) the behavior of actual combustion emissions from real world sources. This research investigates combustion emissions directly. The primary gas- and particle-phase emissions, SOA production and SOA yields from a range of different on-road and off-road combustion sources were characterized. LDGV, MDDV and HDDV were driven on chassis dynamometers over realistic, urban driving cycles. Off-road sources, including 2- and 4-stroke lawn and garden equipment and a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were tested using engine dynamometers operated over certification cycles. For nearly all gasoline engines (LDGV and SOREs), photo-oxidizing dilute combustion emissions for 3 hours produced at least as much SOA as the directly emitted primary PM. SOA increased net PM production for LDGV by a factor of 1-10, depending on the vehicle emission standard. SOA yields were found to increase with newer vehicles, which have lower primary emissions. SOA for diesel vehicles, while still large on an absolute basis, was a smaller fraction of the primary PM emissions (between 10-30%), due to the very high elemental carbon (EC) emissions from vehicles without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Aftertreatment systems utilizing a DPF and a diesel oxidation catalyst essentially eliminated primary PM and SOA. Among the off-road sources, SOA from 2-stroke emissions increased the net PM by roughly a factor of 2. Primary emission and SOA production factors from the various combustion sources tested in this work were combined with fuel consumption data for California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) to determine the impact on the aggregate PM from on- and off-road sources in the region. These estimated impacts were compared to the PM values derived from the regulatory models EMFAC and OFFROAD. Our data indicate that PM from on-road gasoline sources is significantly under-represented by existing emissions models due to the dominant role of SOA. When SOA production is included, newer LDGV are one of the largest sources of PM in SoCAB. Furthermore, LDGV will become an even more important PM source once existing regulations requiring DPF retrofits on both on- and off-road diesel sources are implemented over the next few years. While on-road diesel vehicles are currently an important source of PM based on total fuel consumption, LDGV are responsible for a larger fraction of total PM. The primary and secondary PM contribution of off-road sources also appear to be high, but the magnitude remains highly uncertain, pending further experimental data. Evidence is presented that suggests that existing models may dramatically overpredict primary PM emissions from off-road sources. Regulators are strongly urged to consider the impact of SOA on net PM production.

Gordon, Timothy D.

48

Detecting water hazards for autonomous off-road navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting water hazards for autonomous, off-road navigation of unmanned ground vehicles is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we catalog environmental variables that affect the difficulty of this problem, including day vs. night operation, whether the water reflects sky or other terrain features, the size of the water body, and other factors. We briefly survey sensors that are applicable to detecting water hazards in each of these conditions. We then present analyses and results for water detection for four specific sensor cases: (1) using color image classification to recognize sky reflections in water during the day, (2) using ladar to detect the presense of water bodies and to measure their depth, (3) using short-wave infrared (SWIR) imagery to detect water bodies, as well as snow and ice, and (4) using mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to recognize water bodies at night. For color imagery, we demonstrate solid results with a classifier that runs at nearly video rate on a 433 MHz processor. For ladar, we present a detailed propagation analysis that shows the limits of water body detection and depth estimation as a function of lookahead distance, water depth, and ladar wavelength. For SWIR and MWIR, we present sample imagery from a variety of data collections that illustrate the potential of these sensors. These results demonstrate significant progress on this problem.

Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo; McHenry, Mike

2003-09-01

49

TRAILS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please click on the link for your class below. You will need your four digit code in order to start the assessment. Please read each question carefully and answer as best you can. WINTER 2013 Comp 10 - Mr. Hett's Classes Hett - 4th hour- Lit9A 2013 POST - HETT- 4th 2013 Hett - Lit9A - 5th hour - 2013 POST - HETT 5th 2013 TRAILS ...

Schultz, Ms.

2009-10-28

50

Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

Kuehn, D. M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V. A.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Schuster, R. M.

2011-01-01

51

Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

2004-01-01

52

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas...Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2009-07-01

53

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas...Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2010-07-01

54

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01...motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for...

2013-07-01

55

Traffic Flow of Interacting Self-Driven Particles: Rails and Trails, Vehicles and Vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One common feature of a vehicle, an ant and a kinesin motor is that they all convert chemical energy, derived from fuel or food, into mechanical energy required for their forward movement; such objects have been modelled in recent years as self-driven particles. Cytoskeletal filaments, e.g., microtubules, form a rail network for intra-cellular transport of vesicular cargo by molecular motors like, for example, kinesins. Similarly, ants move along trails while vehicles move along lanes. Therefore, the traffic of vehicles and organisms as well as that of molecular motors can be modelled as systems of interacting self-driven particles; these are of current interest in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this paper we point out the common features of these model systems and emphasize the crucial differences in their physical properties.

Chowdhury, Debashish

56

Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

2013-04-30

57

Physiological characteristics of top level off-road motorcyclists  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study aims to analyse the physiological characteristics of top level off-road motocross, enduro, and desert rally motorcyclists to facilitate the design of a specific training program. Results: The physical demands of the various races appear to influence the development of distinct musculoskeletal characteristics, as well as aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Motocross riders have more muscle mass, higher isokinetic handgrip strength, and greater aerobic power than enduro and desert rally riders. However, there are no significant anthropometric and physiological differences between desert rally and enduro riders. Desert rally riders tend to be overweight with maximum aerobic power similar to that of healthy individuals. The mechanical characteristics of the motorcycle and the technical and tactical skills of the riders seem to be more important for race success than the metabolic capabilities of the rider. Conclusions: Desert rally and enduro riders present similar anthropometric and physiological characteristics. Both have a maximum aerobic power similar to that of healthy normal individuals, although desert rally riders tend to be overweight. Motocross riders on the other hand, have more muscle mass, more strength, and greater aerobic power. The differences observed suggest the need for a specific training program to address the requirements of different riders to reduce the possibility of injury.

Gobbi, A; Francisco, R; Tuy, B; Kvitne, R; Nakamura, N

2005-01-01

58

Evaluation of stereo vision obstacle detection algorithms for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable detection of non-traversable hazards is a key requirement for off-road autonomous navigation. A detailed description of each obstacle detection algorithm and their performance on the surveyed obstacle course is presented in this paper.

Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry

2005-01-01

59

Fatores fisiológicos e antropométricos associados com a performance em subida no ciclismo off road Physiological and anthropometrical factors associated with uphill off-road cycling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were: to analyze the reproducibility of the performance during a field test in uphill off-road cycling and to correlate physiological and anthropometrical factors with the performance in this modality. Ten trained cyclists (19.5 + 2.5 years, 62.8 + 8.7 kg, 173.5 + 6.8 cm, 24.5 + 19.0 months of training) performed, in different days, the

Carlos Eduardo; Polazzo Machado; Fabrizio Caputo; Ricardo Dantas de Lucas; Sérgio Denadai

60

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; D. Kumar; R. Walters; J. Radford; R. Mason

2006-01-01

61

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; Deepak Kumar; Robert Walters; Jim Radford; Richard Mason

2008-01-01

62

A Behavior-Based System For Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural ter- rain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which main- tains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module which

D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

1994-01-01

63

Factors affecting the impact of off-road driving on soils in an area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

Studies on the effects of off-road driving on soils were conducted in the Makuleke Contractual Park of the Kruger National Park. The studies were conducted on three different soils with different textures and soil compactibilities. Traffic pressure was applied with a game drive vehicle loaded with 11 sand bags, each weighing 70 kg. This gave a total vehicle mass of 3,795 kg, simulating a vehicle fully laden with tourists. The study included: (i) comparing of the effects of four different tyre pressures; (ii) comparing the effects of 1-3 vehicle passes over the same tyre tracks; (iii) comparison of traffic effects under dry and wet soil moisture conditions, on soil compaction, respectively. After each pass penetration resistances were measured (a) on the tyre tracks, (b) between the tyre tracks and (c) at different distances outside the tyre tracks. As expected, vehicular traffic caused soil compaction below the wheel tracks. Lower tyre pressures caused less compaction than higher tyre pressures. Fewer vehicle passes also caused less compaction than more passes on the same tracks, but most compaction occurred during the first pass. Thus, driving on the same tracks more than once is less damaging than driving once on different tracks. Controlled traffic should be considered when developing management strategies for off-road driving in wildlife protected areas. PMID:23079698

Nortjé, Gerhardus Petrus; van Hoven, Wouter; Laker, Michiel C

2012-12-01

64

COMPARISON OF ON AND OFF ROAD DIESEL EXHAUST SOURCES ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AN INFLUENZA INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE), a major component of urban air pollution, and its modulatory role in human susceptibility to respiratory infections is of great concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of on- and off-road sources of DE exposure on the severity of an ...

65

Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.  

PubMed

The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. PMID:16393805

Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

2006-01-15

66

Effect of off-road competitive motocross race on plasma oxidative stress and damage markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To analyse the effect of an off-road motocross heat on plasma levels of oxidative stress and damage, blood leucocyte counts and urine catecholamine concentration.Methods: Plasma contents of total, reduced and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, %GSSG, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and sulphydryl groups, total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid, and blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were evaluated in 10 male top-level

Anto?nio Ascensa?o; Rita Ferreira; Franklim Marques; Eduardo Oliveira; Victor Azevedo; Jose? Soares; Jose? Magalha?es

2007-01-01

67

Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.  

PubMed

Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area. PMID:24261886

Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

2013-12-17

68

Driver's lane keeping ability with eyes off road: Insights from a naturalistic study.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that driver inattention can influence lane-keeping ability. The majority of studies on lane keeping have been conducted in controlled on-road networks or in simulated environments. However, few studies have examined lane-keeping ability in naturalistic settings for the same purpose. In this current study, the relationship between driver inattention and lane keeping ability was examined using naturalistic data for 24 drivers. Driver inattention was placed into two categories based on whether drivers were looking forward toward the roadway (inattention with eyes-on-road) or not looking forward (inattention with eyes-off-road) while engaged in a secondary task. Repeated measures regression models were used to account for within-subject correlations. The results showed that, after accounting for driving speed and lane width, the eyes-off-road significantly increased the standard deviation of lane position (SDLP). The findings from this study are consistent with other studies that show that the amount of time drivers spend looking away from the road can impact drivers' ability to maintain their lane position. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how driver inattention can be examined with real world data while accounting for the roadway, environment, and driver behavior. PMID:22836114

Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng; Hallmark, Shauna L

2013-01-01

69

Prediction and uncertainty source analysis of the spatial and temporal disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in a complex ecosystem.  

PubMed

Vehicle use during military training activities results in soil disturbance and vegetation loss. The capacity of lands to sustain training is a function of the sensitivity of lands to vehicle use and the pattern of land use. The sensitivity of land to vehicle use has been extensively studied. Less well understood are the spatial patterns of vehicle disturbance. Since disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic moving through complex landscapes varies spatially, a spatially explicit nonlinear regression model (disturbance model) was used to predict the pattern of vehicle disturbance across a training facility. An uncertainty analysis of the model predictions assessed the spatial distribution of prediction uncertainty and the contribution of different error sources to that uncertainty. For the most part, this analysis showed that mapping and modeling process errors contributed more than 95% of the total uncertainty of predicted disturbance, while satellite imagery error contributed less than 5% of the uncertainty. When the total uncertainty was larger than a threshold, modeling error contributed 60% to 90% of the prediction uncertainty. Otherwise, mapping error contributed about 10% to 50% of the total uncertainty. These uncertainty sources were further partitioned spatially based on other sources of uncertainties associated with vehicle moment, landscape characterization, satellite imagery, etc. PMID:19939549

Fang, Shoufan; Gertner, George Z; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi R; Sullivan, Patricia; Otto, Chris

2010-01-01

70

Unified Method for Describing Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important factor in determining the off-road mobility of vehicles is vibration, but efforts to quantify vibration and its effects practically and expediently have been frustrated by the complexity of the problem. The vibration environment is the result...

A. S. Lessem N. R. Murphy

1972-01-01

71

75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seashore consistent with the Executive Orders on ORV use on Federal lands...Federal Regulations implements the Executive Orders by providing that routes and...Seashore in compliance with Executive Orders 11644 and 11989, address...

2010-11-15

72

Usability of pointing devices for office applications in a moving off-road environment.  

PubMed

Three pointing devices (mouse, touch pad, touch screen) were evaluated for usability with a Windows-style menu selection task while in a moving off-road environment. A pilot study determined which commercially available devices had the potential to promote good performance in the environment. Eighteen subjects performed a series of complex pointing tasks that simulated the use of a standard application in a moving tractor. The devices were also rated for subjective usability. The mouse and the touch screen produced the best performances, with the mouse receiving the best subjective usability ratings. The participants had a significantly lower performance with the touch pad, which also received lower ratings in the subjective usability ratings. PMID:18295185

Baldus, Thorsten; Patterson, Patrick

2008-11-01

73

Ballistic motion of dust particles in the Lunar Roving Vehicle dust trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have selected video images from the Apollo 16 mission and analyzed the motion of dust clouds kicked up by the wheels of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Applying the equations of ballistic motion, we estimate both the velocity of the dust and the gravitational field strength at the lunar surface. From measurements of the rotation of an LRV wheel, we estimate the speed of the LRV. Such exercises can be useful when discussing ballistic trajectories and angular motion in a high school or introductory level college physics class.

Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Horányi, Mihály

2012-05-01

74

Off-road machine controls: investigating the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome.  

PubMed

Occupationally induced hand and wrist repetitive strain injuries (RSI) such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are a growing problem in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to apply a modification of the wrist flexion/ extension models of Armstrong and Chaffin (1978, 1979) to determine if joystick controller use in off-road machines could contribute to the development of CTS. A construction equipment cab in the laboratory was instrumented to allow force, displacement and angle measurements from 10 operators while they completed an approximately 30-min joystick motion protocol. The investigation revealed that both the external fingertip and predicted internal wrist forces resulting from the use of these joysticks were very low, indicating that the CTS risk associated with this factor was slight. However, the results also indicated that, particularly for the 'forward' and 'left' right side motions and for all left side motions, force was exerted by other portions of the fingers and hand, thereby under-predicting the tendon tension and internal wrist forces. Wrist angles observed were highest for motions that moved the joysticks to the sides rather than front to back. Thus, the 'right' and 'left' motions for both hands posed a higher risk for CTS development. When the right hand moved into the 'right' position and the left hand moved into the 'left' position, the wrist went into extension in both cases. Results indicate that neither learning nor fatigue affected the results. PMID:11105978

Oliver, M; Rickards, J; Biden, E

2000-11-01

75

Effects of Sodium Phosphate Loading on Aerobic Power and Capacity in off Road Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days) phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days) intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S) and control group (C). Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake. Key points Studies on bone acute biochemical response to loading have yielded unequivocal results. There is a paucity of research on the biochemical bone response to high impact exercise. An increase in bone turnover was observed one to two days post exercise.

Czuba, Milosz; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Woska, Scott

2009-01-01

76

Quantifying the intensity of vehicle impacts using vehicle tracking devices during live training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of off-road vehicles during military training exercises can affect the environmental conditions of training lands by removing or disturbing vegetation. To quantify the impact of vehicle based military training, global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle tracking systems were used to characterize the movement of vehicles during live training exercises. Methods were developed to spatially estimate the tracking intensity (number

C. Wu; P. D. Ayers; A. B. Anderson

2008-01-01

77

Trails, lanes, or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adaptive stated preference survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates individual preferences for five different cycling environments by trading off a better facility with a higher travel time against a less attractive facility at a lower travel time. The tradeoff of travel time to amenities of a particular facility informs our understanding of the value attached to different attributes such as bike-lanes, off-road trails, or side-street parking.

Nebiyou Y. Tilahun; David M. Levinson; Kevin J. Krizek

2007-01-01

78

Vehicle movement patterns and vegetative impacts during military training exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of off-road vehicles during military training exercises can affect the environmental conditions of training lands by removing or disturbing vegetation. The use of global positioning systems (GPS)-based vehicle tracking systems can help to characterize the movement of vehicles during training exercises for the purpose of quantifying vegetative impacts. The combination of GPS positions of vehicles in the field

Liv B. Haugen; Paul D. Ayers; Alan B. Anderson

2003-01-01

79

Influence of soil and vehicle parameters on soil rut formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and vehicle parameters have significant effects on soil rut formation. A randomized design was used to investigate the effects of five treatments: soil texture, soil moisture, vehicle type, turning radius and velocity, on rut depth, rut width and rut index, which measure the degree of soil disturbance. This vehicle rutting study was conducted on four off-road military vehicles under

Kun Liu; Paul Ayers; Heidi Howard; Alan Anderson

2010-01-01

80

TRAIL-transduced multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (TRAIL-MSC) overcome TRAIL resistance in selected CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-integrating multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) expressing transgenes with anti-tumor activity may serve as vehicles for tumor therapy. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) represents such a factor; however, TRAIL-resistant tumor cells exist. Based on our previous work, here we investigated whether MSC with lentiviral TRAIL expression (TRAIL-MSC) inhibit the growth of TRAIL-resistant colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. Our data show

L P Mueller; J Luetzkendorf; M Widder; K Nerger; H Caysa; T Mueller

2011-01-01

81

Airbag Trails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails. These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

2004-01-01

82

White Pine County Silver State Trail. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to analyze the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) proposal to designate a Silver State Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trail (SST) on existing roads and trails through White Pine County (or County), Nevada. ...

2010-01-01

83

Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type rear suspensions in off-road bicycles.  

PubMed

Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle, [Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, "An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics," Journal of Mechanical Design 119, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8 km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38 x 14, the corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture, the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average heightfor the standing posture was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 9 of the 11 subjects. While the optimum height was relatively insensitive to pedaling mechanics in both the seated and standing postures, the choice of the optimal pivot point height in production bicycles necessitates some compromise in performance given the disparity in the averages between the seated and standing postures. PMID:11871595

Karchin, Ari; Hull, M L

2002-02-01

84

Optimal vehicle suspension characteristics for increased structural fatigue life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy off-road vehicle suspension systems face unique challenges. The ride comfort versus handling compromise in these vehicles has been frequently investigated using mathematical optimisation. Further challenges exist due to the large variations in vehicle sprung mass. A passive suspension system can only provide optimal isolation at a single payload. The designer of such a suspension system must therefore make a

Braham Breytenbach; Pieter Schalk Els

85

Evaluation of off-road terrain with static stereo and monoscopic displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently funding research into the design of a Mars rover vehicle. This unmanned rover will be used to explore a number of scientific and geologic sites on the Martian surface. Since the rover can not be driven from Earth in real-time, due to lengthy communication time delays, a locomotion strategy that optimizes vehicle range and minimizes potential risk must be developed. In order to assess the degree of on-board artificial intelligence (AI) required for a rover to carry out its' mission, researchers conducted an experiment to define a no AI baseline. In the experiment 24 subjects, divided into stereo and monoscopic groups, were shown video snapshots of four terrain scenes. The subjects' task was to choose a suitable path for the vehicle through each of the four scenes. Paths were scored based on distance travelled and hazard avoidance. Study results are presented with respect to: (1) risk versus range; (2) stereo versus monocular video; (3) vehicle camera height; and (4) camera field-of-view.

Yorchak, John P.; Hartley, Craig S.

1990-01-01

86

Trail Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

87

Impact analysis of off-road-vehicle use on vegetation in the Grand Mere dune environment. [Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A linear regression between percent nonvegetative land and the time variable was completed for the two sample areas. Sample area no. 1 showed an average vegetation loss of 1.901% per year, while the loss for sample area no. 2 amounted to 5.889% per year. Two basic reasons for the difference were assumed to play a role: the difference in access potential and the amount of already fragmented vegetation complexes in existence during the first year of the comparative analysis - 1970. Sample area no. 2 was located closer to potential access points and was more fragmented initially.

Schultink, G. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

88

Off-road vehicle recreation management policy for public lands in the United States: A case history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three annual motorcycle races on the Johnson Valley-Parker course in California's Mojave Desert have resulted in conspicuous modifications of soil and vegetation in a Wilderness Study Area (WSA) and in other lands of high resource values. The extent of damage caused by the races, which have involved fewer than 400 participants, exceeded the expectations of the managing agency by 360% 640% and the allowable limits imposed by the agency by 40% 76%. After three races, no resource monitoring results have been obtained by which compliance with the regulations for interim management of the Wilderness Study Area may be judged. Designation of the remaining parts of the course on lands of high resource value was based on criteria subsequently determined by a federal court to be in violation of regulations derived from two Executive Orders.

Wilshire, Howard G.

1983-11-01

89

75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...It describes four management alternatives for consideration...continues the current management framework. The three...wilderness, and visitor facilities. The document analyzes...continuation of current management practices and trends. The enabling...

2010-11-24

90

Knee Injuries and the Use of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in Off-road Motorcycling: Results of a Large-Scale Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effectiveness of prophylactic knee bracing in preventing knee injuries during sports has been evaluated; however, because of the variability in study conclusions, the topic remains controversial. Despite a paucity of data, the authors believe that prophylactic knee bracing is frequently used in off-road motorcycling.Hypothesis: No statistically significant difference exists in the frequency and types of knee injuries incurred

Mark S. Sanders; Robert A. Cates; Michael D. Baker; Sue D. Barber-Westin; Wesley M. Gladin; Martin S. Levy

2011-01-01

91

Rationalization of the performance of a mobile off-road system working in the forest environment with respect to its emission load  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbSt RAct : This paper deals with the possibilities of minimizing the emissions of heterogeneous substances\\/pollut - ants (SO 2, NOx and NC x) per volume unit of processed timber, based on measurements of the design and operating performance of a mobile off-road system working in the forest environment. The forest production system is taken to mean the production system

A. Jane?ek; A. Skoupý; R. Klva?

92

Flow Separation Control on Trailing Edge Radii using Single Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators: An Application to Vehicle Drag Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cruise speeds of ground vehicles has risen to as high as 70 miles per hour, overcoming the aerodynamic drag has become\\u000a a significant percentage of the total power required. Engines have been increased in power and fuel tanks made larger to provide\\u000a reasonable range between fuel stops. Heavy truck data in particular indicate that 2\\/3rds of the cruise power

R. Spivey; R. Hewitt; H. Othman; T. Corke

93

Snail Trails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

Galus, Pamela

2002-01-01

94

Trailing Edge Flow Physics and Acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole sound produced by the scattering of pressure fluctuations at the trailing edge of hydrofoils and airfoils is an undesirable effect. Understanding the flow mechanisms responsible for the production of trailing edge sound is important for the quiet design of marine vehicle control surfaces as well as turbomachinery components. The objective of the this study was to use experimental

Daniel W. Shannon; Scott C. Morris; Thomas J. Mueller

95

The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise.

Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Milosz; Michalczyk, Malgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

96

The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. PMID:24979615

Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanis?aw; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Mi?osz; Michalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

97

Trail Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Something of a veteran by Internet standards, the Trail Database has been around since 1997 and, as such, now bills itself as the "world's largest hiking trail database." "Henk," the Dutch hiker responsible for this compendium, updates the site regularly and has included a wide variety of links to helpful material here. Users can search or browse the resources, which are arranged both under general topics, such as Knots or Equipment, and by country. Those planning European hikes will find the links off the front page to foot and mouth disease-related hiking restrictions useful (though we found some of these links to be broken). In all, an impressive collection of material. The site is available in Dutch or English.

1997-01-01

98

Uncertainty analysis of predicted disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in complex landscapes at fort hood.  

PubMed

The US Army Engineering Research Development Center (ERDC) uses a modified form of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate spatially explicit rates of soil erosion by water across military training facilities. One modification involves the RUSLE support practice factor (P factor), which is used to account for the effect of disturbance by human activities on erosion rates. Since disturbance from off-road military vehicular traffic moving through complex landscapes varies spatially, a spatially explicit nonlinear regression model (disturbance model) is used to predict the distribution of P factor values across a training facility. This research analyzes the uncertainty in this model's disturbance predictions for the Fort Hood training facility in order to determine both the spatial distribution of prediction uncertainty and the contribution of different error sources to that uncertainty. This analysis shows that a three-category vegetation map used by the disturbance model was the greatest source of prediction uncertainty, especially for the map categories shrub and tree. In areas mapped as grass, modeling error (uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimates) was the largest uncertainty source. These results indicate that the use of a high-quality vegetation map that is periodically updated to reflect current vegetation distributions, would produce the greatest reductions in disturbance prediction uncertainty. PMID:12105761

Fang, Shoufan; Wente, Stephen; Gertner, George Z; Wang, Guangxing; Anderson, Alan

2002-08-01

99

Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras

Arturo Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry Matthies; Max Bajracharya; Christopher Assad; Shane Brennan; Paolo Bellutta; Gary W. Sherwin

2011-01-01

100

Forecasting Aircraft Condensation Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) are caused by aircraft aerodynamics or engine exhaust in the proper atmospheric conditions. Engine-exhaust trails are the most common and are discussed in this report. Jet aircraft contrail-formation graphs facilit...

1981-01-01

101

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

102

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, January 24, 2003, Volume 52, Number 3. Norovirus Activity - United States, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Norovirus Activity - United States, 2002; Deaths Among Drivers of Off-Road Vehicles After Collisions with Trail Gates - New Hampshire, 1997-2002; Human Rabies - Iowa, 2002; Notice to Readers(Conference on Vaccine Research).

2003-01-01

103

43 CFR 8340.0-8 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-8...regulations in this part apply to all public lands, roads, and trails under...

2013-10-01

104

Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

Reuel, Nigel (Rio Rancho, NM); Lionberger, Troy A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-03-11

105

Persistent Leonid Meteor Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998 and 1999 a campaign was conducted to study the lingering trails left by (brighter than -1.5 mag) Leonid meteors over the Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM, a facility owned by the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory. Although not unique to the Leonids, lingering trails are characteristic of the brighter members of this shower, even in non-storm years. They are self-luminous from unknown chemiluminscent reactions involving both atmospheric and cometary species. A sodium lidar was used to probe the aftermath of several meteors, some of which left trails visible for more than 20 minutes. CCD images have been analyzed for four trails. The classical explanation of the double line appearance of many trails as shell burning in an optically thin cylinder is shown to be invalid. Surface brightnesses and line emission rates have been derived and indicate that the trails are overbright compared to non-Leonids by orders of magnitude, pointing perhaps to a compositional difference between lingering trails of Leonid and non-Leonid meteors. Because the atmospheric trajectory of the parent meteor is known, the winds and parameters of a gravity wave between 90-100 km above the Earth have been deduced from a single image taken 1-2 minutes after the meteor, or from a series of images. A five degree wide video camera was used to record the evolution of several trails, and a highlight video will be shown of this fascinating and mysterious phenomenon.

Drummond, J. D.; Milster, S. P.; Grime, B. W.; Gardner, C. S.; Liu, A. Z.; Chu, X.; Kelley, M. C.; Kruschwitz, C. A.; Kane, T. J.

2000-10-01

106

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

107

Experimental Study of an Ultra-Mobile Vehicle for Off-Road Transportation. Appendix 2. Dissertation. Kinematic Optimal Design of a Six-Legged Walking Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chapter 2 is a review of previous work in the following two areas: The mechanical structure of walking machines and walking gaits. In Chapter 3, the mathematical and graphical background for gait analysis is presented. The gait selection problem in differ...

R. B. McGhee K. J. Waldron S. M. Song

1985-01-01

108

Make a Nature Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the planning, construction, use, and maintenance of a nature trail. Ideal for demonstrating interrelationships between plants and animals, conservation practices, wildlife management, plant succession, forestry, geologic features and other scientific phenomena. (JR)

Johnson, Janice K.

1973-01-01

109

Long Trail Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Long Trail in Vermont is the oldest long-distance hiking trail in the United States. In the early 20th century, the Green Mountain Club began to build extensive trail facilities along the way, including shelters and other such structures. The Club also documented their activities, and this collection from the University of Vermont contains over 900 black-and-white and hand-colored lantern slides. These items were originally used in slideshow presentations by Club member Theron S. Dean, who was a great promoter of the Trail. Visitors can use the "Browse the Collection" area to look for items by subject and they can also use the Google Maps feature to look for items by location. Visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed to track when new items are added to the collection.

110

Animal marks and trails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Items in nature, such as twigs and leaves, can show bite and chew marks where animals have been eating off of plants. Animals make trails by traveling over the same area several times to get to a destination.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-13

111

Ride Dynamics of High-Speed Tracked Vehicles: Simulation with Field Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ride dynamic behaviour of a typical high-speed tracked vehicle, such as a conventional military armoured personnel carrier (APC) negotiating rough off-road terrains, is studied through computer simulations and field tests. A comprehensive ride dynamic simulation model is developed, assuming constant forward vehicle speed and non-deformable terrain profile. The ride model includes dynamic track load and wheel\\/track-terrain interaction. Dynamic track load

A. DHIR

1994-01-01

112

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

113

Application of the computer simulation model NTVPM-86 to the development of a new version of the infantry fighting vehicle ASCOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, the task of evaluating soft-ground mobility of off-road vehicles has been carried out primarily using empirical methods (or models), such as the NATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) or the Rowland method based on the mean maximum pressure (MMP). The databases for these empirical methods were mostly established decades ago. Consequently, in many cases, they cannot be used

J. Y. Wong

1995-01-01

114

Evaluating the Effect of Therapeutic Stem Cells on TRAIL Resistant and Sensitive Medulloblastomas  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential in medulloblastomas (MB) has not been explored to date. In this study, we engineered human MSC to express a potent and secretable variant of a tumor specific agent, tumor necrosis factor-apoptosis-inducing ligand (S-TRAIL) and assessed the ability of MSC-S-TRAIL mediated MB killing alone or in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of histone-deacetylase, MS-275, in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant MB in vitro and in vivo. We show that TRAIL sensitivity/resistance correlates with the expression of its cognate death receptor (DR)5 and MSC-S-TRAIL induces caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive MB lines. In TRAIL-resistant MB, we show upregulation of DR4/5 levels when pre-treated with MS-275 and a subsequent sensitization to MSC-S-TRAIL mediated apoptosis. Using intracranially implanted MB and MSC lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that MSC-S-TRAIL has significant anti-tumor effects in mice bearing TRAIL-sensitive and MS-275 pre-treated TRAIL-resistant MBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the use of human MSC as MB-targeting therapeutic-vehicles in vivo in TRAIL-sensitive and resistant tumors, and has implications for developing effective therapies for patients with medulloblastomas.

Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Anderegg, Maarten; Shah, Khalid

2012-01-01

115

The confining trailing string  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

Kiritsis, Elias; Mazzanti, Liuba; Nitti, Francesco

2014-02-01

116

Exploring the Oregon Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As we are studying the pioneer trek along the Oregon Trail, I want you to create a character and write a journal as if you were taking the journey. First, you should get a good idea of what the Oregon Trail was like. Read the personal accounts and experiences from actual pioneers at the websites below: "Jumping Off" "Power" "Hardships" "Camping" The following is a memoir from an actual pioneer (you will want to write your journal in this style). "Across the Plains in 1844" To help you get a ...

Miles, Ms.

2005-10-20

117

Design a Hiking Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides experience working on a real-life scenario by allowing students the opportunity to use topographic maps to design a hiking trail system based on access from road, range of habitats, and other specified criteria. They will also complete a data sheet and produce an informational brochure.

Remis, Becky; Hochmuth, Rose

118

Comprehensive Trail Making Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

Gray, Rebecca

2006-01-01

119

Airbag Trails-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails (upper left). These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

2004-01-01

120

Concept design of a new generation military vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000 -14000 lbs high-speed multi-purpose vehicle, designed for extreme off-road operation. A completely new suspension concept is expected to be developed and the new vehicle topology will accommodate a new generation hybrid-electric power train. The dynamic performance targets are 125 mph off-road and 0-60 in 7 seconds. The concept design will focus also on survivability mainly through the use of a new vehicle topology (herein referred to as "island") specifically designed to enhance crew protection. The "island" topology consists in locating the powertrain and other vehicle equipment and subsystems around the crew compartment. Thus, even in the event of an external shield penetration the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment which serves in an additional role as a secondary shield. The paper presents vehicle specifications, performance capabilities, simulation models and virtual models of the vehicle.

Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Ursescu, Gabriel; Serrao, Lorenzo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Bechtel, James; Udvare, Thomas; Letherwood, Mike

2006-06-01

121

Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

Garetson, Thomas

2013-03-31

122

TRAIL/TRAIL Receptor System and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p?=?9.8×10?4, OR?=?1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p?=?0.005, OR?=?1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p?=?0.012, OR?=?0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p?=?2.12×10?5, OR?=?0.59). These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS.

Garcia-Leon, Juan Antonio; Pinto-Medel, Maria Jesus; Oliver-Martos, Begona; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesus; Suardiaz, Margarita; Garcia-Trujillo, Lucia; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Benito-Leon, Julian; Prat, Isidro; Varade, Jezabel; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena

2011-01-01

123

Tracking Online Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

124

TRAIL combinations: The new 'trail' for cancer therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) therapy is anticipated to be one of the most effective cancer treatments. However, resistance to TRAIL therapy remains a challenge facing the development of anticancer strategies. To circumvent this problem, TRAIL combinations have been experimented with for over ten years to induce synergism or sensitize resistant cancer cells. By analyzing the signaling pathways triggered by these combinations, this review has defined a set of core targets for novel combinatorial treatments. The review suggests specific pathways to be targeted together with TRAIL for more efficient treatment, including cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and its downstream survival factors, the Bcl-2 family and other prominent targets. The suggested pathways provide new avenues for more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy.

REFAAT, ALAA; ABD-RABOU, AHMED; REDA, ASMAA

2014-01-01

125

TRAIL receptor-targeted therapy.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family of cytokines. Based on its ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a wide variety of cancer cell lines and human tumor xenografts, TRAIL has been in drug development as a potential biological agent for cancer therapy. A variety of chemotherapy agents have been shown to enhance the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL. The potential benefits of TRAIL as an anticancer therapy have been further indicated by its ability to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. Preclinical studies have shown the potential use of agonistic monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind TRAIL death receptors for cancer therapy. This review provides an overview of TRAIL receptor-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells, with TRAIL or agonistic monoclonal antibodies only or with chemotherapy drugs. Treatment of tumor xenografts with these ligands, alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiation, are discussed along with preliminary information about early clinical trials. Additional clinical trials with TRAIL receptor ligands in combination treatment regimens are required to determine their potential for targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:16922616

Buchsbaum, Donald J; Zhou, Tong; Lobuglio, Albert F

2006-08-01

126

Trail following with omnidirectional vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system which follows “trails” for autonomous outdoor robot navigation. Through a combination of visual cues provided by stereo omnidirectional color cameras and ladar-based structural information, the algorithm is able to detect and track rough paths despite widely varying tread material, border vegetation, and illumination conditions. The approaching trail region is simply modeled as a circular arc of

Christopher Rasmussen; Yan Lu; Mehmet Kocamaz

2010-01-01

127

Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

128

The Labor Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Chicago Center for Working-Class Studies, the Interactive Labor Trail documents 140 significant locations in the history of labor, migration, and working-class culture in Chicago. Visitors to the site can use the information here to learn more about the history of labor activism and related matters in Chicago, and visitors are also encouraged to add sites for inclusion on the map. First-time users can use the map by just clicking on sites of interest (like Hull House or the Pullman community) and they can also listen to audio features, such as "The Haymarket Affair", narrated by William J. Adelman. In the "Resources" tab, visitors can watch video clips, look over a photo gallery, and check out a detailed bibliography and external resources.

129

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D. M.; Peck, R. W.; Stringer, L. D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P. C.

2010-01-01

130

Valles Marineris cloud trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinctive cloud trails are identified in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images over specific locations associated with Valles Marineris and Noctis Labyrinthus and at perihelion solar longitudes (LS = 230°-260°). High-contrast surface shadows are well defined, as cast from their eastern margins, supporting altitude and optical depth determinations. These relatively high altitude clouds (40-50 km) exhibit narrow latitudinal widths (25-75 km) in comparison to extended longitudinal dimensions (400-1000 km). MARCI multispectral imaging of cloud surface shadows in five wavelength channels (260, 320, 437, 546, and 653 nm) yields the wavelength dependence of cloud extinction optical depth, revealing a range of small cloud particle sizes (reff = 0.2-0.5 ?m) and moderate cloud optical depths (0.03-0.10 visible and 0.1-0.2 ultraviolet). Local time and temporal sampling characteristics of MARCI cloud images indicate that these clouds develop very rapidly in afternoon hours (1300-1500 LT), reach their full longitudinal extents within <2 h time scales, and often reoccur on successive afternoons. Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbital Camera imaging in previous Mars years indicates these clouds are annually repeating. These observed characteristics suggest a cloud formation mechanism that is specific to ˜50 km horizontal and vertical scales, transports water vapor and dust upward from lower levels, exists during the afternoon, and is likely associated with the mesoscale atmospheric circulations induced by the near-equatorial canyons of Mars. Cloud particles formed in such updrafts would then be rapidly transported westward in the strong retrograde zonal circulation of the subsolar middle atmosphere in this season.

Clancy, R. Todd; Wolff, Michael J.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Michaels, Timothy I.

2009-11-01

131

Base passive porosity for vehicle drag reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

132

Base Passive Porosity for Vehicle Drag Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

133

Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

Horuz, I. [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-08-01

134

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

135

Trailing Edge Modifications for Flatback Airfoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased stru...

C. P. van Dam D. E. Berg D. L. Kahn

2008-01-01

136

Global Variation of Meteor Trail Plasma Turbulence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent, what ...

J. Hinrichs J. Urbina L. P. Dyrud

2011-01-01

137

Meteor Trails and Atmospheric Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of turbulence theory to atmospheric structure revealed by radio meteor trails clearly demonstrates that Batchelor's and Obhukoff's structure function for isotropic turbulence explains some of the observed relations. From these measurements, parameters such as  (the rate of viscous dissipation), (uk, ) (the eddy intensity of the scales up to kwithin the equilibrium range), Re, (the local eddy

S. P. Zimmerman; L. G. Hanscom

1973-01-01

138

NASA aircraft trailing vortex research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.

Mcgowan, W. A.

1971-01-01

139

The Healthy Trail Food Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

Miller, Dorcas S.

140

Trading Securities Using Trailing Stops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common trading maximum is to cut your losses and let your profits run. To implement this policy, traders often use what is called a trailing stop. Suppose a trader buys a security for $100 in hopes that it will appreciate in price. At the time of purcha...

P. W. Glynn D. L. Iglehart

1992-01-01

141

Expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas: identification of TRAIL-? as a prognostic marker  

PubMed Central

Background TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) belongs to the TNF-superfamily that induces apoptotic cell death in a wide range of neoplastic cells in vivo as well as in vitro. We identified two alternative TRAIL-splice variants, i.e. TRAIL-? and TRAIL-? that are characterized by the loss of their proapoptotic properties. Herein, we investigated the expression and the prognostic values of the TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas. Methods Real time PCR for amplification of the TRAIL-splice variants was performed in tumour tissue specimens and corresponding normal tissues of 41 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. Differences on mRNA-expression levels of the TRAIL-isoforms were compared to histo-pathological variables and correlated with survival data. Results All three TRAIL-splice variants could be detected in both non-malignant and malignant tissues, irrespective of their histological staging, grading or tumour types. However, TRAIL-? exhibited a higher expression in normal gastric tissue. The proapoptotic TRAIL-? expression was increased in gastric carcinomas when compared to TRAIL-? and TRAIL-?. In addition, overexpression of TRAIL-? was associated with a significant higher survival rate. Conclusions This is the first study that investigated the expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Thus, we provide first data that indicate a prognostic value for TRAIL-? overexpression in this tumour entity.

2013-01-01

142

Policy influences on community trail development.  

PubMed

This study explores processes and policies that facilitate the development of community trails. With funding from Active Living Research and the research framework of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN), we conducted a multiple-site case study. A total of six trails in Hawaii, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington were chosen for study. The goals of this case study were to identify the policy influences on trail development, explore the roles of key players in trail development, and compare and contrast findings from the different trails. Trail development can be a long process. Some of the trails took over a decade to complete because of funding, opposition, and roadblocks in the form of design standard policies. Work in trail development requires a team of many players, and it is necessary to balance their varied motives to accomplish a shared overall goal. Foresight through the master planning process is also a vital component of successful trail development. Finally, community involvement is key. Communities contemplating trail development should explore the effects of policy on the trail projects reported here to proactively identify potential influence. PMID:18469168

Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Levinger, David; Maddock, Jay E; Pluto, Delores; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Richards, Katherine L; Steinman, Lesley E

2008-06-01

143

Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails  

PubMed Central

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

Gruter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M.; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

2012-01-01

144

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

145

Off-Road Motorcycling and ATV Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... to you by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. They provide general information only and are not ... fact sheet or learn more about other orthopaedic sports medicine topics, please visit www.sportsmed.org. Copyright © 2008. ...

146

More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities  

PubMed Central

Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws.

Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

2013-01-01

147

Assessing Urban Walking Trail Use and Changes in the Trail Environment Using Systematic Observational Protocols  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the extent to which two systematic observation protocols which were modified for underserved communities (low income, minorities) could be utilized to reliably assess a) use of walking trails and b) physical environmental features of these trails. This study was a supplement to the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) walking trial. The modified tools were shown to be reliable methods for a) measuring trail use and b) assessing physical features of the trail in underserved environments. Reliability data for measuring trail use were found to be high (ICC = .98, p < .01). Reliabilities for measuring features of the trail ranged from fair to highly reliable (? = .77 - 1.00; ICC = .34 - 1.00). The observation tools that were customized for this study were shown to be reliable instruments for measuring trail use and assessing physical features of walking trails in underserved communities.

Meyers, Duncan C.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kugler, Kassandra A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Reed, Julian; Schmidt, Sara C.

2012-01-01

148

75 FR 10307 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Cape Hatteras National Seashore  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specific trails and areas for this use. Title 36, section 4.10 of the Code of Federal Regulations implements the executive orders by providing that routes and areas designated for off-road vehicle use shall be promulgated as special...

2010-03-05

149

Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

150

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick

Daniel L. Kahn; C. P. van Dam; Dale E. Berg

2008-01-01

151

Axial Flow in Laminar Trailing Vortices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of laminar trailing vortices behind a lifting wing is considered. The inviscid roll up of the trailing vortex sheet is examined, and the nature of the singularity at the centre of the spiral is determined. It is shown that viscosity removes ...

D. W. Moore P. G. Saffman

1972-01-01

152

Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

Schwartz, Jonathan R.

153

TRAIL Induced Apoptosis - A Prostate Cancer Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five of six prostate cancer cell lines undergo apoptosis when incubated with% TRAIL. Cell viability curves of six prostate cancer cell lines using varying amounts of TRAIL protein were completed. Prostate cancer cell lines Alva 31, PC-3 and DU 145 are hig...

X. Lu D. M. Rodman

2000-01-01

154

Na Ala Hele (Trails for Walking).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proposal for the development of a system of administering hiking trails in the state of Hawaii when such trails would involve various public and private jurisdictions emphasizes three elements: (a) proposing means of administration involving multiple jurisdictions; (b) demonstrating by means of a proposed project on the west coast of the Big…

Hawaii State Dept. of Planning and Economic Development, Honolulu.

155

Paper: Visitor-Constructed Personalized Learning Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the use of mobile technology to create personalized learning trails through the capture, editing and sharing of audio, photos and text during visits to museums, botanic gardens and cultural heritage sites. I report results from several recent trials in which visitors used mobile devices to collaboratively create, edit and share trails. Visitors included 9- to 10-year-olds, as

Kevin Walker

156

Making Sense of Audit Trail Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we argue that the use of audit trail data for research and evaluation purposes has attracted scepticism due to real and perceived difficulties associated with the data's interpretation. We suggest that educational technology researchers and evaluators need to better understand how audit trail data can be processed and analysed…

Kennedy, Gregor E.; Judd, Terry S.

2004-01-01

157

In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

2007-01-01

158

DARPA FCS unmanned ground vehicle research initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Army (ASAALT) have jointly funded several FCS research initiatives in ground robotics. The Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle (UGCV) and Perception for Off-Road Mobility (PerceptOR) programs are the major elements of this joint ground robotic effort. These programs were initiated in fiscal year 2001 and have progressed through their first phase. The UGCV program, now in Phase IB, has downselected from 11 concepts designs to 4. Phase IB focuses on detailed design of teams' concepts in anticipation of the prototype construction Phase II and initial vehicle roll-out near the end of the 2002 calendar year. This paper highlights program findings to date as a result of the initial phase, and illustrates plans for Phase II prototype testing. The PerceptOR program, currently in Phase II, has completed its Phase I which involved development of a perception system for operation on a commercial All Terrain Vehicle. This paper describes the effort of the first phase, and outlines the plans for vehicle testing in Phases II and III.

Fish, Scott

2002-07-01

159

AXL mediates TRAIL resistance in esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The overexpression of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is a frequent finding that has been associated with poor prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As the majority of EAC are intrinsically resistant to DNA-damaging therapies, an alternative therapeutic approach based on the activation of death receptors may be warranted. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been evaluated in clinical trials and found promising as anticancer agent with mild side effects; unfortunately, resistance to TRAIL remains a major clinical problem. Herein, we explored the role of AXL in TRAIL resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Overexpression of AXL in OE33 and OE19 cells promoted cell survival and attenuated TRAIL-induced cellular and molecular markers of apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous AXL sensitized FLO-1 cells to TRAIL. The mechanism by which AXL regulates TRAIL resistance was examined. Protein and mRNA expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors was not downregulated by AXL. In addition, the possible involvement of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) in regulating the interaction of caspase-8 with Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) was excluded, as AXL did not enhance FLIP expression or FLIP/FADD association. Alternatively, protein association of AXL with DR5, independent of TRAIL, was confirmed, suggesting that AXL could regulate DR5 receptor activity. The AXL/DR5 association had no negative effect on TRAIL-induced interaction with FADD. However, the AXL/DR5 interaction blocked the recruitment of caspase-8 to the death-inducing signal complex (DISC). Collectively, our findings uncover a novel mechanism of TRAIL resistance mediated by AXL through regulation of the DISC and provide strong evidence that AXL could be exploited as a therapeutic target to circumvent TRAIL resistance. PMID:23479507

Hong, Jun; Belkhiri, Abbes

2013-03-01

160

Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

2002-01-01

161

AUTOMATIC DIRT TRAIL ANALYSIS IN DERMOSCOPY IMAGES  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the U.S. Dermatoscopes are devices used by physicians to facilitate the early detection of these cancers based on the identification of skin lesion structures often specific to BCCs. One new lesion structure, referred to as dirt trails, has the appearance of dark gray, brown or black dots and clods of varying sizes distributed in elongated clusters with indistinct borders, often appearing as curvilinear trails. In this research, we explore a dirt trail detection and analysis algorithm for extracting, measuring, and characterizing dirt trails based on size, distribution, and color in dermoscopic skin lesion images. These dirt trails are then used to automatically discriminate BCC from benign skin lesions. For an experimental data set of 35 BCC images with dirt trails and 79 benign lesion images, a neural network-based classifier achieved a 0.902 area under a receiver operating characteristic curve using a leave-one-out approach, demonstrating the potential of dirt trails for BCC lesion discrimination.

Cheng, Beibei; Stanley, R. Joe; Stoecker, William V.; Osterwise, Christopher T.P.; Stricklin, Sherea M.; Hinton, Kristen A.; Moss, Randy H.; Oliviero, Margaret; Rabinovitz, Harold S.

2011-01-01

162

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D. M.; Peck, R. W.; Manning, L. M.; Stringer, L. D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

163

Immuno-LipoTRAIL: Targeted Delivery of TRAIL-Functionalized Liposomal Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a powerful inducer of apoptosis in tumor cells; however, clinical studies with recombinant soluble TRAIL were rather disappointing. Here, we developed TRAIL-functionalized liposomes (LipoTRAIL, LT) to mimic membrane-displayed TRAIL for efficient activation of death receptors DR4 and DR5 and enhanced induction of apoptosis, which were combined with an anti-EGFR single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) for targeted delivery to EGFR-positive tumor cells. These immuno-LipoTRAILs (ILTs) bound specifically to EGFR-expressing cells (Colo205) and exhibited increased cytotoxicity compared with that of nontargeted LTs. Compared to that of the soluble TRAIL, the plasma half-life of the functionalized liposomes was strongly extended, and increased antitumor activity of LT and ILT was demonstrated in a xenograft tumor model. Thus, we established a multifunctional liposomal TRAIL formulation (ILT) with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior, characterized by targeted delivery and increased induction of apoptosis due to multivalent TRAIL presentation. PMID:24766622

Seifert, Oliver; Pollak, Nadine; Nusser, Anja; Steiniger, Frank; Rüger, Ronny; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Kontermann, Roland E

2014-05-21

164

Falls from Tractors and Trailing Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... steps clear of mud, snow, manure or other debris. • Before moving, check the tractor and trailing equipment ... tractors. Inspection • • Are platforms and steps free of debris? Are shoes or boots in good condition with ...

165

Federal Triangle Heritage Trail Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2008, the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) partnered with Cultural Tourism DC (CTDC), a local not-for-profit that specializes in the development of Neighborhood Heritage Trails within Washington, DC, to work together to evaluate th...

2010-01-01

166

Paracrine Induction of TRAIL by Genotoxic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand, TRAIL, is a recently cloned cytokine that has been shown to induce apoptosis in a synergistic fashion with chemotherapeutic agents on several cancer cell lines. Xenografts of several carcinoma cell lines demonstrate ...

A. C. Spalding C. Smith G. L. Johnson

2002-01-01

167

Tracing the X-Ray Trail  

MedlinePLUS

Tracing the X-ray Trail What you need to know about… This patient education page provides general information concerning the radiologic ... Empezar aquí! Siguiendo la pista de los rayos X Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Esta ...

168

TrailRunner 1.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone's looking for an improved running or walking path, and TrailRunner can help you do just that. TrailRunner 1.8 is essentially a route planning application designed for sports like running, biking, and inline skating. Visitors can create interactive maps, review alternate routes, and export the directions onto their iPod. This version is compatible with Mac OS X 10.3.

2008-01-01

169

Crystalline calcium in littorinid mucus trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that the feet of terrestrial and freshwater snails are important in calcium regulation, often secreting\\u000a granules of CaCO3. This phenomenon has not, until now, been observed in marine snails. Here we report the presence of CaCO3 granules in the trail mucus of Littorina littorea (L.), L. saxatilis (Olivi) and L. obtusata (L.) Fixed mucus trails on

Mark S. Davies; Susan J. Hutchinson

1995-01-01

170

Trail discrimination signal of Lasius japonicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Trail-following behavior of Lasius japonicus was colony-specific in the field, while trail pheromone activity was not. We found that the footprint substance caused colony-specific trail-following behavior only when working in conjunction with the trail pheromone. The footprint substance alone did not lead the workers to follow trails. The substance consisted mainly of hydrocarbons with composition almost identical to that

Toshiharu Akino; Ryohei Yamaoka

2005-01-01

171

Somatic mutations of TRAIL-receptor 1 and TRAIL-receptor 2 genes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) are cell-surface receptors involved in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cell-death signaling. TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 genes have recently been mapped to chromosome 8p21-22, which is a frequent site of allelic deletions in many types of human tumors, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Because TRAIL\\/TRAIL receptor

Sug Hyung Lee; Min Sun Shin; Hong Sug Kim; Hun Kyung Lee; Won Sang Park; Su Young Kim; Jong Heun Lee; Seo Young Han; Jik Young Park; Ro Ra Oh; Chang Suk Kang; Kyung Mee Kim; Ja June Jang; Suk Woo Nam; Jung Young Lee; Nam Jin Yoo

2001-01-01

172

NFATc1 Regulation of TRAIL Expression in Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; Apo2) has been shown to promote intestinal cell differentiation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) participates in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including differentiation. Here, we examined the role of NFAT in the regulation of TRAIL in human intestinal cells. Treatment with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io) increased NFAT activation and TRAIL expression; pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), an antagonist of NFAT signaling, diminished NFAT activation and TRAIL induction. In addition, knockdown of NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4 blocked PMA/Io increased TRAIL protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 activated TRAIL promoter activity and increased TRAIL mRNA and protein expression. Deletion of NFAT binding sites from the TRAIL promoter did not significantly abrogate NFATc1-increased TRAIL promoter activity, suggesting an indirect regulation of TRAIL expression by NFAT activation. Knockdown of NFATc1 increased Sp1 transcription factor binding to the TRAIL promoter and, importantly, inhibition of Sp1, by chemical inhibition or RNA interference, increased TRAIL expression. These studies identify a novel mechanism for TRAIL regulation by which activation of NFATc1 increases TRAIL expression through negative regulation of Sp1 binding to the TRAIL promoter.

Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Weiss, Heidi L.; Chow, Chi-Wing; Evers, B. Mark

2011-01-01

173

Aluminum-rich Orbital Debris Colliding With LDEF's Trailing Edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a 12 sided, non-spinning cylinder that resided in low-Earth orbit for ~5.7 years. Due to its non-spinning nature, each of the 12 sides will reflect the specific fluxes and velocity distributions of both natural and man-made hypervelocity particles representing a specific viewing geometry relative to the spacecraft's velocity vector. Prior to LDEF most small-scale (< 1 mm) man-made objects were believed to reside in essentially circular orbits such that few, if any, would catch up with the trailing-edge (i.e., anti-ram direction) surfaces of LDEF. However, compositional analysis, by a number of groups using SEM-EDS and SIMS methods, revealed the presence of man-made impactors on a variety of surfaces residing on LDEF's trailing edge. Such residues consisted predominantly of aluminum-rich projectiles, yet other particles types, such as paint-flakes, electronic components, or stainless steel were also reported. These findings mandate particles in highly elliptical, low-inclinations orbits from sources such as vehicles used to transfer payloads to geostationary orbits; such sources were not considered significant prior to LDEF's retrieval.

Bernhard, R. P.; Horz, F.; Kessler, D. E.

1996-03-01

174

Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

175

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour.

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-01-01

176

Osteoprotegerin is a receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL.  

PubMed

TRAIL is a tumor necrosis factor-related ligand that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain-containing receptors, DR4 and DR5. Two additional TRAIL receptors, TRID/DcR1 and DcR2, lack functional death domains and function as decoy receptors for TRAIL. We have identified a fifth TRAIL receptor, namely osteoprotegerin (OPG), a secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor homologue that inhibits osteoclastogenesis and increases bone density in vivo. OPG-Fc binds TRAIL with an affinity of 3.0 nM, which is slightly weaker than the interaction of TRID-Fc or DR5-Fc with TRAIL. OPG inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Conversely, TRAIL blocks the anti-osteoclastogenic activity of OPG. These data suggest potential cross-regulatory mechanisms by OPG and TRAIL. PMID:9603945

Emery, J G; McDonnell, P; Burke, M B; Deen, K C; Lyn, S; Silverman, C; Dul, E; Appelbaum, E R; Eichman, C; DiPrinzio, R; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Rosenberg, M; Lee, J C; Young, P R

1998-06-01

177

The Biology of TRAIL and the Role of TRAIL-Based Therapeutics in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a key mediator of the innate immune response to infection. While TRAIL-mediated apoptosis plays an essential role in the clearance of virus-infected cells, its physiologic role also includes immunosurveilance for cancer cells. Therapeutics that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells remain a focus of ongoing investigation in clinical trials, and much has been learned from these studies regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these interventions. These data, combined with data from numerous preclinical studies that detail the important and multifaceted role of TRAIL during infection with human immunodeficiency virus and other viruses, suggest that therapeutic exploitation of TRAIL signaling offers a novel and efficacious strategy for the management of infectious diseases.

Shepard, Brett D.; Badley, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

178

Transverse dune trailing ridges and vegetation succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the evolution of, and vegetation succession on, a previously undescribed landform: transverse dune trailing ridges at El Farallón transgressive dunefield in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Three-dimensional clinometer/compass and tape topographic surveys were conducted in conjunction with 1 m 2 contiguous percent cover and presence/absence vegetation survey transects at eight locations across two adjacent trailing ridges. At the study site, and elsewhere, the transverse dune trailing ridges are formed by vegetation colonization of the lateral margins of active transverse, barchanoidal transverse, and aklé or network dunes. For simplicity, all trailing ridges formed from these dune types are referred to as transverse dune trailing ridges. Because there are several transverse dunes in the dunefield, multiple trailing ridges can be formed at one time. Two adjacent trailing ridges were examined. The shortest length ridge was 70 m long, and evolving from a 2.5 m-high transverse dune, while the longer ridge was 140 m long, and evolving from an 8 m-high dune. Trailing ridge length is a proxy measure of ridge age, since the longer the ridge, the greater the length of time since initial formation. With increasing age or distance upwind, species diversity increased, as well as species horizontal extent and percent cover. In turn, the degree of bare sand decreased. Overall, the data indicate a successional trend in the vegetation presence and cover with increasing age upwind. Those species most tolerant to burial ( Croton and Palafoxia) begin the process of trailing ridge formation. Ipomoea and Canavalia are less tolerant to burial and also are typically the next colonizing species. Trachypogon does not tolerate sand burial or deposition very well and only appears after significant stabilization has taken place. The ridges display a moderately defined successional sequence in plant colonization and percentage cover with time (and upwind distance). They are significant geomorphologically as a unique landform in transgressive dunefields, and also because they may be the only remaining indication of transverse dune presence, and net dune migration direction once the dunefield is stabilized and in a final evolutionary state.

Hesp, Patrick A.; ‘Marisa' Martinez, M. L.

2008-07-01

179

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-03-01

180

Cuticular lipids as trail pheromone in a social wasp.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the origin and composition of the chemical trail of the common yellow jacket Vespula vulgaris L. (Vespidae) and found that an artificial trail made from an extract of cuticular lipids from V. vulgaris foragers was biologically as active as a trail laid naturally by the foragers. Chemical analysis of natural trail extracts and the behaviourally active cuticular extracts by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the majority of cuticular hydrocarbons were also present in the trail extract at similar ratios. Thus, bioassay data and chemical analysis provide strong evidence that these cuticular hydrocarbons act as a trail pheromone in V. vulgaris.

Steinmetz, Inge; Schmolz, Erik; Ruther, Joachim

2003-01-01

181

Modelling the evolution of human trail systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many human social phenomena, such as cooperation, the growth of settlements, traffic dynamics and pedestrian movement, appear to be accessible to mathematical descriptions that invoke self-organization. Here we develop a model of pedestrian motion to explore the evolution of trails in urban green spaces such as parks. Our aim is to address such questions as what the topological structures of these trail systems are, and whether optimal path systems can be predicted for urban planning. We use an `active walker' model that takes into account pedestrian motion and orientation and the concomitant feedbacks with the surrounding environment. Such models have previously been applied to the study of complex structure formation in physical, chemical and biological systems. We find that our model is able to reproduce many of the observed large-scale spatial features of trail systems.

Helbing, Dirk; Keltsch, Joachim; Molnár, Péter

1997-07-01

182

Amelioration of autoimmune neuroinflammation by the fusion molecule Fn14?TRAIL  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, the management of which remains challenging. The recently described fusion protein, Fn14·TRAIL, combining the extracellular domain of Fn14 (capable of blocking the pro-inflammatory TWEAK ligand) fused to the extracellular domain of the TRAIL ligand (capable of sending apoptotic signals through its receptors on activated inflammatory cells) was designed to modulate the immune system as an anti-inflammatory agent. The present study explores the efficacy of this purified protein as an anti-inflammatory agent, using the animal model of MS - experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Fn14·TRAIL or vehicle were injected daily for 4 to 16 days, at different time points after disease induction. Animals were examined daily and evaluated for EAE clinical signs. Lymphocytes were analyzed for ex vivo re-stimulation, cytokine secretion, transcription factor expression and subtype cell analysis. Spinal cords were checked for inflammatory foci. The Mann- Whitney rank sum test, Student’s t-test or ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results Significant improvement of EAE in the group treated with Fn14·TRAIL was noted from day 6 of disease onset and lasted until the end of follow-up (day 40 from disease induction), even in animals treated for 4 days only. Clinical improvement was linked to decreased lymphocyte infiltrates in the central nervous system (CNS) and to decreased Th1 and Th17 responses and to increased number of T- regulatory in the treated mice. No liver or kidney toxicity was evident. In vitro assays established the ability of Fn14·TRAIL to induce apoptosis of T cell lines expressing TRAIL receptors and TWEAK. Conclusions In this study we established the potency of Fn14·TRAIL, a unique fusion protein combining two potentially functional domains, in inhibiting the clinical course of EAE, even when given for a short time, without apparent toxicity. These findings make Fn14·TRAIL a highly promising agent to be used for targeted amelioration of neuro-inflammatory processes, as well as other autoimmune pathologies.

2013-01-01

183

Near Field Trailing Edge Tone Noise Computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.

Loh, Ching Y.

2002-01-01

184

30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to...

2013-07-01

185

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2013-07-01

186

30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

2013-07-01

187

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

188

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the…

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

189

Trails and Greenways: Alternatives to "Carmageddon."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses personal and societal effects of automobile-centered landscapes and development. Recommends fundamental reexamination of community development and beliefs regarding desirable human settlement. Suggests greenways and trails as a multifunctional means for revitalizing communities in a more ecological fashion. Presents the Niagara region of…

Brown, David T.

1995-01-01

190

On the Trail of the Missing Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by EPA's Region 9 Office in San Francisco, California, this book provides an introduction into why we need the ozone layer, the causes of ozone depletion, and some of the actions the world is taking to correct the problem. We hope you enjoy joining our intrepid reporter Farley on the trail of the missing ozone!

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (;)

2008-04-25

191

War for the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper studies the lines of communications (the Ho Chi Minh Trail) which went from North to South Vietnam, through Laos, during the Second Indochina War. The purpose of this paper is to study the proposal that the US, during the Vietnam War should hav...

G. T. Banner

1993-01-01

192

Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

Cameron, Layne

1998-01-01

193

North Carolina's Rivers/Trails System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recreation and conservation programs in North Carolina are discussed and qualifications for inclusion in the state's trail or river systems are listed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

Scott, Kay

1980-01-01

194

Staff Development at Lincoln Trail College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, initiated at the request of the Lincoln Trail College (LTC) faculty, provides a series of recommendations regarding a continuing professional development program specially tailored to meet the needs and characteristics of the staff at LTC. A questionnaire was developed to determine activity relevance and availability, preference…

O'Banion, Terry; And Others

195

Observations of Aircraft Dissipation Trails from GOES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two cases of distrails (aircraft dissipation trails) with associated fall streak clouds were analyzed using multispectral geostationary satellite data. One distrail was observed on 23 July 2000 in a single cloud layer over southeastern Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. Another set of trails developed on 6 January 2000 at the top of multilayer clouds off the coasts of Georgia and South Carolina. The distrails on both days formed in optically thin, midlevel stratified clouds with cloud-top heights between 7.6 and 9.1 km. The distrail features remained intact and easily visible from satellite images for 1-2 h in spite of winds near 50 km at cloud level. The width of the distrails spread as far as 20 km within 90 min or less. Differences between the optical properties of the clouds surrounding the trails and those of the fall streak particles inside the distrails allowed for easy identification of the fall streak clouds in either the 3.9-micrometer brightness temperature imagery, or the 10.7-micrometer - 12.0-micrometer brightness temperature difference. Although the three-channel infrared retrieval was better at retrieving cloud properties in the multilayer cloud case, two independent remote sensing retrievals of both distrail cases showed that the fall streaks had larger particle sizes than the clouds outside of the trails.

Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick

2002-01-01

196

Airplane trailing vortices and their control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airplane trailing vortices are examined under natural and forced conditions. Control strategies are presented, which aim to reduce the potential for severe upsets resulting from encounters with the vortices. These range from passive control, using spanload modifications, up to active control, using control-surface oscillations. Flight-simulator results are used to judge the effectiveness of the different control strategies. Active control is

Jeffrey Crouch

2005-01-01

197

Influence of unsprung weight on vehicle ride quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this paper, a simple quarter-car, two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) vehicle model is used to investigate potential benefits and adaptive control capabilities of active suspensions. The results of this study indicate that, with an active suspension, it is possible to trade each 1% increase in tire deflection with a circa 1% decrease in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration. This can be used for adaptive suspension tuning based on varying road/speed conditions. The second part of this paper is concerned with the influence of unsprung mass on optimal vibration isolation for the case of a linear 2 DOF, quarter-car model. In the study, it is assumed that the tire stiffness and geometry remain the same while unsprung mass is changed. The comprehensive computer analysis shows that, for active suspensions, both ride and handling can be improved by reducing the unsprung mass. In particular, when the total vehicle mass is kept constant, every 10% reduction in unsprung mass contributes to a circa 6% reduction in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration for the same level of wheel-hop. For active suspension vehicles, this gives an added incentive for reducing the unsprung weight through the usage of, for example, aluminum wheels and lightweight composite materials. Although used primarily in the context of automotive applications, the results of this study are generic to similar 2 DOF structures in other areas of vibration isolation, ranging from computer peripherals to off-road vehicles.

Hrovat, D.

1988-08-01

198

Experimental aerodynamics of mesoscale trailing-edge actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) are commonly designed with high-aspect ratio wings, which can be susceptible to significant aeroelastic vibrations. These modes can result in a loss of control or structural failure, and new techniques are necessary to alleviate them. A multidisciplinary effort at Stanford developed a distributed flow control method that used small trailing-edge actuators to alter the aerodynamic loads at specific spanwise locations along an airplane wing. This involved design and production of the actuators, computational and experimental study of their characteristics, and application to a flexible wing. This project focused on the experimental response. The actuators were based on a Gurney flap, which is a trailing-edge flap of small size and large deflection, typically about 2% of the chord and 90 degrees, respectively. Because of the large deflection, there is a significant change to the wing camber, increasing the lift. However, due to the small size, the drag does not increase substantially, and the performance is actually improved for high lift conditions. For this project, a 1.5% flap was divided into small span segments (5.2% of the chord), each individually controllable. These devices are termed microflaps or Micro Trailing-edge Effectors (MiTEs). The aerodynamic response was examined to determine the effects of small flap span, the influence of the device structure, and the transient response to relatively rapid MiTE actuation. Measurements included integrated loads, pressure profiles, wake surveys, and near-wake studies using particle image velocimetry. The basic response was similar to a Gurney flap, as full-span actuation of the devices produced a lift increment of about +0.25 when applied towards the pressure surface. For partial actuated spans, the load increment was approximately linear with the actuated span, regardless of configuration. The primary effects occurred within two device spans, indicating that most of the load was locally applied. The transient response was quasi-steady for dimensionless actuation times (tU/c) near unity. A shorter dimensionless actuation time of 0.2 produced a transient response with significant overshoot of the downwash velocity in the near-wake. This indicated a non-monotonic response of the aerodynamic loads for rapid actuation.

Solovitz, Stephen Adam

199

Vegetation moderates impacts of tourism usage on bird communities along roads and hiking trails.  

PubMed

Bird communities inhabiting ecosystems adjacent to recreational tracks may be adversely affected by disturbance from passing tourism traffic, vehicle-related mortality, habitat alteration and modified biotic relationships such as the increase of strong competitors. This study investigated the effects of tourist usage of roads vs. hiking trails on bird communities in gorges of the Flinders Ranges, a popular South Australian tourist destination in the arid-lands. High tourist usage along roads decreased the individual abundance and species richness of birds relative to low usage trails. The decrease in species richness, though less pronounced, also occurred at high-usage sites along trails. Changes in the species response to recreational disturbance/impacts varied depending on the ecology of the species. Bigger, more competitive birds with a generalist diet were overrepresented at high-usage sites along roads and trails. Species using microhabitats in lower vegetation layers were more sensitive. However, structural and floristic complexity of vegetation was a more important factor influencing bird abundance than tourist usage. Sites with a better developed shrub and tree layer sustained higher species abundance and richer communities. Importantly, vegetation qualities moderated the negative effect of high usage on the individual abundance of birds along roads, to the extent that such an effect was absent at sites with the best developed shrub and tree layer. To protect avifauna along recreational tracks in arid-lands gorges, we recommend the closure of some gorges or sections for vehicle or any access. Further, open space particularly for camping needs to be minimized as it creates areas of high tourist usage with modified habitat that provides birds with little buffer from disturbance. PMID:23954389

Wolf, Isabelle D; Hagenloh, Gerald; Croft, David B

2013-11-15

200

The Synergistic Effects of Low Dose Fluorouracil and TRAIL on TRAIL-Resistant Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma AGS Cells  

PubMed Central

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member which has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. However, many cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL. In this study, we had investigated the synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil (5-Fu) and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells and explored the potential mechanisms. Cell viability was analyzed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the synergistic effects were evaluated by Jin's formula and confirmed by both morphological changes under inverted microscope and flow cytometry. The expression of TRAIL-R1 (death receptor 4, DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (decoy receptor, DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2), procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 was detected by western blotting. Our results showed that there were significant synergistic effects of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant AGS cells, and this effect was supposed to be mediated by decreasing DcR2 expression and increasing DR5 expression. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were both activated. The data suggest that combined treatment of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL can be an effective therapeutic approach for gastric adenocarcinoma.

Huang, Min; Ren, Daoling; He, Jianping; Zhao, Fen; Yi, Cheng; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

201

Trailing Shield For Welding On Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing shield ensures layer of inert gas covers hot, newly formed bead between two tubes or pipes joined by plasma arc welding. Inert gas protects weld bead from oxidation by air until cooler and less vulnerable to oxidation. Intended for use on nickel-base alloy pipes, on which weld beads remain hot enough to oxidize after primary inert-gas purge from welding-torch cup has passed.

Coby, John B., Jr.; Gangl, Kenneth J.

1991-01-01

202

Packing closed trails into dense graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown (Combin. Probab. Comput. 10 (2001) 463–499) that if n is odd and m1,…,mt are integers with mi?3 and ?i=1tmi=|E(Kn)| then Kn can be decomposed as an edge-disjoint union of closed trails of lengths m1,…,mt. Here we show that the corresponding result is also true for any sufficiently large and sufficiently dense even graph G.

Paul N. Balister

2003-01-01

203

Cooling of electrons in meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented of inelastic collisions of electrons and air molecules in meteor trails, and the associated diffusion cooling. It is shown that the time of equalization of the electron temperature and the ambient air temperature is significantly less than that obtained in other studies which have taken into account only elastic collisions. In the former case, the equalization time amounts to several tens of milliseconds for the 95-105 km height range.

Levitskii, S. M.; Abdrakhmanov, N.

1981-08-01

204

The anomalous diffusion of meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Radars frequently detect meteor trails created bythe,ablation of micro-meteoroids between70 and120 km altitude in the atmosphere. Plasma simulations show that densitygradientsattheedgesofmeteortrailsdrivegradient- drift instabilities which develop into waves with perturbed electric elds often exceeding hundreds of mV\\/m. These waves create an anomalous,cross-eld diusion that can ex- ceed the cross-eld (? B) ambipolar diusion,by an order of magnitude. The characteristics of

Lars P. Dyrud; Meers M. Oppenheim; Axel F. vom Endt

2001-01-01

205

Differential expression of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in allergic asthmatics following segmental antigen challenge: evidence for a role of TRAIL in eosinophil survival.  

PubMed

Asthma is a chronic lung disease exhibiting airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammation, characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and the underlying tissue. Prolonged eosinophilic inflammation depends on the balance between the cell's inherent tendency to undergo apoptosis and the local eosinophil-viability enhancing activity. TRAIL, a member of the TNF family, induces apoptosis in most transformed cells; however, its role in health and disease remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that Ag-induced inflammation is associated with TRAIL/TRAIL-R interactions, we used a segmental Ag challenge (SAC) model in ragweed-allergic asthmatics and nonasthmatic patients and analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) material for 2 wk. In asthmatic patients, the level of TRAIL in BAL fluid dramatically increased 24 h after SAC, which significantly correlated with BAL eosinophil counts. Immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsies from asthmatic patients demonstrated that TRAIL staining was increased in epithelial, airway smooth muscle, and vascular smooth muscle cells and throughout the interstitial tissue after SAC. This was confirmed by quantitative immunocytochemical image analysis of BAL eosinophils and alveolar macrophages, which demonstrated that expression levels of TRAIL and DcR2 increased, whereas expression levels of the TRAIL-Rs DR4 and DR5 decreased in asthmatic subjects after SAC. We also determined that TRAIL prolongs eosinophil survival ex vivo. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that TRAIL expression is increased in asthmatics following Ag provocation and suggest that modulation of TRAIL and TRAIL-R interactions may play a crucial role in promoting eosinophil survival in asthma. PMID:12421985

Robertson, Noreen M; Zangrilli, James G; Steplewski, Andrzej; Hastie, Annette; Lindemeyer, Rochelle G; Planeta, Maria A; Smith, Mary K; Innocent, Nathalie; Musani, Ali; Pascual, Rodolfo; Peters, Stephen; Litwack, Gerald

2002-11-15

206

Stability of trailing vortices with radial stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the effects of the radial density stratification on the stability of the q-vortex, a commonly accepted model for aircraft trailing vortices. It has been demonstrated that the 2D Lamb--Oseen vortex develops a Rayleigh--Taylor instability when its core is heavier than the surrounding fluid (Joly, Fontane & Chassaing 2005, Sipp et al 2005). The underlying mechanism relies on baroclinic vorticity generation due to any misalignment between the density gradient and the centripetal acceleration field. The instability is triggered provided that the density decreases radially somewhere in the vortex core. This mechanism is also active in the 3D trailing vortex and affects its stability characteristics due to the addition of an axial component in the acceleration field. We show that the unstable center modes of the homogeneous case (Fabre & Jacquin 2004) are promoted in a q-vortex with a heavy core. Their growth rate increases while their m-spiral structure is preserved. For an Atwood number At=0.5, their predicted growth rate can be ten times the ones found in the homogeneous case. Furthermore, the unstable domain is extended far beyond the neutral curve in the homogeneous case, with unstable modes observed for Swirl numbers up to q=5. It is argued here that corresponding density perturbations could eventually lead to the development of new and original strategies to decrease the lifespan of aircraft trailing vortices and greatly reduce their unwanted side-effects on contrails persistence and air traffic regulations.

Fontane, Jerome; Joly, Laurent; Audouin, Auriane

2011-11-01

207

Investigations of transonic trailing edge flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of several of the trailing edge and wake turbulence properties for a NACA 64A010 airfoil section was completed. The experiments were conducted at the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory in the 6 inch x 22 inch transonic wind tunnel facility. The data were obtained at a free stream Mach number of 0.80 and a flow Reynolds number (based on chord length) of 5 million. The principal diagnostic tool was a dual-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The experimental data included surface static pressures, chordwise and vertical mean velocities, RMS turbulence intensities, local flow angles, and a determination of turbulence kinetic energy in the wake at chordwise locations between the transonic shock wave and the trailing edge, in the near wake just downstream of the trailing edge and in the far wake. At the two angles of attack tested (0 and 2 degrees), the turbulence intensities and turbulence kinetic energy were observed to decay in the streamwise direction. In the far wake, for the non-lifting case, the turbulence intensities were nearly isotropic. For the two degree case, the horizontal component of the turbulence intensity was observed to be substantially higher than the vertical component.

Petrie, S. L.; Emmer, D. S.

1986-01-01

208

The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

2004-01-01

209

Preclinical studies for pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Ad-stTRAIL, an adenovirus delivering secretable trimeric TRAIL for gene therapy  

PubMed Central

Malignant glioma is the most frequent type in brain tumors. The prognosis of this tumor has not been significantly improved for the past decades and the average survival of patients is less than one year. Thus, an effective novel therapy is urgently needed. TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), known to have tumor cell-specific killing activity, has been investigated as a novel therapeutic for cancers. We have developed Ad-stTRAIL, an adenovirus delivering secretable trimeric TRAIL for gene therapy and demonstrated the potential to treat malignant gliomas. Currently, this Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy is under phase I clinical trial for malignant gliomas. Here, we report preclinical studies for Ad-stTRAIL carried out using rats. We delivered Ad-stTRAIL intracranially and determined its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Most Ad-stTRAIL remained in the delivered site and the relatively low number of viral genomes was detected in the opposite site of brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Similarly, only small portion of the viral particles injected was found in the blood plasma and major organs and tissues, probably due to the brain-blood barrier. Multiple administrations did not lead to accumulation of Ad-stTRAIL at the injection site and organs. Repeated delivery of Ad-stTRAIL did not show any serious side effects. Our data indicate that intracranially delivered Ad-stTRAIL is a safe approach, demonstrating the potential as a novel therapy for treating gliomas.

Kim, Chae-Young; Park, Soon-Hye; Jeong, Moonsup; Kwon, O-Seo; Doh, Hyounmie; Kang, Su-Hyung; Robbins, Paul D.; Kim, Byong-Moon

2011-01-01

210

Suppression of Trailing-Edge Noise Using a Plasma Actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suppression control of noise generation from an airfoil trailing edge is examined experimentally by using a plasma actuator for a NACA0012 airfoil at an angle of attack of -2°, at a chord Reynolds number Re = 1.54 × 105. The boundary layer on the suction surface undergoes transition to turbulence at a location upstream of the trailing edge at the present flow condition and the generation of tonal trailing-edge noise is governed by vortex roll-up of boundary layer on the pressure surface in the vicinity of the trailing-edge which produces a strong acoustic (dipole) source by diffraction of vortex-induced fluctuations at the trailing-edge. When the plasma actuator is operated at an appropriate location on the pressure-side boundary layer, the trailing-edge noise is completely suppressed through delaying the development of the boundary-layer instability wave by the blowing effect of plasma actuator.

Inasawa, A.; Asai, M.; Itoh, K.; Kamijo, T.

2011-09-01

211

Aerodynamics of flapping wings with fluttering trailing edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous work on the aerodynamics of passive flexible flapping wings showed that there is a strong relationship between the dynamics of trailing edge and the size of the leading edge vortex, therefore aerodynamic forces. Here we investigated the aerodynamic effects of active trailing edges. The experiments were conducted on a model flapping wing in an oil tank. During static tests, the trailing edge bending angle was held constant from the angle of attack of the upper portion of the rigid wing. For dynamic cases, the trailing edge was controlled to flutter with a prescribed frequency and amplitude. Force measurements and PIV results show that trailing edge flexion/camber strongly correlates with the leading edge vortex and the aerodynamic forces. In addition, large instantaneous force variations are observed in the dynamic fluttering cases, suggesting that trailing edge can be used for force modulation in MAVs.

Zhao, Liang; Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

212

Meteor plasma trails: effects of external electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteoroids traversing the E-region ionosphere leave behind extended columns of elevated ionization known as the meteor plasma trails. To accurately interpret radar signals from trails and use them for diagnostics, one needs to model plasma processes associated with their structure and evolution. This paper describes a 3-D quantitative theory of the electrostatic interaction between a dense plasma trail, the ionosphere, and a DC electric field driven by an external dynamo. A simplified water-bag model of the meteor plasma shows that the highly conducting trail efficiently short-circuits the ionosphere and creates a vast region of currents that flow through and around the trail. We predict that the trail can induce electric fields reaching a few V/m, both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field. The former may drive plasma instabilities, while the latter may lead to strong heating of ionospheric electrons. We discuss physical and observational implications of these processes.

Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Milikh, G. M.

2009-01-01

213

Capabilities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's environmental emergency-response vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A 4-wheel drive van has been outfitted for rapid and varied monitoring response to radiological emergencies. The vehicle's capabilities include 4-wheel drive plus auxiliary winch for access to rugged off-road terrain. On-board equipment is powered by a 6.5 kilowatt ac generator or by external ac power where available. Monitoring systems include two multichannel analyzers; one, a 2 K portable analyzer with intrinsic germanium detector, the second, a microprocessor based 4 K analyzer with a swivel head intrinsic germanium detector. Rapid gamma searches are performed with a delta rate meter system using a chart recorder and two 4'' x 4'' x 16'' NaI detectors. Other equipment includes portable high volume air samplers and a portable phoswich, as well as the usual portable radiation survey instruments. The construction is modular so that equipment racks, detectors, AC generator and other major structures can be removed or replaced in a matter of minutes.

Van Etten, D.; Talley, D.; Buhl, T.; Hansen, W.

1982-01-01

214

VisTrails: Enabling Interactive Multiple-View Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

VisTrails is a new system that enables interactive multiple-view vi- sualizations by simplifying the creation and maintenance of visu- alization pipelines, and by optimizing their execution. It provides a general infrastructure that can be combined with existing visu- alization systems and libraries. A key component of VisTrails is the visualization trail (vistrail), a formal specification of a pipeline. Unlike existing

Louis Bavoil; Steven P. Callahan; Carlos Eduardo Scheidegger; Huy T. Vo; Patricia Crossno; Cláudio T. Silva; Juliana Freire

2005-01-01

215

Chemical trail systems, orientation, and territorial interactions in the ant Lasius neoniger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging and territoriality in the ant Lasius neonigerinvolves a series of trails which channel foragers away from adjacent colonies. Experimental studies suggest that the trails are composed of colony-specific, persistent orientation components of hindgut material that accumulate on trails during foraging. A less durable component of the hindgut trail pheromone regulates recruitment. Foraging directionality and the use of a trail

James F. A. Traniello

1989-01-01

216

Free fatty acids sensitise hepatocytes to TRAIL mediated cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFA) contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis and promote hepatocyte apoptosis by incompletely defined mechanisms. Although the death ligand TRAIL has been implicated in a variety of pathological liver diseases, the role of TRAIL in mediating apoptosis of FFA induced steatotic hepatocytes is unknown. Aim We examined TRAIL cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of hepatocyte steatosis induced by FFA. Methods Hepatocytes (Huh 7 cells, HepG2 cells, and primary rat hepatocytes) were rendered steatotic by incubation with oleic acid. Apoptosis was assessed morphologically and biochemically by caspase activity. TRAIL receptor regulation was examined using immunoblot analysis and siRNA for targeted knockdown. c?jun N?terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition was attained with SP600125. Results Oleic acid sensitised the cells to TRAIL but not TNF?? cytotoxicity. FFA sensitisation to TRAIL occurred at much lower concentrations than required for FFA mediated sensitisation to Fas, or FFA induced lipoapoptosis. Oleic acid treatment led to upregulation of the cognate TRAIL receptor death receptor 5 (DR5) but not death receptor 4 (DR4). The upregulation of DR5 was JNK dependent. siRNA targeted knockdown of either DR5 or DR4 demonstrated that DR5 was responsible for FFA sensitisation to TRAIL killing. DR5 expression was enhanced in steatotic human liver samples. Conclusion Our results suggest that FFA induced hepatocyte steatosis sensitises to TRAIL by a DR5 mediated JNK dependent mechanism.

Malhi, Harmeet; Barreyro, Fernando J; Isomoto, Hajime; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J

2007-01-01

217

Proteasome Inhibitors-Mediated TRAIL Resensitization and Bik Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Proteasome inhibitors can resensitize cells that are resistant to tumors necrosis factor-related apoptotic-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of this effect are unclear. To characterize the mechanisms of interaction between proteasome inhibitors and TRAIL protein, we evaluated the effects of combined treatment with the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and MG132 and TRAIL protein on two TRAIL-resistant human colon cancer cell lines, DLD1-TRAIL/R and LOVO-TRAIL/R. Both bortezomib and MG132 in combination with TRAIL enhanced apoptotosis induction in these cells, as evidenced by enhanced cleavage of caspases 8, 9, and 3, Bid, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and by the release of cytochrome C and Smac. Subsequent studies showed that combined treatment with bortezomib or MG132 resulted in an increase of death receptor (DR) 5 and Bik at protein levels but had no effects on protein levels of DR4, Bax, Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Flice-inhibitory protein (FLIP). Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated by these proteasome inhibitors. Blocking JNK activation with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated DR5 increase, but enhancement of apoptosis induction and increase of Bik protein were not affected. However, bortezomib-mediated TRAIL sensitization was partially blocked by using siRNA to knockdown Bik. Thus, our data suggests that accumulation of Bik may be critical for proteasome inhibitor-mediated re-sensitization of TRAIL.

Zhu, Hongbo; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Lidong; Wu, Shuhong; Teraishi, Fuminori; Davis, John J.; Dong, Fengqin; Fang, Bingliang

2005-01-01

218

Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.

Iversen, J. D.

1974-01-01

219

Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a membrane-bound ligand from the TNF family, has attracted significant attention due to its rather specific and effective ability to induce apoptotic death in various types of cancer cells via binding to and activating its pro-apoptotic death receptors. However, a significant number of primary cancer cells often develop resistance to TRAIL treatment, and the signalling platform behind this phenomenon is not fully understood. Upon blocking endosomal acidification by the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or concanamycin A, we observed a significantly reduced initial sensitivity of several, mainly colorectal, tumour cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In cells pretreated with these inhibitors, the TRAIL-induced processing of caspase-8 and the aggregation and trafficking of the TRAIL receptor complexes were temporarily attenuated. Nuclear factor ?B or mitogen activated protein/stress kinase signalling from the activated TRAIL receptors remained unchanged, and neither possible lysosomal permeabilization nor acid sphingomyelinase was involved in this process. The cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors and their TRAIL-induced internalization were not affected by V-ATPase inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of BafA1, however, was blunted by knockdown of the caspase-8 inhibitor cFLIP. Altogether, the data obtained provide the first evidence that endosomal acidification could represent an important regulatory node in the proximal part of TRAIL-induced pro-apoptotic signalling. PMID:23678861

Horova, Vladimira; Hradilova, Nada; Jelinkova, Iva; Koc, Michal; Svadlenka, Jan; Brazina, Jan; Klima, Martin; Slavik, Josef; Hyrslova Vaculova, Alena; Andera, Ladislav

2013-07-01

220

2-Deoxy-D-glucose enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells through XBP-1-mediated up-regulation of TRAIL-R2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that sensitivity of melanoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is largely correlated with the expression levels of TRAIL death receptors on the cell surface. However, fresh melanoma isolates and melanoma tissue sections express generally low levels of death receptors for TRAIL. The clinical potential of TRAIL in the treatment of melanoma may therefore be limited unless

Hao Liu; Chen Chen Jiang; Christopher J Lavis; Amanda Croft; Li Dong; Hsin-Yi Tseng; Fan Yang; Kwang Hong Tay; Peter Hersey; Xu Dong Zhang

2009-01-01

221

Targeted ovarian cancer treatment: the TRAILs of resistance  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Although most patients respond to the initial therapy when presenting with advanced disease, only 10-15% maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. Recurrence defines incurable disease in most cases. Despite improvements with conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate remained mostly stable over the years. Increased long-term survival in OC patients will only be achieved through a comprehensive understanding of the basic mechanisms of tumor cell resistance. Such knowledge will translate into the development of new targeted strategies. In addition, because OC is considered to be a heterogeneous group of diseases with distinct gene expression profiles, it is likely that different approaches to treatment for distinct sub-types will be required to optimize response. One of the new promising anti-cancer therapies is the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL has the ability to selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells with little toxicity to normal cells. Death receptor ligands such as TRAIL rely on the activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway to destroy tumor cells. TRAIL induces the formation of a pro-apoptotic death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) via its death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL R1) and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL R2). The formation of the DISC activates caspase-8 which requires further signal amplification through the mitochondrial pathway for an efficient activation of effector caspases in OC cells. The initial enthusiasm for TRAIL has been hampered by accumulating data demonstrating TRAIL resistance in various tumor types including OC cells. There is, therefore, a need to identify markers of TRAIL resistance, which could represent new hits for targeted therapy that will enhance TRAIL efficacy. In addition, the identification of patients that are more likely to respond to TRAIL therapy would be highly desirable. In this review, we discuss the different molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to TRAIL resistance in OC. In particular, we address the mechanisms involved in intrinsic, acquired and environment-mediated TRAIL resistance, and their potential implication in the clinical outcome.

Khaider, Nadzeya Goncharenko; Lane, Denis; Matte, Isabelle; Rancourt, Claudine; Piche, Alain

2012-01-01

222

43 CFR 8341.2 - Special rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 Section 8341.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) ...RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Conditions...close portions of the public lands to use by off-road vehicles, except...

2013-10-01

223

43 CFR 8342.2 - Designation procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued...RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation...procedures. (a) Public participation...designation of off-road vehicle use areas. Public notice of...

2013-10-01

224

Wake evolution and trailing vortex instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production losses and inhomogeneous loads of wind power turbines placed in the wake of another turbine is a well-known problem when building new wind power farms, and a subject of intensive research. The present work aims at developing an increased understanding of the behaviour of turbine wakes, with special regard to wake evolution and the stability of the trailing vortices. Single point velocity measurements with hot-wire anemometry were performed in the wake of a small-scale model turbine. The model was placed in the middle of the wind tunnel test section, outside the boundary layers from the wind tunnel walls. In order to study the stability of the wake and the trailing vortices, a disturbance was introduced at the end of the nacelle. This was accomplished through two orifices perpendicular to the main flow, which were connected to a high-pressure tank and two fast-switching valves. Both varicose and sinusoidal modes of different frequencies could be triggered. By also triggering the measurements on the blade passage, the meandering of the wake and the disturbance frequency, phase averaged results could be computed. The results for different frequencies as well as studies of wake evolution will be presented.

Odemark, Ylva; Fransson, Jens H. M.

2011-11-01

225

Experimental analyses of trailing edge flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of several of the trailing edge and wake turbulence properties for a NACA 64A010 airfoil section was completed. The experiment was conducted at the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory in the 6 inch X 22 inch transonic wind tunnel facility. The data were obtained at a free stream Mach number of 0.80 and a flow Reynolds number (based on chord length) of 5 million. The principle diagnostic tool was a dual-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The experimental data included surface static pressures, chordwise and vertical mean velocities, RMS turbulence intensities, local flow angles, and a determination of turbulence kinetic energy in the wake. Two angles of attack (0 and 2 degrees) were investigated. At these incidence angles, four flow field surveys were obtained ranging in position from the surface of the airfoil, between the transonic shock and the trailing edge, to the far-wake. At both angles of attack, the turbulence intensities and turbulence kinetic energy were observed to decay in the streamwise direction. In the far wake, for the non-lifting case, the turbulence intensities were nearly isotropic. For the two degree case, the horizontal component of the turbulence intensity was observed to be substantially higher than the vertical component.

Petrie, S. L.; Emmer, D. S.

1984-01-01

226

The molecular mechanism of different sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of various cancer cells,\\u000a some caner cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying TRAIL-resistance,\\u000a two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (resistant to TRAIL) and MDA-MB-231 (sensitive to TRAIL), were used as a model system\\u000a to analyze the different sensitivities to TRAIL cytotoxicity.

Jindan Zhang; Yanxin Liu; Shilian Liu; Dexian Zheng

2004-01-01

227

Overcoming Acquired Resistance to TRAIL by Chemotherapeutic Agents and Calpain Inhibitor I through Distinct Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently found that repeated application of adenovectors expressing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or recombinant TRAIL proteins to TRAIL-susceptible cancer cells resulted in selection and expansion of TRAIL-resistant cells. Overcoming this acquired resistance to TRAIL is desirable for TRAIL-mediated cancer therapy. Here we demonstrate that several chemotherapeutic agents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin, and calpain inhibitor I,

Hongbo Zhu; Lidong Zhang; Xuefeng Huang; John J. Davis; Dietmar A. Jacob; Fuminori Teraishi; Paul Chiao; Bingliang Fang

2004-01-01

228

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recombinant gene was constructed, encoding the soluble form of the human Flt3L gene (hFlex) at the 5' end and the human TRAIL gene at the 3' end. This plasmid (phFlex/TRAIL) was administrated by the hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. As a result, tumor g...

J. J. Song

2004-01-01

229

Atmospheric motion investigation for vapor trails and radio meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics are investigated of the lower thermosphere through comparison of optical observations of motions of ejected vapor trails with radar observations of motions of ionized meteor trails. In particular, the winds obtained from a series of vapor trail observations which occurred at Wallops Island, Virginia during the night of 14-15 December 1970 are to be compared with wind data deduced from radar observations of meteor trails during the same period. The comparison of these data is considered important for two reasons. First, the most widely used methods of measuring winds in the lower thermosphere are the vapor trails and the radar meteors. However, the two techniques differ markedly and the resultant sets of data have been analyzed and presented in different formats. Secondly, and possibly of greater immediate concern is the fact that the radar meteor method appears to be an appropriate approach to the synoptic measurement of winds. During the night of 14-15 December 1970, five vapor trails were ejected from Nike Apache rockets over Wallops Island, Virginia from 2208 EST through 0627 EST. The wind data which were obtained from these trails are presented, and features of the wind profiles which relate to the radar meteor trails results are discussed.

Bedinger, J.

1973-01-01

230

Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of...

B. Henderson K. Kinzie H. Haskin

2004-01-01

231

View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about 1,000 feet from top, facing north. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

232

LOST: localization-space trails for robot teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe localization-space trails (LOST), a method that enables a team of robots to navigate between places of interest in an initially unknown environment using a trail of landmarks. The landmarks are not physical; they are waypoint coordinates generated online by each robot and shared with teammates. Waypoints are specified in each robot's local coordi- nate system, and contain references

Richard T. Vaughan; K. Stoy; Gaurav S. Sukhatme; Maja J. Mataric

2002-01-01

233

Hydrodynamic trails produced by Daphnia: size and energetics.  

PubMed

This study focuses on quantifying hydrodynamic trails produced by freely swimming zooplankton. We combined volumetric tracking of swimming trajectories with planar observations of the flow field induced by Daphnia of different size and swimming in different patterns. Spatial extension of the planar flow field along the trajectories was used to interrogate the dimensions (length and volume) and energetics (dissipation rate of kinetic energy and total dissipated power) of the trails. Our findings demonstrate that neither swimming pattern nor size of the organisms affect the trail width or the dissipation rate. However, we found that the trail volume increases with increasing organism size and swimming velocity, more precisely the trail volume is proportional to the third power of Reynolds number. This increase furthermore results in significantly enhanced total dissipated power at higher Reynolds number. The biggest trail volume observed corresponds to about 500 times the body volume of the largest daphnids. Trail-averaged viscous dissipation rate of the swimming daphnids vary in the range of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and the observed magnitudes of total dissipated power between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Among other zooplankton species, daphnids display the highest total dissipated power in their trails. These findings are discussed in the context of fluid mixing and transport by organisms swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers. PMID:24671019

Wickramarathna, Lalith N; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

2014-01-01

234

Trail Crews: Developing a Service Component to Your Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through wilderness stewardship programs, service projects, or trail crews, college outdoor programs can help land management agencies with their maintenance needs and provide student participants with rewarding service learning opportunities. Trail crews are usually composed of volunteer outdoor enthusiasts who take part in a multitude of…

Boehringer, Brad; Merrill, Kurt

235

Viewshed characteristics of urban pedestrian trails, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.The map accompanying this brief report depicts spatial variation in viewshed characteristics of urban pedestrian trails in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Visual openness and visual magnitude were modeled for approximately 50 kilometers of the Indianapolis Greenway Trail System using geographic information system and light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

Jeffrey Wilson; Greg Lindsey; Gilbert Liu

2008-01-01

236

Overcoming Resistance of Prostate Cancer to TRAIL - Mediated Apoptosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose-TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a protein that induces apoptotic cell death by activating a cascade of cell death caspases. TRAIL is a potential candidate for treatment of prostate cancer. However, it is clear that the majority of...

A. S. Kraft

2005-01-01

237

Plasma wave excitation on meteor trails in the equatorial electrojet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual properties of meteor echoes recently observed at Jicamarca (Chapin and Kudeki, 1994) are attributed to the growth and propagation of plasma irregularities along meteor trails deposited within the equatorial electrojet. It is suggested that trails at electrojet heights must carry intense discharge currents that excite two-stream and\\/or gradient drift instabilities for irregularity growth. The direction of electron motion

Elaine Chapin; Erhan Kudeki

1994-01-01

238

State Secret: North Carolina and the Cherokee Trail of Tears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an analytic essay that examines the treatment of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in a North Carolina fourth grade textbook. I begin by offering a satiric look at an imaginary textbook's treatment of the Holocaust that is based closely on the actual narrative of the Trail of Tears written in the fourth grade text. Following this, close…

Bryant, James

2008-01-01

239

30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a suitable manner to...

2013-07-01

240

Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

1997-04-01

241

Trailing edge noise data with comparison to theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise emission generated by the passage of a turbulent airstream over the trailing edge of a semiinfinite plate was measured over a large range of airstream velocity and plate geometry. The experiment was designed to validate trailing-edge noise theories. The results show that the peak of a radiation pattern moves from an upstream to a downstream direction as the velocity increases. The measured radiation pattern of the noise was in agreement with that predicted by a recent fundamental theory for leading- and trailing-edge noise. Although large changes in the character of the turbulent flow near the trailing edge effect the level and spectra of trailing-edge noise, the shape of the pattern is still accurately predicted by this theory.

Olsen, W.; Boldman, D.

1979-01-01

242

Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails  

PubMed Central

Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

2013-01-01

243

Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles  

DOEpatents

A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

Thatcher, Jonathan Carl (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2001-01-01

244

AXL Mediates TRAIL Resistance in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma12  

PubMed Central

The overexpression of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is a frequent finding that has been associated with poor prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As the majority of EAC are intrinsically resistant to DNA-damaging therapies, an alternative therapeutic approach based on the activation of death receptors may be warranted. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been evaluated in clinical trials and found promising as anticancer agent with mild side effects; unfortunately, resistance to TRAIL remains a major clinical problem. Herein, we explored the role of AXL in TRAIL resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Overexpression of AXL in OE33 and OE19 cells promoted cell survival and attenuated TRAIL-induced cellular and molecular markers of apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous AXL sensitized FLO-1 cells to TRAIL. The mechanism by which AXL regulates TRAIL resistance was examined. Protein and mRNA expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors was not downregulated by AXL. In addition, the possible involvement of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) in regulating the interaction of caspase-8 with Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) was excluded, as AXL did not enhance FLIP expression or FLIP/FADD association. Alternatively, protein association of AXL with DR5, independent of TRAIL, was confirmed, suggesting that AXL could regulate DR5 receptor activity. The AXL/DR5 association had no negative effect on TRAIL-induced interaction with FADD. However, the AXL/DR5 interaction blocked the recruitment of caspase-8 to the death-inducing signal complex (DISC). Collectively, our findings uncover a novel mechanism of TRAIL resistance mediated by AXL through regulation of the DISC and provide strong evidence that AXL could be exploited as a therapeutic target to circumvent TRAIL resistance.

Hong, Jun; Belkhiri, Abbes

2013-01-01

245

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

246

The flavonolignan silibinin potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma and in derived TRAIL-resistant metastatic cells.  

PubMed

Silibinin, a flavonolignan, is the major active component of the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) and has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic properties. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer agent which selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is an important and frequent problem in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of silibinin and TRAIL in an in vitro model of human colon cancer progression, consisting of primary colon tumor cells (SW480) and their derived TRAIL-resistant metastatic cells (SW620). We showed by flow cytometry that silibinin and TRAIL synergistically induced cell death in the two cell lines. Up-regulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 by silibinin was shown by RT-PCR and by flow cytometry. Human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein that has a dominant-negative effect by competing with the endogenous receptors abrogated cell death induced by silibinin and TRAIL, demonstrating the activation of the death receptor pathway. Synergistic activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 by silibinin and TRAIL was shown by colorimetric assays. When caspase inhibitors were used, cell death was blocked. Furthermore, silibinin and TRAIL potentiated activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and XIAP. The involvement of XIAP in sensitization of the two cell lines to TRAIL was demonstrated using the XIAP inhibitor embelin. These findings demonstrate the synergistic action of silibinin and TRAIL, suggesting chemopreventive and therapeutic potential which should be further explored. PMID:22555452

Kauntz, Henriette; Bousserouel, Souad; Gossé, Francine; Raul, Francis

2012-08-01

247

The breakup of trailing-line vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now known that Batchelor's trailing-line vortex is extremely unstable to small amplitude disturbances for swirl numbers in the neighborhood of 0.83. The results of numerical calculations are presented that show the response of the vortex in this range of swirl numbers to finite amplitude, temporal, helical disturbances. Phenomena observed include: (1) ejection of axial vorticity and momentum from the core resulting in the creation of secondary, separate vortices; (2) a great intensification of core axial vorticity and a weakening of core momentum; and (3) the production of azimuthal vorticity in the form of a tightly wrapped spiral wave. The second phenomenon eventually stablizes the vortex, which then smooths and gradually returns to an axisymmetric state. The calculations are mixed spectral-finite-difference, fourth-order accurate, and have been carried out at Reynolds numbers of 1000 to 2000. Some linearized results are also discussed in an attempt to explain the process of vortex intensification.

Jacqmin, David

1989-01-01

248

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

249

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes  

SciTech Connect

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

250

TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter  

SciTech Connect

An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

Yu, W S; Powell, J R; Usher, J L

1980-01-01

251

KPG 390: A pair of trailing spirals.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present scanning Fabry-Perot H? observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. These kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine univocally that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals. We have also estimated the mass of NGC 5278 fitting its rotation curve with a disk-halo component. We have tested three different types of halo (pseudo-isothermal, Hernquist and Navarro Frenk White) and we have obtained that the rotation curve can be fitted either with a pseudo-isothermal, an Hernquist halo or a Navarro Frenk White halo component, although in the first case the amount of dark matter required is about ten times smaller than for the other two halo distributions.

Repetto, P.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.

2011-08-01

252

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

253

43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public lands unless equipped with...condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with...officer may indicate those public lands upon which no off-road vehicle may be...

2013-10-01

254

43 CFR 8341.1 - Regulations governing use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...person may operate an off-road vehicle on public lands without a valid State...person shall operate an off-road vehicle on public lands: (1) In a reckless...person who operates an off-road vehicle on public lands must comply with...

2013-10-01

255

Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power requirements; small lift oscillations when deployed in a time-dependent manner; and significant flexibility with respect to the specific devices selected.

Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert

2008-01-01

256

Xerox trails: a new web-based publishing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xerox Trails is a new digital publishing model developed at the Xerox Research Center, Webster. The primary purpose of the technology is to allow Web users and publishers to collect, organize and present information in the form of a useful annotated narrative (possibly non-sequential) with editorial content and metadata, that can be consumed both online and offline. The core concept is a trail: a digital object that improves online content production, consumption and navigation user experiences. When appropriate, trails can also be easily sequenced and transformed into printable documents, thereby bridging the gap between online and offline content experiences. The model is partly inspired by Vannevar Bush's influential idea of the "Memex" [1] which has inspired several generations of Web technology [2]. Xerox Trails is a realization of selected elements from the idea of the Memex, along with several original design ideas. It is based on a primitive data construct, the trail. In Xerox Trails, the idea of a trail is used to support the architecture of a Web 2.0 product suite called Trailmeme, that includes a destination Web site, plugins for major content management systems, and a browser toolbar.

Rao, Venkatesh G.; Vandervort, David; Silverstein, Jesse

2010-02-01

257

Photometry of 1998/1999 Persistent Trails from Leonid Meteors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface brightness and line emission rates are derived for two persistent trails from the 1998 and 1999 Leonid meteor showers. The trails are optically thin, and in places appear as cylinders with a very dark center. This center is roughly as wide as the bright emission walls, but is as dark as the sky background. This situation is not in agreement with the simple hollow-cylinder model of shell burning. The data was acquired at the Starfire Optical Range on Kirtland AFB. The instruments were guided by a human observer onto the lingering trails of the meteors. A 5 degree wide Xybion camera, attached to the headring of the telescope, recorded the scene. The University of Illinois' sodium lidar determined the distance to the persistent trails. A 200-W copper vapor laser (CVL) was also used in an attempt to measure back-scatter from particulates in the contrails of the Leonids. Almost all of the meteors that produced lingering trails greatly enhanced the naturally occurring sodium layer at 100 km. The lingering trails generally appeared as evanescent smoke rings that evolved rather quickly, with the path of the meteor marked by a double walled, optically thin tube. A 15-minute highlight video will be presented showing the evolution of the lingering trails as well as the lidar and the CVL probing them.

Milster, S. P.; Grime, B.; Drummond, J.; Fugate, R.; Kane, T. J.; Liu, A.; Papen, C. S.; Kelly, M. C.; Kruschwitz, C.

2000-05-01

258

Maternal Plasma Soluble TRAIL is Decreased in Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by systemic intravascular inflammation. Women who develop PE are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has anti-atherosclerotic effects in endothelial cells and can mediate neutrophil apoptosis. Low soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) and high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in non-pregnant individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP differ between women with PE and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=93) and those with PE (n=52). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower and the median plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (25.55 vs. 29.17; p = 0.03 and 8.0 vs. 4.1; p=0.001, respectively); 2) the median plasma concentration sTRAIL/CRP ratio was twofold lower in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (p<0.001); and 3) women with plasma sTRAIL and CRP ratio in the lowest quartile were eight times more likely to have PE than women with concentrations in the upper three quartiles (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 2.8–27.8). Conclusion Maternal plasma sTRAIL concentrations are lower (while those of CRP are higher) in women with PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies. These findings are consistent with the evidence of intravascular inflammation in this disorder.

Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Stampalija, Tamara; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

259

An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Tarr, N. M.; Simons, T. R.; Pollock, K. H.

2010-01-01

260

Chemical cues used by prairie rattlesnakes ( Crotalus viridis ) to follow trails of rodent prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of 10 prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) was exposed to three types of trails after striking rodent prey (Mus musculus). One trail was made with mouse urine, another was made with tap water, and the third consisted of materials from mouse integument. The snakes exhibited trailing behavior only when integumentary trails were available. It was concluded that prairie rattlesnakes do

David Chiszar; Ted Melcer; Robert Lee; Charles W. Radcliffe; David Duvall

1990-01-01

261

Caste-specificity of pheromone trails in the termite Macrotermes bellicosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The existence of caste-specific pheromone trails in the two worker castes of Macrotermes bellicosus, as assumed from earlier work, was investigated in the laboratory by means of a previously developed parallel trail testing device. Foraging trails, i.e. trails leading to a food source, established by only minor workers were more attractive to both minor and major workers than foraging

S. Gessner; R. H. Leuthold

2001-01-01

262

Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitment–yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not to DR5, through the DHHC and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Expression level of GODZ affects apoptosis of tumor cells triggered by TRAIL, but not that induced by TNF-?/cycloheximide (CHX) or DNA-damaging drugs. In parallel, GODZ functions to localize DR4 to the plasma membrane (PM) via DHHC motif. Also, introduction of mutation into the cysteine-rich motif of DR4 results in its mistargeting and attenuates TRAIL- or GODZ-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, GODZ expression is highly downregulated in Hep-3B tumor cells, which show resistance to TRAIL. However, reconstitution of GODZ expression enhances the targeting of DR4 to cell surface and sensitizes Hep-3B cells to TRAIL. Taken together, these data establish that GODZ is a novel DR4-selective regulator responsible for targeting of DR4 to the PM, and thereby for TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Oh, Y; Jeon, Y-J; Hong, G-S; Kim, I; Woo, H-N; Jung, Y-K

2012-01-01

263

Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

2011-01-01

264

The effect of a trailing shield for perpendicular write heads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a magnetic trailing shield located in close proximity of the pole tip for a perpendicular write head has been studied in a perpendicular recording system. For a 150 nm wide write pole, the write field gradient is improved yielding a 40% decrease in jitter and 2.2 dB increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). As the pole width is narrowed further, modeling and experiments show that the trailing shield leads to a tradeoff between maintaining a high write field (writeability) and achieving an optimal write field gradient (jitter). For a 70 nm writer, the addition of a trailing shield results only in a small 0.5 dB SNR gain despite a 25% decrease in jitter as a result of the concomitant loss in writeability. The latter results in an increased dc noise and becomes more significant with trailing shield throat thickness.

van der Heijden, P.; Bonhôte, C.; Carey, K.; Le, Q.; Li, J.; MacDonald, S.; Nguyen, H.; Nix, L.; Robertson, N.; Smith, N.; Tsang, C.; Williams, M.

2006-04-01

265

36 CFR 7.100 - Appalachian National Scenic Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blanchard-Shirley Road. (4) Massachusetts Turnpike to Lower Goose Pond CrossingâThat part of the Massachusetts Interconnecting...Appalachian Trail Bridge to the northeastern shore of Lower Goose Pond. (5) Temporary crossings of National Park...

2013-07-01

266

125. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of carriage trail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of carriage trail and flat top mountain from cone cemetery. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

267

Road to Victory: Building the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a secondary school lesson on the building of the Ho Chi Minh Trail during the Vietnam War. Helps students link history and geographical skills through cooperative group learning. Includes maps, diagrams, and three student readings. (CFR)

Kenney, Marianne

1993-01-01

268

30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b) Effectively insulated and sealed so as to exclude moisture; and, (c) Vulcanized or...

2009-07-01

269

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the Yankee Horse Railroad bed. Facing south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

270

GeneTrail--advanced gene set enrichment analysis  

PubMed Central

We present a comprehensive and efficient gene set analysis tool, called ‘GeneTrail’ that offers a rich functionality and is easy to use. Our web-based application facilitates the statistical evaluation of high-throughput genomic or proteomic data sets with respect to enrichment of functional categories. GeneTrail covers a wide variety of biological categories and pathways, among others KEGG, TRANSPATH, TRANSFAC, and GO. Our web server provides two common statistical approaches, ‘Over-Representation Analysis’ (ORA) comparing a reference set of genes to a test set, and ‘Gene Set Enrichment Analysis’ (GSEA) scoring sorted lists of genes. Besides other newly developed features, GeneTrail's statistics module includes a novel dynamic-programming algorithm that improves the P-value computation of GSEA methods considerably. GeneTrail is freely accessible at http://genetrail.bioinf.uni-sb.de

Backes, Christina; Keller, Andreas; Kuentzer, Jan; Kneissl, Benny; Comtesse, Nicole; Elnakady, Yasser A.; Muller, Rolf; Meese, Eckart; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

2007-01-01

271

Application of the Laser Velocimeter for Trailing Vortex Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a three-year analytical and experimental program to develop a dual-scatter laser velocimeter system to map the flow fields of trailing vortices stemming from the wingtips of flying aircraft. The basic design parameters ascertaining ...

A. E. Lennert F. L. Crosswy H. T. Kalb

1974-01-01

272

Cell Cycle Dependence of TRAIL Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341 Velcade) synergizes with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) acts via a p21- dependent mechanism to induce high levels of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our further investigation...

D. J. McConkey

2006-01-01

273

9. Clingman's dome trail head and comfort station looking NNE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Clingman's dome trail head and comfort station looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

274

5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

275

36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-07-01

276

Trailing Edge Blowing and Aerodynamic Losses in Cooled Turbine Vanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern gas turbine development is driven by the often-incompatible goals of increased efficiency, higher durability, and reduced emissions. With high turbine inlet temperatures and ineffective cooling at the trailing edge of a first-stage stator vane, observations of this region during engine tests frequently reveal burn marks, cracks, and buckling. To aid designers of turbine vane cooling schemes, the ability to model and predict the aerodynamic and heat transfer performance is required. This program is a combined numerical and experimental study of the cooled trailing edge region. Predictions and measurements of aerodynamic losses are presented for a "covered" trailing edge configuration. Aerodynamic losses are minimized for optimum coolant ejection mass flow rates expressed as a fraction of the main air flow. The trailing edge wake structure, with its velocity measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), reveals reduced shear layer interaction in the wake at optimal cooling. These results qualitatively agree with the numerically-predicted flow field.

Brundage, Aaron L.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Lawless, Patrick B.

2003-11-01

277

The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

1993-01-01

278

30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or...

2013-07-01

279

30 CFR 56.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall...

2013-07-01

280

On the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs  

MedlinePLUS

... the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page ... sewage, animal waste and naturally occurring plant and soil microorganisms, to swap genes and spread antibiotic resistance, ...

281

Isolation of the trail recruitment pheromone of Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheSolenopsis invicta trail pheromone is synthesized by the Dufour's gland and is released through the sting apparatus. The recruitment subcategory of theS. invicta trail pheromone was shown to be composed of a mixture of the orientation pheromone, (Z,E)-a-farnesene and an unidentified homosesquiterpene consisting of three rings and one double bond (C-1). C-1 is present in worker Dufour's glands at only

Robert K. Vander Meer; Francisco Alvarez; Clifford S. Lofgren

1988-01-01

282

GRASSLAND SONGBIRD ABUNDANCE ALONG ROADS AND TRAILS IN SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted roadside and trail-side point count surveys to determine whether grassland bird abundance differs along ditched and non-ditched sampling points in south- western Saskatchewan. Savannah and Vesper Sparrows were more abundant along roads, while Baird's Sparrows, Chestnut-collared Longspurs, and Sprague's Pipits were more abun- dant along trails. Clay-colored Sparrows, Horned Larks, and Western Meadowlarks were de- tected equally along

GLENN C. SUTTER; STEPHEN K. DAVIS; DAVID C. DUNCAN

283

A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE)

Peter Bjørn Andersen; Christian Bak; Morten Hartvig Hansen

2007-01-01

284

Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides standardized tests recommended for evaluating hybrid vehicles. Because of the development of hybrid propulsion techniques for military wheeled and tracked vehicles new testing procedures to assess the automotive and safety design of thes...

2008-01-01

285

VisTrails : enabling interactive multiple-view visualizations.  

SciTech Connect

VisTrails is a new system that enables interactive multiple-view visualizations by simplifying the creation and maintenance of visualization pipelines, and by optimizing their execution. It provides a general infrastructure that can be combined with existing visualization systems and libraries. A key component of VisTrails is the visualization trail (vistrail), a formal specification of a pipeline. Unlike existing dataflow-based systems, in VisTrails there is a clear separation between the specification of a pipeline and its execution instances. This separation enables powerful scripting capabilities and provides a scalable mechanism for generating a large number of visualizations. VisTrails also leverages the vistrail specification to identify and avoid redundant operations. This optimization is especially useful while exploring multiple visualizations. When variations of the same pipeline need to be executed, substantial speedups can be obtained by caching the results of overlapping subsequences of the pipelines. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of VisTrails, and show its effectiveness in different application scenarios.

Scheidegger, Carlos E. (University of Utah); Vo, Huy T. (University of Utah); Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Callahan, Steven P. (University of Utah); Bavoil, Louis (University of Utah); Freire, Juliana. (University of Utah); Silva, Claudio (University of Utah)

2005-04-01

286

Combined modality therapy with TRAIL or agonistic death receptor antibodies  

PubMed Central

Molecularly targeted therapies, such as antibodies and small molecule inhibitors have emerged as an important breakthrough in the treatment of many human cancers. One targeted therapy under development is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) due to its ability to induce apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines and xenografts, while lacking toxicity in most normal cells. TRAIL and apoptosis-inducing agonistic antibodies to the TRAIL death receptors have been the subject of many preclinical and clinical studies in the past decade. However, the sensitivity of individual cancer cell lines of a particular tumor type to these agents varies from highly sensitive to resistant. Various chemotherapy agents have been shown to enhance the apoptosis-inducing capacity of TRAIL receptor-targeted therapies and induce sensitization of TRAIL-resistant cells. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms associated with chemotherapy enhancement of TRAIL receptor-targeted therapies including modulation of the apoptotic (death receptor expression, FLIP and Bcl-2 or inhibitors of apoptosis [IAP] families) as well as cell signaling (NF?B, Akt, p53) pathways. These mechanisms will be important in establishing effective combinations to pursue clinically and in determining relevant targets for future cancer therapies.

Amm, Hope M; Oliver, Patsy G; Lee, Choo Hyung; Li, Yufeng

2011-01-01

287

Vismodegib Suppresses TRAIL-mediated Liver Injury in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

Hedgehog signaling pathway activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Despite this concept, hedgehog pathway inhibitors have not been explored. Thus, we examined the effect of vismodegib, a hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, in a diet-induced model of NASH. C57BL/6 mice were placed on 3-month chow or FFC (high saturated fats, fructose, and cholesterol) diet. One week prior to sacrifice, mice were treated with vismodegib or vehicle. Mice fed the FFC diet developed significant steatosis, which was unchanged by vismodegib therapy. In contrast, vismodegib significantly attenuated FFC-induced liver injury as manifested by reduced serum ALT and hepatic TUNEL-positive cells. In line with the decreased apoptosis, vismodegib prevented FFC-induced strong upregulation of death receptor DR5 and its ligand TRAIL. In addition, FFC-fed mice, but not chow-fed animals, underwent significant liver injury and apoptosis following treatment with a DR5 agonist; however, this injury was prevented by pre-treatment with vismodegib. Consistent with a reduction in liver injury, vismodegib normalized FFC-induced markers of inflammation including mRNA for TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and a variety of macrophage markers. Furthermore, vismodegib in FFC-fed mice abrogated indices of hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with vismodegib appears to reduce TRAIL-mediated liver injury in a nutrient excess model of NASH, thereby attenuating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. We speculate that hedgehog signaling inhibition may be salutary in human NASH.

Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.; Bronk, Steven F.; Yagita, Hideo; Gores, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

288

Status report on next-generation LADAR for driving unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Defense has initiated plans for the deployment of autonomous robotic vehicles in various tactical military operations starting in about seven years. Most of these missions will require the vehicles to drive autonomously over open terrain and on roads which may contain traffic, obstacles, military personnel as well as pedestrians. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) must therefore be able to detect, recognize and track objects and terrain features in very cluttered environments. Although several LADAR sensors exist today which have successfully been implemented and demonstrated to provide somewhat reliable obstacle detection and can be used for path planning and selection, they tend to be limited in performance, are effected by obscurants, and are quite large and expensive. In addition, even though considerable effort and funding has been provided by the DOD R&D community, nearly all of the development has been for target detection (ATR) and tracking from various flying platforms. Participation in the Army and DARPA sponsored UGV programs has helped NIST to identify requirement specifications for LADAR to be used for on and off-road autonomous driving. This paper describes the expected requirements for a next generation LADAR for driving UGVs and presents an overview of proposed LADAR design concepts and a status report on current developments in scannerless Focal Plane Array (FPA) LADAR and advanced scanning LADAR which may be able to achieve the stated requirements. Examples of real-time range images taken with existing LADAR prototypes will be presented.

Juberts, Maris; Barbera, Anthony J.

2004-12-01

289

Using certification trails to achieve software fault tolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is introduced. When used for software fault tolerance, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance was formalized and it was illustrated by applying it to the fundamental problem of finding a minimum spanning tree. Cases in which the second phase can be run concorrectly with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach was compared to other approaches to fault tolerance. Because of space limitations we have omitted examples of our technique applied to the Huffman tree, and convex hull problems. These can be found in the full version of this paper.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

290

Dihydroflavonol BB-1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells and, hence, has emerged as a novel anticancer agent. Previously, we showed that although most adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells express the TRAIL death receptor DR4 (TRAIL-R1) or DR5 (TRAIL-R2), they are resistant to TRAIL. Thus, in this study, we tried to find natural products that can overcome TRAIL resistance. Among more than 150 materials screened, a dihydroflavonol that was extracted from Blumea balsamifera (BB-1) exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL. Treatment of the TRAIL-resistant ATLL cell line KOB, with a combination of BB-1 and TRAIL, resulted in apparent apoptosis that was not observed on treatment with either agent alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with BB-1 followed by TRAIL further augmented the synergism. BB-1 increased the level of TRAIL-R2 promoter activity and surface protein expression in a p53-independent manner. TRAIL-R2 siRNA inhibited the synergism, indicating that sensitization was caused by the increase of TRAIL-R2 expression. More interestingly, similar effects were observed in other leukemia cell lines by exactly the same mechanisms. These results suggest that combined treatment with BB-1 and TRAIL may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:16195335

Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yamada, Yasuaki; Komiyama, Kanki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Masami; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Koyano, Takashi; Kam, Toh-Seok; Murata, Ken; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Masuda, Masato; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kamihira, Shimeru

2006-01-15

291

Differential Expression of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors in Allergic Asthmatics Following Segmental Antigen Challenge: Evidence for a Role of TRAIL in Eosinophil Survival1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a chronic lung disease exhibiting airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammation, characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and the underlying tissue. Prolonged eosinophilic inflammation depends on the balance between the cell's inherent tendency to undergo apoptosis and the local eosinophil-viability enhancing activity. TRAIL, a member of the TNF family, induces apoptosis in most transformed cells; however,

Noreen M. Robertson; James G. Zangrilli; Andrzej Steplewski; Annette Hastie; Rochelle G. Lindemeyer; Maria A. Planeta; Mary K. Smith; Nathalie Innocent; Ali Musani; Rodolfo Pascual; Stephen Peters; Gerald Litwack

292

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

293

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

294

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

295

Plume and plate controlled hotspot trails in the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering whether hotspots observed on the Earth's surface are explained by underlying plumes rising from the deep mantle or by a shallow plate-cracking mechanism continues to be an essential goal in Earth Science. Key evidence underpinning the mantle plume concept is the existence of age-progressive volcanic trails recording past plate motion relative to surface hotspots and their causal plumes. Using the icebreaker RV Polarstern, we sampled scattered hotspot trails on the 2,000 km-wide southeast Atlantic hotspot swell, which projects down to one of the Earth's two largest and deepest regions of slower-than-average seismic wave speed - the Africa Low Shear Wave Velocity Province - caused by a massive thermo-chemical 'pile' on the core-mantle boundary. We showed recently using 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages - and crustal structure and seafloor ages - that these hotspot trails are age progressive and formed synchronously across the swell, consistent with African plate motion over plumes rising from the stable edge of a Low Shear Wave Velocity Province (LLSVP) (O'Connor et al., 2012). We showed furthermore that hotspot trails formed initially only at spreading boundaries at the outer edges of the swell until roughly 44 million years ago, when they started forming across the swell, far from spreading boundaries in lithosphere that was sufficiently weak (young) for plume melts to reach the surface. We concluded that if plume melts formed synchronous age progressive hotspot trails whenever they could penetrate the lithosphere, then hotspot trails in the South Atlantic are controlled by the interplay between deep plumes and the shallow motion and structure of the African plate. Our observations reveal a plate tectonic-controlled cycle from the creation of a deep thermo-chemical pile (LLSVP) and initiation of deep mantle plumes at the CMB, to the shallow formation of the resulting hotspot trails. Moreover, suppression of plume melts from venting to the plate surface for tens of millions of years implies that the plumes responsible for the southeast Atlantic hotspot swell and hotspot trails transported more material and heat from the core mantle boundary than measured by hotspot volcanism. O'Connor, J. M., Jokat, W., le Roex, A. P., Class, C., Wijbrans, J. R., Kessling, S., Kuiper, K. F. & Nebel, O. Hotspot trails in the South Atlantic controlled by plume and plate tectonic processes. In press Nature Geoscience (2012).

O'Connor, J. M.; Jokat, W.; le Roex, A. P.; Class, C.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Kessling, S.; Kuiper, K.; Nebel, O.

2012-12-01

296

Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

2011-01-01

297

Indomethacin sensitizes TRAIL-resistant melanoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated upregulation of death receptor 5 and downregulation of survivin.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has attracted considerable attention owing to its selective killing of tumor cells but not normal cells. Melanoma shows weak response to TRAIL because of its low level of TRAIL death receptors. Here, we investigated whether indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. We showed that indomethacin was capable of promoting TRAIL-induced cell death and apoptosis in A375 melanoma cells. Mechanistically, indomethacin induced cell surface expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) in melanoma cells and also in various types of cancer cells. DR5 knockdown abolished the enhancing effect of indomethacin on TRAIL responses. Induction of the DR5 by indomethacin was found to be p53 independent but dependent on the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Knockdown of CHOP abolished indomethacin-induced DR5 expression and the associated potentiation of TRAIL-mediated cell death. In addition, indomethacin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production preceded upregulation of CHOP and DR5, and consequent sensitization of cells to TRAIL. We also found that indomethacin treatment downregulated survivin via ROS and the NF-?B-mediated signaling pathways. Interestingly, indomethacin also converted TRAIL-resistant melanoma MeWo and SK-MEL-5 cells into TRAIL-sensitive cells. Taken together, our results indicate that indomethacin can potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survivin. PMID:24213373

Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Cao, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Chi-Yan; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Hua; Fong, Wang-Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

2014-05-01

298

Characterization of the Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in Spermatogenesis through the Evaluation of Trail Gene-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

TRAIL (TNFSF10/Apo2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of proteins and is expressed in human and rodent testis. Although the functional role of TRAIL in spermatogenesis is not known, TRAIL is recognized to induce apoptosis via binding to its cognate receptors; DR4 (TRAIL-R1/TNFRSF10A) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2/TNFRSF10B). Here, we utilize Trail gene-deficient (Trail?/?) mice to evaluate the role of TRAIL in spermatogenesis by measuring testis weight, germ cell apoptosis, and spermatid head count at postnatal day (PND) 28 (pubertal) and PND 56 (adult). Trail?/? mice have significantly reduced testis to body weight ratios as compared to wild-type C57BL/6J at both ages. Also, Trail?/? mice (PND 28) show a dramatic increase in basal germ cell apoptotic index (AI, 16.77) as compared to C57BL/6J (3.5). In the testis of adult C57BL/6J mice, the AI was lower than in PND 28 C57BL/6J mice (2.2). However, in adult Trail?/? mice, the AI was still higher than that of controls (9.0); indicating a relative high incidence of germ cell apoptosis. Expression of cleaved caspase-8 (CC8) and cleaved caspase-9 (CC9) (markers of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway, respectively) revealed a two-fold increase in the activity of both pathways in adult Trail?/? mice compared to C57BL/6J. Spermatid head counts in adult Trail?/? mice were dramatically reduced by 54% compared to C57BL/6J, indicating these animals suffer a marked decline in the production of mature spermatozoa. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRAIL is an important signaling molecule for maintaining germ cell homeostasis and functional spermatogenesis in the testis.

Lin, Yi-Chen; Richburg, John H.

2014-01-01

299

Characterization of the Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in Spermatogenesis through the Evaluation of Trail Gene-Deficient Mice.  

PubMed

TRAIL (TNFSF10/Apo2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of proteins and is expressed in human and rodent testis. Although the functional role of TRAIL in spermatogenesis is not known, TRAIL is recognized to induce apoptosis via binding to its cognate receptors; DR4 (TRAIL-R1/TNFRSF10A) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2/TNFRSF10B). Here, we utilize Trail gene-deficient (Trail-/-) mice to evaluate the role of TRAIL in spermatogenesis by measuring testis weight, germ cell apoptosis, and spermatid head count at postnatal day (PND) 28 (pubertal) and PND 56 (adult). Trail-/- mice have significantly reduced testis to body weight ratios as compared to wild-type C57BL/6J at both ages. Also, Trail-/- mice (PND 28) show a dramatic increase in basal germ cell apoptotic index (AI, 16.77) as compared to C57BL/6J (3.5). In the testis of adult C57BL/6J mice, the AI was lower than in PND 28 C57BL/6J mice (2.2). However, in adult Trail-/- mice, the AI was still higher than that of controls (9.0); indicating a relative high incidence of germ cell apoptosis. Expression of cleaved caspase-8 (CC8) and cleaved caspase-9 (CC9) (markers of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway, respectively) revealed a two-fold increase in the activity of both pathways in adult Trail-/- mice compared to C57BL/6J. Spermatid head counts in adult Trail-/- mice were dramatically reduced by 54% compared to C57BL/6J, indicating these animals suffer a marked decline in the production of mature spermatozoa. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRAIL is an important signaling molecule for maintaining germ cell homeostasis and functional spermatogenesis in the testis. PMID:24736722

Lin, Yi-Chen; Richburg, John H

2014-01-01

300

Application of Passive Porous Treatment to Slat Trailing Edge Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous trailing-edge treatment is investigated as a passive means for slat noise reduction by using time-accurate simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For the model scale high-lift configuration used during previous experiments in the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, application of the proposed treatment over a minute fraction of the slat surface area is shown to mitigate the noise impact of the trailing edge, with no measurable aerodynamic penalty. Assessment of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the treated edge indicates a potential noise reduction in excess of 20 dB. The primary mechanism underlying this reduction is related to the reduced strength of Strouhal shedding from the finite thickness trailing edge. A secondary effect of the treatment involves an upward shift in the Strouhal-shedding frequency to a frequency band of reduced auditory sensitivity in a full-scale application.

Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2003-01-01

301

Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

2003-01-01

302

Merging of aircraft vortex trails - Similarities to magnetic field merging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in an MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

Gurnett, Donald A.

1989-01-01

303

Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

304

25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program? 170...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS...Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 ...Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?...

2013-04-01

305

Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.  

PubMed

More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management. PMID:16160792

Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

2005-09-01

306

Regulation of TRAIL receptor expression by ?-catenin in colorectal tumours.  

PubMed

Tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is being investigated as a targeted cancer therapeutic and the expression of its pro-apoptotic receptors, DR4 and DR5, increases during colorectal carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of ?-catenin in the regulation of these receptors. In human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cell lines, downregulation of ?-catenin resulted in lower total DR4 and DR5 protein levels. Similarly, cell membrane expression of DR4 and DR5 was reduced after downregulation of ?-catenin in colon carcinoma cells, whereas induction of ?-catenin in HeLa cells led to increased cell membrane expression of DR4 and DR5. Downregulation of ?-catenin decreased the recombinant human TRAIL sensitivity of human colon carcinoma cells. Activation of the transcription factor T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) is an important function of ?-catenin. Dominant-negative TCF-4 overexpression, however, did not significantly affect TRAIL receptor expression or recombinant human TRAIL sensitivity. Human colorectal adenomas (N = 158) with aberrant (cytoplasmic and nuclear) ?-catenin expression had a higher percentage of immunohistochemical DR4 and DR5 staining per tumour (mean: 73 and 88%, respectively) than those with membranous ?-catenin staining only (mean: 50 and 70%, respectively, P < 0.01 for both). Furthermore, aberrant ?-catenin staining co-localized with DR4 and DR5 expression in 92% of adenomas. In 53 human colorectal carcinomas, aberrant ?-catenin expression was present in most cases and DR4/5 expression was largely homogenous. Similarly, in adenomas from APC(min) mice, cytoplasmic ?-catenin staining co-localized with staining for the murine TRAIL death receptor. In conclusion, the gradual increase in TRAIL receptor expression during colorectal carcinogenesis is at least partially mediated through increased ?-catenin expression, independently of TCF-4-signalling. PMID:24379239

Jalving, M; Heijink, D M; Koornstra, J J; Boersma-van Ek, W; Zwart, N; Wesseling, J; Sluiter, W J; de Vries, E G E; Kleibeuker, J H; de Jong, S

2014-05-01

307

Mellein, a Trail Pheromone Component of the Ant Lasius fuliginosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-Dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (mellein) and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one are among the volatile constituents identified from the hindgut of the formicine ant Lasius (Dendrolasius) fuliginosus Mellein induces trail-following behavior in worker ants of this species and evokes electrophysiological responses from their antennae. The trail-following activity released by (R)-(-)-mellein is significantly higher than that elicited by its (S)-(+) antipode, or the racemic mixture. The above-mentioned pyranone

Friedrich Kern; Rüdiger W. Klein; Edelgard Janssen; Hans-Jürgen Bestmann; Athula B. Attygalle; Doris Schäfer; Ulrich Maschwitz

1997-01-01

308

Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report addresses the management of overnight use and associated impacts along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (A.T.). This effort was initiated in response to agency and Appalachian Trail Conference (ATC) management concerns regarding the resource and social impacts of increasing overnight visitation, particularly in high use areas. Report findings and recommendations are primarily based on series of on-site investigations at 17 problem areas selected by A.T. clubs and ATC staff. However, the report?s recommendations also draw on an examination of relevant A.T. legislative, agency, and organization guidance and visitor impact management knowledge derived from research and management experience.

Marion, J. L.

2003-01-01

309

Cytotoxicity of TRAIL/anticancer drug combinations in human normal cells.  

PubMed

TRAIL (TNF-alpha-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) is a promising anticancer agent. In fact, it induces apoptosis in cancer cells and not in most normal cells. Nevertheless, certain cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and this could limit TRAIL's efficiency in cancer therapy. To overcome TRAIL resistance, a combination of TRAIL with chemotherapy could be used in cancer treatment. However, sensitivity of human normal cells to such combinations is not well known. We showed in this study that TRAIL/cisplatin, in contrast to TRAIL/5-fluorouracil, was toxic toward human primary hepatocytes and resting lymphocytes. Furthermore, both combinations are toxic toward PHA-IL2-activated lymphocytes. In contrast, freshly isolated neutrophils are resistant to TRAIL in combination or not with anticancer drugs. PMID:17384264

Meurette, Olivier; Fontaine, Anne; Rebillard, Amelie; Le Moigne, Gwenaelle; Lamy, Thierry; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese

2006-12-01

310

Monocyte-mediated Tumoricidal Activity via the Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Cytokine, TRAIL  

PubMed Central

TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a molecule that displays potent antitumor activity against selected targets. The results presented here demonstrate that human monocytes rapidly express TRAIL, but not Fas ligand or TNF, after activation with interferon (IFN)-? or -? and acquire the ability to kill tumor cells. Monocyte-mediated tumor cell apoptosis was TRAIL specific, as it could be inhibited with soluble TRAIL receptor. Moreover, IFN stimulation caused a concomitant loss of TRAIL receptor 2 expression, which coincides with monocyte acquisition of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results define a novel mechanism of monocyte-induced cell cytotoxicity that requires TRAIL, and suggest that TRAIL is a key effector molecule in antitumor activity in vivo.

Griffith, Thomas S.; Wiley, Steven R.; Kubin, Marek Z.; Sedger, Lisa M.; Maliszewski, Charles R.; Fanger, Neil A.

1999-01-01

311

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. 212...56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for...

2013-07-01

312

Position Error Calibration of a Pressure Survey Aircraft Using a Trailing Cone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is presented of the trailing cone development and testing, application procedures and the results of position error evaluation over a wide speed and altitude range. The position error of the NCAR Sabreliner determined by the trailing cone method ...

E. N. Brown

1988-01-01

313

Development of a radioiodinated apoptosis-inducing ligand, rhTRAIL, and a radiolabelled agonist TRAIL receptor antibody for clinical imaging studies  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through activation of the death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Recombinant human (rh) TRAIL and the TRAIL-R1 directed monoclonal antibody mapatumumab are currently clinically evaluated as anticancer agents. The objective of this study was to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting the TRAIL-R1, suitable for clinical use to help understand and predict clinical efficacy in patients. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH rhTRAIL was radioiodinated with 125I, and conjugated mapatumumab was radiolabelled with 111In. The radiopharmaceuticals were characterized, their in vitro stability and death receptor targeting capacities were determined and in vivo biodistribution was studied in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts with different expression of TRAIL-R1. KEY RESULTS Labelling efficiencies, radiochemical purity, stability and binding properties were optimized for the radioimmunoconjugates. In vivo biodistribution showed rapid renal clearance of [125I]rhTRAIL, with highest kidney activity at 15 min and almost no detectable activity after 4 h. Activity rapidly decreased in almost all organs, except for the xenografts. Radiolabelled mapatumumab showed blood clearance between 24 and 168 h and a reduced decrease in radioactivity in the high receptor expression xenograft. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS rhTRAIL and mapatumumab can be efficiently radiolabelled. The new radiopharmaceuticals can be used clinically to study pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tumour targeting, which could support evaluation of the native targeted agents in phase I/II trials.

Duiker, EW; Dijkers, ECF; Lambers Heerspink, H; de Jong, S; van der Zee, AGJ; Jager, PL; Kosterink, JGW; de Vries, EGE; Lub-de Hooge, MN

2012-01-01

314

Study of the Correlation between the Performances of Lunar Vehicle Wheels Predicted by the Nepean Wheeled Vehicle Performance Model and Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a study of the correlation between the performances of wheels for lunar vehicles predicted using the Nepean wheeled vehicle performance model (NWVPM), developed under the auspices of Vehicle Systems Development Corporation, Ottawa, Canada, and the corresponding test data presented in Performance evaluation of wheels for lunar vehicles , Technical Report M-70-2, prepared for George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA, by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES). The NWVPM was originally developed for design and performance evaluation of terrestrial off-road wheeled vehicles. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of the NWVPM for evaluating wheel candidates for the new generation of extra-terrestrial vehicles. Two versions of a wire-mesh wheel and a hoop-spring wheel, which were considered as candidates for lunar roving vehicles for the NASA Apollo program in the late 1960s, together with a pneumatic wheel were examined in this study. The tractive performances of these wheels and of a 464 test vehicle with the pneumatic wheels on air-dry sand were predicted using the NWVPM and compared with the corresponding test data obtained under Earth s gravity and previously documented in the above-named report. While test data on wheel or vehicle performances obtained under Earth s gravity may not necessarily be representative of those on extra-terrestrial bodies, because of the differences in gravity and in environmental conditions, such as atmospheric pressure, it is still a valid approach to use test data obtained under Earth s gravity to evaluate the predictive capability of the NWVPM and its potential applications to predicting wheel or wheeled rover performances on extra-terrestrial bodies. Results of this study show that, using the ratio (P20/W) of the drawbar pull to normal load at 20 per cent slip as a performance indicator, there is a reasonable correlation between the predictions and experimental data. This indicates that the NWVPM has the potential as an engineering tool for evaluating wheel candidates for a future generation of extra-terrestrial vehicles, provided that appropriate input data are available.

Wong, J. Y.; Asnani, V. M.

2008-01-01

315

Suppression of orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells with sTRAIL gene expression driven by AFP promoter.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents in tumor therapy. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs with respect to hepatic differentiation potential in injured livers in animals, while their hepatic differentiation under the hepatocarcinoma microenvironment is unclear. In this study, HUMSCs were isolated and transduced by lentiviral vectors coding the soluble human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) gene driven by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter to investigate the therapeutic effects of these HUMSC against orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice. We showed that HUMSCs can be transduced by lentivirus efficiently. HUMSCs developed cuboidal morphology, and expressed AFP and albumin in a two-step protocol. HUMSCs were capable of migrating to hepatocarcinoma in vitro as well as in vivo. In the orthotopical hepatocarcinoma microenvironment, the AFP promoter was activated during the early hepatic differentiation of HUMSCs. After intravenous injected, MSC.AFPILZ-sTRAIL expressed sTRAIL exclusively at the tumor site, and exhibited significant antitumor activity. This effect was stronger when in combination with 5-FU. The treatment was tolerated well in mice. Collectively, our results provide a potential strategy for targeted tumor therapy relying on the use of the tumor tropism and specific differentiation of HUMSCs as vehicles. PMID:24406219

Yan, Cihui; Yang, Ming; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuangjing; Hu, Xiao; Fan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianxiang; Xiong, Dongsheng

2014-03-01

316

Synergistic antitumor effect of TRAIL and doxorubicin on colon cancer cell line SW480  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand) has been reported to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells although only a small percentage of cell lines were sensitive to it. Cell lines not responding to TRAIL in vitro were said to be more prone to apoptosis when TRAIL was combined with another anticancer agent. Generally, factors affecting drug-sensitivity involve many

Li-Hong Xu; Chang-Sheng Deng; You-Qing Zhu; Shi-Quan Liu; Dong-Zhou Liu

2003-01-01

317

Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

318

A spatial exploration of informal trail networks within Great Falls Park, VA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Informal (visitor-created) trails represent a threat to the natural resources of protected natural areas around the globe. These trails can remove vegetation, displace wildlife, alter hydrology, alter habitat, spread invasive species, and fragment landscapes. This study examines informal and formal trails within Great Falls Park, VA, a sub-unit of the George Washington Memorial Parkway, managed by the U.S. National Park Service. This study sought to answer three specific questions: 1) Are the physical characteristics and topographic alignments of informal trails significantly different from formal trails, 2) Can landscape fragmentation metrics be used to summarize the relative impacts of formal and informal trail networks on a protected natural area? and 3) What can we learn from examining the spatial distribution of the informal trails within protected natural areas? Statistical comparisons between formal and informal trails in this park indicate that informal trails have less sustainable topographic alignments than their formal counterparts. Spatial summaries of the lineal and areal extent and fragmentation associated with the trail networks by park management zones compare park management goals to the assessed attributes. Hot spot analyses highlight areas of high trail density within the park and findings provide insights regarding potential causes for development of dense informal trail networks.

Wimpey, Jeremy; Marion, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

319

Water vapour sorption by the pedal mucus trail of a land snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrophilicity of pedal mucus trails deposited by snails influences the settlement of marine organisms and can potentially influence the trailing and homing mechanisms of terrestrial snails. The composition of pedal mucus deposited as a trail on a solid substrate by the giant African land snail (Achatina marginata) has been probed non-invasively using infrared ellipsometry. The primary chemical groups in

B. J. Lincoln; T. R. E. Simpson; J. L. Keddie

2004-01-01

320

Trail Pheromone of the Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails.

Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

2012-01-01

321

Trail laying behaviour during food recruitment in the ant Lasius niger (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The trail-laying behaviour of foragers of the antLasius niger was observed in the laboratory on a 20 cm bridge between the nest and the food source. We measured both the frequency of trail laying, as defined by the proportion of trips during which trail laying occurred, and its intensity, as defined by the number of marks laid during one

R. Beckers; J. L. Deneubourg; S. Goss

1992-01-01

322

Sustainable Construction and Maintenance Practices for Nonmotorized Forest Recreation Trails 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driven by a rapidly increasing demand for dispersed recreation opportunities, the management of forest trail systems has become a high priority issue for land managers. Trails must be user - safe, environmentally sound, economically affordable , and sustainable. To meet these mandates, engineering practices must employ design, construction, and maintenance technologies that anticipate type, intensity, and timing of trail u

Aaron C. Lucas; M. Chad Bolding

323

Alpine Vegetation Restoration of Social Trails on Colorado's 14,000Foot Peaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy and rapidly increasing recreation on Colorado's high peaks requires restoration of closed social trails. We tested several restoration techniques on three peaks at elevations of 3660 to 3900 m. Species in turf blocks cut from newly constructed trails survived extremely well 3 yr after transplanting to closed trails. Most species did not decrease in cover although the sums of

James J. Ebersole; Robin F. Bay; David B. Conlin

2004-01-01

324

77 FR 37438 - Draft Trail Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Cuyahoga Valley National Park...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...comprehensive updated Trail Management Plan and Environmental...restoration, management, and use of the...associated trail facilities over the next 15...outdoor recreation trends. Several alternative...authorized uses, and facilities addressed in this...continue trail management under current...

2012-06-21

325

Photography of a lithium vapor trail during the daytime.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barium and lithium vapors were released from sounding rockets in the thermosphere and observed from aboard a jet aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 ft. The purpose of the releases was to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-weather technique for observing chemical releases and to evaluate methods of observing daytime releases. The selected flight plan of the aircraft allowed a series of observations of the trail from two different straight line paths. Data were recorded photographically. The reduction in sky brightness at the 40,000-ft altitude as compared to the ground allows the use of a filter with a 10-A bandwidth for trail photography in the daytime. These photographs verified the calculation of the usable angular field of the narrow-band filters. Photographs of a 45-min-old trail of lithium vapor were obtained up to 20 min after sunrise at the aircraft. It is concluded that now vapor trail observations may be made during the daytime without regard to weather and logistic restrictions.

Bedinger, J. F.

1973-01-01

326

TRAIL-Based Radio-Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We employed a glucose oxidase (GOD) to deplete glucose in the tumor. TRAIL cytotoxicity is potentiated in the presence of GOD. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that GOD has potent tumoricidal activity. Hydrogen peroxide produced by GOD is ef...

J. J. Song

2003-01-01

327

The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

2011-01-01

328

Tamoxifen and TRAIL synergistically induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen (TAM), is widely used as a single agent in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of TAM in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha)-positive and -negative breast cancer cells. We showed that cotreatment with TAM and TRAIL synergistically induced apoptosis regardless of ER-alpha status. By contrast, cotreatment did not affect the viability of normal breast epithelial cells. Cotreatment with TAM and TRAIL in breast cancer cells decreased the levels of antiapoptotic proteins including FLIPs and Bcl-2, and enhanced the levels of proapoptotic proteins such as FADD, caspase 8, tBid, Bax and caspase 9. Furthermore, cotreatment-induced apoptosis was efficiently reduced by FADD- or Bid-siRNA, indicating the implication of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in synergistic apoptosis induction. Importantly, cotreatment totally arrested tumor growth in an ER-alpha-negative MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft model. The abrogation of tumor growth correlated with enhanced apoptosis in tumor tissues. Our findings raise the possibility to use TAM in combination with TRAIL for breast cancers, regardless of ER-alpha status. PMID:17767197

Lagadec, C; Adriaenssens, E; Toillon, R A; Chopin, V; Romon, R; Van Coppenolle, F; Hondermarck, H; Le Bourhis, X

2008-02-28

329

Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.  

PubMed

In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures. PMID:22573108

van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphaël; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

2012-06-01

330

Solid Waste Management in the Himalayan Trails and Expedition Summits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaving behind of self-generated waste by visitors to the trails and expedition areas of the world’s mountains is one of the most adverse features of adventure tourism. This study shows how visitors, host communities and government could reduce waste creation and earn income from waste in various ways. Two case studies representing the Himalayas – one for trekking (in

Jagdish C. Kuniyal

2005-01-01

331

Unsteady hydroplaning and motion of a profile with trailing vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we consider in the Sedov formulation the problems of unsteady motion of a profile with trailing vortices, rebounding, and non-self-similar hydroplaning contact. The basic integral equation for determining the vortex distribution density is reduced to the Abel equation by solving an auxiliary system of ordinary differential equations. The rebounding limit is determined for a flat plate.

V. A. Eroshin

1967-01-01

332

In Search of the Ways of Knowing Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Flash animated adventure, learners explore the Ituri Forest and the village of Epulu in central Africa. Learners "travel" with four other kids and can use the Forest Factbook containing definitions and pronunciations to help them along the way. Through this interactive game, learners will solve problems, discover the rich biodiversity of the area, and learn the "secret" of the knowing trail.

Zoo, Brookfield; Society, Chicago Z.

2012-06-26

333

Basic Sequence Analysis Techniques for Use with Audit Trail Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audit trail analysis can provide valuable insights to researchers and evaluators interested in comparing and contrasting designers' expectations of use and students' actual patterns of use of educational technology environments (ETEs). Sequence analysis techniques are particularly effective but have been neglected to some extent because of real…

Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor

2008-01-01

334

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

335

Dispersion of meteor trails in the geomagnetic field.  

PubMed

A meteor trail is modeled by a long column of weakly ionized plasma, whose dispersion is controlled by the geomagnetic field and the requirement to maintain effective space charge neutrality. First we consider scattering of a radar signal from an underdense trail and derive an expression for the amplitude of the backscattered signal as a function of time. Then, starting from the basic momentum balance equations for electrons and ions in a partially ionized plasma, we require divergences of ion and electron fluxes to be equal, plus assume equality of the flux components along the magnetic field direction. The analysis is really applicable to a whole range of plasma problems, although we focus upon meteor trails for now. It is found that charged particle densities satisfy a diffusion equation and we obtain an expression for the ambipolar diffusion tensor and expressions for the ambipolar electric field, valid for arbitrary relative orientations of the magnetic field and meteor trail axis. Results are somewhat different from previous analyses in the meteor literature. PMID:11308582

Robson, R E

2001-02-01

336

Low and Variable Visitor Compliance Rates at Voluntary Trail Registers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only 20 percent of the visitors to the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Mont., during 1981 complied at voluntary trail registers. Rates varied from 0 for day-use horseback riders to 47 percent for backpackers. Summer rates were seven times as high as fall rates. ...

R. C. Lucas

1983-01-01

337

Chattanooga Math Trail: Community Mathematics Modules, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of community mathematics modules, or "math trail", is appropriate for middle grades and high school students (grades 5-12). Collectively, the modules pay attention to all 10 of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards which include five content standards (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry,…

McAllister, Deborah A.; Mealer, Adrian; Moyer, Peggy S.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Peoples, John B.

338

Historic Resource Study: Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To place the Mormons and the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail in historical perspective is difficult, for they were both unique as well as uniquely American. Most Mormons tend to emphasize that which is unique in their history. In no way do Mormons ...

S. B. Kimball

1991-01-01

339

Physiological Responses of Senior Adults Running a Fit Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this 1977 study the heart rates of 51 men and women ranging in age from 22-72 were continuously monitored while the subjects walked or ran a modified parcour fitness trail. The length of the course, its gradient, the distance between exercise stations, and the elevation of the course were measured. Mean percentage max HR (Karvonen) values were…

Lundegren, Herberta; And Others

340

The Work We Do: Journal as Audit Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a peek inside the journals kept by a well-known language-arts educator, which he uses as a repository for his thoughts, drawings, articles of interest, notes from conversations with others on his own work, the work of others, and education in general. Shows how the journal is an "audit trail" of its owner's learning. (SR)

Harste, Jerome C.; Vasquez, Vivian

1998-01-01

341

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

PubMed

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Gläser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2011-02-01

342

Using certification trails to achieve software fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for achieving fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is introduced. When used for software fault tolerance, this technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the results. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data, called a

Gregory F. Sullivan; Gerald M. Masson

1990-01-01

343

Mapping Europa's Trailing Hemisphere Absorber with the Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) observations of Europa from the initial orbits of the Galileo Europa Mission and from the final orbits of the nominal mission. These high spatial resolution observations (instantaneous field-of-view footprint size of 27 km x 109 km) reveal that Europa's trailing hemisphere absorber is more complicated than previously thought. Earlier global and lower spatial

A. R. Hendrix; C. A. Barth; C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; K. E. Simmons; W. K. Tobiska

1998-01-01

344

138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and underneath of the viaduct. Shape of the piers was designed to provide aesthetic sense of light and shadow. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

345

The role of TRADD in TRAIL-induced apoptosis and signaling  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily. TRAIL is promising for anticancer therapy because it induces apoptosis in cancer cells with little or no toxicity to normal cells; hence, TRAIL-receptor agonists are currently undergoing clinical trials for cancer treatment. However, many molecular signaling mechanisms in TRAIL signaling are not completely characterized. The functions of adaptor proteins, including TNF-receptor-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP1) in TRAIL signaling have been controversial. We demonstrate that while wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are completely resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, MEFs derived from Tradd?/? mice are hypersensitive to TRAIL (IC50?0.5 nM rmTRAIL, 24 h), an effect also seen in primary keratinocytes treated with TRAIL/CHX. Restoration of TRADD in Tradd?/? MEFs restores TRAIL resistance, indicating that TRADD plays a survival role in TRAIL signaling. We show that TRADD is recruited to the TRAIL-receptor complex, and RIP1 recruitment is mediated by TRADD. While early activation of the MAP kinase ERK is deficient in Tradd?/? cells, the main mechanism for enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is likely due to increased recruitment of FADD to the receptor complex, indicating that TRADD may limit FADD binding within the receptor complex and also mediate RIP1-dependent nonapoptotic signaling events, thus reducing caspase activation and subsequent apoptosis. These novel findings have potential implications for cancer therapy using TRAIL-receptor agonists.—Cao, X., Pobezinskaya, Y. L., Morgan, M. J., Liu, Z. The role of TRADD in TRAIL-induced apoptosis and signaling.

Cao, Xiumei; Pobezinskaya, Yelena L.; Morgan, Michael J.; Liu, Zheng-gang

2011-01-01

346

ER stress sensitizes cells to TRAIL through down-regulation of FLIP and Mcl-1 and PERK-dependent up-regulation of TRAIL-R2  

PubMed Central

Despite recent evidences suggesting that agents inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could be exploited as potential antitumor drugs in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the mechanisms of this anticancer action are not fully understood. Moreover, the effects of ER stress and TRAIL in nontransformed cells remain to be investigated. In this study we report that ER stress-inducing agents sensitizes both transformed and nontransformed cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) knockdown by RNA interference induces ER stress and facilitates apoptosis by TRAIL. We demonstrate that TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation and early signaling are enhanced in ER stressed cells. ER stress alters the cellular levels of different apoptosis-related proteins including a decline in the levels of FLIP and Mcl-1 and the up-regulation of TRAIL-R2. Up-regulation of TRAIL-R2 following ER stress is dependent on the expression of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and independent of CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and Ire1?. Silencing of TRAIL-R2 expression by siRNA blocks the ER stress-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, simultaneous silencing of cFLIP and Mcl-1 expression by RNA interference results in a marked sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Finally, in FLIP-overexpressing cells ER stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL-activated apoptosis is markedly reduced. In summary, our data reveal a pleiotropic mechanism involving both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins for the sensitizing effect of ER stress on the regulation of TRAIL receptor-mediated apoptosis in both transformed and non-transformed cells.

Martin-Perez, Rosa; Niwa, Maho

2014-01-01

347

Signaling Events Triggered by Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL): Caspase8 Is Required for TRAIL-induced Apoptosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member and potent apoptosis inducer. In contrast to TNF-a or Fas ligand, relatively little is known about the signaling events activated by TRAIL. In particular, the initial caspase(s) required for TRAIL-induced apoptosis remains to be determined. Caspase-3-like protease but not caspase-1-like protease (YVADase) activ- ity rapidly increased in HeLa

Dai-Wu Seol; Jianrong Li; Mi-Hyang Seol; Sang-Youel Park; Robert V. Talanian; Timothy R. Billiar

2001-01-01

348

High susceptibility of metastatic cells derived from human prostate and colon cancer cells to TRAIL and sensitization of TRAIL-insensitive primary cells to TRAIL by 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor recurrence and metastasis develop as a result of tumors' acquisition of anti-apoptotic mechanisms and therefore, it is necessary to develop novel effective therapeutics against metastatic cancers. In this study, we showed the differential TRAIL responsiveness of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 and human colon carcinoma KM12 cells and their respective highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A sublines and investigated the mechanism underlying high susceptibility of human metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Results PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A cells with high level of c-Myc and DNA-PKcs were more susceptible to TRAIL than their poorly metastatic primary PC3 and KM12 cells, which was associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL/S and Mcl-1 and up-regulation of the TRAIL receptor DR5 but not DR4 in both metastatic cells. Moreover, high susceptibility of these metastatic cells to TRAIL was resulted from TRAIL-induced potent activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in comparison with their primary cells, which led to cleavage and down-regulation of DNA-PKcs. Knockdown of c-Myc gene in TRAIL-treated PC3-MM2 cells prevented the increase of DR5 cell surface expression, caspase activation and DNA-PKcs cleavage and attenuated the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Moreover, the suppression of DNA-PKcs level with siRNA in the cells induced the up-regulation of DR5 and active caspase-8, -9, and -3. We also found that 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (DMNB), a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK, potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in relatively TRAIL-insensitive PC3 and KM12 cells and therefore functioned as a TRAIL sensitizer. Conclusion This study showed the positive relationship between c-Myc expression in highly metastatic human prostate and colon cancer cells and susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and therefore indicated that TRAIL might be used as an effective therapeutic modality for advanced metastatic cancers overexpressing c-Myc and combination of TRAIL therapy with agent that inhibits the DNA-PKcs/Akt signaling pathway might be clinically useful for the treatment of relatively TRAIL-insensitive human cancers.

2011-01-01

349

Trail Blazers: Fourth-Grade Students Create Digital Field Guides for Visitors to the School's Nature Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a fourth-grade science teacher, the author wanted a project that was (a) yearlong in scope, (b) got her students outside more, and (c) laid the groundwork for a learning progression. In this article, she describes a project in which her fourth-grade students created digital field guides for visitors to their school's nature trail. In the…

Connors, Lisa Marie

2011-01-01

350

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

351

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

352

The Dynamics of Foraging Trails in the Tropical Arboreal Ant Cephalotes goniodontus  

PubMed Central

The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4–8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony’s trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest.

Gordon, Deborah M.

2012-01-01

353

Soluble TRAIL is present at high concentrations in seminal plasma and promotes spermatozoa survival.  

PubMed

The expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL(TNFSF10)) and of its receptors (TRAILR1, TRAILR2, TRAILR3, and TRAILR4) have been documented in testis, but the presence of soluble TRAIL in seminal fluid, as well as the potential physiopathological role of the TRAIL/TRAILR system in spermatozoa, has not been previously investigated. Male donors (n=123) among couples presenting for infertility evaluation were consecutively enrolled in this study. The presence of soluble TRAIL was analyzed in seminal samples by ELISA, while the surface expression of TRAIL receptors was investigated by flow cytometry. High levels of soluble TRAIL were detected in seminal plasma (median, 11?621?pg/ml and mean±s.d., 13?371±8367?pg/ml) and flow cytometric analysis revealed a variable expression of TRAIL receptors in the sperm cellular fraction among different subjects. In addition, the effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of recombinant TRAIL was investigated on survival and motility of spermatozoa. Of interest, the in vitro exposure of capacitated spermatozoa to recombinant TRAIL (10?ng/ml) significantly preserved their overall survival. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TRAIL in seminal fluids. Moreover, the demonstration that recombinant TRAIL promotes spermatozoa survival after capacitation suggests potential therapeutic implications. PMID:24825910

Zauli, Giorgio; Celeghini, Claudio; Monasta, Lorenzo; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Gonelli, Arianna; Grill, Vittorio; Ricci, Giuseppe; Secchiero, Paola

2014-08-01

354

The TRAIL to Viral Pathogenesis: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in 1995, much has been learned about the protein, its receptors and signaling cascade to induce apoptosis and the regulation of its expression. However, the physiologic role or roles that TRAIL may play in vivo are still being explored. The expression of TRAIL on effector T cells and the ability of TRAIL to induce apoptosis in virally infected cells provided early clues that TRAIL may play an active role in the immune defense against viral infections. However, increasing evidence is emerging that TRAIL may have a dual function in the immune system, both as a means to kill virally infected cells and in the regulation of cytokine production. TRAIL has been implicated in the immune response to viral infections (good), and in the pathogenesis of multiple viral infections (bad). Furthermore, several viruses have evolved mechanisms to manipulate TRAIL signaling to increase viral replication (ugly). It is likely that whether TRAIL ultimately has a proviral or antiviral effect will be dependent on the specific virus and the overall cytokine milieu of the host. Knowledge of the factors that determine whether TRAIL is proviral or antiviral is important because the TRAIL system may become a target for development of novel antiviral therapies.

Cummins, Nathan; Badley, Andrew

2011-01-01

355

Rock Levitation by Water and Ice; an Explanation for Trails in Racetrack Playa, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a process that is nearly a century-old mystery, rock fragments race over a desiccated layer of sediment in the California desert, forming the infamous rock trails of the Racetrack playa, found in Death Valley, California. Rocks, randomly distributed over the playa, have indented grooves or trails next to them, appearing as if someone had dragged them over the playa surface when wet. Interestingly, no one has ever witnessed the movement of these rocks. Furthermore, the mechanism responsible for these trails behind the rocks has not yet been explained. Rocks have masses ranging from 0.5 kg to 300 kg, and the trails have a chaotic character, with some trails as long as 1/2 km. Each rock has a mound of raised clay on one side and a mud trail on the other; no other unusual marks are visible. A number of trails have no rocks at the end, with only a mound of solid clay where a rock once appeared to be, as if something was pushing the clay forwards to make the trail but disappeared after the trail was made. Measurements of the humidity and temperature of the sediment pointed towards a unique mechanism of how the trails could form on their own and how simple environmental changes could result in the aforementioned trails in the sediment.

Kletetschka, G.; Ryan, A.; McKinney, E.; Fercana, G.; Schwebler, K. P.; McIntire, L.; Miller, D.; Fox, V. K.; Marbourg, J. M.; Naquin, C. A.; Krzykowski, M.; Wilde, J. R.; Kopp, E. S.; Romine, G.; Yawn, K.; Schoch, I.; McAdam, M.; Burger, D.; Rilee, K.; Jackson, B. K.; Parsons, A. M.; Cheung, C. Y.; Lunar; Planetary Science Academy

2010-12-01

356

Membrane-Bound TRAIL Supplements Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to death induced by soluble, recombinant forms of TRAIL (CD253/TNFSF10) due to low or absent expression of caspase-8 and/or TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5/CD262/TNFRSF10b). However, their sensitivity to membrane-bound TRAIL on natural killer (NK) cells is not known. Comparing microarray gene expression and response to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we observed a correlation between TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitivity of fourteen neuroblastoma cell lines to the cytotoxicity of NK cells activated with IL-2 plus IL-15. Even though most NK cytotoxicity was dependent upon perforin, the cytotoxicity was supplemented by TRAIL in fourteen of seventeen (82%) neuroblastoma cell lines as demonstrated using an anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. Similarly, a recently developed NK cell expansion system employing IL-2 plus lethally irradiated K562 feeder cells constitutively expressing membrane-bound IL-21 (K562 clone 9.mbIL21) resulted in activated NK cells derived from normal healthy donors and neuroblastoma patients that also utilized TRAIL to supplement cytotoxicity. Exogenous IFN? up-regulated expression of caspase-8 in three of four neuroblastoma cell lines and increased the contribution of TRAIL to NK cytotoxicity against two of the three lines; however, relatively little inhibition of cytotoxicity was observed when activated NK cells were treated with an anti-IFN? neutralizing antibody. Constraining the binding of anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody to membrane-bound TRAIL but not soluble TRAIL indicated that membrane-bound TRAIL alone was responsible for essentially all of the supplemental cytotoxicity. Together, these findings support a role for membrane-bound TRAIL in the cytotoxicity of NK cells against neuroblastoma cells.

Sheard, Michael A.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Liu, Yin; Lin, Tsen-Yin; Wu, Hong-Wei; Ji, Lingyun; Groshen, Susan; Lee, Dean A.; Seeger, Robert C.

2013-01-01

357

Optical observations of water in Leonid meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two simultaneous filtered images (589 and 423 nm) of a meteor trail were recorded during the 2002 Leonid storm. The first image shows Na atoms and the second Ca and Fe atoms and signals at altitudes much higher than can give rise to ablation of metals, in agreement with other observations of high altitude visible trails [Spurný et al., 2000a; Spurný et al., 2000b]. Ablation models [McNeil et al., 1998] and analysis of the history of the 2002 Leonid meteoroids [McNaught and Asher, 1999] support the conclusion that the high altitude emissions are due to H2O+ and H?,?,? formed through the decomposition in the hyperthermal collision between H2O from meteoroid ice [Kresák, 1973] and atmospheric N2 [Dressler et al., 1992].

Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Murad, Edmond; Gustavsson, Björn; Brändström, Urban; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Roth, Christopher; Williams, Iwan P.; Steen, Åke

2004-02-01

358

Flow field measurement and visualization using projected smoke trails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, simple method is described for measuring and visualizing air flows. The method involves projecting a small heated metal pellet through the air at a speed greater than the flow. The pellet burns as it moves through the air and leaves a wake of very fine, visible, metal oxide particles. The position of this visible smoke trail is then photographed at a sequence of times. The displacement of the trail can be used to provide a plot of the normal component of velocity as a function of distance. Examples are given for very low speed thermal convection (less than about 1 m/sec) and low speed flow over airfoils and cylinders (less than about 10 m/sec). Comparisons of the method to pulsed smoke-wire, spark-tracer and laser fluorescence methods, which give similar information, are discussed.

Steinhoff, J. S.; Mersch, T.

1992-01-01

359

Single cell motility and trail formation in populations of microglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microglia are a special type of glia cell in brain that has immune responses. They constitute about 20 % of the total glia population within the brain. Compared to other glia cells, microglia are very motile, constantly moving to destroy pathogens and to remove dead neurons. While doing so, they exhibit interesting body shapes, have cell-to-cell communications, and have chemotatic responses to each other. Interestingly, our recent in vitro studies show that their unusual motile behaviors can self-organize to form trails, similar to those in populations of ants. We have studied the changes in the physical properties of these trails by varying the cell population density and by changing the degree of spatial inhomogeneities (``pathogens''). Our experimental observations can be quite faithfully reproduced by a simple mathematical model involving many motile cells whose mechanical motion are driven by actin polymerization and depolymerization process within the individual cell body and by external chemical gradients.

Lee, Kyoung Jin

2009-03-01

360

Collective effects in traffic on bi-directional ant trails.  

PubMed

Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-directional ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict some unusual features of the flow rate that can be tested experimentally. As in the uni-directional model a non-monotonic density-dependence of the average velocity can be observed in certain parameter regimes. As a consequence of the interaction between oppositely moving ants the flow rate can become approximately constant over some density interval. PMID:15380392

John, Alexander; Schadschneider, Andreas; Chowdhury, Debashish; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

2004-11-21

361

A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al.

Bjørn Andersen, Peter; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hartvig Hansen, Morten

2007-07-01

362

Stator Loading Measurements Behind a Fan With Trailing Edge Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of aircraft noise pollution around airports has become increasingly important as those areas have become more densely populated. Currently, the removal of older noisier aircraft from operation is reducing noise levels around airports; however, with air traffic projected to increase by about 5% over the next decade the number of commercial aircraft operating in the world is expected to be about 17,700 by the year 2007. To keep noise levels around airports from increasing as a result of traffic increases, it is important to investigate new methods of noise reduction. The objective of this work is to provide a better understanding of the effects that trailing edge blowing has on stator unsteady loading. This is done by presenting flowfield and stator loading data from experiments conducted with and without trailing edge blowing.

Waitz, Ian A.

2000-01-01

363

Radio polarisation measurements of meteor trail echoes with BRAMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BRAMS, the Belgian RAdio Meteor Stations, is a network of radio receiving stations using forward scatter techniques to detect and characterize meteors. The transmitter is a dedicated beacon located in Dourbes in the south-west of Belgium. It emits towards the zenith a purely sinusoidal wave circularly polarised, at a frequency of 49.97 MHz and with a power of 150 watts. The main goals of the project are to compute meteoroid flux rates and trajectories. Most receiving stations are using a 3 element Yagi antenna and are therefore only sensitive to one polarisation. The station located in Uccle has also a crossed 3 element Yagi antenna and therefore allows measurements of horizontal and vertical polarisations. We present the preliminary radio polarisation measurements of meteor trail echoes and compare them with the theoretical predictions of Jones & Jones (1991) for oblique scattering of radio waves from meteor trails.

Lamy, H.; Ranvier, S.; Anciaux, M.; Calders, S.; De Keyser, J.; Gamby, E.

2012-04-01

364

Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four methods of detection of bodies of water are under development as means to enable autonomous robotic ground vehicles to avoid water hazards when traversing off-road terrain. The methods involve processing of digitized outputs of optoelectronic sensors aboard the vehicles. It is planned to implement these methods in hardware and software that would operate in conjunction with the hardware and software for navigation and for avoidance of solid terrain obstacles and hazards. The first method, intended for use during the day, is based on the observation that, under most off-road conditions, reflections of sky from water are easily discriminated from the adjacent terrain by their color and brightness, regardless of the weather and of the state of surface waves on the water. Accordingly, this method involves collection of color imagery by a video camera and processing of the image data by an algorithm that classifies each pixel as soil, water, or vegetation according to its color and brightness values (see figure). Among the issues that arise is the fact that in the presence of reflections of objects on the opposite shore, it is difficult to distinguish water by color and brightness alone. Another issue is that once a body of water has been identified by means of color and brightness, its boundary must be mapped for use in navigation. Techniques for addressing these issues are under investigation. The second method, which is not limited by time of day, is based on the observation that ladar returns from bodies of water are usually too weak to be detected. In this method, ladar scans of the terrain are analyzed for returns and the absence thereof. In appropriate regions, the presence of water can be inferred from the absence of returns. Under some conditions in which reflections from the bottom are detectable, ladar returns could, in principle, be used to determine depth. The third method involves the recognition of bodies of water as dark areas in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) images. This method is based on the fact, well known among experts in remote sensing, that water bodies of any appreciable depth appear very dark in near-infrared, overhead imagery. Even under a thick layer of marine fog, SWIR illumination is present. Hence, this method may work even in the presence of clouds, though it is unlikely to work at night. Snow and ice also exhibit very strong absorption at wavelengths greater than about 1.4 m. Hence, the wavelength range of about 1.5 to 1.6 m might be useable in this method for recognizing water, snow, and ice. One notable drawback of this method is that useful look-ahead distance could be limited by surface reflections. The fourth method, intended for use at night, involves the contrast between water and terrain in thermal-infrared (medium-wavelength infrared) imagery. This method is based on the fact that at night, water is usually warmer than the adjacent terrain. Look-ahead distance could be limited in this method because, for reasons not yet fully understood, water appears to darken in the thermal infrared with increasing distance.

Matthes, Larry; Belluta, Paolo; McHenry, Michael

2006-01-01

365

Tramping Trail with Elroy in the Early Years of CELP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is sipping tea on the eve of a week-long winter trip--over a decade since she first tramped trail with Mike Elrick into the winter wilderness. This evening holds for her the same electricity that it did in 1997--anxiety and excitement--when Elroy guided a motley crew of teens (his gang) into the woods and frozen waters of Algonquin…

O'Krafka, Karen

2010-01-01

366

The TRAIL apoptotic pathway in cancer onset, progression and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triggering of tumour cell apoptosis is the foundation of many cancer therapies. Death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily have been largely characterized, as have the signals that are generated when these receptors are activated. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (TRAILR1 and TRAILR2) are promising targets for cancer therapy. Herein we review what is known about the molecular

Ailsa J. Frew; Ricky W. Johnstone; Mark J. Smyth

2008-01-01

367

Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

2002-01-01

368

Accelerated Degradation of Caspase8 Protein Correlates with TRAIL Resistance in a DLD1 Human Colon Cancer Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor-selective cytotoxic effect of tumor necro- sis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) makes TRAIL an attractive candidate as an anticancer agent. However, resistance to TRAIL poses a challenge in anticancer therapy with TRAIL. Therefore, character- izing the mechanisms of resistance and developing strategies to overcome the resistance are important steps toward successful TRAIL-mediated cancer ther- apy. In this study, we

Lidong Zhang; Hongbo Zhu; Fuminori Teraishi; John J. Davis; Wei Guo; Zhen Fan; Bingliang Fang

2005-01-01

369

Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.  

PubMed

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

2012-01-01

370

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures. PMID:22038287

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

371

Biomarkers of breast cancer apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and TRAIL.  

PubMed

Treatment of breast cancer is complex and challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. To avoid significant toxicity and adverse side-effects of chemotherapy in patients who respond poorly, biomarkers predicting therapeutic response are essential. This study has utilized a proteomic approach integrating 2D-DIGE, LC-MS/MS, and bioinformatics to analyze the proteome of breast cancer (ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231) and breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cell lines induced to undergo apoptosis using a combination of doxorubicin and TRAIL administered in sequence (Dox-TRAIL). Apoptosis induction was confirmed using a caspase-3 activity assay. Comparative proteomic analysis between whole cell lysates of Dox-TRAIL and control samples revealed 56 differentially expressed spots (?2-fold change and p < 0.05) common to at least two cell lines. Of these, 19 proteins were identified yielding 11 unique protein identities: CFL1, EIF5A, HNRNPK, KRT8, KRT18, LMNA, MYH9, NACA, RPLP0, RPLP2, and RAD23B. A subset of the identified proteins was validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and Western blotting. Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially abundant proteins were associated with cell death, cellular organization, integrin-linked kinase signaling, and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways. The 2D-DIGE analysis has yielded candidate biomarkers of response to treatment in breast cancer cell models. Their clinical utility will depend on validation using patient breast biopsies pre- and post-treatment with anticancer drugs. PMID:22133146

Leong, Sharon; McKay, Matthew J; Christopherson, Richard I; Baxter, Robert C

2012-02-01

372

Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima#  

PubMed Central

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methyl anthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6?-biplumbagin (8) were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4–6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a three-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone.

Whitson, Emily L.; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Sayers, Thomas J.; McMahon, James B.; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C.

2012-01-01

373

Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (?200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta.

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

374

Synergistic TRAIL sensitizers from Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima.  

PubMed

Barleria alluaudii and Diospyros maritima were both investigated as part of an ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, two naphthoquinone epoxides, 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrolapachol (1) and 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxylapachol (2), both not previously isolated from natural sources, and the known 2-methylanthraquinone (3) were identified from B. alluaudii. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were utilized to establish the absolute configuration of 1 and 2. Additionally, five known naphthoquinone derivatives, maritinone (4), elliptinone (5), plumbagin (6), (+)-cis-isoshinanolone (7), and ethylidene-6,6'-biplumbagin (8), were isolated from D. maritima. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Maritinone (4) and elliptinone (5) showed the highest synergistic effect, with more than a 3-fold increase in activity observed with TRAIL than with compound alone. PMID:22313254

Whitson, Emily L; Sun, Han; Thomas, Cheryl L; Henrich, Curtis J; Sayers, Thomas J; McMahon, James B; Griesinger, Christian; McKee, Tawnya C

2012-03-23

375

Multilayer detection and classification of specular and nonspecular meteor trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteor radar data are continuously collected by different radar systems that operate throughout the year. Analyzing this fast growing, large data set requires efficient and reliable detection routines. Currently most meteor echo routines search for underdense meteor trails, often discarding overdense and nonspecular meteor trails. This is because their main purpose is the study of mesospheric winds. But the study of meteor flux requires the unique identification of each type of meteor reflections. In this paper, a multilayer radar detection and classification algorithm is proposed to correctly identify multiple types of meteor trail reflections. The process consists of two steps. The first step is based on the time-frequency waveform detector. In this step, we start by selecting low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values in order to detect all types of radar echoes; however, a high probability offalse alarm is often produced. In the second step, several features from the detected echoes in step one are extracted and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is constructed to further classify these echoes. The algorithm was tested using data collected from a 50-MHz radar stationed near Salinas, Puerto Rico, on April 5, 1998. A total of 270 detected echoes were labeled as underdense, overdense, nonspecular, other ionospheric echoes, and noise. We used 50% of the labeled echoes as training samples and divided the rest 50% testing samples as 10 subsets for testing. This technique successfully classified about 85% of the testing samples. Details concerning implementation, feature extraction, and data visualization are presented and discussed.

Zhao, Siming; Urbina, Julio; Dyrud, Lars; Seal, Ryan

2011-12-01

376

Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

2011-12-01

377

TRAIL attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice  

PubMed Central

TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is most often reported to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. It is expressed in artery walls but its role and regulation in vascular pathologies is little studied. We aimed to measure the effect of genetic deletion of TRAIL on atherosclerosis in a mouse model. TRAIL was mainly expressed in endothelium, smooth muscle cells and macrophages within plaques. The absence of TRAIL in chow and in fat-fed mice led to greater lesion coverage in aortae (8 weeks, % area ± SEM), n = 7–8, 1.24 ± 0.2 (no TRAIL, chow diet) vs. 0.42 ± 0.1, p < 0.01 and 3.4 ± 0.8 (no TRAIL, Western diet) vs. 0.94 ± 0.2, p < 0.01 and larger, smooth muscle cell rich lesions at aortic roots than control mice (8 weeks, mean lesion area/total cross sectional area ± SEM, n = 7–8, 0.17 ± 0.01 (no TRAIL, chow diet) vs. 0.135 ± 0.006, p < 0.05 and 0.36 ± 0.03 (no TRAIL, Western diet) vs. 0.23 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) particularly at early time points. The larger early lesions appeared to be as a result of increased smooth muscle cells in lesions of TRAIL deficient, pro-atherosclerotic animals. We conclude that TRAIL attenuates plaque size at early stages of atherosclerosis.

Watt, Victoria; Chamberlain, Janet; Steiner, Tanja; Francis, Sheila; Crossman, David

2011-01-01

378

Sorafenib Sensitizes Solid Tumors to Apo2L/TRAIL and Apo2L/TRAIL Receptor Agonist Antibodies by the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 Axis  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.

Abdulghani, Junaid; Allen, Joshua E.; Dicker, David T.; Liu, Yingqiu Yvette; Goldenberg, David; Smith, Charles D.; Humphreys, Robin; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2013-01-01

379

Potential application of temozolomide in mesenchymal stem cell-based TRAIL gene therapy against malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Because the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, it is one of the most promising candidates for cancer treatment. TRAIL-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-TRAIL) provide targeted and prolonged delivery of TRAIL in glioma therapy. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL of glioma cells is a major problem to be overcome. We showed a potential therapy that used MSC-TRAIL combined with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). The antitumor effects of the combination with MSC-TRAIL and TMZ on human glioma cells were determined by using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo experimental xenografted mouse model. Intracellular signaling events that are responsible for the TMZ-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were also evaluated. Treatment of either TRAIL-sensitive or -resistant human glioma cells with TMZ and MSC-TRAIL resulted in a significant enhancement of apoptosis compared with the administration of each agent alone. We demonstrated that TMZ effectively increased the sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated upregulation of the death receptor 5 and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Subsequently, this combined treatment resulted in a substantial increase in caspase activation. Furthermore, in vivo survival experiments and bioluminescence imaging analyses showed that treatment using MSC-TRAIL combined with TMZ had greater therapeutic efficacy than did single-agent treatments. These results suggest that the combination of clinically relevant TMZ and MSC-TRAIL is a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24436439

Kim, Seong Muk; Woo, Ji Sun; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Chung Heon; Jang, Jae-Deog; Jeun, Sin-Soo

2014-02-01

380

Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (7-14?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

2011-05-01

381

Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (8-12?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

2011-01-01

382

AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading-and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroacoustic measurements of the 11 % scale full-span AMELIA CESTOL model with leading- and trailing-edge slot blowing circulation control (CCW) wing were obtained during a recent test in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 40- by 80-Ft. Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, Sound levels and spectra were acquired with seven in-flow microphones and a 48-element phased microphone array for a variety of vehicle configurations, CCW slot flow rates, and forward speeds, Corrections to the measurements and processing are in progress, however the data from selected configurations presented in this report confirm good measurement quality and dynamic range over the test conditions, Array beamform maps at 40 kts tunnel speed show that the trailing edge flap source is dominant for most frequencies at flap angles of 0deg and 60deg, The overall sound level for the 60deg flap was similar to the 0deg flap for most slot blowing rates forward of 90deg incidence, but was louder by up to 6 dB for downstream angles, At 100 kts, the in-flow microphone levels were louder than the sensor self-noise for the higher blowing rates, while passive and active background noise suppression methods for the microphone array revealed source levels as much as 20 dB lower than observed with the in-flow microphones,

Horne, Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

383

Candidate Gene Study of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors: Association with Response to Interferon Beta Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p?=?8.88×10?4, pc?=?0.048, OR?=?0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS.

Orpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, Maria Jesus; Oliver-Martos, Begona; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesus; Arnaiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varade, Jezabel; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca

2013-01-01

384

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

385

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

386

Vehicle barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable\\/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate

Hirsh

1991-01-01

387

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

388

Microsatellite Instability, KRAS Mutations and Cellular Distribution of TRAIL-Receptors in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The fact that the receptors for the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) are almost invariably expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the rationale for the employment of TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds for the therapy of patients affected by this tumor. Yet, first reports on the use of these bioactive agents provided disappointing results. We therefore hypothesized that loss of membrane-bound TRAIL-R might be a feature of some CRC and that the evaluation of membrane staining rather than that of the overall expression of TRAIL-R might predict the response to TRAIL-R targeting compounds in this tumor. Aim and Methods Thus, we evaluated the immunofluorescence pattern of TRAIL-receptors and E-cadherin to assess the fraction of membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors in 231 selected patients with early-stage CRC undergoing surgical treatment only. Moreover, we investigated whether membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors as well as the presence of KRAS mutations or of microsatellite instability (MSI) had an effect on survival and thus a prognostic effect. Results As expected, almost all CRC samples stained positive for TRAIL-R1 and 2. Instead, membrane staining for these receptors was positive in only 71% and 16% of samples respectively. No correlation between KRAS mutation status or MSI-phenotype and prognosis could be detected. TRAIL-R1 staining intensity correlated with survival in univariate analysis, but only membranous staining of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on cell membranes was an independent predictor of survival (cox multivariate analysis: TRAIL-R1: p?=?0.019, RR 2.06[1.12–3.77]; TRAIL-R2: p?=?0.033, RR 3.63[1.11–11.84]). Conclusions In contrast to the current assumptions, loss of membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors is a common feature of early stage CRC which supersedes the prognostic significance of their staining intensity. Failure to achieve therapeutic effects in recent clinical trials using TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds might be due to insufficient selection of patients bearing tumors with membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors.

Kriegl, Lydia; Jung, Andreas; Horst, David; Rizzani, Antonia; Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko; Gallmeier, Eike; Gerbes, Alexander L.; Kirchner, Thomas; Goke, Burkhard; De Toni, Enrico N.

2012-01-01

389

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21) high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

2012-01-01

390

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET  

Cancer.gov

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET Please read all instructions carefully. INSTRUCTIONS: You are responsible for reporting vehicle defects and accidents immediately. DESTINATION VEHICLE TAG NO. NAME OF ALL DRIVERS: PHONE NO TYPE OF VEHICLE SIGNATURE

391

Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.  

PubMed

Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

2009-06-01

392

Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein UL141 Targets the TRAIL Death Receptors to Thwart Host Innate Antiviral Defenses  

PubMed Central

Summary Death receptors (DRs) of the TNFR superfamily contribute to antiviral immunity by promoting apoptosis and regulating immune homeostasis during infection, and viral inhibition of DR signaling can alter immune defenses. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 glycoprotein as necessary and sufficient to restrict TRAIL DR function. Despite showing no primary sequence homology to TNF family cytokines, UL141 binds the ectodomains of both human TRAIL DRs with affinities comparable to the natural ligand TRAIL. UL141 binding promotes intracellular retention of the DRs, thus protecting virus infected cells from TRAIL and TRAIL-dependent NK cell-mediated killing. The identification of UL141 as a herpesvirus modulator of the TRAIL DRs strongly implicates this pathway as a regulator of host defense to HCMV and highlights UL141 as a pleiotropic inhibitor of NK cell effector function.

Smith, Wendell; Tomasec, Peter; Aicheler, Rebecca; Loewendorf, Andrea; Nemcovicova, Ivana; Wang, Eddie C.Y.; Stanton, Richard J.; Macauley, Matt; Norris, Paula; Willen, Laure; Ruckova, Eva; Nomoto, Akio; Schneider, Pascal; Hahn, Gabriele; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Ware, Carl F.; Wilkinson, Gavin W.G.; Benedict, Chris A.

2013-01-01

393

Visitor impacts on trails in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.  

PubMed

This study summarizes findings of a visitor impact study conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. The effect of visitor use, and the influence of environmental characteristics on trail conditions are investigated. Seven trails divided into 208 trail segments, and with a total length of 90 kilometers were included in the assessment. A four-class rating system has been used for the assessment of trail conditions. Arc/Info and Arc/View geographic information system (GIS) are used to analyze spatial patterns of impacts. The study indicates a strong correlation between visitor use and trail degradation. However, locational and environmental factors are equally important variables. The study concludes that more systematic, and experimental studies are needed that can make a clear distinction between human-induced trail damage and the effects of natural factors. PMID:15387069

Nepal, Sanjay K; Nepal, Stella Amor

2004-08-01

394

Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein UL141 targets the TRAIL death receptors to thwart host innate antiviral defenses.  

PubMed

Death receptors (DRs) of the TNFR superfamily contribute to antiviral immunity by promoting apoptosis and regulating immune homeostasis during infection, and viral inhibition of DR signaling can alter immune defenses. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 glycoprotein as necessary and sufficient to restrict TRAIL DR function. Despite showing no primary sequence homology to TNF family cytokines, UL141 binds the ectodomains of both human TRAIL DRs with affinities comparable to the natural ligand TRAIL. UL141 binding promotes intracellular retention of the DRs, thus protecting virus infected cells from TRAIL and TRAIL-dependent NK cell-mediated killing. The identification of UL141 as a herpesvirus modulator of the TRAIL DRs strongly implicates this pathway as a regulator of host defense to HCMV and highlights UL141 as a pleiotropic inhibitor of NK cell effector function. PMID:23498957

Smith, Wendell; Tomasec, Peter; Aicheler, Rebecca; Loewendorf, Andrea; Nem?ovi?ová, Ivana; Wang, Eddie C Y; Stanton, Richard J; Macauley, Matt; Norris, Paula; Willen, Laure; Ruckova, Eva; Nomoto, Akio; Schneider, Pascal; Hahn, Gabriele; Zajonc, Dirk M; Ware, Carl F; Wilkinson, Gavin W G; Benedict, Chris A

2013-03-13

395

Studies on search for bioactive natural products targeting TRAIL signaling leading to tumor cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells and, hence, has been expected as a new anticancer strategy. During our studies on search for bioactive natural products from various natural resources such as plants and microorganisms, we recently identified several natural products which exhibited activities related to TRAIL signaling. Dimeric sesquiterpenoids isolated from Zingiberaceous plant, Curcuma parviflora, showed enhancement activity of gene expression of TRAIL-receptor and TRAIL-receptor protein level. Several new isoflavone natural products, named brandisianins, were isolated from Leguminosaeous plant, Millettia brandisiana, by our screening study targeting TRAIL-receptor expression enhancement activity. A dihydroflavonol (BB1) that was extracted from Compositaeous plant, Blumea balsamifera, and fuligocandin B, a new anthranilylproline-indole alkaloid isolated from myxomycete were found to exhibit reversal effect of TRAIL resistance activity. PMID:18273883

Ishibashi, Masami; Ohtsuki, Takashi

2008-09-01

396

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Physical Activity Using Bike\\/Pedestrian Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a public health perspective, a cost-benefit analysis of using bike\\/pedestrian trails in Lincoln, Nebraska, to reduce health care costs associated with inactivity was conducted. Data was obtained from the city's 1998 Recreational Trails Census Report and the literature. Per capita annual cost of using the trails was U.S.$209.28 ($59.28 construction and maintenance, $150 of equipment and travel). Per capita

Guijing Wang; Caroline A. Macera; Barbara Scudder-Soucie; Tom Schmid; Michael Pratt; David Buchner

2005-01-01

397

P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

2013-09-01

398

Resistance to TRAIL in non-transformed cells is due to multiple redundant pathways  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine and a selective inducer of apoptosis in a range of tumour cells, but not in normal, untransformed cells. A large number of chemotherapeutics as well as biological agents are being tested for their potential to sensitise resistant tumour cells to TRAIL as a means to broaden the range of tumours treatable with TRAIL. However, because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying TRAIL resistance in non-malignant cells, it is unpredictable whether the effect of these sensitisers will be restricted to tumour cells or they would also sensitise non-transformed cells causing unwanted toxicity. In this study, we carried out a systematic analysis of the mechanisms driving TRAIL resistance in non-transformed cells. We found that cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein, anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 proteins, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein were independently able to provide resistance to TRAIL. Deficiency of only one of these proteins was not sufficient to elicit TRAIL sensitivity, demonstrating that in non-transformed cells multiple pathways control TRAIL resistance and they act in a redundant manner. This is contrary to the resistance mechanisms found in tumour cell types, many of them tend to rely on a single mechanism of resistance. Supporting this notion we found that 76% of TRAIL-resistant cell lines (13 out of 17) expressed only one of the above-identified anti-apoptotic proteins at a high level (?1.2-fold higher than the mean expression across all cell lines). Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of the single overexpressed protein in these tumour cells was sufficient to trigger TRAIL sensitivity. Therefore, the redundancy in resistance pathways in non-transformed cells may offer a safe therapeutic window for TRAIL-based combination therapies where selective sensitisation of the tumour to TRAIL can be achieved by targeting the single non-redundant resistance pathway.

van Dijk, M; Halpin-McCormick, A; Sessler, T; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

2013-01-01

399

Ship trail\\/cloud dynamic effects from Apollo-Soyuz photograph July 16, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of a ship trail photograph taken by the Apollo-Soyuz crew at 22:21 GMT on 16 July 1975. The photograph was taken from an altitude of 174 km and shows three separate ship trails with two of the trails intersecting. Because these photographs were taken from a non-geosynchronous satellite with

W. M. Porch; Chih-yue J. Kao; T. G. Kyle; R. G. Jr. Kelley

1988-01-01

400

Species-dependent serum interference in a sandwich ELISA for Apo2L\\/TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support pre-clinical studies of Apo2L\\/TRAIL in rodents and non-human primates, a sandwich ELISA was developed using two mouse monoclonal anti-Apo2L\\/TRAIL antibodies. Mouse, rat, cynomolgus monkey, and chimpanzee serum at concentrations of ?1% were found to interfere with accurate quantitation of Apo2L\\/TRAIL. Moreover, the characteristics of the serum interference for each species were different. In order to resolve the observed

Laura E. DeForge; Danny H. Shih; Derek Kennedy; Klara Totpal; Anan Chuntharapai; Gregory L. Bennett; Jason H. Drummond; Patricia Siguenza; Wai Lee T. Wong

2007-01-01

401

Characterizing Meteors and the Signal Dependence of Nonspecular Trails with Aspect Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Power, Large Aperture (HPLA) Radars have been used to characterize the plasmas formed as meteoroids ablate in Earth's atmosphere. These plasmas are referred to as heads, which are the plasmas surrounding the meteoroids, and trails, which are plasmas behind the meteoroids. Meteor trails are further categorized as specular trails, which are detected when the radar beam is perpendicular to the meteoroid's path, and nonspecular trails, which are detected when the radar beam is quasi-perpendicular to the magnetic field. Specular trails are thought to be from Fresnel scattering of the plasma, whereas nonspecular trails are thought to be the reflection from field aligned irregularities (FAIs) that form due to the onset of turbulence in the meteor trail. We present research on these meteors detected by the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) Long-range Tracking and Identification Radar (ALTAIR) in 2007. These data include dual frequency, dual polarized, and high range resolution in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) returns with additional azimuth and elevation data derived from the monopulse system. We investigate statistical measurements of the meteors including head echo velocities and radar cross sections, correlations of the time duration of nonspecular trails with the respective head echoes, detection rates of head echoes and nonspecular trails, and maximum signal to noise ratio. We also examine the altitude dependence of these meteor parameters. The second part of our investigation includes an aspect sensitivity study of the nonspecular trails detected. We show that there is a decrease in nonspecular trail detections as the angle between the radar boresight and the magnetic field lines is shifted away from perpendicular, with a sharp fall off below 78-80 degrees. This result demonstrates the significance that the radar boresight must be quasi-perpendicular to the magnetic field in order to detect nonspecular trails.

Yee, J.; Close, S.

2012-12-01

402

With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter during a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

2000-01-01

403

Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Wilshire, H. G.; Nakata, J. K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

1978-01-01

404

Garcinol Potentiates TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis through Modulation of Death Receptors and Antiapoptotic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Whether garcinol, the active component from Garcinia indica, can modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a cytokine currently in phase II clinical trial, was investigated. We found that garcinol potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells as indicated by intracellular esterase activity, DNA strand breaks, accumulation of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, mitochondrial activity, and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We found that garcinol, independent of the cell type, induced both of the TRAIL receptors, death receptors (DR)-4 and DR5. Garcinol neither induced the receptors on normal cells, nor sensitized them to TRAIL. Deletion of DR5 or DR4 by small interfering RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by TRAIL and garcinol. In addition, garcinol downregulated various cell survival proteins including survivin, bcl-2, XIAP and cFLIP; and induced bid cleavage, bax and cytochrome c release. Induction of DRs by garcinol was found to be independent of modulation of CHOP, p53, bax, ERK or JNK. The effect of garcinol was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species, in as much as both induction of DRs, modulation of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins and potentiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis were abolished by N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. Interestingly, garcinol also converted TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL-sensitive. Overall, our results indicate that garcinol can potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins.

Prasad, Sahdeo; Ravindran, Jayaraj; Sung, Bokyung; Pandey, Manoj K; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2010-01-01

405

Triptolide sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced activation of the Death Receptor pathway.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes cancer cell death, but many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, are resistant to TRAIL therapy. A combination of TRAIL and the diterpene triepoxide, triptolide, is effective in inducing pancreatic cancer cell death. Triptolide increases levels of death receptor DR5 and decreases the pro-survival FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which contribute to the activation of caspase-8. This combination further causes both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, resulting in cell death. Our study provides a mechanism by which triptolide sensitizes TRAIL resistant cells, which may become a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:24662747

Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok K

2014-06-28

406

Allometric scaling of foraging rate with trail dimensions in leaf-cutting ants.  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) create physical pathways to support the transport of resources on which colony growth and reproduction depend. We determined the scaling relationship between the rate of resource acquisition and the size of the trail system and foraging workforce for 18 colonies of Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes. We examined conventional power-law scaling patterns, but did so in a multivariate analysis that reveals the simultaneous effects of forager number, trail length and trail width. Foraging rate (number of resource-laden ants returning to the nest per unit time) scaled at the 0.93 power of worker numbers, the -1.02 power of total trail length and the 0.65 power of trail width. These scaling exponents indicate that individual performance declines only slightly as more foragers are recruited to the workforce, but that trail length imposes a severe penalty on the foraging rate. A model of mass traffic flow predicts the allometric patterns for workforce and trail length, although the effect of trail width is unexpected and points to the importance of the little-known mechanisms that regulate a colony's investment in trail clearance. These results provide a point of comparison for the role that resource flows may play in allometric scaling patterns in other transport-dependent entities, such as human cities. PMID:22337696

Bruce, Andrew I; Burd, Martin

2012-06-22

407

Effects of the Built Environment on Childhood Obesity: the Case of Urban Recreational Trails and Crime  

PubMed Central

We study the effects of urban environment on childhood obesity by concentrating on the effects of walking trails and crime close to children’s homes on their BMI and obesity status. We use a unique dataset, which combines information on recreational trails in Indianapolis with data on violent crimes and anthropomorphic and diagnostic data from children’s clinic visits between 1996 and 2005. We find that having a trail near a home reduces children’s weight. However, the effect depends on the amount of nearby violent crimes. Significant reductions occur only in low crime areas and trails could have opposite effects on weight in high crime areas. These effects are primarily among boys, older children, and children who live in higher income neighborhoods. Evaluated at the mean length of trails this effect for older children in no crime areas would be a reduction of two pounds of the body weight. Falsification tests using planned trails instead of existing trails, show that trails are more likely to be located in areas with heavier children, suggesting that our results on effects of trails represent a lower bound.

Sandy, Robert; Tchernis, Rusty; Wilson, Jeff; Liu, Gilbert; Zhou, Xilin

2012-01-01

408

Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those of Gurney flap and conventional flap. The extended trailing edge, as a simple mechanical device added on a wing without altering the basic configuration, has a good potential to improve the cruise flight efficiency.

Liu, Tianshu; Montefort; Liou, William W.; Pantula, Srinivasa R.; Shams, Qamar A.

2007-01-01

409

Clerodane diterpenes from Casearia arguta that act as synergistic TRAIL sensitizers.  

PubMed

Casearia arguta was investigated as part of the ongoing search for synergistic TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) sensitizers. As a result of this study, argutins A-H, eight new highly oxygenated clerodane diterpenes, were isolated from the plant Casearia arguta collected in Guatemala. The modified Mosher ester method was utilized to establish the absolute configuration of argutins A and F. Each of the argutins showed varying levels of synergy with TRAIL. Argutin B showed the highest TRAIL sensitization; the synergistic effect of argutin B and TRAIL together was 3-fold greater than argutin B alone. PMID:21067210

Whitson, Emily L; Thomas, Cheryl L; Henrich, Curtis J; Sayers, Thomas J; McMahon, James B; McKee, Tawnya C

2010-12-27

410

Regulating TRAIL Receptor-Induced Cell Death at the Membrane: A Deadly Discussion  

PubMed Central

The use of TRAIL/APO2L and monoclonal antibodies targeting TRAIL receptors for cancer therapy holds great promise, due to their ability to restore cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis in association with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in a large variety of tumors. TRAIL-induced cell death is tightly regulated right from the membrane and at the DISC (Death-Inducing Signaling Complex) level. The following patent and literature review aims to present and highlight recent findings of the deadly discussion that determines tumor cell fate upon TRAIL engagement.

Shirley, Sarah; Morizot, Alexandre; Micheau, Olivier

2011-01-01

411

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

412

Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression  

SciTech Connect

AP-1/cJun, NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-{kappa}B and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-{kappa}B by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment.

Ivanov, Vladimir N. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

2006-12-10

413

Combination Anticancer Nanopreparations of Novel Proapoptotic Drug, TRAIL and siRNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of drugs for the treatment of cancer is a challenging endeavor often hindered by the solubility and distribution of the drug in the body. Drug delivery systems have been used for many years to overcome these issues. Polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles in particular have shown utility as a nanosized drug delivery vehicle capable of incorporating poorly soluble drugs and preferentially delivering them to the tumor. Addition of PEG polymers to the surface prolongs the half-life of the particle in the blood by evading clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and increases tumor accumulation through the utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Micelles have also been shown to successfully incorporate and protect modified siRNA, a notoriously challenging therapeutic to deliver. Additionally, co-delivery of multiple therapeutics in multifunctional micelles has emerged as an important area in combination therapy research. The main goal of this project was to develop a multifunctional PEG-PE micellar delivery system capable of delivering multiple therapeutics for increased anti-tumor activity. Previous studies have indicated the utility of a DM-PIT-1, a member of a class of novel PIP3-PH inhibitors, and its potential in the treatment of cancer. The PIP3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to have serious implications in cancer. Inhibiting this pathway has been shown to sensitize the cell to apoptosis. A second generation of more potent and druggable compounds has been developed based on the structure of DM- PIT-1. However, it has been difficult to develop successful compounds inhibiting PIP3 signaling while maintaining the physicochemical properties necessary for an effective drug. Many of these compounds are limited by their poor solubility and rapid clearance in vivo. Incorporating these compounds into PEG-PE micelles allows for increased solubility, prolonged half-life and tumor accumulation. The addition of TNFa-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) bound to the surface of the micelle creates a combination micelle with excellent cytotoxic effects. TRAIL has been shown to be an effective apoptosis inducing ligand in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. TRAIL receptors are preferentially expressed on many cancer cell types as compared to healthy cells making this ligand an intriguing potential therapy. The combination of TRAIL and PIP3-PH inhibitors in a micellar delivery system has the potential to create a powerful anti-cancer therapeutic. Including modified siRNA to down regulate cancer defense mechanisms can further sensitize the cell to apoptosis. siRNA delivery has been shown to be a difficult task. Rapid metabolism and clearance in the blood hinders their ability to reach the tumor. Additionally, their large size and negative charge prevents them from crossing the cell membrane to reach their location of action. Reversibly conjugating a modified siRNA to a lipid thereby creating an siRNA-S-S-PE, allows for their incorporation into PEG-PE micelles. These mixed micelles have been shown to protect the siRNA and successfully transfect cells. This study aimed to combine the aforementioned therapeutics into a multifunctional PEG-PE based micelle delivery system. Novel proapoptotic drugs targeting the PIP3-PH binding domain have been successfully incorporated into the lipid core of the micelle. These drugs were able to effectively sensitize the cell to the effects of surface-bound TRAIL. Additionally, siRNA targeting the anti-apoptotic protein survivin was shown to be incorporated into the micelles and further sensitize the tumor to the effects of the above compounds. Lastly, conjugating transferrin (TF) to the surface of the micelle was shown increase the tumor cell targeting and cytotoxicity in vitro. Critical evaluation of this system was performed along the following specific aims: (1) characterization of PIP3-PH inhibition and cytotoxicity of proapoptotic drug DM-PIT-1 and its novel analogs in vitro with and without TRAIL; (2) preparatio

Riehle, Robert D.

414

Analysis of the quality of hospital information systems audit trails  

PubMed Central

Background Audit Trails (AT) are fundamental to information security in order to guarantee access traceability but can also be used to improve Health information System’s (HIS) quality namely to assess how they are used or misused. This paper aims at analysing the existence and quality of AT, describing scenarios in hospitals and making some recommendations to improve the quality of information. Methods The responsibles of HIS for eight Portuguese hospitals were contacted in order to arrange an interview about the importance of AT and to collect audit trail data from their HIS. Five institutions agreed to participate in this study; four of them accepted to be interviewed, and four sent AT data. The interviews were performed in 2011 and audit trail data sent in 2011 and 2012. Each AT was evaluated and compared in relation to data quality standards, namely for completeness, comprehensibility, traceability among others. Only one of the AT had enough information for us to apply a consistency evaluation by modelling user behaviour. Results The interviewees in these hospitals only knew a few AT (average of 1 AT per hospital in an estimate of 21 existing HIS), although they all recognize some advantages of analysing AT. Four hospitals sent a total of 7 AT – 2 from Radiology Information System (RIS), 2 from Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), 3 from Patient Records. Three of the AT were understandable and three of the AT were complete. The AT from the patient records are better structured and more complete than the RIS/PACS. Conclusions Existing AT do not have enough quality to guarantee traceability or be used in HIS improvement. Its quality reflects the importance given to them by the CIO of healthcare institutions. Existing standards (e.g. ASTM:E2147, ISO/TS 18308:2004, ISO/IEC 27001:2006) are still not broadly used in Portugal.

2013-01-01

415

PARP-1 regulates resistance of pancreatic cancer to TRAIL therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Activating extrinsic apoptotic pathways targeting death receptors (DR) using agonistic antibodies or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is promising for cancer therapy. However, most pancreatic cancers are resistant to TRAIL therapy. The present studies aimed to identify combination therapies that enhance the efficacy of TRAIL therapy; and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Design A xenograft model in nude mice was used to determine pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis and therapeutic efficacy of TRA-8, a monoclonal agonistic antibody for DR5. Pancreatic cancer cells were used to characterize mechanisms underlying poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in regulating TRA-8-induced apoptosis in vitro. Results PARP-1 was found highly expressed in the TRA-8-resistant PANC-1 and Suit-2 cells, compared with TRA-8-sensitive BxPc-3 and MiaPaca-2. Inhibition of PARP-1 with a pharmacologic inhibitor sensitized PANC-1 and Suit2 cells to TRA-8 induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, small interfering RNAs specifically knocking down PARP-1 markedly enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis in vitro, and augmented the efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. PARP-1 knockdown increased TRA-8-induced activation of caspase-8 in the death-induced signaling complex (DISC). Immuoprecipitation with DR5 antibody identified the recruitment of PARP-1 and PARP-1-mediated protein poly-ADP-ribosylation(pADPr) modification in the DR5-associated DISC. Further characterization revealed that PARP-1-mediated pADPr modification of caspase-8 inhibited caspase-8 activation, which may contribute to its function in regulating TRA-8 resistance. Conclusions Our studies not only provide novel molecular insights into the function of PARP-1 in regulating the extrinsic apoptosis machinery, but also support interventions combining PARP-1 inhibitors with death receptor agonists for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Yuan, Kaiyu; Sun, Yong; Zhou, Tong; McDonald, Jay; Chen, Yabing

2014-01-01

416

Ants Can Learn to Forage on One-Way Trails  

PubMed Central

The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues – chemical, visual or any other - are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication.

Ribeiro, Pedro Leite; Helene, Andre Frazao; Xavier, Gilberto; Navas, Carlos; Ribeiro, Fernando Leite

2009-01-01

417

Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder.

Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

2012-01-01

418

Influence of free stream turbulence on a trailing line vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-speed wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of free stream turbulence on the mean behavior of a trailing line vortex. Perforated plates and screens were used to produce turbulence levels ranging between 0.03 percent and 5 percent of the free stream velocity in the vicinity of the vortex generator. Smoke was used to provide a visual image of the vortex and photographic and videotape records were taken. Experiments have shown that high turbulence levels cause vortices to meander but with little evidence of structural change. At lower turbulence intensities, some types of vortex oscillations were observed which suggest possible instabilities.

Ash, Robert L.; Stead, Daniel J.

1990-01-01

419

Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis of Slat Trailing-Edge Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic analysis based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation was performed for a high-lift system. As input, the acoustic analysis used un- steady flow data obtained from a highly resolved, time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculation. The analysis strongly suggests that vor- tex shedding from the trailing edge of the slat results in a high-amplitude, high-frequency acoustic signal, similar to that which was observed in a correspond- ing experimental study of the high-lift system.

Singer, Bart A.; Lockhard, David P.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Berkman, Mert E.; Choudhari, Meelan

2000-01-01

420

Reporter at large: Three Mile Island. II. The paper trail  

SciTech Connect

With a regulatory process that remained in fundamental disarray, it was apparent to some observers, at least-that sooner or later the government's overambitious nuclear program was going to get into trouble. Indeed, looking back over AEC and NRC records, one can follow what one senior NRC official calls the paper trail that documents the detailed foreknowledge, on the part of both the nuclear industry and the federal government, of the specific safety problems that culminated in the Three Mile Island accident of March 28, 1979.

Ford, D.

1981-04-13

421

An Architecture and a MAC Protocol for Throughput Improvement in Light Trail Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light trail architecture is attracting attention as a new optical wavelength-division multiplexing network architecture that can be built with currently available devices and can achieve bandwidth allocation with granularity finer than a wavelength. Because a light trail is a shared medium, we need a medium access control (MAC) protocol to prevent collisions. Although MAC protocols using token passing can prevent collisions, the bandwidths of links that are located upstream of the token holding node are kept idle. We first propose a dynamic light trail splitting method for increasing throughput of a light trail by using such idle bandwidths. Our method splits a trail into upstream and downstream trails at the token holding node, and independent data transmission on the two trails are permitted. As a result, we expect that the split trail architecture will achieve higher throughput than the original non-split trail architecture. The degree of performance improvement with the split trail architecture depends on how appropriately we determine the upstream and downstream token holding times of every transmission node. Thus, we formulate a problem in which we optimize the token holding times to accommodate requested traffic volume as a linear programming problem. We then derive the throughput of the split trail architecture by solving the problem using the NUOPT solver and investigate the degree of improvement over the original architecture. In addition, we evaluate the end-to-end delay of the split trail architecture by simulation. According to numerical examples, the split trail architecture achieves 1) almost the same throughput as the original one for the worst-case traffic pattern where every transmission node sends data to the terminating node of the trail only, 2) about 1.6 times higher throughput for a uniform traffic pattern where every node pair requests the same traffic volume and an extremely unbalanced traffic pattern where only a few node pairs request huge traffic volume, 3) about 1.9 time higher throughput for the split trail architecture's good-case traffic pattern where every transmission node sends data to its adjacent downstream node only, and 4) the end-to-end delay enough to satisfy any application's QoS requirement according to ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541.

Chen, Wenjie; Fukushima, Yukinobu; Yokohira, Tokumi

422

Ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer represents an ideal disease for chemopreventive intervention. Propolis possesses immuno-modulatory, anti-tumour and chemopreventive properties. The tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an important endogenous anti-cancer agent that induces apoptosis selectively in tumour cells. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Naturally occurring phenolic and polyphenolic compounds sensitize TRAIL-resistant cancer cells and augment the apoptotic activity of TRAIL. The ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP) is rich in phenolic components. Our in vitro results indicate the potential targets in the TRAIL-induced apoptotic pathway for the cancer chemopreventive activity of Brazilian propolis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Brazilian EEP and its bioactive components in combination with TRAIL on LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The chemical composition of Brazilian green propolis was determined by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The cytotoxicity was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was evaluated using DePsipher staining by fluorescence microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to analyse death receptor (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2) expression in LNCaP cells. The inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) (p65) activation in cancer cells was confirmed by the ELISA-based TransAM NF-?B kit. The LNCaP cells were shown to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that EEP sensitizes TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cells. The main phenolic components detected in Brazilian green propolis are artepillin C, quercetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid. Brazilian propolis and its bioactive components markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells. Brazilian EEP enhanced the expression of TRAIL-R2 and the activity of NF-?B in LNCaP cells. The co-treatment of prostate cancer cells with 100 ng/ml TRAIL and 50 µg/ml EEP increased the percentage of apoptotic cells to 65.8 ± 1.2% and caused a significant disruption of ??m in LNCaP cells. We show that Brazilian EEP helped cells overcome TRAIL resistance by engaging both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and regulating NF-?B activity. The data demonstrate the important role of Brazilian green propolis and its bioactive compounds in prostate cancer chemoprevention through the enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:21286663

Szliszka, Ewelina; Zydowicz, Grzegorz; Janoszka, Beata; Dobosz, Cezary; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Grazyna; Krol, Wojciech

2011-04-01

423

Modernisation and children's blood pressure: On and off the tourist trail in Nepal.  

PubMed

Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken for 231 children between 11 and 14 years in the Annapurna area of Central Nepal, a popular tourist destination. Children from villages on the tourist trail, whose lifestyles were generally more modernised, were compared with children from nearby villages off the tourist trail. Indications of greater modernisation on the trail included the findings that fathers of children living on the trail were less likely to work as farmers than fathers of those off the trail (P = 0.003), and children living on the trail were much more likely to have seen television (P < 0.001). Children on the tourist trail were taller and heavier (P < 0.001), and had higher body mass indices (P = 0.003) and biceps skinfolds (P = 0.005). They also had higher diastolic blood pressure than children living off the trail (P = 0.02). The differences in weight appeared to account for the effect of living on the trail on diastolic blood pressure, since when weight was added to the model it showed a significant association with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.02) and the effect of location became nonsignificant. For the biceps skinfold and systolic blood pressure, there was a significant sex difference in the effect of living on the trail (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05 respectively), such that among girls there were greater increases associated with living on the trail than there were among boys. The findings suggest that lifestyle changes linked to the development of tourism in Nepal are associated from an early age with potentially deleterious changes in cardiovascular characteristics and demonstrate that such socioeconomic changes can have quite local effects. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:478-486, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534039

Pollard, Tessa M.; Ward, Gill A.; Thornley, Jeremy; Wooster, Gordon; Wooster, Jeanette; Panter-Brick, Catherine

2000-07-01

424

Senescence-secreted factors activate Myc and sensitize pretransformed cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Senescent cells secrete a plethora of factors with potent paracrine signaling capacity. Strikingly, senescence, which acts as defense against cell transformation, exerts pro-tumorigenic activities through its secretome by promoting tumor-specific features, such as cellular proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has the unique activity of activating cell death exclusively in tumor cells. Given that the senescence-associated secretome (SAS) supports cell transformation, we asked whether SAS factor(s) would establish a program required for the acquisition of TRAIL sensitivity. We found that conditioned media from several types of senescent cells (CMS) efficiently sensitized pretransformed cells to TRAIL, while the same was not observed with normal or immortalized cells. Dynamic transcription profiling of CMS-exposed pretransformed cells indicated a paracrine autoregulatory loop of SAS factors and a dominant role of CMS-induced MYC. Sensitization to TRAIL coincided with and depended on MYC upregulation and massive changes in gene regulation. Senescent cell-induced MYC silenced its target gene CFLAR, encoding the apoptosis inhibitor FLIPL , thus leading to the acquisition of TRAIL sensitivity. Altogether, our results reveal that senescent cell-secreted factors exert a TRAIL-sensitizing effect on pretransformed cells by modulating the expression of MYC and CFLAR. Notably, CMS dose-dependent sensitization to TRAIL was observed with TRAIL-insensitive cancer cells and confirmed in co-culture experiments. Dissection and characterization of TRAIL-sensitizing CMS factors and the associated signaling pathway(s) will not only provide a mechanistic insight into the acquisition of TRAIL sensitivity but may lead to novel concepts for apoptogenic therapies of premalignant and TRAIL-resistant tumors. PMID:24589226

Vjetrovic, Jelena; Shankaranarayanan, Pattabhiraman; Mendoza-Parra, Marco A; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

2014-06-01

425

Prognostic significance of TRAIL death receptors in Middle Eastern colorectal carcinomas and their correlation to oncogenic KRAS alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor cytokine family that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain containing receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (DR4) and TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5). Expression of TRAIL receptors is higher in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) as compared to normal colorectal mucosa and targeted therapy with TRAIL leads to preferential killing of tumor cells sparing normal cells. Methods We investigated the expression of TRAIL and its receptors in a tissue microarray cohort of 448 Middle Eastern CRC. We also studied the correlation between TRAIL receptors and various clinico-pathological features including key molecular alterations and overall survival. Results CRC subset with TRAIL-R1 expression was associated with a less aggressive phenotype characterized by early stage (p = 0.0251) and a histology subtype of adenocarcinomas (p = 0.0355). Similarly CRC subset with TRAIL-R2 expression was associated with a well-differentiated tumors (p < 0.0001), histology subtype of adenocarcinomas (p = 0.0010) and tumors in left colon (p = 0.0009). Over expression of pro apoptotic markers: p27KIP1 and KRAS4A isoforms was significantly higher in CRC subset with TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression; TRAIL-R1 expression was also associated with cleaved caspase-3(p = 0.0011). Interestingly, TRAIL-R2 expression was associated with a microsatellite stable (MS--S/L) phenotype (p = 0.0003) and with absence of KRAS mutations (p = 0.0481). Conclusion TRAIL-R1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for better survival in all CRC samples and even in the CRC group that received adjuvant therapy. The biological effects of TRAIL in CRC models, its enhancement of chemosensitivity towards standard chemotherapeutic agents and the effect of endogenous TRAIL receptor levels on survival make TRAIL an extremely attractive therapeutic target.

2010-01-01

426

Trail Communication Regulated by Two Trail Pheromone Components in the Fungus-Growing Termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki)  

PubMed Central

The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily regulated within a limited microenvironment formed by the tunnels or chambers.

Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dusses, David

2014-01-01

427

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

428

Flutter Stability Verified for the Trailing Edge Blowing Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code has been used to verify the flutter stability of the trailing edge blowing (TEB) fan, which is a unique technology demonstrator being designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center for testing in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Air can be blown out of slots near the trailing edges of the TEB fan blades to fill in the wakes downstream of the rotating blades, which reduces the rotor-stator interaction (tone) noise caused by the interaction of wakes with the downstream stators. The TEB fan will demonstrate a 1.6-EPNdB reduction in tone noise through wake filling. Furthermore, the reduced blade-row interaction will decrease the possibility of forced-response vibrations and enable closer spacing of blade rows, thus reducing engine length and weight. The detailed aeroelastic analysis capability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes TURBO-AE code was used to check the TEB fan rotor blades for flutter stability. Flutter calculations were first performed with no TEB flow; then select calculations were repeated with TEB flow turned on.

Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh

2005-01-01

429

CFD analysis of wing trailing edge vortex generator using serrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents computational results of a NACA0012 base wing with the trailing edge modified to incorporate triangular serrations. The effect of the serrations were investigated in three stages, the deflection angle of the serration with respect to the wing chord were examined from -90° to 90° at 10° intervals; the results obtained showed that although larger deflection induces a stronger vorticity magnitude, the strength of the vortex decays faster than compared to smaller deflections. Moreover, the vorticity profile downstream of the wing varies with deflection angle of the serration. Next, the addition of a Clark Y flap to the base wing to analyze the flow pattern and the effect on the flow separation; without serrations attached to the base wing trailing edge, at a high angle of attack, the flow will separate early and would render the flap less effective. The Vortex generator energizes the boundary layer and encourages the flow to remain attached to the flap, allowing for a greater range flap deflection. A wind tunnel experiment was developed and conducted to substantiate the computational analysis in a real world scenario. There was a positive correlation between the results obtained experimentally and computationally.

Alawadhi, H. A.; Alex, A. G.; Kim, Y. H.

2014-03-01

430

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

431

30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. 75.907 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.907 Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. [Statutory...

2013-07-01

432

17 CFR 38.552 - Elements of an acceptable audit trail program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an acceptable audit trail program. 38.552 Section...DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Trade Information § 38.552 Elements of an acceptable audit trail program. (a) Original...

2013-04-01

433

Reduction of the Shock Wave Intensity by Modifying the Transonic Blade Trailing Edge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that the shock wave intensity can be decreased by using modified trailing edge configurations to reduce or even completely compensate for the effect of the finite thickness of the trailing edge. A theoretical analysis is presented together wit...

P. Doerffer

1983-01-01

434

National Park Service Environmental Assessment Install Bat-Accessible Gates at Crest Trail Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Park Service (NPS) has determined that four abandoned mine adits along the Crest Trail (a section of the Arizona Trail) in Coronado National Memorial should be closed to improve visitor and law enforcement safety. We propose closing entrances to three of these mines with steel gates, which will prevent people from entering the mines while still allowing access

435

Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

436

Iditarod National Historic Trail (A BLM Alaska 'Adventures in the Past' Series No. 6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Iditarod National Historic Trail commemorates a 2,200 mile system of winter trails that first connected prehistoric Native Alaskan villages, later became a major route for the settlement of Gold Rush-era Alaska, and continues to play a vital role in m...

2007-01-01

437

Geology Along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates th...

A. Valdez D. A. Lindsey R. J. Webster T. L. Klein

2012-01-01

438

Web-Based Museum Trails on PDAs for University-Level Design Students: Design and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development and evaluation of web-based museum trails for university-level design students to access on handheld devices in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. The trails offered students a range of ways of exploring the museum environment and collections, some encouraging students to interpret objects and…

Reynolds, R.; Walker, K.; Speight, C.

2010-01-01

439

Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara

2008-01-01

440

Dihydroflavonol BB1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

hibited the synergism, indicating that sen- sitization was caused by the increase of TRAIL-R2 expression. More interestingly, similar effects were observed in other leukemia cell lines by exactly the same mechanisms. These results suggest that combined treatment with BB-1 and TRAIL may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. (Blood. 2006;107:679-688)

Hiroo Hasegawa; Yasuaki Yamada; Kanki Komiyama; Masahiko Hayashi; Masami Ishibashi; Tatsushi Yoshida; Toshiyuki Sakai; Takashi Koyano; Toh-Seok Kam; Ken Murat; Kazuyuki Sugahara; Kazuto Tsuruda; Norihiko Akamatsu; Kunihiro Tsukasaki; Masato Masuda; Nobuyuki Takasu; Shimeru Kamihira

2005-01-01

441

Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow past a trailing edge and the associated noise generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted of turbulent flow passing an infinitely thin trailing edge. The objective is to investigate the turbulent flow field in the vicinity of the trailing edge and the associated broadband noise generation. To generate a turbulent boundary layer a short distance from the inflow boundary, high- amplitude lifted streaks and disturbances that can be associated

RICHARD D. S ANDBERG; NEIL D. S ANDHAM

2008-01-01

442

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in rheumatoid arthritis: what's new?  

PubMed

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a type II transmembrane protein of the TNF superfamily that serves as an extracellular signal that triggers programmed cell death in tumor cells, without affecting normal cells. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the emerging role of TRAIL in immune and autoimmune responses. TRAIL has been shown to down-regulate the self-antigens in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by exerting its apoptotic effect on activated T cells and synoviocytes and by its local anti-inflammatory effect. The impact of TRAIL molecular variants and agonistic monoclonal antibodies in the regulation of