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1

Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA  

E-print Network

Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA Dirk soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Off-road vehicle driving has increased greatly since

Ahmad, Sajjad

2

USE OF CHEMICAL SOIL ADDITIVES TO STABILIZE OFF-ROAD VEHICLE TRAILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road vehicle (ORV) use is an increasingly popular form of outdoor recreation throughout the United States. This form of motorized recreation, however, can sometimes lead to serious erosion of trail running surfaces, with resulting export of sediment into forested ecosystems causing environmental degradation. This project was conducted to determine the feasibility of using two types of soil amendments, an acrylic

J. N. Davis; J. E. Baier; J. P. Fulton; D. A. Brown; T. P. McDonald

3

Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particles<10?m), during the driving as

Dirk Goossens; Brenda Buck

2009-01-01

4

DISTRIBUTION OF ECOLOGICALLY-INVASIVE PLANTS ALONG OFF-ROAD VEHICLE TRAILS IN THE CHEQUAMEGON NATIONAL FOREST, WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the invasive flora of off-road vehicle (ORV) trails, I combined field surveys for 7 in- vasive plant species along 2 ORV trails and seed surveys via soil samples taken from the undercar- riage of ORVs. Field surveys identified 4 of the 7 species (Centaurea biebersteinii, Phalaris arund- inacea, Hieracium aurantiacum, and Lotus corniculata), and at least one invasive

Thomas P. Rooney

5

Off-Road Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in off-road vehicle dynamics are reviewed. Progress on this topic and the application of new techniques to the particular problemsassociated with off-road operation tend to lag behind practices established for road vehicles.The factor which limits further progress is the lack ofappropriate off-road tyre data, in particular, on vibrational and lateral force generation characteristics. Also, a long term study

D. A. Crolla

1981-01-01

6

75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (FEIS/GMP...hiking-only trails. The entire off-road vehicle (ORV) trail system would...

2010-11-24

7

Analyzing the impacts of off-road vehicle (ORV) trails on watershed processes in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska.  

PubMed

Trails created by off-road vehicles (ORV) in boreal lowlands are known to cause local impacts, such as denuded vegetation, soil erosion, and permafrost thaw, but impacts on stream and watershed processes are less certain. In Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, ORV trails have caused local resource damage in intermountain lowlands with permafrost soils and abundant wetlands and there is a need to know whether these impacts are more extensive. Comparison of aerial photography from 1957, 1981, and 2004 coupled with ground surveys in 2009 reveal an increase in trail length and number and show an upslope expansion of a trail system around points of stream channel initiation. We hypothesized that these impacts could also cause premature initiation and headward expansion of channels because of lowered soil resistance and greater runoff accumulation as trails migrate upslope. Soil monitoring showed earlier and deeper thaw of the active layer in and adjacent to trails compared to reference sites. Several rainfall-runoff events during the summer of 2009 showed increased and sustained flow accumulation below trail crossings and channel shear forces sufficient to cause headward erosion of silt and peat soils. These observations of trail evolution relative to stream and wetland crossings together with process studies suggest that ORV trails are altering watershed processes. These changes in watershed processes appear to result in increasing drainage density and may also alter downstream flow regimes, water quality, and aquatic habitat. Addressing local land-use disturbances in boreal and arctic parklands with permafrost soils, such as WRST, where responses to climate change may be causing concurrent shifts in watershed processes, represents an important challenge facing resource managers. PMID:22327506

Arp, Christopher D; Simmons, Trey

2012-03-01

8

Dynamic stability of off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a unified measure for dynamic stability of off-road vehicles that accounts for the tendency to tipover, slide, or loose contact with ground during static equilibrium and in motion. The contacts between the vehicle and ground are assumed rigid, and all wheels are assumed active. The dynamic stability measure is determined by computing the range of velocity and

Zvi Shiller; Moshe P. Mann

2004-01-01

9

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2013-07-01

10

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2012-07-01

11

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2010-07-01

12

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2010-07-01

13

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2013-07-01

14

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2012-07-01

15

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2014-07-01

16

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1). A sophisticated hazard detection, proetzsch, renner, b_schaef, berns}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road

Berns, Karsten

17

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation 2 highly vegetated terrain. Their experimental platform is RAVON, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1

Berns, Karsten

18

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2011-07-01

19

36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.  

...2014-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate...of State law established for vehicles used off roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan....

2014-07-01

20

The Off-Road Recreation Vehicle--Visual Impacts1  

E-print Network

The Off-Road Recreation Vehicle-- Visual Impacts1 Stephen F. McCool 2/ 1/ Presented at the National: The off-road recreation vehicle (ORV) has become a major influence on the character of wild landscapes for the first climb of the day. The off-road recreation vehicle (ORV) and its impacts are one of the most

Standiford, Richard B.

21

36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks...Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be...

2011-07-01

22

Toward Reliable Off Road Autonomous Vehicles Operating in Challenging Environments  

E-print Network

Toward Reliable Off Road Autonomous Vehicles Operating in Challenging Environments Alonzo Kelly. Off road mobile robots must operate effectively under forest canopy which occludes positioning occluded hazards. In short, off road autonomy is among the most ambitious of our aspirations for mobile

Kelly, Alonzo

23

An agent based evolutionary approach to path detection for off-road vehicle guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ant colony optimization approach adopted to decide on road-borders to automatically guide a vehicle developed for the DARPA Grand Challenge 2004. Due to the complexity of off-road trails and different natural bound- aries of the trails, lane markers detection schemes cannot work. Hence border detec- tion is based on Ant Colony Optimization technique. Two borders at

Alberto Broggi; Stefano Cattani

2006-01-01

24

Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study undertaken to determine the ecological effects of off-road vehicles, such as four-wheel drive trucks and dirt bikes in the Big Cottonwood Canyon area near Salt Lake City. Applications of the study to other investigations of off-road vehicles are discussed. (DB)

Kay, Jeanne; And Others

1981-01-01

25

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The...

2013-10-01

26

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The...

2011-10-01

27

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The...

2012-10-01

28

76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee AGENCY...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee to offer...possible solutions to management of off-road vehicles at Big Cypress National...

2011-10-17

29

75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan AGENCY: National...Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan...National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/...

2010-11-15

30

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The...

2014-10-01

31

77 FR 6581 - Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee AGENCY...Interior, National Park Service, Off-road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the...

2012-02-08

32

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The...

2010-10-01

33

40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. 1037.631 ...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. This section...criteria. Vocational vehicles intended for off-road use meeting...

2012-07-01

34

40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.  

...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. 1037.631 ...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. This section...criteria. Vocational vehicles intended for off-road use meeting...

2014-07-01

35

40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. 1037.631 ...Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use. This section...criteria. Vocational vehicles intended for off-road use meeting...

2013-07-01

36

The Overbot: An Off-Road Autonomous Ground Vehicle Testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Overbot, originally designed to run the DARPA Grand Challenge, has been retasked as an off-road autonomous vehicle testbed. The base chassis is a Polaris Ranger 6x6 gasoline powered off-road vehicle. It has a single cylinder 30 HP engine capable of propelling the vehicle to over 40 mph. In addition to the chassis, the Overbot is equipped with a SiCK

Gabriel Hugh Elkaim; John Connors; John Nagle

37

Dynamic Analysis of Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the simulation of off-road robots while taking into accountthe mechanical behavior of the locomotion system and its interactionwith its environment. This interaction is studied and discussed for differentbehaviors of wheel-soil contact. The analysis considers phenomena of slips,of soil shear deformations, of soil compaction and wheel elastic deformation.Wheel-soil contact models are expressed by analytical relationships whichlink each

Faïz Ben Amar; Philippe Bidaud

1995-01-01

38

Soil Damage Models for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road vehicles such as ATVs, SUVs, dirt bikes, and hauling trucks cause damage to soft soils in unpaved areas within parks, forests, wetlands, and tundra. These vehicles can form deep ruts which result in destruction of vegetation, changes in water absorption\\/retention, and reduction in aesthetical land values. Large areas of particularly vulnerable soils are becoming increasingly common in northern regions,

James Hambleton; Andrew Drescher

39

Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

Reid, David C.; And Others

1988-01-01

40

Conceptual design of a hybrid electric off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the conceptual design of a hybrid electric off-road vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be used in Colombia (South America) where the topographical conditions require special considerations for the design of the critical systems. A study and preliminary design of the power supply system, the suspension and the powertrain are presented.

L. E. Munoz; J. C. Blanco; J. P. Barreto; N. A. Rincon; S. D. Roa

2012-01-01

41

Off-road vehicle locomotion using Bekker's model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bekker's Derived Terramechanics Model (BDTM) is an analytical tool for evaluating vehicle off-road mobility. BDTM has been developed using Bekker's equations for vehicle soil interactions. He developed the bevameter technique to measure mechanical strength characteristics for many soil and snow conditions. BDTM is in a spreadsheet format, and its primary purpose is to compare mobility characteristics for robotic track and

Grant R. Gerhart; Sean C. Laughery; Richard C. Goetz

2000-01-01

42

Active Damping of Oscillations in Off Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper relates to analyses and control of the oscillations occurring in many off road vehicles, which are designed without any suspension. Without suspension, the tire is the only elastic element acting between the vehicle and the ground but the suspension and damping properties of the tires cannot meet the demands for fast, safe and comfortable road transportation. During

M. R. Hansen; T. O. Andersen

43

Vibration testing of off-road vehicle seats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with Carter Mining Co., conducted vibration tests of four off-road vehicle seats. The purpose of the tests was to determine which seat provides the best vibration attenuation under laboratory conditions. Laboratory tests were constructed to simulate the mining vibration environment within the limitations of the test equipment. The acceleration test levels and corresponding

J. C. Gagliardi; W. K. Utt

1993-01-01

44

THE EFFECTS OF OFF-ROAD VEHICLES ON ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the impacts and effects of off-road vehicles (ORV) on ecosystems have been a controversial subject across the United States and throughout the world (Webb and Wilshire, 1983). In the United States, it became an issue during the 1970s when environmentalists became concerned with ORV use on federal properties. During this time, scientific investigations were conducted to evaluate

Richard B. Taylor

45

Fundamental Performance of 6Wheeled Off-Road Vehicle \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the development of the “HELIOS” series off-road vehicles and powered wheelchairs that are able to ascend and descend stairs. In this paper, we describe a 6-wheeled vehicle “HELIOS-V”, which is equipped with 4 low-pressure tires on the outside and 2 high-pressure tires on the inside. This vehicle has two continuously variable transmissions to change velocity and direction of

Yasuyuki Uchida; Kazuya Furuichi; Shigeo Hirose

1999-01-01

46

Disturbance of beach sediment by off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the beach at Fire Island,\\u000a New York. Within the National Seashore over 45,000 vehicle trips per year are concentrated in the zone seaward of the dune\\u000a toe. The experimental approach was adopted in order to assess the environmental effects of ORVs. Specially developed instrumentation\\u000a was used

Fred J. Anders; Stephen P. Leatherman

1987-01-01

47

Disturbance of beach sediment by off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the beach at Fire Island, New York. Within the National Seashore over 45,000 vehicle trips per year are concentrated in the zone seaward of the dune toe. The experimental approach was adopted in order to assess the environmental effects of ORVs. Specially developed instrumentation was used

Fred J. Anders; Stephen P. Leatherman

1987-01-01

48

77 FR 20843 - Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...of Decision (ROD) that documents decisions regarding off-road vehicle management in the Nabesna...

2012-04-06

49

76 FR 3653 - 2011 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal...regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve....

2011-01-20

50

75 FR 1809 - 2010 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal...regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve....

2010-01-13

51

78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY...big cypress national preserve off-road vehicle advisory committee...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee to...

2013-10-03

52

76 FR 35468 - Cancellation of June 23, 2011, Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal...regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve....

2011-06-17

53

77 FR 77090 - 2013 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY...Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal...regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve....

2012-12-31

54

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted... § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

2013-10-01

55

UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE University Managed Vehicles Used Off-Road or In Mexico  

E-print Network

UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE University Managed Vehicles Used Off-Road or In Mexico Vehicles Used Off-Road or In Mexico Introduction Transportation Services is committed to (a) providing departments or individuals who own, rent, or lease University managed vehicles that are driven off-road

Liebling, Michael

56

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted... § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

2011-10-01

57

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2013-07-01

58

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted... § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

2010-10-01

59

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2012-07-01

60

Path planning for off-road vehicles with a simulator-in-the-loop  

E-print Network

Path planning for off-road vehicles with a simulator-in-the-loop Thomas Hellström, thomash-time path planner for off-road vehicles using a simulator. The work was triggered by a need for an obstacle known and mostly accurate for flat surfaces. For an off-road vehicle, ground slip may be significant

Hellström, Thomas

61

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

...2014-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted... § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

2014-10-01

62

43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted... § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and...

2012-10-01

63

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2010-07-01

64

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2011-07-01

65

36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on...

2014-07-01

66

78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NPS-IMR-LAMR-10224; 2310-0091-422] Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental...Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Off- Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan), Lake...four alternatives that address off-road vehicle (ORV) management in the...

2013-01-25

67

Stereo perception on an off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vehicle for autonomous off-road navigation built in the framework of DARPA's PerceptOR program. Special emphasis is given to the perception system. A set of three stereo camera pairs provide color and 3D data in a wide field of view (greater 100 degree) at high resolution (2160 by 480 pixel) and high frame rates (5 Hz). This

A. Rieder; B. Southall; G. Salgian; R. Mandelbaum; H. Herman; P. Rander; T. Stentz

2002-01-01

68

Sensor fusion method for off-road vehicle position estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FOG-aided GPS fusion system was developed for positioning an off-road vehicle, which consists of a six-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Garmin global positioning system (GPS). An observation-based Kalman filter was designed to integrate the readings from both sensors so that the noise in GPS signal was smoothed out, the redundant information was fused and a high update

Linsong Guo; Qin Zhang; Shufeng Han

2002-01-01

69

Effects of off-road vehicles in Ballinger Canyon, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational use of vehicles, mainly motorcycles, off constructed roads and trails has been heavy in Ballinger Canyon, Los Padres National Forest, California, for the past 8 yr. The vegetation and shallow soils of this arid area have proved sensitive to such use. In the heaviest-use zones, soil and bedrock losses from individual vehicle trails average 600 kg · m-2. Erosion

Robert Stull; Susan Shipley; Eric Hovanitz; Scott Thompson; Karen Hovanitz

1979-01-01

70

Off-road perception testbed vehicle design and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-road robotics efforts such as DARPA"s PerceptOR program have motivated the development of testbed vehicles capable of sustained operation in a variety of terrain and environments. This paper describes the retrofitting of a minimally-modified ATV chassis into such a testbed which has been used by multiple programs for autonomous mobility development and sensor characterization. Modular mechanical interfaces for sensors and equipment enclosures enabled integration of multiple payload configurations. The electric power subsystem was capable of short-term operation on batteries with refueled generation for continuous operation. Processing subsystems were mounted in sealed, shock-dampened enclosures with heat exchangers for internal cooling to protect against external dust and moisture. The computational architecture was divided into a real-time vehicle control layer and an expandable high level processing and perception layer. The navigation subsystem integrated real time kinematic GPS with a three-axis IMU for accurate vehicle localization and sensor registration. The vehicle software system was based on the MarsScape architecture developed under DARPA"s MARS program. Vehicle mobility software capabilities included route planning, waypoint navigation, teleoperation, and obstacle detection and avoidance. The paper describes the vehicle design in detail and summarizes its performance during field testing.

Spofford, John R.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Anhalt, David J.; Morgenthaler, Matthew K.; DeHerrera, Clinton

2003-09-01

71

Fugitive dust emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers on military training lands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Off-road vehicle training can contribute to air quality degradation because of increased wind erosion as a result of soil disruption during high wind events. However, limited information exists regarding the impacts of off-road vehicle maneuvering on wind erosion potential of soils. This study was c...

72

An Integrated Analysis Approach for Dynamic Energy Distribution of Off-Road Vehicle Powertrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient model of off-road vehicle powertrain has been established according to the basic laws of thermodynamics and heat transfer. With the utilization of distributed simulation system based on high level architecture (HLA), the transient simulation of powertrain has been executed. A cycle experiment on a off-road vehicle has been designed and conducted, and the models have been verified by

Gao Siyuan; Zhao Changlu; Han Kai; Zhang Fujun

2010-01-01

73

Mobility analysis of off-road vehicles: Benefits for development, procurement and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays the requirements on off-road vehicles are rising steadily. The ideal vehicle has to provide excellent off-road capability with low fuel consumption, offer a high customizability for each specific mission and, last but not least, it has to be easy to operate. To meet these demands, on the development side a lot of parameter studies have to be carried out.

Guido Korlath

2007-01-01

74

Impacts of Off-Road Vehicle Use on Small Mammals in Big Cypress National Preserve Brian Jeffery1  

E-print Network

Impacts of Off-Road Vehicle Use on Small Mammals in Big Cypress National Preserve Brian Jeffery1 , Kenneth G. Rice2 , Frank J. Mazzotti3 and Doria Gordon4 Off-Road Vehicle Types Swamp Buggy All, Gainesville,FL USA Introduction The use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) has been a popular recreational activity

Mazzotti, Frank

75

76 FR 55840 - Cape Hatteras National Seashore Proposed Rule: Off-Road Vehicle Management-Reopening of Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Seashore Proposed Rule: Off-Road Vehicle Management--Reopening of...the proposed rule to manage off-road vehicle use at Cape Hatteras National...Register a proposed rule to manage off-road vehicle use at Cape Hatteras...

2011-09-09

76

New active safety device dedicated to light all-terrain vehicle stability: Application to quad bike and off-road  

E-print Network

(small weight, huge reachable speeds...), All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs - as quad bikes) and off-road mobile, the prevention of off-road vehicle and mobile robot rollover are addressed by using a new active safety device vehicle stability even at high speed. Indeed, in off-road mobile robot context, the complexity

Boyer, Edmond

77

Vibration testing of off-road vehicle seats  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with Carter Mining Co., conducted vibration tests of four off-road vehicle seats. The purpose of the tests was to determine which seat provides the best vibration attenuation under laboratory conditions. Laboratory tests were constructed to simulate the mining vibration environment within the limitations of the test equipment. The acceleration test levels and corresponding response of the seats were low compared to ISO 2631's fatigue-decreased-proficiency time limits. Two of the seats employed mechanical suspensions and two seat employed air suspensions. The seats were tested using a 22,241-N (5,000-IBF) electrodynamic shaker. Mechanical suspension seats were tested with various preload-to-mass ratios (PMR's) and cushion densities. Air suspension seats were tested with various air pressure levels and seat cushion densities. Air suspension seats provides good vibration attenuation if pressurized greater than 552 kPa psi. Mechanical suspension seats attenuation performance decreases if the PMR exceeded 9.8. Seat cushions of lower density provides less vibration damping.

Gagliardi, J.C.; Utt, W.K.

1993-01-01

78

Injuries related to off-road vehicles in Canada.  

PubMed

Off-road vehicles (ORVs; this includes snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles or ATVs and dirt bikes) were once used primarily for work and travel. Such use remains common in Canada, although their recreational use has also gained popularity in recent years. An epidemiological injury profile of ORV users is important for better understanding injuries and their risk factors to help inform injury prevention initiatives. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) partnered with the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to analyze the epidemiology of ORV-related injuries. The primary aim was to assess crashes and injuries in Canada, including the extent of alcohol involvement. Secondly, the burden of injury among children and teen ORV drivers in Canada, as well as passengers, was investigated. Descriptive and inferential epidemiological statistics were generated using the following data sources: first, TIRF's National Fatality Database, which is a comprehensive, pan-Canadian, set of core data on all fatal motor vehicle crashes; second, TIRF's Serious Injury Database, which contains information on persons seriously injured in crashes; and, third, PHAC's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a surveillance system currently operating in the emergency departments of some pediatric and general hospitals across Canada. Exposure data have been used in the analyzes where available. Between 1990 and 2010, fatality rates increased among ATV and dirt bike operators. The fatality rate among snowmobilers declined during this period. Of particular concern, among fatally injured female ATV users, children aged 0-15 years comprised the highest proportion of any age group at 33.8%. Regarding alcohol use, among fatally injured snowmobile and ATV/dirt bike operators tested for alcohol, 66% and 55% tested positive, respectively. Alcohol involvement in adult ORV crashes remains an important factor. In light of the growing popularity of ORVs, prevention and mitigation measures are required to address this issue. PMID:25528439

Vanlaar, Ward; McAteer, Heather; Brown, Steve; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven; Hing, Marisela Mainegra

2015-02-01

79

Model recognition and validation for an off-road vehicle electrohydraulic steering controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated steering control is essential for an autonomous off-road vehicle. Many off-road vehicles use an electrohydraulic (E\\/H) actuator to implement the steering control. This paper reports the design and validation of an electrohydraulic steering controller through a combination of system identification, model simulation, and field tests. A kinematic model of the steering linkage geometry provided the gain between the hydraulic

Q. Zhang; D. Wu; J. F. Reid; E. R. Benson

2002-01-01

80

Improving off-road vehicle handling using an active anti-roll bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design a vehicle’s suspension system for a specific, well defined road type or manoeuvre is not a challenge any more. As the application profile of the vehicle becomes wider, it becomes more difficult to find spring and damper characteristics to achieve an acceptable compromise between ride comfort and handling. For vehicles that require both good on- and off-road capabilities,

P. H. Cronjé; P. S. Els

2010-01-01

81

Preview Control Algorithms for the Active Suspension of an Off-Road Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential performance improvement using preview control for active vehicle suspension was first recognized in the late nineteen sixties. All work done since that time has been based on optimal control theory using simple vehicle models.In this article, the performance of quarter vehicle preview controllers when applied to a real off-road vehicle is simulated using both two degree of freedom

R. G. LANGLOIS; R. J. ANDERSON

1995-01-01

82

Driving performance of off-road vehicle matching with tire by simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic performance of the integrated system matched by the tire and the vehicle are the main factors for the driving performance of the vehicle. In order to improve the accuracy of simulation on driving performance of off-road vehicle and match correctly between the tire and the vehicle, the finite element method was used to establish model of radial tire

Zhao Guifan; Zhu Yueying; Wang Dafang; Yang Dongyu; Wang Youshan

2009-01-01

83

Dynamic stability of off-road vehicles: Quasi3D analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to determine the stability of off-road vehicles moving on rough terrain. The measures of stability are defined as the maximum speed and acceleration under which the vehicle does not slide or tip over. To compute these stability measures, we propose a quasi 3D analysis by decomposing the vehicle dynamics into three separate planes: the yaw,

Moshe Mann; Zvi Shiller

2008-01-01

84

The ride comfort vs. handling compromise for off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

When designing vehicle suspension systems, it is well-known that spring and damper characteristics required for good handling on a vehicle are not the same as those required for good ride comfort. Any choice of spring and damper characteristic is therefore necessarily a compromise between ride comfort and handling. The compromise is more pronounced on off-road vehicles, as they require good

P. S. Els; N. J. Theron; P. E. Uys; M. J. Thoresson

2007-01-01

85

An Optimal Traction Control Scheme for Off-Road Operation of Robotic Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active degrees of freedom provide a robotic vehicle the ability to enhance its performance in all terrain conditions. While active suspension systems are now commonplace in on-road vehicles, their application to off-road terrains has been little investigated. A fundamental component of such an application is a need to translate desired body motion commands into actuator values through the use of

Kenneth J. Waldron; Muhammad E. Abdallah

2007-01-01

86

Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

87

Analysis of SemiActive and Passive Suspensions System for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of off-road vehicles over rough terrain is generally determined by the ride quality not by the engine power. For this reason, researches are currently being undertaking to improve the ride dynamics of these vehicles using an advanced suspension system. This study intends to provide a preliminary evaluation of whether semi-active suspensions are beneficial to improving ride and handling

Zohir BenLahcene; Waleed F. Faris; M. D. Raisuddin Khan

2009-01-01

88

Effects of off-road vehicles on coastal foredunes at Fire Island, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the dune system of Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA, were examined through a detailed, two-year field study. The experimental approach was adopted in order to evaluate the environmental effects of ORVs in this zone. Adjacent control and impact sites were established in two locations. Vehicle impacts were applied at the equivalent

Fred J. Anders; Stephen P. Leatherman

1987-01-01

89

Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic

Thomas A. Schlacher; Darren Richardson; Ian McLean

2008-01-01

90

The applicability of ride comfort standards to off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between objective methods for determining ride comfort and subjective comments from crew driving in vehicles were investigated. For objective measurements, the ISO 2631, BS 6841, Average Absorbed Power and VDI 2057 methods were used. The emphasis was on the ride comfort of military vehicles operated under off-road conditions over typical terrains. An experiment was devised and executed in

P. S. Els

2005-01-01

91

Understanding and managing the off-road vehicle experience: indicators of quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road vehicle (ORV) use is one of the most popular and fastest growing leisure activities in the United States. Most research on ORV use has focused on its potential environmental impacts and conflicts with other types of recreation, while relatively little research has examined the ORV experience itself. The concept of indicators and standards of quality has emerged in the

Jeffrey C. Hallo; Robert E. Manning; Patricia A. Stokowski

2009-01-01

92

Environmental effects of soil property changes with off-road vehicle use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the physical and chemical properties of 6 soil series were measured at Hollister Hills State Vehicular Recreation Area in central California. Accelerated soil erosion and the alteration of surface strength, bulk density, soil moisture, temperature, and soil nutrients were quantified to gain an insight into the difficulty of revegetating altered, or modified, areas.

Robert H. Webb; H. Craig Ragland; William H. Godwin; Oennis Jenkins

1978-01-01

93

Determination of in situ parameters of sandy soils for off-road vehicle mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the development of a methodology for the determination of some in situ parameters for off-road vehicle mobility on sandy soils. The stress field in the vicinity of and at the interface between a wedge and soil was determined by solving the stress equations using the method of characteristics. The governing equations were solved numerically by using

A. M. O Mohamed

2003-01-01

94

A fuzzy controller to prevent wheel slippage in heavy duty off road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new solution for preventing slippage in heavy duty off road vehicles with hydrostatic power transmission is proposed. An embedded distributed fuzzy logic control system has been employed to detect slipping wheels and to control the braking of slipping wheels in order to minimize wheel slippage. The whole system has been integrated in a 2-ton city tractor and resides on

J.-M. Hasemann; K. Kansala

1994-01-01

95

Off-Road Vehicle Impact on Sediment Displacement and Disruption at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland  

E-print Network

The National Park Service (NPS) monitors off-road vehicle (ORV) use in National Seashores across the United States. The sediment disturbance that is caused by ORVs is believed to have a large impact on erosion (by wind or waves), which...

Labude, Brian

2012-08-15

96

Understanding and managing the off-road vehicle experience: standards of quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A companion paper in a previous issue of Managing Leisure suggested that crowding, litter, and waiting time to get a use permit were among the variables important in defining a high-quality off-road vehicle (ORV) experience at Cape Cod National Seashore (Cape Cod). Potential standards of quality – the minimum acceptable condition for these indicator variables – are addressed in this

Jeffrey C. Hallo; Robert E. Manning

2009-01-01

97

The impact, control, and mitigation of off-road vehicle activity in Hungry Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hungry Valley, and arid basin situated within the Transverse Ranges of Southern California, has been utilized by off-road vehicles (ORVs) since 1971. Loss of vegetation, severe soil erosion and gullying, alluvial fan formation, and increased sediment discharge are the direct results of ORV activity in the valley. These hydrologic-geologic effects have been documented and monitored utilizing sequential aerial photographs, ground

Gary B. Griggs; Barbara L. Walsh

1981-01-01

98

Effects of Off-Road Vehicles on Vertebrates in the California Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road vehicle (ORV) use provides a fann of outdoor recreation that is increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these machines on creosote shrub habitat and associated wildlife in the western California Desert. Comparisons at eight paired sites (Control and ORV use) demonstrate that ORV-use areas have significantly fewer species ofveriebrates, greatly reduced abundance

R. Bruce Bury; Roger A. Luckenbach; Stephen D. Busack

99

Design and analysis of an anti-slip fuzzy controller for heavy duty off road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the design and analysis of a distributed fuzzy control system to prevent wheel slippage in heavy-duty off-road vehicles with hydrostatic power transmission using the vector space analytical approach. The controller described have been fully implemented in a commercially available city tractor and tested on a test track as well as under real working conditions

Jorg-Michael Hasemann; K. Kansala; Yang-Ming Pok

1994-01-01

100

An alternative control strategy for semi-active dampers on off road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control strategy is developed that takes into account the pitch and roll degrees of freedom on an off road wheeled vehicle in order to control discrete adjustable semi-active dampers more effectively. From the literature it was concluded that some existing semi-active control strategies were derived by employing models with either one or two degrees of freedom. If these strategies

S. Nell; J. L. Steyn

1998-01-01

101

Failure analysis of a final drive transmission in off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study in failure analysis of a final drive transmission in an off-road vehicle. The failure involved a satellite gear mounting shaft that departed from the differential assembly as a result of fracturing of a retaining pin. An investigation of the mechanical condition of various transmission components, consisting primarily of visual (macroscopic) inspection, geometrical investigation and

E Makevet; I Roman

2002-01-01

102

Active Vibration Control System for the Driver's Seat for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an electrohydraulic active vibration control system for the driver's seat for off-road vehicles. After a general description of the problem a serial electrohydraulic active vibration control system, working on the compensation principle, is mathematically analyzed. Results of computer simulation, based on an analogue model, indicate, that the system could effectively absorb vibrations in a chosen frequency

G. J. STEIN; I. BALLO

1991-01-01

103

Multi-pass effect on off-road vehicle tractive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an analysis and qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the multi-pass effect on off-road vehicle tractive performance in different soils. A literature review and the results of this study indicated that to accurately predict a vehicle’s tractive performance, the multi-pass effect should be taken into account. A new method has been developed on how to calculate the effect

Modest Lyasko

2010-01-01

104

Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades.\\u000a Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors\\u000a and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing.\\u000a Wheeled and

Charles W. Slaughter; Charles H. Racine; Donald A. Walker; Larry A. Johnson; Gunars Abele

1990-01-01

105

A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire\\/sand interactions during off-road vehicle travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to carry out a series of transient, non-linear dynamics finite element analyses in order to investigate the interactions between a stereotypical pneumatic tire and sand during off-road vehicle travel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The interactions were considered under different combined conditions of the longitudinal and lateral slip as encountered during “brake-and-turn” and “drive-and-turn” vehicle

M. Grujicic; H. Marvi; G. Arakere; I. Haque

2010-01-01

106

Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades. Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing. Wheeled and

Charles W. Slaughter; Charles H. Racine; Donald A. Walker; Larry A. Johnson; Gunars Abele

1990-01-01

107

Theoretical Analysis of a Semi Active Suspension Fitted to an Off-Road Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is presented to model a hydromechanical, semi-active suspension system, first as a single wheel station and then as fitted to each wheel of an off-road vehicle. Predicted results show that two benefits are obtained by comparison with the equivalent passive system. First, vehicle attitude is controlled for changes in body forces arising from static loads or braking\\/cornering

D. N. L. Horton; D. A. Crolla

1986-01-01

108

THE RESEARCH ON THE LIMITED SPEED OF THE 4×4 OFF-ROAD VEHICLE ON UNEVEN ROAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, considering from the point of view of the effects of vertical vibration on the vehicle mobility,discusses the conditions of limited speed when 4×4 off-road vehicle traveling on uneven road. The criterion to evaluate the limited speed of off-road vehicles is developed. Five degree of freedom model of vertical vibration of the vehicle is established. The vibration responses of

Zhi-Xin Wang; Jie-Min Li; Xi-Ding Qiu; Bao-Sheng Zhang; Li Tong

1986-01-01

109

Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

2001-01-01

110

Toward Reliable Off Road Autonomous Vehicles Operating in Challenging Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA PerceptOR program has implemented a rigorous eval- uative test program which fosters the development of field relevant outdoor mobile robots. Autonomous ground vehicles were deployed on diverse test courses throughout the USA and quantitatively eval- uated on such factors as autonomy level, waypoint acquisition, fail- ure rate, speed, and communications bandwidth. Our efforts over the three year program

Alonzo Kelly; Anthony Stentz; Omead Amidi; Mike Bode; David Bradley; Antonio Diaz-calderon; Michael Happold; Herman Herman; Robert Mandelbaum; Thomas Pilarski; Peter Rander; Scott Thayer; Nick Vallidis; Randy Warner

2006-01-01

111

Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

2001-04-18

112

Toward Reliable Off Road Autonomous Vehicles Operating in Challenging Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA PerceptOR program implements a rigorous evaluative test program which fosters the development of field relevant\\u000a outdoor mobile robots. Autonomous ground vehicles are deployed on diverse test courses throughout the USA and quantitatively\\u000a evaluated on such factors as autonomy level, waypoint acquisition, failure rate, speed, and communications bandwidth. Our\\u000a efforts over the three year program have produced new approaches

Alonzo Kelly; Omead Amidi; Mike Bode; Michael Happold; Herman Herman; Thomas Pilarski; Peter Rander; Anthony Stentz; Nick Vallidis; Randy Warner

2004-01-01

113

The impact, control, and mitigation of off-road vehicle activity in Hungry Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hungry Valley, and arid basin situated within the Transverse Ranges of Southern California, has been utilized by off-road\\u000a vehicles (ORVs) since 1971. Loss of vegetation, severe soil erosion and gullying, alluvial fan formation, and increased sediment\\u000a discharge are the direct results of ORV activity in the valley. These hydrologic-geologic effects have been documented and\\u000a monitored utilizing sequential aerial photographs, ground

Gary B. Griggs; Barbara L. Walsh

1981-01-01

114

Ride comfort research of off-road vehicle based on soft terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virtual prototype model of an off-road vehicle was built based on ADAMS software and the user-written subroutine for calculating interaction force between elastic tire and soft soil is set up according to the load-sinkage theory. The non-linear contact simulation between elastic tire and soft soil was implemented successfully by using ADAMS software. The soft soil land can be adjustable

Zhou Bing; Bi Tianle; Li Weiping

2010-01-01

115

IN-PLACE DETERMINATION OF TOPSOIL SHEAR PROPERTIES FOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE TRAFFIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the off-road vehicle traffic consists in estimating the drawbar pull of a ve- hicle on a given soil and can be calculated by means of such models as that of Janosi-Hanamoto which depends on the soil mechanic parameters, i.e., the angle of friction and cohesion. These pa- rameters result generally from shearing tests. The annular shearing test

PHILIPPE GOTTELAND; OLIVIER PLÉ; OLIVIER BENOIT

116

An embedded fuzzy anti-slippage system for heavy duty off road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fuzzy logic anti-slip system for Heavy Duty Off Road Vehicles. The anti-slippage system is based on distributed detection and local\\/global fuzzy control of slippage within an interconnected system of mechatronic wheel motors.Within this paper, the system layout, implementation, sensor data preprocessing, slip detection, four different local\\/global and test results under real working conditions are described. The

K Klaus; Michael Hasemann

1995-01-01

117

Exposure of Fauna to Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Traffic on Sandy Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on sandy beaches is common and widespread, but is not universally embraced due to putative environmental impacts on beach biota. For ORVs to impact the beach fauna, traffic areas must overlap with faunal habitat: a fundamental pre-requisite for impact assessments but as yet un-quantified for sandy beaches. Thus, this study quantified the spatial and temporal

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke M. C. Thompson

2007-01-01

118

Path planning for off-road vehicles with a simulator-in-the-loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a real-time path planner for off-road vehicles using a simulator. The work was triggered by a need for an obstacle-avoidance and path-planning system in our work with au- tonomous forest machines. The general idea with the presented system is to extend a standard path-tracking algorithm with a simulator that, in real-time, tries to predict

Thomas Hellström

119

Ride dynamic evaluations and design optimisation of a torsio-elastic off-road vehicle suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ride dynamic characteristics of a novel torsio-elastic suspension for off-road vehicle applications are investigated through field measurements and simulations. A prototype suspension was realised and integrated within the rear axle of a forestry skidder for field evaluations. Field measurements were performed on forestry terrains at a constant forward speed of 5 km\\/h under the loaded and unloaded conditions, and the

Alireza Pazooki; Dongpu Cao; Subhash Rakheja; Paul-Émile Boileau

2011-01-01

120

Saliency-Based Obstacle Detection and Ground-Plane Estimation for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to stringing time constraints, saliency models are becoming popular tools for building situated robotic systems requiring,\\u000a for instance, object recognition and vision-based localisation capabilities. This paper contributes to this endeavour by applying\\u000a saliency into two new tasks: modulation of stereo-based obstacle detection and ground-plane estimation, both to operate on-board\\u000a off-road vehicles. To achieve this, a new biologically inspired saliency

Pedro Santana; Magno Guedes; Luís Correia; José Barata

2009-01-01

121

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles\\u000a (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days\\/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days\\/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness,

J. F. Burr; V. K. Jamnik; N. Gledhill

122

Sprung mass estimation for off-road vehicles via base-excitation suspension dynamics and recursive least squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for identifying in real time the mass of an off-road vehicle using measurements of sprung and unsprung mass acceleration. The online estimate can be used for vehicle control strategies such as active safety control, traction control, and powertrain control. The online estimate is needed for vehicles whose mass varies significantly from one loading condition

Benjamin L. Pence; Hosam K. Fathy; Jeffrey L. Stein

2009-01-01

123

Analysis of possibilities of waste heat recovery in off-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the preliminary results of the waste heat recovery investigations for an agricultural tractor engine (7.4 dm3) and excavator engine (7.2 dm3) in real operating conditions. The temperature of exhaust gases and exhaust mass flow rate has been measured by precise portable exhaust emissions analyzer SEMTECH DS (SENSORS Inc.). The analysis shows that engines of tested vehicles operate approximately at constant speed and load. The average temperature of exhaust gases is in the range from 300 to 400 °C for maximum gas mass flows of 1100 kg/h and 1400 kg/h for tractor and excavator engine respectively. Preliminary tests show that application of TEGs in tested off-road vehicles offers much more beneficial conditions for waste heat recovery than in case of automotive engines.

Wojciechowski, K. T.; Zybala, R.; Leszczynski, J.; Nieroda, P.; Schmidt, M.; Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.

2012-06-01

124

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6 weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP = 9.4 ± 10.1, DBP = 5.8 ± 6.2 mmHg), fasting glucose (0.5 ± 0.7 mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.9 ± 1.1%), body mass (0.7 ± 2.7 kg), waist circumference (1.3 ± 2.5 cm), and isometric leg endurance (26 ± 44 s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d = 0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.9 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), leg power (172 ± 486 w), and curl-ups (13.2 ± 22.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2 days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30 ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus. PMID:21225277

Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

2011-08-01

125

A strategic assessment of recreational use areas for off-road vehicles in the coastal zone of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2002, the Minister of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism of the South African government promulgated new regulations controlling the use of off-road vehicles in the coastal zone of South Africa. The new regulations provided for a general prohibition on the recreational use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the coastal zone as well as providing procedure for

L Celliers; T Moffett; N. C James; B. Q Mann

2004-01-01

126

Integrated Air/Ground Vehicle System for Semi-Autonomous Off-Road Navigation Tony Stentz (Carnegie Mellon University); axs@cmu.edu  

E-print Network

Integrated Air/Ground Vehicle System for Semi-Autonomous Off-Road Navigation Tony Stentz (Carnegie on the performance of the system. Figure 1: Blitz concept, with Flying Eye scouting for UGV. 2. Perception for Off-Road Pittsburgh, PA 15201 412-268-8155 412-681-6961 (FAX) www.rec.ri.cmu.edu 1. Abstract Current unmanned vehicle

Kelly, Alonzo

127

Research on the sliding mode based ADRC for hydraulic active suspension of a six-wheel off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a sliding mode based auto disturbances rejection control (ADRC) method is presented for hydraulic active suspension of a six-wheel off-road vehicle. First, the low order extended state observer (ESO) is used to estimate both external disturbances and internal nonlinear uncertain parameters. Next, the sliding mode surface is designed to make sure of the robustness of the system.

Mina Shi; Xinhui Liu; Yaowu Shi; Wei Chen; Qingbo Zhao

2011-01-01

128

Development and experimental evaluation of translational semi-active dampers on a high mobility off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the further development and experimental evaluation of two-state semi-active translational dampers on a 6×6 high mobility off-road vehicle. As only ride comfort was enhanced during previous work, the low-speed damping characteristics on the semi-active damper was increased in order to improve vehicle handling. The existing passive dampers, as normally fitted to the test vehicle, were modified to

S. Nell; J. L. Steyn

2003-01-01

129

An investigation on energy management system of CJY6470 parallel hybrid electric off-road vehicle with fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

CJY6470 parallel hybrid electric vehicle (CJY6470PHEV) is a light type off-road vehicle developed by the authors. Its energy management system (EMS) has been designed using the T-S fuzzy model and fuzzy control toolbox in MATLAB 6.5. In order to simplify the system, it is divided into the energy regenerative braking system (ERBS) and the EMS in the vehicle normally driving

B. J. Zhang; Y. W. Deng; D. J. Yu

2008-01-01

130

Helmet use among Alaskan children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes  

PubMed Central

Background Off-road motorized vehicle crashes are a common source of trauma among Alaska children. Injury morbidity is worse in Alaska Native children than non-Native children, but the reasons are unclear. Objective To evaluate the differences in helmet use between the Native and the non-Native children, and to assess the impact of helmet use on injury patterns and outcomes. Design This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged 17 or younger admitted after all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile or motorbike injury between 2001 and 2011 from the Alaska Trauma Registry. Helmeted and non-helmeted patients were compared with respect to demographics, central nervous system (CNS) injury and the overall risk of death or permanent disability. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of helmet use and the effects of ethnicity and helmet use on outcomes. Results Of the 921 injured children, 51% were Alaska Native and 49% were non-Native. Helmet use was lower among Native versus non-Native patients on unadjusted comparison (24% vs. 71%) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.27, p<0.0001). Prevalence of CNS injury was higher among Native children (39.7% vs. 30.4%, p=0.016). However, on logistic regression with adjustment for helmet use, Native ethnicity was not a significant predictor of CNS injury (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.68–1.68, p=0.78), whereas helmet use was strongly protective against CNS injury (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44, p<0.0001) as well as death or permanent disability (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, p=0.006). Conclusions Helmet use is lower among Alaska Native children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes. These ethnic disparities in helmet use contribute to higher rates of CNS injury among Native children. Helmet use significantly improves overall outcome. Helmet promotion efforts should be expanded, especially in Native communities. PMID:25317382

Snyder, Christopher W.; Muensterer, Oliver J.; Sacco, Frank; Safford, Shawn D.

2014-01-01

131

Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on Burrow Architecture of Ghost Crabs (Genus Ocypode ) on Sandy Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational beach use with off-road vehicles is popular, but potentially harmful from an environmental perspective. Beaches\\u000a are important habitats to invertebrates such as ghost crabs of the genus Ocyopde, which excavate extensive and elaborate burrows.\\u000a Ghost crabs are sensitive to human pressures and changes in burrow architecture may thus be a consequence of disturbance by\\u000a vehicles—the predictive hypothesis of this

Serena LucreziThomas; Thomas A. Schlacher

2010-01-01

132

Effects of off-road vehicles on reproductive success of pine snakes ( Pituophus melanoleucus ) in the New Jersey pinelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has been devoted to the effects of people and their vehicles on birds and mammals, but possible effects\\u000a on reptiles in populated areas have received less attention. Moreover, the effects of human activities on reptile reproductive\\u000a success itself has been harder to demonstrate. This paper examines the effect of management of off-road vehicles in New Jersey’s\\u000a pinelands on

Joanna Burger; Robert T. Zappalorti; Michael Gochfeld; Emile DeVito

2007-01-01

133

Off-Road Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, takes a look at the Baha SAE off-road competition, organized by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International. The video explains how students take an off-road vehicle all the way from the design phase to completion and the competition. Here, visitors will see the different tools and techniques that students use to design and build their vehicles. This video is helpful for anyone looking into the automotive engineering field and the skills necessary to be successful in it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:52.

2010-12-07

134

Effects of off-road vehicle traffic on soils and vegetation in the Denali Highway region of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers requiring off-the-road passage to pipeline-construction or maintenance sites would best protect the environment by traveling along ridgetops when possible and avoiding boggy areas and side slopes with highly erodible soils, concludes a land-disturbance study conducted by the University of Alaska. The effects of off-road vehicle traffic on Alaskan soil morphology, soil bulk, density, plant species composition, and plant growth

S. D. Sparrow; F. J. Wooding; E. H. Whiting

1978-01-01

135

A semi-active suspension design for off-road vehicle base on Magneto-rheological technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid semi-active suspension system was tested on a off-road vehicle to determine the performance improvements compared to passive suspensions. In the process of suspension design, ride comfort and handing stability are two conflicting considerations. MR fluid dampers are a new class of devices that more suitable for the requirements of automotive applications, including having

Long-ming Gui; Wen-ku Shi; Wei Liu

2012-01-01

136

A Modularized Design for Multi-drivers Off-road Vehicle Driving-line and its Performance Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularized design approach can facilitate the modeling of complex systems and support behavior analysis and simulation in an iterative and thus complex engineering process, by using encapsulated submodels of components and of their interfaces. Therefore it can improve the design efficiency and simplify the solving complicated problem. Multi-drivers off-road vehicle is comparatively complicated. Driving-line is an important core part to

Yi Jianjun; Sun Yingce; Hu Diqing; Li Chenggang

2007-01-01

137

LMI-based observer design on a power-split continuously variable transmission for off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power-split continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) represent a promising technology to improve the fuel economy of high-power off-road vehicles such as construction and agricultural machines. Power-split CVTs are capable of keeping the combustion engine running within the optimal range in terms of fuel economy and performance. There are characterized by the combination of a traditional mechanical transmission and a continuously-variable transmission.

Horst Schulte

2010-01-01

138

Suspension settings for optimal ride comfort of off-road vehicles travelling on roads with different roughness and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that will ensure optimal ride comfort of an off-road vehicle, on different road profiles and at different speeds. These settings are required for the design of a four stage semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring damper suspension system (4S4). Spring and damper settings in the 4S4 can be set either

P. E. Uys; P. S. Els; M. Thoresson

2007-01-01

139

Bandwidth-limited active suspension controller for an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design process of a controller for bandwidth-limited active hydro-pneumatic suspension employed by\\u000a an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology. First, a detailed multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle is established\\u000a by using the ADAMS\\/View software package, which is followed by validation using a vehicle field test. Second, a combined PID\\u000a and fuzzy controller is designed for

Jinzhi Feng; Songlin Zheng; Fan Yu

2008-01-01

140

On the impact of cargo weight, vehicle parameters, and terrain characteristics on the prediction of traction for off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A realistic prediction of the traction capacity of vehicles operating in off-road conditions must account for stochastic variations in the system itself, as well as in the operational environment. Moreover, for mobility studies of wheeled vehicles on deformable soil, the selection of the tire model used in the simulation influences the degree of confidence in the output. Since the same

Lin Li; Corina Sandu

2007-01-01

141

The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) on the off-road vehicle performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A parallel finite-element\\/multi-body-dynamics investigation is carried out of the effect of up-armoring on the off-road performance of a prototypical high-mobility multipurpose-wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The paper seeks to investigate the up-armoring effect on the vehicle performance under the following off-road maneuvers: straight-line flatland braking; straight-line off-angle downhill braking; and sharp left turn. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – For each of the above-mentioned

M. Grujicic; H. Marvi; G. Arakere; W. C. Bell; I. Haque

2010-01-01

142

MITRE Meteor: An Off-Road Autonomous Vehicle for DARPA’s Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MITRE Meteor team fielded an autonomous vehicle that competed in DARPA’s 2005 Grand Challenge race. This paper describes\\u000a the team’s approach to building its robotic vehicle, the vehicle and components that let the vehicle see and act, and the\\u000a computer software that made the vehicle autonomous. It presents how the team prepared for the race and how their vehicle

Robert Grabowski; Richard Weatherly; Robert Bolling; David Seidel; Michael Shadid; Ann Jones

143

Off-Road and the Fragile Desert  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

Stebbins, Robert C.

1974-01-01

144

Experimental Results for Spline Based Obstacle Avoidance of an Off-Road Ground Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For point to point navigation, calculating suitable paths for an an autonomous ground vehicle is computationally difficult. Maneuvering an autonomous vehicle safely around obstacles is essential, and the ability to generate safe paths in a real time environment is crucial for vehicle viability. We previously presented a method for developing feasible paths through complicated environments using a baseline smooth path

John Connors; Gabriel Elkaim

145

Sublethal effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on surf clams on sandy beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological impacts of vehicle traffic are a significant environmental management issue on many sandy shores. Impacts usually focus on lethal effects of vehicles to organisms, but sub-lethal effects which could reduce the fitness of macrofauna populations are equally possible but unknown. Consequently, we measured changes in body condition and burrowing performance of the beach clam Donax deltoides subjected to vehicle

Natalie Sheppard; Kylie A. Pitt; Thomas A. Schlacher

2009-01-01

146

Control of Contact Forces in Wheeled and Legged Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of variable configuration vehicles creates the possibility of direct control of the contact forces between the foot\\u000a or wheel of a vehicle and the ground. That control is an important element of the coordination of practical walking machines.\\u000a Control of the contact forces at each wheel is also attractive for wheeled vehicles. For example, the power consumed in

Kenneth J. Waldron; Christopher J. Hubert

1999-01-01

147

A Laser Based Rut Detection and Following System for Autonomous Ground Vehicles  

E-print Network

Tallahassee, Florida 32310 Abstract An important off road driving rule is to keep the vehicle wheels of ruts formed by the traversal of manned vehicles on off-road trails. (a) (b) Figure 1: Typical off road and following system is proposed so that autonomous ground vehicles can benefit from the application of this off

Collins, Emmanuel

148

POSITIONING AN AUTONOMOUS OFF-ROAD VEHICLE BY USING FUSED DGPS AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with positioning system for an autonomous vehicle ARSKA. Localization of the vehicle is based on fusion of internal dead reckoning navigation and periodic absolute position measurements. Fusion is done by using Kalman-filtering technique. Similar kind of approach is used in correcting the heading measurement. This is important because the position error is mostly result of the accumulated

T. Schönberg; M. Ojala; J. Suomela; A. Torpo; A. Halme

1995-01-01

149

Physical models of off-road vehicles moving on loose soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in natural environments present complex dynamical behaviors: rolling stones, deformations, compressions, avalanches and collapses. The geometry of the terrain can be highly modified by the vehicle itself during its displacement; simultaneously, the behavior of the vehicle also becomes more complex. Deformable soils, such as loose soils cannot be modelled by solid physics and they require the use of accurate

A. Luciani; B. Chanclou

1997-01-01

150

Mortalities caused by off-road vehicles (ORVs) to a key member of sandy beach assemblages, the surf clam Donax deltoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches are prime recreational areas, but human use of beaches is not without ecological consequences. Driving of off-road\\u000a vehicles on beaches for recreational pursuits is perhaps the physically most severe form of direct anthropogenic disturbance\\u000a on sandy shores. Potential management and conservation interventions lack, however, data on how sensitive beach species are\\u000a to vehicle impacts. We therefore experimentally quantified

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke M. C. Thompson; Simon J. Walker

2008-01-01

151

Integrated Air\\/Ground Vehicle System for SemiAutonomous Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Abstract Current unmanned vehicle systems enable exploration of and travel through remote areas, but demand significant ,communications resources and constant human operation. DARPA and the US Army have,recognized these limitations and are now,pursuing semi-autonomous vehicle systems in the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. FCS places high demands on robotic systems, which must assess mobility hazards under all weather conditions, day

Tony Stentz; Alonzo Kelly; Robert Mandelbaum; Peter Rander

2002-01-01

152

Obstacle Detection with Stereo Vision for Off-Road Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an artificial vision algorithm for real-time obstacle detection in unstructured environments. The images have been taken using a stereoscopical vision system. The system uses a new approach, of low computational load, to calculate a V-disparity image between left and right corresponding images, in order to estimate the cameras pitch oscillation caused by the vehicle movement.

Alberto Broggi; Claudio Caraffi; Rean Isabella Fedriga; Paolo Grisleri

2005-01-01

153

IMPLEMENTING PREVIEW CONTROL ON AN OFF-ROAD VEHICLE WITH ACTIVE SUSPENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has resulted in the production of a microcomputer controlled, hydraulically actuated, active suspension for the ¼ ton, 4 wheel drive vehicle called the Iltis. The system has been designed to accommodate various control schemes through relatively straightforward changes to software and to transducers.This paper describes the implementation of a preview control scheme on the Iltis. Following an extensive

R. G. Langlois; D. M. Hanna; R. J. Anderson

1992-01-01

154

Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: Resistance in different U.S. deserts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts are an important component of desert ecosystems, as they influence soil stability and fertility. This study examined and compared the short-term vehicular impacts on lichen cover and nitrogenase activity (NA) of biological soil crusts. Experimental disturbance was applied to different types of soil in regions throughout the western U.S. (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, Chihuahuan, and Mojave deserts). Results show that pre-disturbance cover of soil lichens is significantly correlated with the silt content of soils, and negatively correlated with sand and clay. While disturbance appeared to reduce NA at all sites, differences were statistically significant at only 12 of the 26 sites. Cool desert sites showed a greater decline than hot desert sites, which may indicate non-heterocystic cyanobacterial species are more susceptible to disturbance than non-heterocystic species. Sandy soils showed greater reduction of NA as sand content increased, while fine-textured soils showed a greater decline as sand content increased. At all sites, higher NA before the disturbance resulted in less impact to NA post-disturbance. These results may be useful in predicting the impacts of off-road vehicles in different regions and different soils. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Belnap, J.

2002-01-01

155

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

E-print Network

learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road that there is an unusually large divide between theory and practice in off-road autonomous vehicle navigation. PriorAutonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge Eagle Jones, Brian Fulkerson, and Emilio

Soatto, Stefano

156

Perception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

in a map. Furthermore, the methods already implemented on the Robotics Research Lab's1 off-road vehicle Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation [2] #12;2 Controlling Properties of the EnvironmentPerception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation Alexander Renner1 , Tobias F

Berns, Karsten

157

The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating a 4-wheel drive truck in a 9-ha area of the Mojave Desert were evaluated. A truck was driven over the same 0.9-km track 21 times between November 1973 and May 1974. The vehicle was also driven randomly around the area (1.3 to 3.4 km) 17 times between December 1973 and May 1974. Spring densities of annual

A. T. Vollmer; B. G. Maza; P. A. Medica; F. B. Turner; S. A. Bamberg

1977-01-01

158

The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating a 4-wheel drive truck in a 9-ha area of the Mojave Desert were evaluated. A truck was driven over the same 0.9-km track 21 times between November 1973 and May 1974. The vehicle was also driven randomly around the area (1.3 to 3.4 km) 17 times between December 1973 and May 1974.

A. T. Vollmer; B. G. Maza; P. A. Medica; F. B. Turner; S. A. Bamberg

1977-01-01

159

Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

2013-05-01

160

Vehicles versus conservation of invertebrates on sandy beaches: mortalities inflicted by off-road vehicles on ghost crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy beaches face increasing anthropogenic pressures, with vehicle traffic being ecologically highly harmful. Ghost crabs (Fam. Ocypodidae) are conspic- uous on many beaches, and they have been used as a bio-monitoring tool to measure the ecological responses to human disturbance. However, the mechan- isms causing declines in crab numbers are unknown, yet conservation must tar- get the actual impact mechanisms.

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke Thompson; Sam Price

2007-01-01

161

An Experimental Platform for Motion Estimation and Maneuver Characterization in High Speed Off-Road Driving  

E-print Network

of the vehicle are discussed. State and control input data were recorded during a series of human-controlled off-road estimation, off-road vehicle control, autonomous vehicles, dynamic con- trol I. INTRODUCTION There has been much recent interest in off-road au- tonomous vehicles. Spurred on by a congressional mandate to make

Murray, Richard M.

162

Techniques tor autonomous, off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend autonomous navigation to unpaved and off-road scenarios, vehicles in the AutoNav program bolster a 4D perception and control architecture with area-based vision techniques. This article describes how an autonomous vehicle uses directed real-time, area-based, stereo processing to determine the vertical profile of its path

Stefan Baten; M. Lutzeler; Ernst D. Dickmanns; R. Mandelbaum; P. J. Burt

1998-01-01

163

Off-Road Obstacle Avoidance through End-to-End Learning  

E-print Network

Introduction Autonomous off-road vehicles have vast potential applications in a wide spectrum of do- mains. Building a fully autonomous off-road vehicle that can reliably navigate and avoid obstacles at high speed [6, 15], and classifying obstacle types. Among the various sub-problems of off-road vehicle

LeCun, Yann

164

75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve AGENCY: National...Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve...the Nabesna District of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The DEIS...

2010-08-11

165

76 FR 52690 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve AGENCY: National...the Nabesna District of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The FEIS evaluates...Rogers, Project Manager, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, PO Box...

2011-08-23

166

Development of a new type of electric off-road vehicle powered by microwaves transmitted through air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needless to say, we are now facing a critical state in the global environment, i.e. global warming. We have to change our way of thinking and our economic systems from those dependent on fossil resources to those dependent on renewable energy resources, such as solar energy. In our field of research, electric vehicles are considered the best choice for reducing

Akira Oida; Hiroshi Nakashima; Juro Miyasaka; Katsuaki Ohdoi; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Naoki Shinohara

2007-01-01

167

Assessment of propeller and off-road vehicle scarring in seagrass beds and wind-tidal flats of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used aerial photography and GIS to establish a quantitative baseline of propeller and off-road vehicle (ORV) scarring in seagrass and wind-tidal flats of the upper Laguna Madre in the Padre Island National Seashore (Texas, USA). We also examined scar recovery through comparison of recent (2002, 2005) and historical (1967) aerial photographs of the study area. Scarring intensity was calculated using two different methods. In the first, polygons were visually drawn around groups of scars on digital images. Scarring intensity was estimated as light (20%), based on the total coverage of scars within each polygon (taking into account the length, width, and density of scars). We developed a more objective method that employed creation of vector grid cells and buffers that incorporated the localized ecological impact of scars. Results of spatial and temporal analysis revealed that the polygon approach greatly underestimated the magnitude of scarring. For example, in a single photograph, 7% of seagrass area was lightly scarred according to the polygon method; but light scarring increased to 51% according to grid analysis of the same image. Our results also indicated that propeller scars in Halodule wrightii beds appear to recover in less than three years and ORV tracks have persisted in the wind-tidal flats for at least 38 years. Our approach provides resource managers with procedures for a more objective and efficient assessment of physical disturbances to seagrass and wind-tidal flats caused by boats and ORVs. ?? 2008 by Walter de Gruyter.

Martin, S.R.; Onuf, C.P.; Dunton, K.H.

2008-01-01

168

Effects of off-road vehicle use on the hydrology and landscape of arid environments in central and southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two widely separated sites in California used for motorcycle hill-climbing were studied to evaluate the impact on the landscape and hydrology. At Panoche Hills in central California, an area formerly used by motorcycles together with an adjacent unused area were monitored from 1971 to 1975. Observations in both areas included measurements of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, soil bulk density, plant cover, and erosion surveys. At Dove Spring Canyon in souther California erosion was measured on a site that is currently being used for motorcycle hill-climbing. At the Panoche Hills site, the area used by motorcycles produced about eight times as nuch runoff as the unused area. Similarly, sediment yield from the used areas was 857 cubic meters/sq km, while the quantity of sediment from the unused area was not measurable by standard methods. At the Dove Spring Canyon site, which is still being used for hill-climbing, erosion surveys show that degradation in trails has been as much as 0.3 m in the period 1973-75. Compaction of soils and reduction of permeability appears to be the most serious hydrologic impact of motorcycle use at Panoche Hills. Increased bulk density of soils reduces depth of moisture penetration which deprives plants of moisture needed for growth. (Woodard-USGS)

Snyder, Charles T.; Frickel, D.G.; Hadley, R.F.; Miller, R.F.

1976-01-01

169

Online Speed Adaptation using Supervised Learning for High-Speed, Off-Road Autonomous Driving  

E-print Network

off-road through challenging desert terrain. We want the vehicle to drive slower on more dangerousOnline Speed Adaptation using Supervised Learning for High-Speed, Off-Road Autonomous Driving David. Consider a high-speed (35 mph) autonomous vehi- cle driving off-road through challenging desert ter- rain

Thrun, Sebastian

170

COMPARISONS OF A LINEAR WITH A NON-LINEAR MULTIBODY SIMULATION OF AN OFF-ROAD VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades there has been a great deal of research in the area of multibody dynamics and its application to the modelling of vehicles. Multibody dynamics formalisms can be categorized based upon several criteria. Of these, whether linear or non-linear equations-of-motion are generated by the technique is one of the most significant.In the Dynamics Laboratory in the

R. C. Quirt; R. J. Anderson

1992-01-01

171

Prognostic Framing of Stakeholders' Subjectivities: A Case of All-Terrain Vehicle Management on State Public Lands  

E-print Network

,000 ATVs, off-highway motorcycles (OHMs), and off-road vehicles (ORVs) now registered in Minnesota specifically designed for off-road and trail use--in use in 2008 (Garland 2010). This poses many challengesPrognostic Framing of Stakeholders' Subjectivities: A Case of All-Terrain Vehicle Management

172

Off-Road Wheelchair Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students further their understanding of the engineering design process (EDP) while being introduced to assistive technology devices and biomedical engineering. They are given a fictional client statement and are tasked to follow the steps of the EDP to design and build small-scale, off-road wheelchair prototypes. As part of the EDP, students identify appropriate materials and demonstrate two methods of representing solutions to their design problem (scale drawings and simple scale models). They test the scale model off-road wheelchairs using spring scales to pull the prototypes across three different simulated off-road surfaces.

Inquiry-Based Bioengineering Research and Design Experiences for Middle-School Teachers RET Program, Department of Biomedical Engineering,

173

Finite element analysis of the effect of up-armouring on the off-road braking and sharp-turn performance  

E-print Network

results obtained clearly revealed the compromises in vehicle off-road perfor- mance caused by the up while causing fewer compromises in the vehicle off-road performance are also discussed. Keywords: high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle, off-road vehicle performance, finite element modelling and simulations

Grujicic, Mica

174

In the near future, off-road mobile robots will feature high levels of autonomy which will render them useful for a vari-  

E-print Network

straight-forward con- sideration of vehicle dynamics. 1 Introduction As developing autonomous off-roadPage 1 Abstract In the near future, off-road mobile robots will feature high levels of autonomy quite well for applications on paved sur- faces. Off-road conditions certainly make things more diffi

Kelly, Alonzo

175

3D Obstacle Detection and Avoidance in Vegetated Off-road Terrain H. Schafer, A. Hach, M. Proetzsch and K. Berns  

E-print Network

schaef@informatik.uni-kl.de 1RAVON Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation for traversability3D Obstacle Detection and Avoidance in Vegetated Off-road Terrain H. Sch¨afer, A. Hach, M. Proetzsch and K. Berns Abstract-- This paper presents a laser-based obstacle detec- tion facility for off-road

Berns, Karsten

176

Autonomous Automobile Trajectory Tracking for Off-Road Driving: Controller Design, Experimental Validation and Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear control law for an automobile to autonomously track a trajectory, provided in real-time, on rapidly varying, off-road terrain. Existing methods can suffer from a lack of global stability, a lack of tracking accuracy, or a dependence on smooth road surfaces, any one of which could lead to the loss of the vehicle in autonomous off-road

Gabriel M. Hoffmann; Claire J. Tomlin; Michael Montemerlo; Sebastian Thrun

2007-01-01

177

Intelligent Off-Road Navigation Algorithms and Strategies of Team Desert Buckeyes in the DARPA Grand Challenge ’05  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes one aspect of our approach in developing an intelligent off-road autonomous vehicle, the Intelligent\\u000a Off-road Navigator (ION), as team Desert Buckeyes from the Ohio State University for the DARPA Grand Challenge 2005. The real-time\\u000a navigation is one of the critical components in an autonomous ground vehicle system. In this paper, we focus on the navigation\\u000a module, whose

Qi Chen; Ümit Özgüner

178

Off-road Robotics - An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of the current state of research in the field of off-road robotics. It focuses on techniques\\u000a used in the areas of perception, environment representation, as well as navigation, and introduces different types of robot\\u000a control systems. A presentation of different applications is given along with an outlook on future developments.

Karsten Berns; Klaus-Dieter Kuhnert; Christopher Armbrust

2011-01-01

179

A fuel-based assessment of off-road diesel engine emissions.  

PubMed

The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of applications, total activity and emissions from these sources are uncertain. A method for estimating the emissions from off-road diesel engines based on the quantity of diesel fuel consumed is presented. Emission factors are normalized by fuel consumption, and total activity is estimated by the total fuel consumed. Total exhaust emissions from off-road diesel equipment (excluding locomotives and marine vessels) in the United States during 1996 have been estimated to be 1.2 x 10(9) kg NOx and 1.2 x 10(8) kg PM10. Emissions estimates published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are 2.3 times higher for both NOx and exhaust PM10 emissions than estimates based directly on fuel consumption. These emissions estimates disagree mainly due to differences in activity estimates, rather than to differences in the emission factors. All current emission inventories for off-road engines are uncertain because of the limited in-use emissions testing that has been performed on these engines. Regional- and state-level breakdowns in diesel fuel consumption by off-road mobile sources are also presented. Taken together with on-road measurements of diesel engine emissions, results of this study suggest that in 1996, off-road diesel equipment (including agriculture, construction, logging, and mining equipment, but not locomotives or marine vessels) was responsible for 10% of mobile source NOx emissions nationally, whereas on-road diesel vehicles contributed 33%. PMID:11111337

Kean, A J; Sawyer, R F; Harley, R A

2000-11-01

180

Stereo-Based Tree Traversability Analysis for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous off-road navigation through forested areas is particularly challenging when there exists a mixture of densely distributed thin and thick trees. To make progress through a dense forest, the robot must decide which trees it can push over and which trees it must circumvent. This paper describes a stereo-based tree traversability algorithm implemented and tested on a robotic vehicle under

Andres Huertas; Larry Matthies; Arturo L. Rankin

2005-01-01

181

Online Speed Adaptation Using Supervised Learning for High-Speed, Off-Road Autonomous Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile robotics community has traditionally addressed motion planning and navigation in terms of steering decisions. However, selecting the best speed is also important - beyond its relationship to stopping distance and lateral maneuverability. Consider a high-speed (35 mph) autonomous vehi- cle driving off-road through challenging desert ter- rain. The vehicle should drive slowly on terrain that poses substantial risk.

David Stavens; Gabriel Hoffmann; Sebastian Thrun

2007-01-01

182

Off-Road Path and Obstacle Detection Using Decision Networks and Stereo Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous driving in off-road environments re- quires an exceptionally capable sensor system, particularly given that the unstructured environment does not provide many of the cues available in on-road environments. This paper presents a complex vision system, which is able to provide the two basic sensorial capabilities needed by autonomous vehicle navigation in extreme environments: obstacle detection and path detection. A

Claudio Caraffi; Stefano Cattani; Paolo Grisleri

2007-01-01

183

DAYTIME WATER DETECTION BY FUSING MULTIPLE CUES FOR AUTONOMOUS OFF-ROAD NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water

A. L. Rankin; L. H. Matthies; A. Huertas

184

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

2009-01-01

185

Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

186

22 CFR 121.4 - Ground vehicles.  

...2) Are armored support vehicles capable of off-road or amphibious use specially...Ground vehicles include any vehicle meeting the definitions...surface (e.g., highway, off-road, rail) upon which the vehicle is designed to...

2014-04-01

187

Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

2013-01-01

188

Secondary Organic Aerosol from On- and Off-Road Combustion Emissions: Scientific and Policy Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion emissions from on-road sources such as light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV), medium duty diesel vehicles (MDDV) and heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) as well as small off-road engines (SORE) such those used in lawn and garden equipment are a major source of fine particulate matter (PM) pollution in the ambient atmosphere. Existing regulations have restricted direct PM emissions, especially for on-road sources; however, recent studies suggest that organic PM formed from the photo-oxidation of gaseous precursor emissions—so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA)—contributes at least as much to the overall PM burden as PM "emitted from the tailpipe." A major limitation of many of these studies is that they attempt to induce from the behavior of simple emission surrogates (e.g., vaporized whole fuel) the behavior of actual combustion emissions from real world sources. This research investigates combustion emissions directly. The primary gas- and particle-phase emissions, SOA production and SOA yields from a range of different on-road and off-road combustion sources were characterized. LDGV, MDDV and HDDV were driven on chassis dynamometers over realistic, urban driving cycles. Off-road sources, including 2- and 4-stroke lawn and garden equipment and a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were tested using engine dynamometers operated over certification cycles. For nearly all gasoline engines (LDGV and SOREs), photo-oxidizing dilute combustion emissions for 3 hours produced at least as much SOA as the directly emitted primary PM. SOA increased net PM production for LDGV by a factor of 1-10, depending on the vehicle emission standard. SOA yields were found to increase with newer vehicles, which have lower primary emissions. SOA for diesel vehicles, while still large on an absolute basis, was a smaller fraction of the primary PM emissions (between 10-30%), due to the very high elemental carbon (EC) emissions from vehicles without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Aftertreatment systems utilizing a DPF and a diesel oxidation catalyst essentially eliminated primary PM and SOA. Among the off-road sources, SOA from 2-stroke emissions increased the net PM by roughly a factor of 2. Primary emission and SOA production factors from the various combustion sources tested in this work were combined with fuel consumption data for California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) to determine the impact on the aggregate PM from on- and off-road sources in the region. These estimated impacts were compared to the PM values derived from the regulatory models EMFAC and OFFROAD. Our data indicate that PM from on-road gasoline sources is significantly under-represented by existing emissions models due to the dominant role of SOA. When SOA production is included, newer LDGV are one of the largest sources of PM in SoCAB. Furthermore, LDGV will become an even more important PM source once existing regulations requiring DPF retrofits on both on- and off-road diesel sources are implemented over the next few years. While on-road diesel vehicles are currently an important source of PM based on total fuel consumption, LDGV are responsible for a larger fraction of total PM. The primary and secondary PM contribution of off-road sources also appear to be high, but the magnitude remains highly uncertain, pending further experimental data. Evidence is presented that suggests that existing models may dramatically overpredict primary PM emissions from off-road sources. Regulators are strongly urged to consider the impact of SOA on net PM production.

Gordon, Timothy D.

189

The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

Miller, Steven A. E.

2014-01-01

190

78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards for 2008 and later model year vehicles. Second, the amendments reclassified sand cars, off-road utility vehicles and off-road sport vehicles as OHRVs, which is aligned with the federal classification of these vehicles. Each of...

2013-01-04

191

Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

2011-01-01

192

Beach disturbance caused by off-road vehicles (ORVs) on sandy shores: Relationship with traffic volumes and a new method to quantify impacts using image-based data acquisition and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles cause environmental damage on sandy beaches, including physical displacement and compaction of the sediment. Such physical habitat disturbance provides a relatively simple indicator of ORV-related impacts that is potentially useful in monitoring the efficacy of beach traffic management interventions; such interventions also require data on the relationship between traffic volumes and the resulting levels of impact. Here we determined

Thomas A. Schlacher; Jennifer M. Morrison

2008-01-01

193

Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

2004-01-01

194

Mapping, navigation, and learning for off-road traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision as the main sensor. The system is very robust - we can typically give it a

Kurt Konolige; Motilal Agrawal; Morten Rufus Blas; Robert C. Bolles; Brian P. Gerkey; Joan Solà; Aravind Sundaresan

2009-01-01

195

Aiding Off-Road Inertial Navigation with High Performance Models of Forrest Rogers-Marcovitz, Michael George, Neal Seegmiller, and Alonzo Kelly1  

E-print Network

Aiding Off-Road Inertial Navigation with High Performance Models of Wheel Slip Forrest Rogers, is un- available, terrain-relative velocity is crucial for dead reckoning and the vehicle's pose, but treated the pose filter only as input without improving the odometry measurements used for vehicle

Kelly, Alonzo

196

Evaluating the Potential for Vehicle Transport of Propagules  

E-print Network

by a variety of natural and human actions. Roads and vehi- cles, including military vehicles and off-road is poorly understood. More propagules are likely to be collected by vehicles driven off-road than on paved to acquire data on soil adhering to vehicles driven off road, and to evaluate several relo- catable

Maxwell, Bruce D.

197

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Emissions From Conventional and Hybrid Off-Road Equipment  

E-print Network

26 Chapter Three: Equipment Evaluations of In-Use EmissionEvaluations of In-Use Emission Factors from Off-Road Construction EquipmentEvaluations of In-Use Emission Factors from Off-Road Construction Equipment

Cao, Tanfeng

2014-01-01

198

Assessing the impacts of military vehicle traffic on natural areas. Introduction to the special  

E-print Network

of Terramechanics #12;Keywords: Vehicle impacts; Off-road; Soil; Vegetation; Mobility analysis; Trafficability 1 and practitioners to convene and review the current state-of-the-knowledge of off-road vehicle impacts in Denver, CO on 4 November 2003 and brought together researchers working in the area of off-road vehicle

Fehmi, Jeffrey S.

199

Autonomous maneuver of a farm vehicle with a trailed implement: motion planner and lateral-longitudinal controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of path generation and motion control for the autonomous maneuver of a farm vehicle with a trailed implement in headland. A reverse turn planner is firstly investigated, based on primitives connected together to easily generate the reference motion. Then, both steering and speed control algorithms are presented to accurately guide the vehicle-trailer system. They are

Christophe Cariou; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Philippe Martinet

2010-01-01

200

Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model  

E-print Network

Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model Stacy C. Davis Lorena F. Truett Patricia S. Hu #12;ORNL/TM-1999/100 Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-96OR22464 #12;#12;Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation

201

Contributions to atmospheric dust production of natural and anthropogenic emissions in a recreational area designated for off-road vehicular activity (Nellis Dunes, Nevada, USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind erosion measurements and experiments with off-road vehicles (ORV) were conducted in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) near Las Vegas, Nevada. Wind erosion was measured during one complete year. ORV emissions were measured for 3 types of vehicles (dirt bikes, dune buggies, 4-wheelers) and for various driving speeds up to 56kmh?1. This study investigates the mutual contributions of wind

D. Goossens; B. Buck; B. McLaurin

202

43 CFR 8341.1 - Regulations governing use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Conditions of Use § 8341...use. (a) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (b) Any person...

2011-10-01

203

43 CFR 8342.1 - Designation criteria.  

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...open, limited, or closed to off-road vehicles. All designations shall...to minimize conflicts between off-road vehicle use and other existing...

2014-10-01

204

43 CFR 8341.1 - Regulations governing use.  

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Conditions of Use § 8341...use. (a) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (b) Any person...

2014-10-01

205

43 CFR 8342.1 - Designation criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...open, limited, or closed to off-road vehicles. All designations shall...to minimize conflicts between off-road vehicle use and other existing...

2011-10-01

206

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...management—procedures. (a) Off-road vehicles, use of public lands ...use. (i) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (ii) Any person...

2013-10-01

207

43 CFR 8342.1 - Designation criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...open, limited, or closed to off-road vehicles. All designations shall...to minimize conflicts between off-road vehicle use and other existing...

2012-10-01

208

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...management—procedures. (a) Off-road vehicles, use of public lands ...use. (i) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (ii) Any person...

2011-10-01

209

43 CFR 8342.1 - Designation criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...open, limited, or closed to off-road vehicles. All designations shall...to minimize conflicts between off-road vehicle use and other existing...

2013-10-01

210

43 CFR 8341.1 - Regulations governing use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Conditions of Use § 8341...use. (a) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (b) Any person...

2013-10-01

211

43 CFR 8341.1 - Regulations governing use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Conditions of Use § 8341...use. (a) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (b) Any person...

2012-10-01

212

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

...management—procedures. (a) Off-road vehicles, use of public lands ...use. (i) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (ii) Any person...

2014-10-01

213

43 CFR 9268.3 - Recreation management-procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...management—procedures. (a) Off-road vehicles, use of public lands ...use. (i) The operation of off-road vehicles is permitted on those areas and trails designated as open to off-road vehicle use. (ii) Any person...

2012-10-01

214

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...administrative unit of the National Forest System...official shall monitor the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas under the jurisdiction of...

2012-07-01

215

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...administrative unit of the National Forest System...official shall monitor the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas under the jurisdiction of...

2013-07-01

216

Off-road Path Following using Region Classification and Geometric Projection Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a realtime system for finding and tracking unstructured paths in off-road conditions. The system was designed as part of the recent Darpa Grand Challenge and was tested over hundreds of miles of off-road driving. The unique feature of our approach is to combine geometric projection used for recovering Pitch and Yaw with Learn- ing approaches for identifying familiar

Yaniv Alon; Andras Ferencz; Amnon Shashua

2006-01-01

217

Modeling Aggressive Maneuvers on Loose Surfaces: The Cases of Trail-Braking and Pendulum-Turn  

E-print Network

for path planning of ground vehicles. For off-road aggressive driving scenarios the maneuver repertoire of detail to reproduce modes of operation typical of those encountered in rally, off-road racing. We use-Turn (PT) cornering, two of the most common rally racing maneuvers. We introduce a low order vehicle model

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

218

Mobility Erosion: High speed motion safety for mobile robots operating in off-road terrain  

E-print Network

This paper addresses the problem of ensuring mobile robot motion safety when reacting to soft and hard hazards in a static environment. The work is aimed at off-road navigation for mobile ground robots where soft hazards ...

Karumanchi, Sisir

219

A Fuel-Based Assessment of Off-Road Diesel Engine Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of

Andrew J. Kean; Robert F. Sawyer; Robert A. Harley

2000-01-01

220

OffRoad Obstacle Avoidance through EndtoEnd Learning  

E-print Network

Introduction Autonomous off­road vehicles have vast potential applications in a wide spectrum of do­ mains. Building a fully autonomous off­road vehicle that can reliably navigate and avoid obstacles at high speed [6, 15], and classifying obstacle types. Among the various sub­problems of off­road vehicle

LeCun, Yann

221

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2012-10-01

222

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2014-10-01

223

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2013-10-01

224

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2010-10-01

225

43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...expense. (c) You must not operate any vehicle, or allow another person to operate a vehicle in your control, in a careless, negligent...in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420...

2011-10-01

226

Non-market valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of trail closures.  

PubMed

Few economic studies are available to measure off-highway vehicle recreation benefits foregone when trails must be closed to protect the environment. This paper estimates the non-market benefits associated with off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on National Forest lands in Larimer County, Colorado. We use a contingent valuation model (CVM) to estimate benefits to OHV users, which includes dirt bike riders, all terrain vehicle (ATV) riders, and 4-wheel drive (4x4) users. Using CVM we find the mean consumer surplus estimates to be $78 per person per day. These results are consistent with the few previous estimates of OHV recreation benefits. This equates to a per trail per summer consumer surplus of at least between $219,467 and $296,876, and a county level surplus per summer to be at least between $796,447 and $1,077,367. These benefits can be compared to environmental costs to obtain a more complete picture of the effects of trail closure, as well as the negative spillovers to non-motorized users. PMID:19616887

Deisenroth, Daniel; Loomis, John; Bond, Craig

2009-08-01

227

All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... t) Safety Guidelines All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are off-road vehicles for recreational use. In most states, it's legal ... riding ATVs. What Are ATVs? ATVs are motorized vehicles that are meant to be used off-road or on dirt roads, not on paved roads ...

228

A behavior-based system for off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural terrain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module that processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module that maintains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module that issues commands to the vehicle

D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

1994-01-01

229

Factors affecting the impact of off-road driving on soils in an area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

Studies on the effects of off-road driving on soils were conducted in the Makuleke Contractual Park of the Kruger National Park. The studies were conducted on three different soils with different textures and soil compactibilities. Traffic pressure was applied with a game drive vehicle loaded with 11 sand bags, each weighing 70 kg. This gave a total vehicle mass of 3,795 kg, simulating a vehicle fully laden with tourists. The study included: (i) comparing of the effects of four different tyre pressures; (ii) comparing the effects of 1-3 vehicle passes over the same tyre tracks; (iii) comparison of traffic effects under dry and wet soil moisture conditions, on soil compaction, respectively. After each pass penetration resistances were measured (a) on the tyre tracks, (b) between the tyre tracks and (c) at different distances outside the tyre tracks. As expected, vehicular traffic caused soil compaction below the wheel tracks. Lower tyre pressures caused less compaction than higher tyre pressures. Fewer vehicle passes also caused less compaction than more passes on the same tracks, but most compaction occurred during the first pass. Thus, driving on the same tracks more than once is less damaging than driving once on different tracks. Controlled traffic should be considered when developing management strategies for off-road driving in wildlife protected areas. PMID:23079698

Nortjé, Gerhardus Petrus; van Hoven, Wouter; Laker, Michiel C

2012-12-01

230

On the 3D normal tire/off-road vibro-contact problem with friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a virtual experiment concerning driving on off-roads is investigated via 3D normal vibro-contact problem with friction. The dynamic road concept is introduced in order to characterize a particular stretch of road by total longitudinal, lateral, and normal forces and their geometric distributions in the contact patches. The off-road profiles are built by image sonification technique. The cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the contact between the tire and the road, the distribution of contact and friction forces in the contact domain, the natural frequencies and modes when the tire is in ground contact, are estimated. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The feasibility of image sonification technique is useful to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with an increased degree of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.

Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Bri?an, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Sireteanu, Tudor; Petre, Simona

2015-03-01

231

An Integrated System for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on experiments with a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural terrain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which main- tains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning

Dirk Langer; Julio K. Rosenblatt; Martial Hebert

1994-01-01

232

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; Deepak Kumar; Robert Walters; Jim Radford; Richard Mason

2008-01-01

233

A Reactive System For Off-Road Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper; we describe a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural ter- rain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which main- tains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module which

D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

1994-01-01

234

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; D. Kumar; R. Walters; J. Radford; R. Mason

2006-01-01

235

An integrated system for autonomous off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on experiments with a core system for autonomous navigation in outdoor natural terrain. The system consists of three parts: a perception module which processes range images to identify untraversable regions of the terrain, a local map management module which maintains a representation of the environment in the vicinity of the vehicle, and a planning module

D. Langer; J. K. Rosenblatt; M. Hebert

1994-01-01

236

COMPARISON OF ON AND OFF ROAD DIESEL EXHAUST SOURCES ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AN INFLUENZA INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE), a major component of urban air pollution, and its modulatory role in human susceptibility to respiratory infections is of great concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of on- and off-road sources of DE exposure on the severity of an ...

237

A single loading direction for fatigue life prediction and testing of handlebars for off-road bicycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components for off-road bicycles including handlebars continue to be recalled with regularity because of problems with structural failure as a result of high cycle fatigue in the off-road environment. The objectives of this study were to 1) devise a method for determining the point on the handlebar cross section that experiences the maximum cumulative damage when the handlebar is subjected

S. P McKenna; M. R Hill; M. L Hull

2002-01-01

238

TRACKING PAINTED PEBBLES IN THE MOJAVE-OFFROAD VEHICLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON  

E-print Network

extensive off-road vehicular use. We find that off-road vehicle use dramatically accelerates pebble movementTRACKING PAINTED PEBBLES IN THE MOJAVE- OFFROAD VEHICLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON SEDIMENT TRANSPORT activity. Pebble tracking demonstrates that animal burrowing, as well as tracked and wheeled vehicles move

Nichols, Kyle K.

239

A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and plume capture experiments. Extensive in-use emissions data are available for NOx, especially for on-road engines. Measurements of exhaust PM2.5 emission factors are sparse in comparison. For NOx, there have been dramatic (factor of 2) decreases in emission factors for on-road gasoline engines between 1996 and 2006, due to use of improved catalytic converters on most engines. In contrast, diesel NOx emission factors decreased more gradually over the same time period. Exhaust PM2.5 emission factors appear to have decreased for most engine categories, but emission uncertainties are large for this pollutant. Pollutant emissions were estimated by combining fuel sales with emission factors expressed per unit of fuel burned. Diesel engines are the dominant mobile source of both NOx and PM2.5; the diesel contribution to NOx has increased over time as gasoline engine emissions have declined. Comparing fuel-based emission estimates with EPA’s national emission inventory led to the following conclusions: (1) total emissions of both NOx and PM2.5 estimated by two different methods were similar, (2) the distribution of source contributions to these totals differ significantly, with higher relative contributions coming from on-road diesel engines in this study compared to EPA.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

2009-12-01

240

56 Int. J. Vehicle Autonomous Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 1/2, 2009 Real-time path planning using  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper describes the development of a real-time path planner for off-road vehicles using and mostly accurate for flat surfaces. For an off-road vehicle, ground slip may be significant and cause56 Int. J. Vehicle Autonomous Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 1/2, 2009 Real-time path planning using

Hellström, Thomas

241

43 CFR 8342.2 - Designation procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...potential impacts of specific vehicle types on all resources...constitutes formal designation of off-road vehicle use areas. Public notice...

2011-10-01

242

43 CFR 8342.2 - Designation procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...potential impacts of specific vehicle types on all resources...constitutes formal designation of off-road vehicle use areas. Public notice...

2013-10-01

243

43 CFR 8342.2 - Designation procedures.  

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...potential impacts of specific vehicle types on all resources...constitutes formal designation of off-road vehicle use areas. Public notice...

2014-10-01

244

43 CFR 8342.2 - Designation procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails...potential impacts of specific vehicle types on all resources...constitutes formal designation of off-road vehicle use areas. Public notice...

2012-10-01

245

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g... (12) State: “THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES].” (13)...

2011-07-01

246

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...whichever comes first, for vehicles above 33,000 pounds GVWR...provisions that exempt certain vehicles used in off- road operation from the standards...optionally certify a vocational vehicle to the standards and useful...

2012-07-01

247

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whichever comes first, for vehicles above 33,000 pounds GVWR...provisions that exempt certain vehicles used in off-road operation from the standards...optionally certify a vocational vehicle to the standards and useful...

2013-07-01

248

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g... (12) State: “THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES].” (13)...

2013-07-01

249

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g... (12) State: “THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES].” (13)...

2014-07-01

250

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

...whichever comes first, for vehicles above 33,000 pounds GVWR...provisions that exempt certain vehicles used in off-road operation from the standards...optionally certify a vocational vehicle to the standards and useful...

2014-07-01

251

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g... (12) State: “THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES].” (13)...

2010-07-01

252

40 CFR 1051.135 - How must I label and identify the vehicles I produce?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards or FELs to which the vehicles are certified (in g... (12) State: “THIS VEHICLE MEETS U.S. EPA REGULATIONS...YEAR] [SNOWMOBILES or OFF-ROAD MOTORCYCLES or ATVs or OFFROAD UTILITY VEHICLES].” (13)...

2012-07-01

253

Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.  

PubMed

Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area. PMID:24261886

Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

2013-12-17

254

77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...yard trucks powered by off-road engines and the auxiliary...Heavy-Duty Diesel-Fueled Vehicles'' (commonly referred...applies to non-new on-road motor vehicles, which is not the subject...principally used in off-road agricultural...

2012-08-21

255

43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails § 8342.3 ...authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of off-road vehicles. On the basis of information so obtained, and...

2012-10-01

256

43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails § 8342.3 ...authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of off-road vehicles. On the basis of information so obtained, and...

2013-10-01

257

43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails § 8342.3 ...authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of off-road vehicles. On the basis of information so obtained, and...

2014-10-01

258

43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Designation of Areas and Trails § 8342.3 ...authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of off-road vehicles. On the basis of information so obtained, and...

2011-10-01

259

Trail Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the maintenance of hiking trails in the United States using volunteer workers from clubs like the American Hiking Society. Describes the organization of the National Trails Day and other methods of promoting trail maintenance. (MDH)

Sanders, Bill

1993-01-01

260

Off-road vehicle user knowledge of environmental impact in selected use areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to: (1) ascertain ORV users, in Oklahoma, knowledge of ORVs' impact upon the environment; (2) identify their opinions as to whether an adverse impact upon the environment is an acceptable consequence of ORV use; and (3) identify their opinions whether management of ORV use areas should be paid for by the ORV users. The data collection

1991-01-01

261

Off road vehicle impact in Cape Cod national seashore: Disruption and recovery of dune vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-going investigation of the rates of vegetation breakdown and natural recovery under controlled conditions has been established at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, U.S.A. In this study, the effects of controlled impacts on a variety of coastal habitats were measured in terms of above and below ground biomass. Dune sites, ranging from unstabilized to moderately stabilized, were driven on

J. M. Brodhead; P. J. Godfrey

1977-01-01

262

Modeling and real-time simulation architectures for virtual prototyping of off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Reality-based simulation technology has evolved as a useful design and analysis tool at an early stage in the design\\u000a for evaluating performance of human-operated agricultural and construction machinery. Detecting anomalies in the design prior\\u000a to building physical prototypes and expensive testing leads to significant cost savings. The efficacy of such simulation technology\\u000a depends on how realistically the simulation mimics

Manoj Karkee; Brian L. Steward; Atul G. Kelkar; Zachary T. Kemp

2011-01-01

263

Engine load prediction in off-road vehicles using multi-objective nonlinear identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-objective identification of nonlinear dynamic models consisting of local linear models is considered. The tradeoff between global model accuracy and local model interpretability is explicitly considered by introducing weights on the criteria for local model accuracy. A strategy is proposed to tune the local weights in order to achieve similar tradeoff for each local model. In this way, better

K. Maertens; T. A. Johansen; R. Babuška

2004-01-01

264

Anytime computation of time-optimal off-road vehicle maneuvers using the RRT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incremental sampling-based motion planning algorithms such as the Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful in efficiently solving computationally challenging motion planning problems involving complex dynamical systems. A recently proposed algorithm, called the RRT*, also provides asymptotic optimality guarantees, i.e., almost-sure convergence to optimal trajectories (which the RRT algorithm lacked) while maintaining the computational efficiency of the RRT algorithm. In

Jeong hwan Jeon; Sertac Karaman; Emilio Frazzoli

2011-01-01

265

Motion Planning of Autonomous Off-Road Vehicles under Physical Interaction Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper a new motion planning approach for a nonholonomicmobile robot moving on a uneven terrain and subject to strong physical interactionconstraints. The novelty of this method is that it deals with the dynamics of the robot andits physical interactions with the terrain at the planning time, together with the kinematicand the geometric constraints of the task.

Moëz Cherif; Christian Laugier

1995-01-01

266

On-line estimation of a stability metric including grip conditions and slope: Application to rollover prevention for All-Terrain Vehicles  

E-print Network

, most ATV users do not have necessarily the required qualification to drive their vehicle under off-road, quad bikes are frequently used because of their conception and the consequential off-road capabilities have already been developed for on-road vehicles, such as the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) [3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

November 2005; published online 18 January 2006 A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing the U.S. is reducing sulfur in fuel and thus mobile source SO2 emissions, off-road fuel generally con- tains more sulfur and worldwide some fuels contain more than 600 times the U.S. limit.13 Off-road, high

Denver, University of

268

Utility vehicle safety Operator training program  

E-print Network

;Operator procedure & performance Off Road Operation: When Utility Vehicles are operated off of roadwaysUtility vehicle safety Operator training program #12;Permissible use Utility Vehicles may only Utility Vehicle operator · When equipped with the "Required Equipment" · On public roadways within

Minnesota, University of

269

Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date  

E-print Network

: A motor vehicle that is (i) designed for off road use; (ii) powered by an engine of no more than 25/utility vehicle force a pedestrian off of a sidewalk. Golf carts/utility vehicles shall also afford the rightSUBJECT: Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date: 8-3-10 Policy Number: 4.1.6 Supersedes: EH

Fernandez, Eduardo

270

Segmentation of a road from a vehicle-mounted radar and accuracy of the Mila Nikolova Alfred Hero III  

E-print Network

Segmentation of a road from a vehicle-mounted radar and accuracy of the estimation Mila Nikolova. This image contains both road and off-road scatter components which must be segmented from each other, our estimator is based on a criterion which is largely insensi- tive to the off-road scatter

Hero, Alfred O.

271

43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure...Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance with §...

2012-10-01

272

43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure...Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance with §...

2011-10-01

273

43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure...Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance with §...

2010-10-01

274

43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure...Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance with §...

2014-10-01

275

43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure...Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance with §...

2013-10-01

276

Effects of Sodium Phosphate Loading on Aerobic Power and Capacity in off Road Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days) phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days) intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S) and control group (C). Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake. Key points Studies on bone acute biochemical response to loading have yielded unequivocal results. There is a paucity of research on the biochemical bone response to high impact exercise. An increase in bone turnover was observed one to two days post exercise. PMID:24149601

Czuba, Milosz; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Woska, Scott

2009-01-01

277

Effects of Sodium Phosphate Loading on Aerobic Power and Capacity in off Road Cyclists.  

PubMed

The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days) phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days) intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S) and control group (C). Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg(-1) of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg(-1) FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake. Key pointsStudies on bone acute biochemical response to loading have yielded unequivocal results.There is a paucity of research on the biochemical bone response to high impact exercise.An increase in bone turnover was observed one to two days post exercise. PMID:24149601

Czuba, Milosz; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Woska, Scott

2009-01-01

278

Case study; Roller compacted concrete road for large off-road combustion waste transport  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Gibbons creek Steam Electric Station (GCSES)-which generates combustion wastes, consisting of ash and scrubber sludge, at a rate of approximately 1.5 million cubic yards per year. Recognizing that the existing landfill would be filled to capacity in the near future, the Texas Municipal Power Agency (TMPA) retained Black and Veatch (B and V) to develop a combustion waste disposal plan and to design a landfill for the remaining 35-year life of the station. Several potential sites were evaluated on the basis of functional requirements, regulatory requirements, physical considerations, public sensitivity, and economic criteria. The evaluation of potential sites resulted in the selection of a site approximately 1-1/2 miles north of the GCSES main plant complex, across the cooling lake for the station. Several methods of transport were evaluated, including truck, conveyor, and rail. Hauling by large off-road trucks was determined to be the most reliable and cost-effective method of combustion waste transport.

Brown, L.E. (Black and Veatch Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, MO (United States))

1991-01-01

279

Detection and classification of motor vehicle noise in a forested landscape.  

PubMed

Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management. PMID:23851702

Brown, Casey L; Reed, Sarah E; Dietz, Matthew S; Fristrup, Kurt M

2013-11-01

280

Detection and Classification of Motor Vehicle Noise in a Forested Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

Brown, Casey L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Dietz, Matthew S.; Fristrup, Kurt M.

2013-11-01

281

Comparison of birds detected from roadside and off-road point counts in the Shenandoah National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-ha) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results from 81 paired roadside and off-road counts indicated that roadside counts had higher numbers of several edge species but did not have lower numbers of nonedge forest species. More individuals and species were detected from roadside points because of this increase in edge species. Sixty-five percent of the species detected in 10 minutes were recorded in the first 3 minutes.

Keller, C.M.E.; Fuller, M.R.

1995-01-01

282

Final 8-12-11 VEHICLE USE POLICY  

E-print Network

mean an on-road or off-road vehicle that is owned or otherwise acquired by the College for Official1 Final 8-12-11 VEHICLE USE POLICY FOR CONDUCTING THE OFFICIAL BUSINESS OF THE COLLEGE that are required by the College for the use of a College Vehicle or State Fleet Vehicle and for the use

Kasman, Alex

283

Multi-model based sideslip angle observer: Accurate control of high-speed mobile robots in off-road conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate control of high-speed mobile robots moving off-road constitutes a challenging robotic issue: numerous time-varying dynamic phenomena (and first of all, sliding effects) are no longer negligible and must explicitly be taken into account in control design, in order to ensure high accuracy path tracking. Since these phenomena are hardly measurable at a reasonable cost, they have to be estimated

Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Christophe Cariou; Philippe Martinet

2009-01-01

284

Off-Road Robot Modeling with Dextrous Manipulation Kinematics Joseph Auchter and Carl Moore  

E-print Network

Variable Camber (PVC). Simulation results of a three-wheeled vehicle with PVC demonstrate that the vehicle equipped with Passive Variable Camber. The axis of rotation of each PVC joint is perpendicular to the page

Collins, Emmanuel

285

Vehicle load-equalization system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System uses cables and associated pulleys to form closed-loop suspension system for terrain compensation. Loop causes reactions at each of three wheels in response to loading at remaining wheel. Simplicity of design should be of interest to designers and manufacturers of construction equipment and off-road vehicles.

Creasy, W. K.

1976-01-01

286

Controller area network based monitoring of vehicle's mechatronics system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of various electronic su bsystems in different kinds of on-road and off-road vehicles is constantly expanding. Accordingly, the new vehicles, instead of being mechanical systems, become advanced mechatronics systems whose development and testing call for a new approach. The possibility of using data available on vehicle network presents itself as an extremely powerful tool. This paper deals with

S. Jankovic; D. Kleut; I. Blagojevic; V. Petrovic; V. Sinik

2011-01-01

287

INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles  

E-print Network

that are emitted and reflected from the vehicle. ·Bright reflections off road surface ·Very hot tailpipes ·Uniform. Iliff Ave., Denver, CO, 80208 Introduction ·On-road studies identify cold start vehicles as high metal parts ·Hot and cold reflections of the underbody of the vehicle from the road surface ·Tires

Denver, University of

288

32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.  

...per hour on paved roads and 25 miles per hour on unpaved roads and tank trails. Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles (CUCV's) are tactical vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH...

2014-07-01

289

32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...per hour on paved roads and 25 miles per hour on unpaved roads and tank trails. Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles (CUCV's) are tactical vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH...

2010-07-01

290

32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...per hour on paved roads and 25 miles per hour on unpaved roads and tank trails. Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles (CUCV's) are tactical vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH...

2011-07-01

291

FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions. PMID:25318418

Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

2014-10-16

292

A Self-Supervised Terrain Roughness Estimator for Off-Road Autonomous Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate perception is a principal challenge of autonomous ofi-road driving. Percep- tive technologies generally focus on obsta- cle avoidance. However, at high speed, ter- rain roughness is also important to control shock the vehicle experiences. The accuracy required to detect rough terrain is signifl- cantly greater than that necessary for obsta- cle avoidance. We present a self-supervised machine learn- ing

David Stavens; Sebastian Thrun

2006-01-01

293

Fusing ladar and color image for detection grass off-road scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to extend the intelligent vehicle to navigate from structured environment to rough terrain, which is a great challenge for environment modeling. Ladar and camera are the most widely used sensors, but each of them has shortcoming. In this paper, SVM method is used to fuse the information from ladar and color camera. After registration, ladar point is

Liu da-xue; Wu tao; Dai bin

2007-01-01

294

Differences in Off-Road Glances: Effects on Young Drivers’ Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young drivers display more risk-taking behavior than other age groups. Performing distracting tasks is a risky behavior that young drivers tend to engage in, but may not be able to compensate for appropriately. A driving simulator study with 53 young drivers (aged 18 to 21) was conducted to assess the level of engagement with an in-vehicle secondary task. A cluster

Birsen Donmez; Linda Ng Boyle; John D. Lee

2010-01-01

295

Evaluation of off-road terrain with static stereo and monoscopic displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently funding research into the design of a Mars rover vehicle. This unmanned rover will be used to explore a number of scientific and geologic sites on the Martian surface. Since the rover can not be driven from Earth in real-time, due to lengthy communication time delays, a locomotion strategy that optimizes vehicle range and minimizes potential risk must be developed. In order to assess the degree of on-board artificial intelligence (AI) required for a rover to carry out its' mission, researchers conducted an experiment to define a no AI baseline. In the experiment 24 subjects, divided into stereo and monoscopic groups, were shown video snapshots of four terrain scenes. The subjects' task was to choose a suitable path for the vehicle through each of the four scenes. Paths were scored based on distance travelled and hazard avoidance. Study results are presented with respect to: (1) risk versus range; (2) stereo versus monocular video; (3) vehicle camera height; and (4) camera field-of-view.

Yorchak, John P.; Hartley, Craig S.

1990-01-01

296

Trail Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this highly physical outdoor activity, learners construct and compare experimental trail sections to select the best trail-construction technique for their site. As they measure, evaluate and build, they must consider factors including erosion, slope, materials, labor, cost, human effort, and various environmental impacts. The slope measuring component not only involves mathematical problem-solving, but can incorporate measurement of human health performance, since one way of measuring slope in this activity can be having learners check their pulse as they climb a hill. This activity can be well combined with the "Hold a Hill" and "Cardiac Hill" activities from the same resource.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

297

Passive perception system for day\\/night autonomous off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Passive perception of terrain ,features is a ,vital requirement ,for military related unmanned ,autonomous ,vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed ,a self-contained passive ,perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally,protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelfpan-tilt unit.

Arturo L. Rankin; Charles F. Bergh; Steven B. Goldberg; Paolo Bellutta; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

298

Rule-based reasoning and neural network perception for safe off-road robot mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Operational safety and health monitoring,are critical matters for autonomous,field mobile robots such as planetary rovers operating on challenging terrain. This paper describes relevant rover safety and health issues and presents an approach,to maintaining vehicle safety in a mobility and navigation context. The proposed,rover safety module,is composed,of two distinct components:,safe attitude (pitch and,roll) management,and,safe traction management. Fuzzy logic approaches to

Edward Tunstel; Ayanna Howard; Homayoun Seraji

2002-01-01

299

Passive perception system for day\\/night autonomous off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive perception of terrain features is a vital requirement for military related unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a self-contained passive perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelf pan-tilt

Arturo L. Rankin; Charles F. Bergh; Steven B. Goldberg; Paolo Bellutta; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

2005-01-01

300

Snail Trails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

Galus, Pamela

2002-01-01

301

Off-road vehicle recreation management policy for public lands in the United States: A case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three annual motorcycle races on the Johnson Valley-Parker course in California's Mojave Desert have resulted in conspicuous modifications of soil and vegetation in a Wilderness Study Area (WSA) and in other lands of high resource values. The extent of damage caused by the races, which have involved fewer than 400 participants, exceeded the expectations of the managing agency by 360%–640%

Howard G. Wilshire

1983-01-01

302

Off-road vehicle recreation management policy for public lands in the United States: A case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three annual motorcycle races on the Johnson Valley-Parker course in California's Mojave Desert have resulted in conspicuous modifications of soil and vegetation in a Wilderness Study Area (WSA) and in other lands of high resource values. The extent of damage caused by the races, which have involved fewer than 400 participants, exceeded the expectations of the managing agency by 360%

Howard G. Wilshire

1983-01-01

303

Impact analysis of off-road-vehicle use on vegetation in the Grand Mere dune environment. [Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A linear regression between percent nonvegetative land and the time variable was completed for the two sample areas. Sample area no. 1 showed an average vegetation loss of 1.901% per year, while the loss for sample area no. 2 amounted to 5.889% per year. Two basic reasons for the difference were assumed to play a role: the difference in access potential and the amount of already fragmented vegetation complexes in existence during the first year of the comparative analysis - 1970. Sample area no. 2 was located closer to potential access points and was more fragmented initially.

Schultink, G. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

304

Research on relation between two evaluation methods of random input ride comfort for off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on ISO standard 2631 and average absorbed power method, the data of half-load sand road test of EQ2050 are processed, and the overall weighted acceleration RMS and average absorbed power are calculated respectively. By using the least squares method, the relation between the two evaluation indexes is fitted and the estimation formula of average absorbed power is proposed. By

Fan Lu; Sizhong Chen; Zhicheng Wu; Lin Yang; Junwei Zhang; Junyan Li

2010-01-01

305

Transforming the Theorem Prover into a Digital Design Tool: From Concept Car to Off-Road Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

. As digital designs grow evermore complex and design cyclesbecome ever shorter, traditional informal methods of design verificationare proving inadequate. Design teams are increasingly turning to formaltechniques to address this "verification crunch". The theorem prover,with its emphasis on establishing correctness, is arguably the dream designverification tool; however, theorem provers are rarely used in digitaldesign. Much like automotive industry "concept cars",

David Hardin; Matthew Wilding; David A. Greve

1998-01-01

306

Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: resistance in different U.S. deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are an important component of desert ecosystems, as they influence soil stability and fertility. This study examined and compared the short-term vehicular impacts on lichen cover and nitrogenase activity (NA) of biological soil crusts. Experimental disturbance was applied to different types of soil in regions throughout the western U.S. (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, Chihuahuan, and Mojave

Jayne Belnap

2002-01-01

307

Updated: January 2014 Vehicle Rentals Enterprise Rent-a-Car  

E-print Network

and drop off of the university employee at Enterprise locations. 2. Vehicle delivery/pickup fee of $20: · The department prefers to have a zero deductible. · Driving off-road to cover wear and tear such as paint chipsUpdated: January 2014 Vehicle Rentals ­ Enterprise Rent-a-Car The contract between the University

Peak, Derek

308

Trail Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Something of a veteran by Internet standards, the Trail Database has been around since 1997 and, as such, now bills itself as the "world's largest hiking trail database." "Henk," the Dutch hiker responsible for this compendium, updates the site regularly and has included a wide variety of links to helpful material here. Users can search or browse the resources, which are arranged both under general topics, such as Knots or Equipment, and by country. Those planning European hikes will find the links off the front page to foot and mouth disease-related hiking restrictions useful (though we found some of these links to be broken). In all, an impressive collection of material. The site is available in Dutch or English.

1997-01-01

309

The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. PMID:24979615

Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanis?aw; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Mi?osz; Michalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

310

MORTALITY OF AN AMERICAN MARTEN FROM AN OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLE --Cause-specific mortality in American marten (Martes americana)  

E-print Network

(OHV; i.e., all-terrain vehicles [ATV], off-road motorcycles or dirt bikes, snowmobiles, and four53 MORTALITY OF AN AMERICAN MARTEN FROM AN OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLE -- Cause-specific mortality (Potvin and Breton 1997), and on-road vehicles (Potvin and Breton 1997) have been documented. However

311

A BIO-DIESEL BAJA VEHICLE AND STUDENT COMPETITION  

EPA Science Inventory

The SAE Mini Baja® competition is an extremely popular design competition for students in engineering programs around the world. The competition focuses on the design of an off-road vehicle for performance and cost-of-production. The objective of the proposed effort is to ...

312

Terrain-Based Sensor Selection for Autonomous Trail Following  

E-print Network

- and ladar-based system which keeps to continuous hiking and mountain biking trails of relatively low human-cut hiking tracks to above-ground pipelines to rivers and canals, they "show the way" to unmanned ground to wheeled vehicles such as dirt, gravel, and other marginal roads, as well as true hiking trails, is a vital

Rasmussen, Christopher

313

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

314

Pick A Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Wilderness Society, the Pick a Trail Web site offers general information about backpacking and hiking in the United States and different trails in other countries, such as the United Kingdom. The trails featured on the site are organized alphabetically, with a special emphasis placed on those trails leading through the US National Park System. Information on each trail includes a brief sketch of the host country, including basic climatic information, local topography, and the type of terrain that each trail traverses. Along with this material, there are short essays on subjects related to hiking, such as identifying local plant species, associated health risks, and what items to bring along. Rounding out the site is an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on each individual state to obtain an overall profile of the trails located there.

2002-01-01

315

A rollover indicator based on the prediction of the load transfer in presence of sliding: application to an All Terrain Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral rollover of quad bikes represents a significant part of severe accidents in the field of agricultural work. The specifities of such vehicles (small wheelbase, track and weight), together with the terrain configuration (off-road environment) prevent from describing rollover occurence as it is proposed for car-like vehicles moving on asphalted roads. This paper proposes a rollover risk indicator dedicated

Nicolas Bouton; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Jean-christophe Fauroux

2007-01-01

316

Children's color trails.  

PubMed

Color Trails for Children was developed in response to the need for instruments which minimize cultural bias in neuropsychological testing. The test, similar in format to Trail Making, was designed to provide an evaluation of speeded visuomotor tracking while minimizing the influence of language. The present research involves two exploratory studies which examine the relationship between Color Trails for Children and Trail Making, factors that may affect performance times, and discriminant validity. Results indicate that the tests appear to measure the same neuropsychological domains, and administration of Trail Making did not significantly alter performance times on Color Trails. Increasing age and IQ were related to quicker completion time for both tests. Females were found to complete Color Trails 2 and Trail Making Part B more quickly than males in this sample. Comparison between children diagnosed with learning disabilities, attention deficits, or mild neurological conditions and a preliminary standardization sample supported the discriminant validity of Color Traits to distinguish between normal controls and children with altered neuropsychological functioning. Comparison between clinical conditions indicated that Color Trails 2 was particularly sensitive in discriminating among the groups. Although further research is needed, results suggest that Color Trails has the potential to be an effective research and clinical tool in child neuropsychological assessment. PMID:14588688

Williams, J; Rickert, V; Hogan, J; Zolten, A J; Satz, P; D'Elia, L F; Asarnow, R F; Zaucha, K; Light, R

1995-05-01

317

Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

Reuel, Nigel (Rio Rancho, NM); Lionberger, Troy A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-03-11

318

A vision system for autonomous vehicle navigation in challenging traffic scenes using integrated cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system used for navigating an autonomous vehicle through challenging traffic scenes based on stereo vision. In order to safely as well as legally facilitate autonomous driving behaviors such as road following, obstacle avoidance, off-road navigation, etc., the proposed system consists of two parallel modules: drivable road region detection and tracking module and painted lane boundary detection

Chunzhao Guo; Seiichi Mita; David McAllester

2010-01-01

319

Potential Ozone Impacts of Excess NO2 Emissions from Diesel Particulate Filters for On and Off-Road Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas\\/Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying

Amnon Bar-Ilan; Jeremiah R. Johnson; Allison DenBleyker; Lit-Mian Chan; Gregory Yarwood; David Hitchcock; Joseph P. Pinto; Abderrahmane Touati; Matthew Clayton; Tsung-Wen Chien; Hsin-Ta Hsueh; Hsin Chu; Wei-Chieh Hsu; Yueh-Yuan Tu; Hsien-Shiou Tsai; Kuo-Yi Chen; Richard Derwent; Michael Jenkin; Michael Pilling; William Carter; Ajith Kaduwela; Hanna Kierzkowska-Pawlak; Andrzej Chacuk; Andrzej Chmielewski; Anna Ostapczuk; Janusz Licki; Kenneth Casey; Richard Gates; Richard Shores; Eben Thoma; D. Harris; Tomasz Mroz; Ana Elías; Astrid Barona; Gorka Gallastegi; Naiara Rojo; Luis Gurtubay; Gabriel Ibarra-Berastegi; Teresa Barone; John Storey; Norberto Domingo; Katarzyna Piekarska; Andrey Zagoruiko; Bair Balzhinimaev; Sergey Vanag; Vladimir Goncharov; Sergey Lopatin; Alexander Zykov; Sergey Anichkov; Yurii Zhukov; Vassily Yankilevich; Nikolay Proskokov; Nick Hutson; Michal Glomba

2010-01-01

320

Computational investigation of blast survivability and off-road performance of an up-armoured high-mobility  

E-print Network

analysis, the kinematic and structural responses (including large- scale rotation and deformation, buckling of a landmine were analysed computationally using the general-purpose transient non-linear dynamics analysis-body dynamics program, and the main purpose of this analysis was to address the vehicle stability during the off

Grujicic, Mica

321

36 CFR 228.12 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road, trail, bridge, landing area for aircraft, or...other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has received approval...

2011-07-01

322

36 CFR 228.12 - Access.  

...entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road, trail, bridge, landing area for aircraft, or...other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has received approval...

2014-07-01

323

36 CFR 228.12 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road, trail, bridge, landing area for aircraft, or...other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has received approval...

2012-07-01

324

Impacts of the cancellation of the spring bear hunt in Ontario, Canada  

E-print Network

in formerly inaccessible areas via forestry roads and off- road vehicle trails, changing recreational patternsN, School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead Uni- versity, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay

325

43 CFR 8340.0-8 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-8 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to all public lands, roads, and trails under administration of the...

2011-10-01

326

36 CFR 228.12 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road, trail, bridge, landing area for aircraft, or...other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has received approval...

2010-07-01

327

43 CFR 8340.0-8 - Applicability.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-8 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to all public lands, roads, and trails under administration of the...

2014-10-01

328

36 CFR 228.12 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road, trail, bridge, landing area for aircraft, or...other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has received approval...

2013-07-01

329

43 CFR 8340.0-8 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-8 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to all public lands, roads, and trails under administration of the...

2012-10-01

330

43 CFR 8340.0-8 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-8 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to all public lands, roads, and trails under administration of the...

2013-10-01

331

Reviewing the human dimensions of wildlife management and recreation  

E-print Network

Off- road vehicle use Trampling Studies Torn 2009 X - X - No difference Thurston 2001 X X and mountain biking, off-roading, horse riding, camping, nature- watching · 450 journal articles, book chapters off path/trail)? 2. How do recreational users perceive their own and others' impacts on wildlife

332

Fire ant trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fire ants mark their trail with a substance from the Dufour's gland. The trail used by a group of fire ants is shown. Several examples of groups of ants following each other are shown. File size is large and a highspeed connection is recommended.

0002-11-30

333

DIRBE Comet Trails  

E-print Network

Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 micron surface brightnesses of comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

Arendt, Richard G

2014-01-01

334

DIRBE Comet Trails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy/sr, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

Arendt, Richard G.

2015-01-01

335

DIRBE Comet Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 ?m surface brightnesses of \\lt 0.1 and \\lt 0.15 MJy sr-1, respectively, which is \\lt 1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

Arendt, Richard G.

2014-12-01

336

Obstacle detection for unmanned ground vehicles: a progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect obstacles during off-road autonomous navigation, unmanned ground vehicles (UGV's) must sense terrain geometry and composition (terrain type) under day, night, and low-visibility conditions. To sense terrain geometry, we have developed a real-time stereo vision system that uses a Datacube MV-200 and a 68040 CPU board to produce 256×240-pixel range images in about 0.6 seconds\\/frame. To sense terrain type,

Larry Matthies; Alonzo Kelly; Todd Litwin; Greg Tharp

1995-01-01

337

The Trails Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Kansas City, Missouri school district with support from the US Department of Education, this Website offers innovative approaches to and materials for the teaching of Western history. The Website focuses on the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, offering a variety of interactive elements for students to work with. Included here are Virtual Reality tours of selected sites along the trails, a selection of trail diaries, examples of essays written by students about the trails, and more. The true strength of the site, though, probably lies in its support materials for teachers. The site provides well-conceived, extensive lesson plans, instruction guides, and curriculum plans, and also promises a media database in the future that will include presentations, instructional materials, and pictures. However, since there has been little activity on-site in the last few months, we suggest teachers not count on that material appearing soon.

338

Long Trail Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Long Trail in Vermont is the oldest long-distance hiking trail in the United States. In the early 20th century, the Green Mountain Club began to build extensive trail facilities along the way, including shelters and other such structures. The Club also documented their activities, and this collection from the University of Vermont contains over 900 black-and-white and hand-colored lantern slides. These items were originally used in slideshow presentations by Club member Theron S. Dean, who was a great promoter of the Trail. Visitors can use the "Browse the Collection" area to look for items by subject and they can also use the Google Maps feature to look for items by location. Visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed to track when new items are added to the collection.

339

Chain Vibration and Dynamic Stress in Three-Dimensional Multibody Tracked Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional computational finite element procedure for the vibration and dynamic stress analysis of the track link chains of off-road vehicles is presented in this paper. The numerical procedure developed in this investigation integrates classical constrained multibody dynamics methods with finite element capabilities. The nonlinear equations of motion of the three-dimensional tracked vehicle model in which the track link s

M. Campanelli; A. A. Shabana; J. H. Choi

1998-01-01

340

The Freedom Trail Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâÂÂs primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâÂÂs most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the âÂÂSee the 16 sitesâ section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul RevereâÂÂs House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

341

Mesenchymal Progenitors Expressing TRAIL Induce Apoptosis in Sarcomas.  

PubMed

Sarcomas are frequent tumors in children and young adults that, despite a relative chemo-sensitivity, show high relapse rates with up to 80% of metastatic patients dying in 5 years from diagnosis. The real ontogeny of sarcomas is still debated and evidences suggest they may derive from precursors identified within mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) fractions. Recent studies on sarcoma microenvironment additionally indicated that MSC could take active part in generation of a supportive stroma. Based on this knowledge, we conceived to use modified MSC to deliver tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) targeting different sarcoma histotypes. Gene modified MSC expressing TRAIL were co-cultured with different osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) cell lines assessing viability and caspase-8 activation. An in vivo model focused on ES was then implemented considering the impact of MSC-TRAIL on tumor size, apoptosis and angiogenesis. MSC expressing TRAIL induced significantly high apoptosis in all tested lines. Sarcoma death was specifically associated with caspase-8 activation starting from 8 hours of co-culture with MSC-TRAIL. When injected into pre-established ES xenotransplants, MSC-TRAIL persisted within its stroma, causing significant tumor apoptosis versus control groups. Additional histological and in vitro studies reveal that MSC-TRAIL could also exert potent anti-angiogenic functions. Our results suggest that MSC as TRAIL vehicles could open novel therapeutic opportunities for sarcoma by multiple mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25420617

Grisendi, Giulia; Spano, Carlotta; D'souza, Naomi; Rasini, Valeria; Veronesi, Elena; Prapa, Malvina; Petrachi, Tiziana; Piccinno, Serena; Rossignoli, Filippo; Burns, Jorge S; Fiorcari, Stefania; Granchi, Donatella; Baldini, Nicola; Horwitz, Edwin M; Guarneri, Valentina; Conte, Pierfranco; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo

2014-11-25

342

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

343

R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.

Moorehead, Stewart J.; Wellington, Carl K.; Paulino, Heidi; Reid, John F.

2010-04-01

344

Prediction and uncertainty source analysis of the spatial and temporal disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in a complex ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle use during military training activities results in soil disturbance and vegetation loss. The capacity of lands to sustain training is a function of the sensitivity of lands to vehicle use and the pattern of land use. The sensitivity of land to vehicle use has been extensively studied. Less well understood are the spatial patterns of vehicle disturbance. Since disturbance

Shoufan Fang; George Z. Gertner; Alan B. Anderson; Heidi R. Howard; Patricia Sullivan; Chris Otto

2010-01-01

345

36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all terrain vehicles, bicycles, trailers, campers, or any other such equipment. (f) Except as...

2013-07-01

346

36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.  

...to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all terrain vehicles, bicycles, trailers, campers, or any other such equipment. (f) Except as...

2014-07-01

347

36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all terrain vehicles, bicycles, trailers, campers, or any other such equipment. (f) Except as...

2012-07-01

348

Title: OTN (Ontario Trail Network) Trail Segment Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: OTN (Ontario Trail Network) Trail Segment Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Publisher: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Edition: N/A Versions: N/A Publication Date: 2009 Coverage Date(s): September 2008 Updates: N/A Abstract: The OTN (Ontario Trail Network

349

The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail  

E-print Network

Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail The Patrick Elvander Taxonomy Trail at the Arboretum at UC Santa: Taxonomy is partly the study of the naming and clas- sification of plants. For this more technical to produce a preview edition of the Manual in 1989. By establishing this Taxonomy trail as a memorial, we

California at Santa Cruz, University of

350

Design a Hiking Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides experience working on a real-life scenario by allowing students the opportunity to use topographic maps to design a hiking trail system based on access from road, range of habitats, and other specified criteria. They will also complete a data sheet and produce an informational brochure.

Remis, Becky; Hochmuth, Rose

351

Queen's Garden Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Queen's Garden Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sands...

352

Cooking with Trail Mix  

E-print Network

soda ? teaspoon baking powder ? teaspoon cinnamon (if you like) ? cup trail mix What you need ? cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon... it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. In a large bowl, mix sugar, applesauce, oil, egg and milk. 4. Add flour, baking soda, baking powder and cinnamon and mix it thoroughly. 5. Stir...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

353

Capabilities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's environmental emergency-response vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-wheel drive van has been outfitted for rapid and varied monitoring response to radiological emergencies. The vehicle's capabilities include 4-wheel drive plus auxiliary winch for access to rugged off-road terrain. On-board equipment is powered by a 6.5 kilowatt ac generator or by external ac power where available. Monitoring systems include two multichannel analyzers; one, a 2 K portable analyzer

D. Van Etten; D. Talley; T. Buhl; W. Hansen

1982-01-01

354

75 FR 37462 - Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail...official trail marker insignias of the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail...The primary author of this document is John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain...

2010-06-29

355

Analyzing trails in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even more interesting than the intricate organization of complex networks is the dynamical behavior of systems underlain by such structures. Among the many types of dynamics, one particularly interesting category involves the evolution of trails left by moving agents progressing through random walks and dilating processes in a complex network. The emergence of trails is present in many dynamical process, such as pedestrian traffic, information flow, and metabolic pathways. Important problems related to trails include the reconstruction of the trail and the identification of its source, when complete knowledge of the trail is missing. In addition, the following of trails in multiagent systems represents a particularly interesting situation related to pedestrian dynamics and swarming intelligence. The present work addresses these three issues while taking into account permanent and transient marks left in the visited nodes. Different topologies are considered for trail reconstruction and trail source identification, including four complex network models and four real networks, namely, the Internet, the U.S. airlines network, an email network, and the scientific collaboration network of complex network researchers. Our results show that the topology of the network influences trail reconstruction, source identification, and agent dynamics.

da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Travieso, Gonzalo

2007-10-01

356

National Trails Day. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how a school district in Maine implemented an outdoor education program centered around National Trails Day (a day of awareness of outdoor recreational areas in the United States). The program combined classroom learning with an all-day hike on the Appalachian Trail by 240 seventh-grade students. Numerous teachers, school…

Simpson, Mark

357

Regulation of the human TRAIL gene  

PubMed Central

TRAIL is a member of the TNF superfamily that induces tumor-selective cell death by engaging the pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4 and DR5. The antitumor potential of the TRAIL pathway has been targeted by several therapeutic approaches including recombinant TRAIL and TRAIL-receptor agonist antibodies among others. Interest in sensitizing tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis has driven investigations of TRAIL-receptor gene regulation, though regulation of the TRAIL gene has been less studied. Physiologically, TRAIL serves as a pro-apoptotic effector molecule in the immune surveillance of cancer that is conditionally expressed by immune cells upon stimulation via an interferon-response element that was identified in early studies of the TRAIL gene promoter. Here, we map the TRAIL gene promoter and review studies of TRAIL gene regulation that involve several modalities of gene regulation including transcription factors, epigenetics, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and functionally distinct isoforms. PMID:22892844

Allen, Joshua E.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2012-01-01

358

The Labor Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Chicago Center for Working-Class Studies, the Interactive Labor Trail documents 140 significant locations in the history of labor, migration, and working-class culture in Chicago. Visitors to the site can use the information here to learn more about the history of labor activism and related matters in Chicago, and visitors are also encouraged to add sites for inclusion on the map. First-time users can use the map by just clicking on sites of interest (like Hull House or the Pullman community) and they can also listen to audio features, such as "The Haymarket Affair", narrated by William J. Adelman. In the "Resources" tab, visitors can watch video clips, look over a photo gallery, and check out a detailed bibliography and external resources.

359

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; (2) Adjacent vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information and interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and...

2011-04-01

360

25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation planning for tourism and recreation travel; (2) Adjacent vehicle parking areas; (3) Development of tourist information and interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and...

2010-04-01

361

43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.  

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Vehicle Operations § 8343.1 Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public...working condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with a...

2014-10-01

362

43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Vehicle Operations § 8343.1 Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public...working condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with a...

2013-10-01

363

43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Vehicle Operations § 8343.1 Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public...working condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with a...

2011-10-01

364

43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Vehicle Operations § 8343.1 Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public...working condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with a...

2012-10-01

365

Base passive porosity for vehicle drag reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

366

Base Passive Porosity for Vehicle Drag Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

367

Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

2014-06-01

368

Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

369

DR4 specific TRAIL variants are more efficacious than wild-type TRAIL in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Current treatment modalities for pancreatic carcinoma afford only modest survival benefits. TRAIL, as a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells, would be a promising new treatment option. However, since not all pancreatic cancer cells respond to TRAIL, further improvements and optimizations are still needed. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of TRAIL-based therapies is to specifically target one of the 2 cell death inducing TRAIL-receptors, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 to overcome resistance. To this end, we designed constructs expressing soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) variants that were rendered specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 by amino acid changes in the TRAIL ectodomain. When we expressed these constructs, including wild-type sTRAIL (sTRAIL(wt)), TRAIL-R1 (sTRAIL(DR4)) and TRAIL-R2 (sTRAIL(DR5)) specific variants, in 293 producer cells we found all to be readily expressed and secreted into the supernatant. These supernatants were subsequently transferred onto target cancer cells and apoptosis measured. We found that the TRAIL-R1 specific variant had higher apoptosis-inducing activity in human pancreatic carcinoma Colo357 cells as well as PancTu1 cells that were additionally sensitized by targeting of XIAP. Finally, we tested TRAIL-R1 specific recombinant TRAIL protein (rTRAIL(DR4)) on Colo357 xenografts in nude mice and found them to be more efficacious than rTRAIL(wt). Our results demonstrate the benefits of synthetic biological approaches and show that TRAIL-R1 specific variants can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that they can possibly become part of individualized and tumor specific combination treatments in the future. PMID:25482930

Yu, Rui; Albarenque, Stella Maris; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J; Mohr, Andrea; Zwacka, Ralf M

2014-12-01

370

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

2010-01-01

371

Valles Marineris cloud trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinctive cloud trails are identified in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images over specific locations associated with Valles Marineris and Noctis Labyrinthus and at perihelion solar longitudes (LS = 230°-260°). High-contrast surface shadows are well defined, as cast from their eastern margins, supporting altitude and optical depth determinations. These relatively high altitude clouds (40-50 km) exhibit narrow latitudinal widths (25-75 km) in comparison to extended longitudinal dimensions (400-1000 km). MARCI multispectral imaging of cloud surface shadows in five wavelength channels (260, 320, 437, 546, and 653 nm) yields the wavelength dependence of cloud extinction optical depth, revealing a range of small cloud particle sizes (reff = 0.2-0.5 ?m) and moderate cloud optical depths (0.03-0.10 visible and 0.1-0.2 ultraviolet). Local time and temporal sampling characteristics of MARCI cloud images indicate that these clouds develop very rapidly in afternoon hours (1300-1500 LT), reach their full longitudinal extents within <2 h time scales, and often reoccur on successive afternoons. Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbital Camera imaging in previous Mars years indicates these clouds are annually repeating. These observed characteristics suggest a cloud formation mechanism that is specific to ˜50 km horizontal and vertical scales, transports water vapor and dust upward from lower levels, exists during the afternoon, and is likely associated with the mesoscale atmospheric circulations induced by the near-equatorial canyons of Mars. Cloud particles formed in such updrafts would then be rapidly transported westward in the strong retrograde zonal circulation of the subsolar middle atmosphere in this season.

Clancy, R. Todd; Wolff, Michael J.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Michaels, Timothy I.

2009-11-01

372

76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road Agricultural Equipment...operators of certain farm vehicles and off-road agricultural equipment...determine whether off-road farm equipment or...considered commercial motor vehicles. The Agency...

2011-07-01

373

43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...permit, control or prohibit off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands...concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles shall be posted in a...

2010-10-01

374

43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria ...applicable State laws pertaining to off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation...

2011-10-01

375

43 CFR 8340.0-1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1...limited or closed to the use of off-road vehicles and for establishing controls...governing the use and operation of off-road vehicles in such...

2011-10-01

376

43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...permit, control or prohibit off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands...concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles shall be posted in a...

2013-10-01

377

36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...available at park headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes...mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is authorized solely for the...

2011-07-01

378

36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...available at park headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes...mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is authorized solely for the...

2010-07-01

379

36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...available at park headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes...mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is authorized solely for the...

2013-07-01

380

43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...permit, control or prohibit off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands...concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles shall be posted in a...

2011-10-01

381

43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria ...applicable State laws pertaining to off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation...

2010-10-01

382

43 CFR 8340.0-1 - Purpose.  

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1...limited or closed to the use of off-road vehicles and for establishing controls...governing the use and operation of off-road vehicles in such...

2014-10-01

383

36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...available at park headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes...mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is authorized solely for the...

2012-07-01

384

43 CFR 8340.0-1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1...limited or closed to the use of off-road vehicles and for establishing controls...governing the use and operation of off-road vehicles in such...

2013-10-01

385

76 FR 29786 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition, Florida  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Plan/Wilderness Study/ Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/Environmental...Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/ Environmental...of a wilderness study and an off-road vehicle management plan. The...

2011-05-23

386

32 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Unauthorized Activities in Maneuver Training Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang...

2012-07-01

387

43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria ...applicable State laws pertaining to off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation...

2014-10-01

388

43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria ...applicable State laws pertaining to off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation...

2012-10-01

389

32 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Unauthorized Activities in Maneuver Training Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang...

2013-07-01

390

43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria ...applicable State laws pertaining to off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking... (b) Each operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation...

2013-10-01

391

43 CFR 8340.0-1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1...limited or closed to the use of off-road vehicles and for establishing controls...governing the use and operation of off-road vehicles in such...

2012-10-01

392

36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.  

...available at park headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes...mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is authorized solely for the...

2014-07-01

393

32 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Unauthorized Activities in Maneuver Training Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding...Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang...

2011-07-01

394

43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...permit, control or prohibit off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands...concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles shall be posted in a...

2014-10-01

395

75 FR 10307 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Cape Hatteras National Seashore  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/EIS...procedures that would manage off-road vehicle (ORV) use/access in the...routes and areas designated for off-road vehicle use shall be promulgated...

2010-03-05

396

43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...permit, control or prohibit off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands...concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles shall be posted in a...

2012-10-01

397

State Space Sampling of Feasible Motions for  

E-print Network

-speed navigation in highly constrained and/or partially known environments such as trails, roadways, and dense off-road in the area far from the vehicle. mobile robot navigation leads to a difficult trade-off between the severe constraints of vehicle dynamic feasibility. The paper presents an effective algorithm for state

Kelly, Alonzo

398

MathS TrailinG in DORSET.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are activities involving a mathematics trail. Guidelines for organizing a mathematics trail for students are included. Excerpts from worksheets used with easy and hard trails are included and can be modified to fit other trails. (KR)

Ashworth, Fran; And Others

1991-01-01

399

49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 ...AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.776 Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points...

2011-10-01

400

49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 ...AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.776 Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points...

2010-10-01

401

75 FR 37463 - Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...the official trail marker insignia of the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail...document is John Maounis, Superintendent, Star-Spangled Banner National Historic...

2010-06-29

402

Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by close-circuit television with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision system characteristics on off-road, remote driving was performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering-coupled camera and of color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience was gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. The preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience are discussed.

Mcgovern, Douglas E.

1989-01-01

403

TRAIL-mediated signaling in prostate, bladder and renal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death receptor ligand that has the ability to preferentially initiate apoptosis in malignant cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL-based therapeutics, including recombinant TRAIL, TRAIL-receptor agonistic antibodies and TRAIL gene therapy, have now entered clinical trials. Although these therapeutics are promising, concerns regarding TRAIL resistance are causing research efforts

Christina Voelkel-Johnson

2011-01-01

404

Plasma instabilities in meteor trails: Linear theory  

E-print Network

Plasma instabilities in meteor trails: Linear theory Meers M. Oppenheim, Lars P. Dyrud, and Licia, such as those found at Jicamarca, Arecibo, and Kwajalein. This paper presents a theory of meteor trail electric field, the resulting electron drifts, and the linear plasma instabilities of meteor trails

Oppenheim, Meers

405

Ho-Nee-Um Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

Irwin, Harriet; And Others

406

Bryce Canyon's Navajo Loop Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

407

The Healthy Trail Food Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

Miller, Dorcas S.

408

‘BLACK PEARL’ THORNLESS TRAILING BLACKBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington Agricultural Research Center have released 'Black Pearl' a thornless (botanically termed spineless) trailing blackberry for the processing market. 'Black Pearl' was selecte...

409

Trailing edge noise from a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Using the vortex theory of sound, the noise generated by a line vortex, as it passes by the trailing edge of a rigid airfoil, is computed. The path of the vortex is assumed to be “frozen” along a straight line. The total acoustic field is expressed as the sum of an incident and a scattered part. The incident field,

Assad A. Oberai; Thomas J. R. Hughes

410

Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a

R. H. Schlinker; R. K. Amier

1981-01-01

411

Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

2008-01-01

412

Policy influences on community trail development.  

PubMed

This study explores processes and policies that facilitate the development of community trails. With funding from Active Living Research and the research framework of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN), we conducted a multiple-site case study. A total of six trails in Hawaii, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington were chosen for study. The goals of this case study were to identify the policy influences on trail development, explore the roles of key players in trail development, and compare and contrast findings from the different trails. Trail development can be a long process. Some of the trails took over a decade to complete because of funding, opposition, and roadblocks in the form of design standard policies. Work in trail development requires a team of many players, and it is necessary to balance their varied motives to accomplish a shared overall goal. Foresight through the master planning process is also a vital component of successful trail development. Finally, community involvement is key. Communities contemplating trail development should explore the effects of policy on the trail projects reported here to proactively identify potential influence. PMID:18469168

Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Levinger, David; Maddock, Jay E; Pluto, Delores; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Richards, Katherine L; Steinman, Lesley E

2008-06-01

413

F-1 engines of Apollo/Saturn V first stage leave trail of flame after liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five F-1 engines of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle's first (S-IC) stage leaves a trail of flame in the sky after liftoff. The launch of the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission occurred on April 4, 1968. These views of the Apollo 6 launch were taken from a chase plane.

1968-01-01

414

More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities  

PubMed Central

Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

2013-01-01

415

Spatial arrangement of trail markers and visitor involvement on a self-guided interpretive trail  

E-print Network

and Leaflet Box. . . 7. Visitor Center Adjacent to Trail. 33 33 8, Visitor Participation on the Trail l. . 9. Visitor Participation on the Trail 2. . 10. Visitor Participation on the Trail 3. . 57 57 59 Er. vironmental Impact Incurred Along..., Shinnery Oak, Ashe Juniper, Mesquite, and Bald Cypress. The Rockshelter Irail itself is Figure 1. Trail Stop Example l. Figure 2. Trail Stop Example 2. Cj Lg I' $ lg ' 'g +Wik 7 lit F b ~J4IS ~P / . 'fhii4f ' "-' v' 21 Cl Z z ~ a ~ C9 e...

Marcy, Julie Benedict

2012-06-07

416

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

Criswell, D.R.

1993-07-06

417

The effect of a trail use intervention on urban trail use in Southern Nevada.  

PubMed

Objective. Communities are building or improving trail networks for biking and walking to encourage physical activity, but the relationship between trail environments and physical activity is not well understood. We examined the effect of a trail use intervention in Southern Nevada. Methods. We monitored the usage of urban trails (n=10) in Southern Nevada before, during, and after an intervention which included a marketing campaign promoting trail use and the addition of way-finding and incremental distance signage to selected trails (October 2011-October 2012). Data were collected with infrared monitors placed on the trails for three periods of 7days. We compared pre-, mid-, and post-intervention usage rates on the 6 trails where signage was added to usage rates on the 4 control trails. Results. The groups of trails experienced different patterns of increases and decreases over the 1-year study period. Mean users per hour increased 31% for the study trails and 35% for the control trails (p<0.001), but the total increase did not vary between the groups. Conclusion. Trail use increased about 33% during the 1-year study period for the intervention. Adding wayfinding and incremental distance signage appeared to support the increase in usage which followed the marketing campaign. PMID:24840942

Clark, Sheila; Bungum, Tim; Shan, Guogen; Meacham, Mindy; Coker, Lisa

2014-10-01

418

Assessing Urban Walking Trail Use and Changes in the Trail Environment Using Systematic Observational Protocols  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the extent to which two systematic observation protocols which were modified for underserved communities (low income, minorities) could be utilized to reliably assess a) use of walking trails and b) physical environmental features of these trails. This study was a supplement to the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) walking trial. The modified tools were shown to be reliable methods for a) measuring trail use and b) assessing physical features of the trail in underserved environments. Reliability data for measuring trail use were found to be high (ICC = .98, p < .01). Reliabilities for measuring features of the trail ranged from fair to highly reliable (? = .77 - 1.00; ICC = .34 - 1.00). The observation tools that were customized for this study were shown to be reliable instruments for measuring trail use and assessing physical features of walking trails in underserved communities. PMID:22795357

Meyers, Duncan C.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kugler, Kassandra A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Reed, Julian; Schmidt, Sara C.

2012-01-01

419

Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monocyclic 14-membered ring diterpene, cembrene-A, previously identified as a nasutitermitine trail pheromone, was tested for its effectiveness as a trail pheromone inNasutitermes costalis. Artificial trails prepared from serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A over a concentration range of 10-1–10-6 mg\\/ml were ineffective in recruiting termites. Serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A ranging in concentration from 10-1 to 10-5 mg\\/ml produced an

Pamela Hall; James F. A. Traniello

1985-01-01

420

DARPA FCS unmanned ground vehicle research initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Army (ASAALT) have jointly funded several FCS research initiatives in ground robotics. The Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle (UGCV) and Perception for Off-Road Mobility (PerceptOR) programs are the major elements of this joint ground robotic effort. These programs were initiated in fiscal year 2001 and have progressed through their first phase. The UGCV program, now in Phase IB, has downselected from 11 concepts designs to 4. Phase IB focuses on detailed design of teams' concepts in anticipation of the prototype construction Phase II and initial vehicle roll-out near the end of the 2002 calendar year. This paper highlights program findings to date as a result of the initial phase, and illustrates plans for Phase II prototype testing. The PerceptOR program, currently in Phase II, has completed its Phase I which involved development of a perception system for operation on a commercial All Terrain Vehicle. This paper describes the effort of the first phase, and outlines the plans for vehicle testing in Phases II and III.

Fish, Scott

2002-07-01

421

Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity

Ahter D Sanlioglu; Ercument Dirice; Cigdem Aydin; Nuray Erin; Sadi Koksoy; Salih Sanlioglu

2005-01-01

422

Off-Road Motorcycling and ATV Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... cup. These braces come in many forms and prices and are available from local motorcycle dealers, by ... inspection of controls, lights and electric as equipped; oil and other fluids; and inspection of the chassis ...

423

On the meteor trail spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteor radiation appears as a result of collisions between meteoroid atoms and air molecules. Depending on duration, this radiation is usually divided into the following types: radiation of the meteor head; radiation of a coma surrounding or immediately following the meteor head; radiation of a trail formed as a result of fragments lagging behind or by the afterglow; and radiation of a meteor train forming from a tail as a result of various chemical and dynamical processes. To investigate physical processes caused by each of the above types, it is necessary to obtain the corresponding experimental data. The physical processes of the radiation and the measurement of the experimental data is discussed.

Ovezgeldyev, O. G.; Mukhamednazarov, S.; Shafiev, R. I.; Maltsev, N. V.

1987-01-01

424

In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

2007-01-01

425

Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

Schwartz, Jonathan R.

426

Back in Time on a Mathematics Trail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently revised "Northern Ireland Primary Curriculum" recommends that teachers make use of the environment to extend children's understanding of mathematics. One approach to using the environment in mathematics is to take children on a mathematics trail. A mathematics trail uses the resources and features within the environment as a stimulus…

Moffett, Pamela

2010-01-01

427

77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...audit trail system to better...business analysis and requisite...examples of information security...on which design and features...specific information about the audit trail system to determine...examples of information security...on which design and features...business analysis that...

2012-08-01

428

Radio propagation by reflection from meteor trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a survey of those characteristics of meteors, and of meteor propagation, which are important to the understanding and use of meteor ionization insofar as it provides a means of radio transmission. The subjects discussed include the utility of meteor bursts for intermittent radio communication, physical properties of meteors and meteor trails, reflection properties of individual trails, short-term

G. R. Sugar

1964-01-01

429

On the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lesson, students work with primary documents and latter-day photographs to recapture the experience of traveling on the Oregon Trail. The learning objectives of the lesson are: (1) to learn about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) to evaluate a historical re-enactment in light of documentary evidence; and (3) to synthesize…

2000

430

Investigation of trailing-edge noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental investigation of airfoil trailing-edge noise up to a Reynolds number based on chord of 2.96 x 10 to the 6th power is described. Comparisons are made with current theory, particularly with regard to the pressure field in the vicinity of the trailing-edge and its influence on the radiated noise.

T. F. Brooks; T. H. Hodgson

1979-01-01

431

Trailing edge noise from hovering rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to predict the high frequency broadband noise due to the interaction of convecting turbulent eddies with the trailing edges of a hovering rotor. The trailing edge noise from each blade was modeled as point dipole noise with spanwise loading corrections. This point dipole approximation was checked by applying the concept to a stationary airfoil in

Y. N. Kim; A. R. George

1980-01-01

432

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

2008-01-01

433

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2014-07-01

434

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2012-07-01

435

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2010-07-01

436

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2011-07-01

437

36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile of the trail from March 1...

2013-07-01

438

Immuno-LipoTRAIL: Targeted delivery of TRAIL-functionalized liposomal nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a powerful inducer of apoptosis in tumor cells; however, clinical studies with recombinant soluble TRAIL were rather disappointing. Here, we developed TRAIL-functionalized liposomes (LipoTRAIL, LT) to mimic membrane-displayed TRAIL for efficient activation of death receptors DR4 and DR5 and enhanced induction of apoptosis, which were combined with an anti-EGFR single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) for targeted delivery to EGFR-positive tumor cells. These immuno-LipoTRAILs (ILTs) bound specifically to EGFR-expressing cells (Colo205) and exhibited increased cytotoxicity compared with that of nontargeted LTs. Compared to that of the soluble TRAIL, the plasma half-life of the functionalized liposomes was strongly extended, and increased antitumor activity of LT and ILT was demonstrated in a xenograft tumor model. Thus, we established a multifunctional liposomal TRAIL formulation (ILT) with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior, characterized by targeted delivery and increased induction of apoptosis due to multivalent TRAIL presentation. PMID:24766622

Seifert, Oliver; Pollak, Nadine; Nusser, Anja; Steiniger, Frank; Rüger, Ronny; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Kontermann, Roland E

2014-05-21

439

The TRAIL of oncogenes to apoptosis.  

PubMed

Despite the significant advances in clinical research, surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still used as the primary method for cancer treatment. As compared to conventional therapies that often induce systemic toxicity and eventually contribute to tumor resistance, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that selectively triggers apoptosis in various cancer cells by interacting with its proapoptotic receptors DR4 and KILLER/DR5, while sparing the normal surrounding tissue. The intensive studies of TRAIL signaling pathways over the past decade have provided clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in carcinogenesis and identified an array of therapeutic responses elicited by TRAIL and its receptor agonists. Analysis of its activity at the molecular level has shown that TRAIL improves survival either as monotherapies or combinatorial therapies with other mediators of apoptosis or anticancer chemotherapy. Combinatorial treatments amplify the activities of anticancer agents and widen the therapeutic window by overcoming tumor resistance to apoptosis and driving cancer cells to self-destruction. Although TRAIL sensitivity varies widely depending on the cell type, nontransformed cells are largely resistant to death mediated by TRAIL Death Receptors (DRs). Genetic alterations in cancer can contribute in tumor progression and often play an important role in evasion of apoptosis by tumor cells. Remarkably, RAS, MYC and HER2 oncogenes have been shown to sensitise tumor cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Here, we summarise the cross-talk of oncogenic and apoptotic pathways and how they can be exploited toward efficient combinatorial therapeutic protocols. PMID:23813857

Oikonomou, Eftychia; Pintzas, Alexander

2013-01-01

440

A standard audit trail format  

SciTech Connect

The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

Bishop, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1995-02-01

441

Pegylated TRAIL retains anti-leukemic cytotoxicity and exhibits improved signal transduction activity with respect to TRAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To improve the pharmacokinetic profile of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) an N-terminal specific\\u000a pegylation was performed to generate pegylated TRAIL (PEG-TRAIL). In in vitro experiments, we found that although PEG-TRAIL\\u000a was slightly less efficient than recombinant TRAIL in promoting leukemic cell apoptosis, it showed an improved ability to\\u000a promote migration of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells and to

Arianna Gonelli; Oriano Radillo; Sara Drioli; Erika Rimondi; Paola Secchiero; Gian Maria Bonora

442

Aeroelastic Analysis of Bearingless Rotor Systems with Trailing Edge Flaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aeroelastic analysis of bearingless rotor systems with trailing edge flaps was conducted using large deflection-type beam theory for forward flight conditions with a focus on reducing vibration while minimizing control effort. The aerodynamic forces of the rotor blade were calculated using two-dimensional quasi-steady strip theory. For the analysis of forward flight, the nonlinear periodic blade steady response was obtained by integrating the full finite element equation in time through a coupled trim procedure with a vehicle trim. The objective function, which includes vibratory hub loads and active flap control inputs, was minimized by an optimal control process. Numerical simulations were performed for the steady-state forward flight of various advance ratios. Numerical results of the steady blade and flap deflections as well as the vibratory hub loads were also presented for various advance ratios and were compared with previously published analysis results obtained from modal analyses based on a moderate deflection-type beam theory.

Lim, In-Gyu; Lee, In

443

Aeroelastic analysis of rotor systems using trailing edge flaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aeroelastic analysis of rotor blades with trailing edge flaps was conducted using large deflection-type beam theory for forward flight conditions with a focus on reducing vibration while minimizing control effort. The aerodynamic forces of the rotor blade were calculated using two-dimensional quasi-steady strip theory. For the analysis of forward flight, the nonlinear periodic blade steady response was obtained by integrating the full finite element equation in time through a coupled trim procedure with a vehicle trim. The objective function, which includes vibratory hub loads and active flap control inputs, was minimized by an optimal control process. Numerical simulations were performed for the steady-state forward flight of various advance ratios. Numerical results of the steady blade and flap deflections as well as the vibratory hub loads were also presented for various advance ratios and were compared with previously published analysis results obtained from modal analyses based on a moderate deflection-type beam theory.

Lim, In-Gyu; Lee, In

2009-04-01

444

Use and Nonuse of a Rail Trail Conversion for Physical Activity: Implications for Promoting Trail Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is limited research examining both use and nonuse of trails for physical activity. Purpose: Such research might enable health educators to better promote physical activity on trails.Methods:We used random digit dialing methods to survey 726 respondents in 2012. Results: The majority (75.1%) of respondents reported not using the…

Price, Anna E.; Reed, Julian A.

2014-01-01

445

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

446

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-03-01

447

Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.

1981-01-01

448

The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

2014-04-01

449

Dual back-stepping observer to anticipate the rollover risk in under/over steering situations.  

E-print Network

and predicted. As we consider off road vehicle, grip conditions must be encountered and are here estimated off-road capabilities. If their design offers off-road capabilities, it increases the vehicle. Application to ATVs on off-road context. Mathieu Richier1, Roland Lenain1, Benoit Thuilot2,3, Christophe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

450

30 CFR 75.601 - Short circuit protection of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit protection of trailing cables. 75...Trailing Cables § 75.601 Short circuit protection of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions] Short circuit protection for trailing cables...

2012-07-01

451

30 CFR 75.601 - Short circuit protection of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection of trailing cables. 75...Trailing Cables § 75.601 Short circuit protection of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions] Short circuit protection for trailing cables...

2010-07-01

452

Near Field Trailing Edge Tone Noise Computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.

Loh, Ching Y.

2002-01-01

453

On the Trail of the Missing Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the Trail of the Missing Ozone is a comic-style book that provides an introduction into why we need the ozone layer, the causes of ozone depletion, and some of the actions the world is taking to correct the problem. The story features an intrepid reporter Farley on the trail of the missing ozone; along the way, Farley meets a scientist, a doctor, a talking globe named George Global and people who work for companies designing ozone-safe products. There are links to additional (more advanced) information throughout the story. There is also a text version of the story.

454

30 CFR 75.828 - Trailing cable pulling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.828 Trailing cable pulling. The trailing cable must be...

2010-07-01

455

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2010-07-01

456

LA-UR-14-22379 Trails Management at LANL  

E-print Network

within the greater Northern New Mexico region. Challenges The TWG faces numerous challenges in balancing Salamander. User Safety and Trail Maintenance: LANL trails range from the Rio Grande in the east to Highway

457

27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, NPS TRAILS, FRONT ROW RIGHT; BERNIE PONYAH, NPS YCC SUPERVISOR, BACK ROW RIGHT. - West Rim Drive, Between Grand Canyon Village & Hermit Rest, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

458

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

459

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

460

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

461

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

462

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

463

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

464

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

465

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

466

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

467

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

468

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

469

5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, OWL CREEK IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW LOOKING EAST - Hole-in-the-Rock Trail, Running From Bluff Vicinity to Escalante, Garfield County, Bluff, San Juan County, UT

470

30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables....

2011-07-01

471

30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables....

2013-07-01

472

30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables....

2014-07-01

473

30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables....

2010-07-01

474

30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables....

2012-07-01

475

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2010-07-01

476

30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to...

2012-07-01

477

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2013-07-01

478

30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

2014-07-01

479

30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a suitable manner to...

2011-07-01

480

30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.  

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a suitable manner to...

2014-07-01

481

30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to...

2011-07-01

482

30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

2011-07-01

483

Slime-trail tracking in the predatory snail, Euglandina rosea.  

PubMed

Euglandina rosea, a predatory land snail, tracks prey and mates by following slime trails. Euglandina follow slime trails more than 80% of the time, following trails of their own species, but not those of prey snails, in the direction that they were laid. The attractive elements of prey slime are small, water-soluble compounds detected by specialized lip extensions. Although olfaction plays no role in trail following, strong odors disrupt tracking. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase also disrupts slime trail following, suggesting a role for nitric oxide in neural processing of slime trail stimuli. Euglandina can be conditioned to follow novel trails of glutamate or arginine paired with feeding on prey snails. These experiments demonstrate that slime-trail tracking in Euglandina is a robust, easily measured behavior that makes a good model system for studying sensory processing and learning in a novel modality. PMID:14570557

Clifford, Kavan T; Gross, Liaini; Johnson, Kwame; Martin, Khalil J; Shaheen, Nagma; Harrington, Melissa A

2003-10-01

484

Specificity of trail markers of forest and eastern tent caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory trails deposited on paper strips by the forest tent caterpillar (FTC),Malacosoma disstria Hubner, and the eastern tent caterpillar (ETC),M. americanum (Fabricius), as well as extracts of these trails, readily elicited interspecific trail-following behavior. In 2-choice tests involving simple Y mazes constructed from these paper strips, the caterpillars of both species preferred by approximately 3:1 the trails of the FTC.

T. D. Fitzgerald; Janice S. Edgerly

1979-01-01

485

An Aerial-Photographic Assessment of Reenacted Handcart Treks on a Section of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Fremont County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reenactments of historical pioneer emigrations have increased in popularity since the celebration of these events during the United States bicentennial in 1976. From 1999 to 2006, approximately 70,000 Mormon trekkers traveled the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail (hereinafter referred to as the Trail) segment between Sixth Crossing and Rock Creek Hollow in Fremont County, Wyoming. Recent elevated levels of use have raised concerns over potential recreation-related damage to this particularly scenic segment of the Trail. In 2006, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an aerial-photographic assessment of the condition of the Trail between Sixth Crossing and Rock Creek Hollow. Specifically, the USGS was to assess trail conditions for this segment as influenced by handcart use (low, medium, and high intensity of use) and concentrated activities associated with trekking (toilet, rest, and camp sites). Based on these results, there are identifiable management considerations. Toilet and rest sites need to be carefully located relative to where sensitive vegetation or soils occur. The analyses presented here indicate that limiting motorized vehicle use needs to be a priority over that of adjusting the number of trekkers. Additionally, monitoring of the Trail from Sixth Crossing to Rock Creek Hollow segment needs to consider explicit management targets, such as minimum acceptable levels of bare ground or trail width, and the establishment of permanent monitoring plots to evaluate targets and measure responses to altered management activities.

McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Nielsen, Charlene C.; Hanson, Leanne; Bowen, Zachary H.

2008-01-01

486

Swarm-based visual saliency for trail detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a model for trail detection that builds upon the observation that trails are salient structures in the robot's visual field. Due to the complexity of natural environments, the straightforward application of bottom-up visual saliency models is not sufficiently robust to predict the location of trails. As for other detection tasks, robustness can be increased by modulating the

Pedro Santana; Nelson Alves; L. Correia; J. Barata

2010-01-01

487

Chemical trail marking and following by caterpillars of Malacosoma neustria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical trail marking and following by gregarious caterpillars,Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), was studied in the laboratory. As in other species ofMalacosoma, larvae deposit a trail pheromone from a sternal secretory site when searching the host for food. Larvae in the vanguard of foraging columns establish chemical trails as they explore new territory. Marking behavior diminishes as successive unfed foragers

Steven C. Peterson

1988-01-01

488

Simulation of bent trailing edge of propellers by shot blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bent trailing edge of propeller blades was studied in view of plastic deformation caused by cumulative impact load due to collapse of cavity. It was found out that the geometrical shape and micro-structure of bent trailing edge of propeller blades are similar to those by shot blasting. These facts not only throw light on the mechanism of bent trailing edge

T. Sasajima

1975-01-01

489

Tracking of biogenic hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).  

PubMed

For seals hunting in dark and murky waters one source of sensory information for locating prey consists of fish-generated water movements, which they can detect using their highly sensitive mystacial vibrissae. As water movements in the wake of fishes can persist for several minutes, hydrodynamic trails of considerable length are generated. It has been demonstrated that seals can use their vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic trails generated artificially by miniature submarines. In the present study, we trained a harbour seal to swim predefined courses, thus generating biogenic hydrodynamic trails. The structure of these trails was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry. A second seal was trained to search for and track the trail after the trail-generating seal had left the water. Our trail-following seal was able to detect and accurately track the hydrodynamic trail, showing search patterns either mostly congruent with the trail or crossing the trail repeatedly in an undulatory way. The undulatory trail-following search pattern might allow a seal to relocate a lost trail or successfully track a fleeing, zigzagging prey fish. PMID:17297138

Schulte-Pelkum, N; Wieskotten, S; Hanke, W; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B

2007-03-01

490

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the…

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

491

The influence of surface rounding on trailing edge noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the sound produced by low Mach number turbulent flow over an asymmetrically rounded trailing edge of an airfoil. Such airfoils are used in experimental studies of trailing edge noise and vortex shedding phenomena, and have a flat pressure side and a rounded, or 'beveled', suction surface at the trailing edge, so that in the immediate

M. S. Howe

1988-01-01

492

Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils  

E-print Network

Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils Franck Bertagnolio Risø-R-1633(EN) Risø Bertagnolio Title: Trailing Edge Noise Model Applied to Wind Turbine Airfoils Department: Wind Energy generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the so

493

Flow Characteristics on Shared Hiking\\/Biking\\/Jogging Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trails shared by hikers, bicyclists, and joggers present the unusual traf- fic flow situation of a facility serving three classes of users with dis- tinctly different flow characteristics. Data on typical trail volumes are summarized. A procedure developed by Botma to describe quality of flow on shared pedestrian\\/bicycle paths is then discussed. Data from two sites, the MKT Trail in

MARK R. VIRKLER; Rajesh Balasubramanian

1998-01-01

494

Compromising Privacy with Trail Re-Identification: The REIDIT Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Re-identification is the process of relating unique and specific entities to seemingly ,anonymous data, and as such, is an attack on the privacy of a data collection. This work introduces a new reidentification attack, termed the trail problem, for data distributed over multiple locations. Through the use of data trails an adversary can independently reconstruct the trails of locations

Bradley Malin

495

Slime-Trail Tracking in the Predatory Snail, Euglandina rosea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euglandina rosea, a predatory land snail, tracks prey and mates by following slime trails. Euglandina follow slime trails more than 80% of the time, following trails of their own species, but not those of prey snails, in the direction that they were laid. The attractive elements of prey slime are small, water-soluble compounds detected by specialized lip extensions. Although olfaction

Kavan T. Clifford; Liaini Gross; Kwame Johnson; Khalil J. Martin; Nagma Shaheen; Melissa A. Harrington

2003-01-01

496

Evolution of Dust Trails into Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use numerical simulations to investigate the production of dust trails by asteroid disruption events. Our work shows that asteroid trails evolve into pairs of dust bands over time. Coherent trails typically survive several tens of kyr before evolving into complete bands after ~1 Myr. The transition timescale depends sensitively on the location of the source breakup event in the main asteroid belt. Bands develop more efficiently from sources in the middle/outer belt than in the inner belt, which may not produce observable pairs of bands at all. The infrared structures produced by recent disruption events (<1 Myr) are characterized by a complicated and changing set of incomplete arcs and cusps. Their geometry depends both on the observer's position and on the source's location in terms of heliocentric distance and inclination to the ecliptic. We postulate that the broad orphan trails named C and D by Sykes in 1988 might have been produced by the formation of the Datura asteroid family 450+/-50 kyr ago. Additional work will be needed to test this link.

Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.; Bottke, W. F.

2008-01-01

497

Geodynamics: A tale of a trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mantle plume origin for the Samoan hotspot has been contested because the ages along its putative trail did not seem to increase monotonically. New dates from the island of Savai'i resolve the controversy and favour a plume origin.

Gordon, Richard G.

2008-09-01

498

Snow on the Navajo Loop Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

499

Cedars on the Navajo Loop Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...

500

Sandstone Formation on the Navajo Loop Trail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Views along the Navajo Loop Trail in Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolomite that caps them and the sandston...