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Sample records for off-shell transport approach

  1. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  2. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  3. The off-shell c-map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; de Wit, Bernard; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2016-01-01

    The off-shell version of the c-map is presented, based on a systematic off-shell reduction from four to three space-time dimensions for supergravity theories with eight supercharges. In the reduction, the R-symmetry group is enhanced to local [SU(2)× SU(2)]/{{Z}}_2=SO(4) and the c-map is effected by a parity transformation in the internal space that interchanges the two SU(2) factors. Vector and tensor supermultiplets are each others conjugate under the c-map and both can be dualized in three dimensions to (on-shell) hypermultiplets.

  4. Wilson lines and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    We study matrix elements of Fourier-transformed straight infinite Wilson lines as a way to calculate gauge invariant tree-level amplitudes with off-shell gluons. The off-shell gluons are assigned "polarization vectors" which (in the Feynman gauge) are transverse to their off-shell momenta and define the direction of the corresponding Wilson line operators. The infinite Wilson lines are first regularized to prove the correctness of the method. We have implemented the method in a computer FORM program that can calculate gluonic matrix elements of Wilson line operators automatically. In addition we formulate the Feynman rules that are convenient in certain applications, e.g. proving the Ward identities. Using both the program and the Feynman rules we calculate a few examples, in particular the matrix elements corresponding to gauge invariant g * g * g * g and g * g * g * g * g processes. An immediate application of the approach is in the high energy scattering, as in a special kinematic setup our results reduce to the form directly related to Lipatov's vertices. Thus the results we present can be directly transformed into Lipatov's vertices, in particular into RRRP and RRRRP vertices with arbitrary "orientation" of reggeized gluons. Since the formulation itself is not restricted to high-energy scattering, we also apply the method to a decomposition of an ordinary on-shell amplitude into a set of gauge invariant objects.

  5. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {<ℓ1|γμ|ℓ2]}/{√{2}[ℓ1|ℓ2]}, and for the other helicity assign |ℓ1>, {<ℓ2|γμ|ℓ1]}/{√{2}<ℓ2|ℓ1>}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the

  6. Deformations with maximal supersymmetries part 2: off-shell formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2016-04-01

    Continuing our exploration of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories (MSYM) deformed by higher dimensional operators, in this paper we consider an off-shell approach based on pure spinor superspace and focus on constructing supersymmetric deformations beyond the first order. In particular, we give a construction of the Batalin-Vilkovisky action of an all-order non-Abelian Born-Infeld deformation of MSYM in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism. We also discuss subtleties in the integration over the pure spinor superspace and the relevance of Berkovits-Nekrasov regularization.

  7. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    We outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.

  8. Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.

    2013-01-15

    By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.

  9. Compton scattering by a pion and off-shell effects

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W. )

    1995-01-01

    We consider Compton scattering by a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We investigate off-shell effects in the [ital s]- and [ital u]-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler Lagrangian, generates additional terms at order [ital p][sup 4] proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. As a result of the equivalence theorem the two Lagrangians predict the same Compton scattering [ital S]-matrix even though they generate different off-shell form factors. We conclude that off-shell effects are not only model dependent but also representation dependent.

  10. Off-shell effects in Higgs processes at a linear collider and implications for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebler, Stefan; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Weiglein, Georg

    2015-06-01

    The importance of off-shell contributions is discussed for H → V V (∗) with V ∈ { Z,W} for large invariant masses m VV involving a standard model (SM)-like Higgs boson with m H = 125 GeV at a linear collider (LC). Both dominant production processes e + e - → ZH → ZV V (∗) and are taken into account, and the signal processes are compared with background yielding the same final state. The relative size of the off-shell contributions is strongly dependent on the centre-of-mass energy. These contributions can have an important impact on the determination of cross sections and branching ratios. However, the combination of on- and off-shell contributions can also be utilised to lift degeneracies allowing to test higher-dimensional operators, unitarity and light and heavy Higgs interferences in extended Higgs sectors. The latter is demonstrated in the context of a 2-Higgs-Doublet model. We also discuss the impact of these aspects for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where they are relevant. The importance of a precise measurement of the Higgs mass for on-shell contributions in H → V V (∗) is emphasized. A particular focus is put on methods for extracting the Higgs width at a LC. Off-shell contributions are shown to have a negligible impact on the width determination at low when applying the Z recoil method to extract branching ratios in combination with an appropriate determination of a partial width. On the other hand, off-shell contributions can be exploited to constrain the Higgs width in a similar fashion as in recent analyses at the LHC. It is demonstrated that this approach, besides relying heavily on theoretical assumptions, is affected by the negative interference of Higgs and background contributions that may limit the sensitivity that is achievable with the highest foreseeable statistics at the LHC and a LC.

  11. Chiral perturbation theory and off-shell electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, T.E.; Fearing, H.W.; Scherer, S.

    1995-05-10

    The off-shell electromagnetic vertex of pions and kaons is calculated to {ital O}({ital p}{sup 4}) in the momentum expansion within the framework of chiral perturbation theory to one loop. The formalism of Gasser and Leutwyler is extended to accommodate the most general form for off-shell Green`s functions in the pseudoscalar meson sector. To that end we identify the structures at {ital O}({ital p}{sup 4}) which were initially removed by using the equation of motion of the lowest-order lagrangian. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. Off-Shell Structure of the String Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Kostelecky, V.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Potting, Robertus

    2000-05-15

    The off-shell structure of the string sigma model is investigated. In the open bosonic string, nonperturbative effects appear to depend crucially on the regularization scheme. A scheme retaining the notion of string width reproduces the structure of Witten's string field theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Santiago, C.; Kotko, P.; Staśto, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  14. Next-to-leading order versus quark off-shellness and intrinsic k{sub T} in the Drell-Yan process

    SciTech Connect

    Linnyk, O.; Leupold, S.; Mosel, U.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the effects of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD as well as of the quark transverse motion and off-shellness on the Drell-Yan process cross section. By studying the s{yields}{infinity} behavior of the cross section in these approaches, we find that the effects of quark off-shellness and intrinsic-k{sub T} parametrize those of higher twists. In particular, the off-shellness of partons generates part of the K-factor type corrections to the leading order cross section. Higher-twist contributions to the p{sub T}-spectrum of the Drell-Yan pairs are found to be large for presently accessible energies. The evolution of quark off-shellness distribution with the hard scale is also studied.

  15. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S.

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide --- and admittedly it may not be --- the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple ''vertices'' and ''propagators,'' which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface /Sigma/ from those on a pair of surfaces /Sigma//sub 1/ and /Sigma//sub 2/ obtained by cutting /Sigma/ along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, Steven

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide, and admittedly it may not be, the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple vertices and propagators, which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface (Sigma) from those on a pair of surfaces (Sigma)(sub 1) and (Sigma)(sub 2) obtained by cutting (Sigma) along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories.

  17. Off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing through quark loops with a nonperturbative meson vertex and quark mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, A.N.; Yang, K.

    1995-06-01

    The momentum dependence of the off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing amplitude is calculated through a two-quark loop diagram, using nonperturbative meson-quark vertex functions for the {rho} and {omega} mesons, as well as nonperturbative quark propagators. Both these quantities are generated self-consistently through an interlinked Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) cum Schwinger- Dyson equation (SDE) approach with a 3D support for the BSE kernel with two basic constants that are prechecked against a wide cross section of both meson and baryon spectra within a common structural framework for their respective 3D BSE`s. With the precalibration, the on-shell strength works out at {minus}2.434 {delta}({ital m}{sub {ital q}}{sup 2}) in units of the change in ``constituent mass squared,`` which is consistent with the {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} data for a {ital u}-{ital d} mass difference of 4 MeV, while the relative off-shell strength (0.99{plus_minus}0.01) lies midway between quark-loop and QCD-SR results. We also calculate the photon-mediated {rho}-{omega} propagator whose off-shell structure has an additional pole at {ital q}{sup 2}=0. The implications of these results vis-a-vis related investigations are discussed.

  18. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a W b pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t -channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t -channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be appliedmore » to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.« less

  19. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the hadroproduction of a W b pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. We formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.

  20. Off-shell electromagnetic form factors of pions and kaons in chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, T.E.; Fearing, H.W.; Scherer, S. )

    1994-07-01

    The off-shell electromagnetic vertex of a (pseudo)scalar particle contains, in general, two form factors [ital F] and [ital G] which depend, in addition to the squared momentum transfer, on the invariant masses associated with the initial and final legs of the vertex. Chiral perturbation theory to one loop is used to calculate the off-shell form factors of pions and kaons. The formalism of Gasser and Leutwyler, which was previously used to calculate the on-shell limit of the form factor [ital F], is extended to accommodate the most general form for off-shell Green's functions in the pseudoscalar meson sector. We find that chiral symmetry predicts that the form factors [ital F] of the charged pions and kaons go off-shell in the same way, i.e., the off-shell slope at the real photon point is given by the same new phenomenological constant [beta][sub 1]. Furthermore, it is shown that at order [ital p][sup 4] the form factor [ital F] of the [ital K][sup 0] does not show any off-shell dependence. The form factors [ital G] are all related to the form factors [ital F] in the correct fashion as required by the Ward-Takahashi identity. Numerical results for different off-shell kinematics are presented.

  1. Off-shell suppressions and two body radiative processes in a vector dominance model

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.; Nandy, A.

    1980-08-01

    The radiative decays of rho,K*, omega and phi are studied in a one-parameter vector dominance model by introducing corrections for the off-shell vector meson-photon coupling constants. It is found that off-shell values rho and omega are suppressed by 1/1.5 while off-shell phi is suppressed by 1/1.9 compared with their on-shell values. In addition, we have also considered P ..-->.. ..gamma.. ..gamma.. decays and sigma/sub tot/ (VP), and found generally good agreement with the available data.

  2. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  3. Novel method to deal with off-shell particles in cascade decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Kundu, Anirban; Srivastava, Tripurari

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel algorithm to compute the width of any generic n -body decay involving multiple off-shell particles having zero and nonzero spins. Starting from a toy example, we show the computations for three different processes that contain spin-0, -1/2 , and -1 off-shell particles. We check that our results match with the existing results at the analytical level. This proposal can be automatized and should be useful to compute the phase space for long cascade decays, without any Monte Carlo sampling.

  4. Off-shell D-brane action at order α'2 in flat spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.

    2016-03-01

    We use compatibility of the second fundamental form corrections to Dirac-Born-Infeld action at order α'2 which includes the trace of the second fundamental form, with T-duality and with the linear S-duality as guiding principles, to find an off-shell D-brane action at order α'2 in type II superstring theories in flat spcetime.

  5. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Stasto, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  6. Off-shell superconformal nonlinear sigma-models in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele; von Unge, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    We develop superspace techniques to construct general off-shell mathcal{N} ≤ 4 super-conformal sigma-models in three space-time dimensions. The most general mathcal{N} = 3 and mathcal{N} = 4 superconformal sigma-models are constructed in terms of mathcal{N} = 2 chiral superfields. Several superspace proofs of the folklore statement that mathcal{N} = 3 supersymmetry implies mathcal{N} = 4 are presented both in the on-shell and off-shell settings. We also elaborate on (super)twistor realisations for (super)manifolds on which the three-dimensional mathcal{N} -extended superconformal groups act transitively and which include Minkowski space as a subspace.

  7. Compton scattering from a pion: Off-shell effects and the equivalence theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W.

    1995-05-10

    We consider Compton scattering from a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory ({chi}{ital PT}). We investigate off-shell effects in the s- and u-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler lagrangian, generates additional terms at order {ital p}{sup 4} proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. We demonstrate that the two lagrangians which generate different off-shell form factors predict the same Compton scattering S-matrix. This result is interpreted as an application of a generalized equivalence theorem. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. 3-point off-shell vertex in scalar QED in arbitrary gauge and dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.

    2007-09-15

    We calculate the complete one-loop off-shell three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary gauge and dimension for scalar quantum electrodynamics. Explicit results are presented for the particular cases of dimensions 3 and 4 both for massive and massless scalars. We then propose nonperturbative forms of this vertex that coincide with the perturbative answer to order e{sup 2}.

  9. Radiative processes of UPSILON and UPSILON' and off-shell suppressions

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.

    1980-09-01

    Within the framework of an extended vector-dominance scheme, the various radiative processes of UPSILON and UPSILON' are studied. The rates turn out to be generally much smaller than those of the corresponding psi decays and in some cases too small for direct observation. The off-shell UPSILON-..gamma.. and UPSILON'-..gamma.. coupling constants are found to be suppressed by about a couple of orders of magnitude compared with their on-shell values.

  10. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  11. Off-Shell Green Functions: One-Loop with Growing Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2008-07-02

    One loop calculations in gauge theories in arbitrary gauge and dimensions become exceedingly hard with growing number of external off-shell legs. Let alone higher point functions, such a calculation for even the three point one-loop vertices for quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been made available only recently. In this article, we discuss how Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identities (WFGTI) may provide a helpful tool in these computations. After providing a glimpse of our suggestion for the case of the 3-point vertex, we present our preliminary findings towards our similar efforts for the 4-point function. We restrict ourselves to the example of scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED)

  12. Higher gauge theories from Lie n-algebras and off-shell covariantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1].

  13. Form factor of the B meson off-shell for the vertex B{sub s}*BK

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. Jr.; Bracco, M. E.

    2010-11-12

    In this work we evaluate the coupling constant and the form factor for the vertex B{sub s}*BK using the QCD Sum Rules. In this case we consider the B meson off shell. The only theoretical evaluation for the coupling constant was made using the Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory (HHChPT) and we made comparison with this result.

  14. Off-shell D-brane/F-theory effective superpotentials and Ooguri-Vafa invariants of several compact Calabi-Yau manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shi; Xu, Feng-Jun; Yang, Fu-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    According to the open-closed mirror symmetry and generalized Gel'fand-Kapranov-Zelerinski (GKZ) system, we calculate off-shell D-brane/F-theory effective superpotentials of four compact Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds by integrating special periods of subsystem, and extracting the open Ooguri-Vafa invariants from the expansion of off-shell D-brane superpotentials.

  15. A Lorentz covariant holoraumy-induced "gadget" from minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James; Grover, Tyler; Miller-Dickson, Miles David; Mondal, Benedict A.; Oskoui, Amir; Regmi, Shirash; Ross, Ethan; Shetty, Rajath

    2015-11-01

    Starting from three minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets, using constructions solely defined within the confines of the four dimensional field theory we show the existence of a "gadget" — a member of a class of metrics on the representation space of the supermultiplets — whose values directly and completely correspond to the values of a metric defined on the 1d, N = 4 adinkra networks adjacency matrices corresponding to the projections of the four dimensional supermultiplets.

  16. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  17. Anisotropic flow in transport + hydrodynamics hybrid approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    This contribution to the focus issue covers anisotropic flow in hybrid approaches. The historical development of hybrid approaches and their impact on the interpretation of flow measurements is reviewed. The major ingredients of a hybrid approach and the transition criteria between transport and hydrodynamics are discussed. The results for anisotropic flow in (event-by-event) hybrid approaches are presented. Some hybrid approaches rely on hadronic transport for the late stages for the reaction (so called afterburner) and others employ transport approaches for the early non-equilibrium evolution. In addition, there are ‘full’ hybrid calculations where a fluid evolution is dynamically embedded in a transport simulation. After demonstrating the success of hybrid approaches at high Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider energies, existing hybrid caluclations for collective flow observables at lower beam energies are discussed and remaining challenges outlined.

  18. Transportation Planning with Immune System Derived Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Yaji, Yasuhito; Ootsuki, John Takuya; Fujimoto, Yasutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    This paper presents an immune system derived approach for planning transportation of materials between manufacturing processes in the factory. Transportation operations are modeled by Petri Net, and divided into submodels. Transportation orders are derived from the firing sequences of those submodels through convergence calculation by the immune system derived excitation and suppression operations. Basic evaluation of this approach is conducted by simulation-based investigation.

  19. Similarity and differences between the radion and Higgs boson production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Keizerov, S. I.; Rahmetov, E. R.; Svirina, K. S.

    2015-12-15

    The radion is a scalar particle that occurs in brane world models and interacts with the trace of the energy–momentum tensor of the Standard Model (SM). The radion–SM fermion interaction Lagrangian differs from the Higgs boson–fermion interaction Lagrangian for off-shell fermions. It is shown that all additional, as compared to the Higgs boson, contributions to the amplitudes of radion production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions are canceled out for both massless and massive fermions. Thus, additional terms in the interaction Lagrangian do not change properties of these processes for the radion and the Higgs boson, except for the general normalization factors. This similarity is a consequence of gauge invariance for the processes with production of gauge bosons. When an additional scalar particle is produced, there are no apparent reasons for the above cancellation, as confirmed, for example, by the process with production of two scalar particles, which features an additional contribution of the radion in comparison with the Higgs boson.

  20. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, G.; Hartanto, H. B.; Kraus, M.; Worek, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  1. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  2. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  3. A Structured Approach to Sediment Transport Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Peter

    2013-04-01

    There are two types of sediment transport problem. One, flow competence, concerns the conditions that initiate motion of grains on the bed surface. The other, transport capacity, concerns the rate at which sediment is transported and involves sediment found locally on the bed as well as sediment delivered from upstream. The two problems can be linked by the critical stress for incipient motion. A model for critical stress is used directly to predict flow competence. The Ashida/Parker similarity hypothesis provides a useful approximation of transport rates and incorporates local sediment effects entirely via the reference stress, a surrogate for critical stress. Although critical stress is key to both predictions, its application is quite different. The difficult problem of wash load - sizes found in transport in quantities much larger than would be predicted by their presence in the bed - makes the distinction clear and challenges any attempt to predict transport rate from a competence-like approach based on hydraulics and bed material alone. The Shields Diagram and a hiding function provide models for critical stress for uni-size and mixed-size sediment. In addition to grain size - both absolute and relative - other factors alter the critical stress of bed material. These include the proportion of fine-grained material, the aging or freshening of bed material via biologically mediated processes, and the development of bed structure at flows close to the critical stress. Although these factors directly influence the prediction of competent flows, their effect on transport rate is less clear. As flow increases, to what extent does bed strengthening through structuring and other mechanisms persist in dampening transport rate? The answer involves the condition of partial transport in which some grains in a size fraction are active and others remain inactive. Tracing of grains in the flume and field provide guidance on the domain of partial transport and thus on the

  4. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  5. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%. PMID:26894704

  6. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the 2mZ and 2mW thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the ZZ→4ℓ, ZZ→2ℓ2ν and WW→eνμν final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 at a collision energy of √s=8 TeV. Using the CLs method, the observed 95 %% confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1–8.6, with an expected range of 6.7–11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown gg→ZZ and gg→WW background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on ΓH/ΓSMH in the range 4.5–7.5 (6.5–11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown gg→VV background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  7. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  8. TransportTP: A two-phase classification approach for membrane transporter prediction and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Membrane transporters play crucial roles in living cells. Experimental characterization of transporters is costly and time-consuming. Current computational methods for transporter characterization still require extensive curation efforts, especially for eukaryotic organisms. We developed a novel genome-scale transporter prediction and characterization system called TransportTP that combined homology-based and machine learning methods in a two-phase classification approach. First, traditional homology methods were employed to predict novel transporters based on sequence similarity to known classified proteins in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB). Second, machine learning methods were used to integrate a variety of features to refine the initial predictions. A set of rules based on transporter features was developed by machine learning using well-curated proteomes as guides. Results In a cross-validation using the yeast proteome for training and the proteomes of ten other organisms for testing, TransportTP achieved an equivalent recall and precision of 81.8%, based on TransportDB, a manually annotated transporter database. In an independent test using the Arabidopsis proteome for training and four recently sequenced plant proteomes for testing, it achieved a recall of 74.6% and a precision of 73.4%, according to our manual curation. Conclusions TransportTP is the most effective tool for eukaryotic transporter characterization up to date. PMID:20003433

  9. The off-shell axial anomaly via the {gamma}*{pi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma} transition

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Tandy, P.C.

    1995-08-01

    The {gamma}*{pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma} form factor, F{sup {pi}0{gamma}{gamma}}(s), including the extension off the pion mass-shell, is calculated in generalized impulse approximation within the Dyson-Schwinger Equation framework used to provide an excellent description of the pion charge form factor, described above. This anomalous process is a fundamentally important characteristic of the quantum field theoretical structure of QCD because it signals the breaking of the U{sub A}(1) symmetry by quantization. This form factor was measured by the CELLO collaboration at the PETRA storage ring using the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {pi}{sup 0}. There is a letter-of-intent at CEBAF to remeasure this form factor in virtual Compton scattering from a proton target. In this case a (virtual) pion is supplied by the target and a final real photon selected through the excellent missing mass spectrometry available at CEBAF. An extrapolation to the pion mass shell will be needed to deduce the physical transition form factor. Our calculation shows that the dependence on the virtual-pion momentum is smooth and well described by a simple suppression factor, which is qualitatively independent of the details of the pion interpolating field. The correct mass-shell value of this form factor is naturally generated in our approach and the q{sup 2} dependence is in accord with the available CELLO data. No parameters are adjusted to achieve this; the are fixed at the values derived in the study of F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). A significant result of our study is that for this anomalous process, soft nonperturbative effects remain significant for Q{sup 2} < 20 GeV{sup 2}. A paper describing this work was submitted for publication.

  10. QCD corrections to vector boson pair production in gluon fusion including interference effects with off-shell Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caola, Fabrizio; Dowling, Matthew; Melnikov, Kirill; Röntsch, Raoul; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    We compute next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the production of two massive electroweak bosons in gluon fusion. We consider both the prompt production process gg → V V and the production mediated by an exchange of an s-channel Higgs boson, gg → H ∗ → V V . We include final states with both on- and off-shell vector bosons with leptonic decays. The gluonic production of vector bosons is a loop-induced process, including both massless and massive quarks in the loop. For gg → ZZ production, we obtain the NLO QCD corrections to the massive loops through an expansion around the heavy top limit. This approximation is valid below the top production threshold, giving a broad range of invariant masses between the Higgs production and the top production thresholds in which our results are valid. We explore the NLO QCD effects in gg → ZZ focusing, in particular, on the interference between prompt and Higgs-mediated processes. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference are large and similar in size to the corrections to both the signal and the background processes. At the same time, we observe that corrections to the interference change rapidly with the four-lepton invariant mass in the region around the ZZ production threshold. We also study the interference effects in gg → W + W - production where, due to technical limitations, we only consider contributions of massless loops. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference in this case are somewhat larger than those for either the signal or the background.

  11. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  12. Towards a transport approach that acknowledges mixing and dispersion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, J.; soler Sagarra, J.; de Dreuzy, J. R.; Dentz, M.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) is a poor representation of transport for problems beyond assessing the extent of a solute plume. Specifically, mixing must be honored for proper assessment of chemical reactions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a transport approach that acknowledges dispersion (for adequate representation of solute spreading) and mixing (for adequate representation of chemical reactions). Non-local in time solute transport formulations have been considered a hopeful alternative to the ADE because they overcome many of its limitations. We have computed the deviation from gaussian mixing obtained in transport through highly heterogeneous media and compared it with that of non-local in time formulations. We find that these underestimate such deviation. Therefore, they are not sufficient; more sophisticated approaches are needed. An appealing option is to extend non-locality also to space, but this opens a broad range of possibilities. We explore some non-local in space and time formulations, so as to define the constraints that these must meet in order to be valid representations (valid in the sense of reproducing the actual spreading and mixing rates) of solute transport through heterogeneous media.

  13. Langevin equation approach to reactor noise analysis: stochastic transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Akcasu, A.Z. ); Stolle, A.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The application of the Langevin equation method to the study of fluctuations in the space- and velocity-dependent neutron density as well as in the detector outputs in nuclear reactors is presented. In this case, the Langevin equation is the stochastic linear neutron transport equation with a space- and velocity-dependent random neutron source, often referred to as the noise equivalent source (NES). The power spectral densities (PSDs) of the NESs in the transport equation, as well as in the accompanying detection rate equations, are obtained, and the cross- and auto-power spectral densities of the outputs of pairs of detectors are explicitly calculated. The transport-level expression for the R([omega]) ratio measured in the [sup 252]Cf source-driven noise analysis method is also derived. Finally, the implementation of the Langevin equation approach at different levels of approximation is discussed, and the stochastic one-speed transport and one-group P[sub 1] equations are derived by first integrating the stochastic transport equation over speed and then eliminating the angular dependence by a spherical harmonics expansion. By taking the large transport rate limit in the P[sub 1] description, the stochastic diffusion equation is obtained as well as the PSD of the NES in it. This procedure also leads directly to the stochastic Fick's law.

  14. Novel Approaches to Adaptive Angular Approximations in Computational Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-04

    The particle-transport equation is notoriously difficult to discretize accurately, largely because the solution can be discontinuous in every variable. At any given spatial position and energy E, for example, the transport solution  can be discontinuous at an arbitrary number of arbitrary locations in the direction domain. Even if the solution is continuous it is often devoid of smoothness. This makes the direction variable extremely difficult to discretize accurately. We have attacked this problem with adaptive discretizations in the angle variables, using two distinctly different approaches. The first approach used wavelet function expansions directly and exploited their ability to capture sharp local variations. The second used discrete ordinates with a spatially varying quadrature set that adapts to the local solution. The first approach is very different from that in today’s transport codes, while the second could conceivably be implemented in such codes. Both approaches succeed in reducing angular discretization error to any desired level. The work described and results presented in this report add significantly to the understanding of angular discretization in transport problems and demonstrate that it is possible to solve this important long-standing problem in deterministic transport. Our results show that our adaptive discrete-ordinates (ADO) approach successfully: 1) Reduces angular discretization error to user-selected “tolerance” levels in a variety of difficult test problems; 2) Achieves a given error with significantly fewer unknowns than non-adaptive discrete ordinates methods; 3) Can be implemented within standard discrete-ordinates solution techniques, and thus could generate a significant impact on the field in a relatively short time. Our results show that our adaptive wavelet approach: 1) Successfully reduces the angular discretization error to arbitrarily small levels in a variety of difficult test problems, even when using the

  15. An algebraic approach to BCJ numerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    One important discovery in recent years is that the total amplitude of gauge theory can be written as BCJ form where kinematic numerators satisfy Jacobi identity. Although the existence of such kinematic numerators is no doubt, the simple and explicit construction is still an important problem. As a small step, in this note we provide an algebraic approach to construct these kinematic numerators. Under our Feynman-diagram-like construction, the Jacobi identity is manifestly satisfied. The corresponding color ordered amplitudes satisfy off-shell KK-relation and off-shell BCJ relation similar to the color ordered scalar theory. Using our construction, the dual DDM form is also established.

  16. A Formal Approach for Milk-Run Transport Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    A formal approach for specifying and reasoning about earth-friendly logistics management systems is presented. To reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from transport, we must enhance the transport efficiency of trucks, which play an essential role as carriers in modern logistics services. This paper addresses the milk-run approach. It is one of the most effective and popular solutions to this problem, but it makes it be complicated to implement in a logistics management system. We propose a language for specifying the routes of trucks and an order relation between the requirements of routes and the possible routes of trucks. The former is formulated as process calculus and the latter selects suitable trucks according to their routes.

  17. Multidrug resistance ABC transporter structure predictions by homology modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Honorat, Mylène; Falson, Pierre; Terreux, Raphael; Di Pietro, Attilio; Dumontet, Charles; Payen, Léa

    2011-03-01

    Human multidrug resistance ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins responsible for the efflux of multiple, endogenous or exogenous, compounds out of the cells, and therefore they are involved in multi-drug resistance phenotype (MDR). They thus deeply impact the pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicity properties of drugs. A great pressure to develop inhibitors of these pumps is carried out, by either ligand-based drug design or (more ideally) structure-based drug design. In that goal, many biochemical studies have been carried out to characterize their transport functions, and many efforts have been spent to get high-resolution structures. Currently, beside the 3D-structures of bacterial ABC transporters Sav1866 and MsbA, only the mouse ABCB1 complete structure has been published at high-resolution, illustrating the tremendous difficulty in getting such information, taking into account that the human genome accounts for 48 ABC transporters encoding genes. Homology modeling is consequently a reasonable approach to overcome this obstacle. The present review describes, in the first part, the different approaches which have been published to set up human ABC pump 3D-homology models allowing the localization of binding sites for drug candidates, and the identification of critical residues therein. In a second part, the review proposes a more accurate strategy and practical keys to use such biological tools for initiating structure-based drug design. PMID:21470105

  18. Global variational approach to elliptic transport barriers in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettinger, David; Blazevski, Daniel; Haller, George

    2016-03-01

    We introduce an approach to identify elliptic transport barriers in three-dimensional, time-aperiodic flows. Obtained as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), the barriers are tubular non-filamenting surfaces that form and bound coherent material vortices. This extends a previous theory of elliptic LCSs as uniformly stretching material surfaces from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flows. Specifically, we obtain explicit expressions for the normals of pointwise (near-) uniformly stretching material surfaces over a finite time interval. We use this approach to visualize elliptic LCSs in steady and time-aperiodic ABC-type flows.

  19. Global variational approach to elliptic transport barriers in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Oettinger, David; Blazevski, Daniel; Haller, George

    2016-03-01

    We introduce an approach to identify elliptic transport barriers in three-dimensional, time-aperiodic flows. Obtained as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), the barriers are tubular non-filamenting surfaces that form and bound coherent material vortices. This extends a previous theory of elliptic LCSs as uniformly stretching material surfaces from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flows. Specifically, we obtain explicit expressions for the normals of pointwise (near-) uniformly stretching material surfaces over a finite time interval. We use this approach to visualize elliptic LCSs in steady and time-aperiodic ABC-type flows. PMID:27036192

  20. Two-stream approach to electron transport and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Stamnes, K.

    1981-04-01

    An explicit solution to the electron transport and energy degradation problem is presented in the two-stream approximation. The validity of this simple approach is discussed, and it is shown that it can be extended to high electron energies (appropriate for applications to auroras) provided the coupling between the two streams, described by the backscatter ratio, is correctly estimated. A simple formula for the backscatter ratio which can be used at all energies is derived.

  1. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  2. Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, C.; Maher, K.

    2009-04-01

    Fluid-rock interaction (or water-rock interaction, as it was more commonly known) is a subject that has evolved considerably in its scope over the years. Initially its focus was primarily on interactions between subsurface fluids of various temperatures and mostly crystalline rocks, but the scope has broadened now to include fluid interaction with all forms of subsurface materials, whether they are unconsolidated or crystalline ('fluid-solid interaction' is perhaps less euphonious). Disciplines that previously carried their own distinct names, for example, basin diagenesis, early diagenesis, metamorphic petrology, reactive contaminant transport, chemical weathering, are now considered to fall under the broader rubric of fluid-rock interaction, although certainly some of the key research questions differ depending on the environment considered. Beyond the broadening of the environments considered in the study of fluid-rock interaction, the discipline has evolved in perhaps an even more important way. The study of water-rock interaction began by focusing on geochemical interactions in the absence of transport processes, although a few notable exceptions exist (Thompson 1959; Weare et al. 1976). Moreover, these analyses began by adopting a primarily thermodynamic approach, with the implicit or explicit assumption of equilibrium between the fluid and rock. As a result, these early models were fundamentally static rather than dynamic in nature. This all changed with the seminal papers by Helgeson and his co-workers (Helgeson 1968; Helgeson et al. 1969) wherein the concept of an irreversible reaction path was formally introduced into the geochemical literature. In addition to treating the reaction network as a dynamically evolving system, the Helgeson studies introduced an approach that allowed for the consideration of a multicomponent geochemical system, with multiple minerals and species appearing as both reactants and products, at least one of which could be

  3. An alternative approach to charge transport in semiconducting electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomchick, J.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The excess-carrier charge transport through the space-charge region of a semiconducting electrode is analyzed by a technique known as the flux method. In this approach reflection and transmission coefficients appropriate for a sheet of uniform semiconducting material describe its transport properties. A review is presented of the flux method showing that the results for a semiconductor electrode reduce in a limiting case to those previously found by Gaertner if the depletion layer is treated as a perfectly transmitting medium in which scattering and recombination are ignored. Then, in the framework of the flux method the depletion layer is considered more realistically by explicitly taking into account scattering and recombination processes which occur in this region.

  4. Reactive Gas transport in soil: Kinetics versus Local Equilibrium Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geistlinger, Helmut; Jia, Ruijan

    2010-05-01

    Gas transport through the unsaturated soil zone was studied using an analytical solution of the gas transport model that is mathematically equivalent to the Two-Region model. The gas transport model includes diffusive and convective gas fluxes, interphase mass transfer between the gas and water phase, and biodegradation. The influence of non-equilibrium phenomena, spatially variable initial conditions, and transient boundary conditions are studied. The objective of this paper is to compare the kinetic approach for interphase mass transfer with the standard local equilibrium approach and to find conditions and time-scales under which the local equilibrium approach is justified. The time-scale of investigation was limited to the day-scale, because this is the relevant scale for understanding gas emission from the soil zone with transient water saturation. For the first time a generalized mass transfer coefficient is proposed that justifies the often used steady-state Thin-Film mass transfer coefficient for small and medium water-saturated aggregates of about 10 mm. The main conclusion from this study is that non-equilibrium mass transfer depends strongly on the temporal and small-scale spatial distribution of water within the unsaturated soil zone. For regions with low water saturation and small water-saturated aggregates (radius about 1 mm) the local equilibrium approach can be used as a first approximation for diffusive gas transport. For higher water saturation and medium radii of water-saturated aggregates (radius about 10 mm) and for convective gas transport, the non-equilibrium effect becomes more and more important if the hydraulic residence time and the Damköhler number decrease. Relative errors can range up to 100% and more. While for medium radii the local equilibrium approach describes the main features both of the spatial concentration profile and the time-dependence of the emission rate, it fails completely for larger aggregates (radius about 100 mm

  5. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  6. On the behavior of approaches to simulate reactive transport.

    PubMed

    Saaltink, M W; Carrera, J; Ayora, C

    2001-04-01

    Two families of approaches exist to simulate reactive transport in groundwater: The Direct Substitution Approach (DSA), based on Newton-Raphson and the Picard or Sequential Iteration Approach (SIA). We applied basic versions of both methods to several test cases and compared both computational demands and quality of the solution for varying grid size. Results showed that the behavior of the two approaches is sensitive to both grid size and chemistry. As a general rule, the DSA is more robust than the SIA, in the sense that its convergence is less sensitive to time step size (any approach will converge given a sufficiently small time step). Moreover, the DSA leads to a better simulation of sharp fronts, which can only be reproduced with fine grids after many iterations when the SIA is used. As a consequence, the DSA runs faster than SIA in chemically difficult cases (i.e., highly non-linear and/or very retarded), because the SIA may require very small time steps to converge. On the other hand, the size of the system of equations is much larger for the DSA than for the SIA, so that its CPU time and memory requirements tend to be less favorable with increasing grid size. As a result, the SIA may become faster than the DSA for very large, chemically simple problems. The use of an iterative linear solver for the DSA makes its CPU time less sensitive to grid size. PMID:11285932

  7. Understanding phonon transport in thermoelectric materials using ab initio approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, David

    Good thermoelectric materials have low phonon thermal conductivity, kph. Accurate theories to describe kph are important components in developing predictive models of thermoelectric efficiency that can help guide synthesis and measurement efforts. We have developed ab initio approaches to calculate kph, in which phonon modes and phonon scattering rates are computed using interatomic force constants determined from density functional theory, and a full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is implemented. A recent approach to calculate interatomic force constants using ab initio molecular dynamics has yielded a good description of the thermal properties of Bi2Te3. But, the complexity of new promising candidate thermoelectric materials introduces computational challenges in assessing their thermal properties. An example is germanane, a germanium based hydrogen-terminated layered semiconductor, which we will discuss in this talk.

  8. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  9. Radiogenic isotopic approaches for quantifying radionuclide transport (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Depaolo, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    Naturally occurring variations in the isotopic compositions of U and Sr provide unique opportunities for assessing the fate and transport of radionuclides at field-scale conditions. When coupled with reactive transport models, U and Sr isotopes may also provide additional constraints on the rates of sediment-fluid or sediment-waste interactions. Such isotopic approaches can be useful for sites where subsurface characterization is complicated by a lack of accessibility or the presence of substantial heterogeneity. In addition, a variety of quantitative modeling approaches of different complexity can be used to evaluate experimentally determined parameters for radionuclide mobility at the field-scale. At the Hanford Site in eastern Washington, 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U ratios have been used to quantify the residence time of Sr and U in the unsaturated zone, the long-term background infiltration rate through the unsaturated zone, and to assess the influence of enhanced wastewater discharge on the regional unconfined aquifer. As a result of different processing techniques or due to interactions between caustic waste and the natural sediment, waste plumes may also inherit isotopic fingerprints (e.g. 234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U; δ15N & δ18O of nitrate) that can be used to resolve multiple sources of contamination. Finally, enriched isotopic tracers can be applied to experimental manipulations to assess the retardation of a variety of contaminants. Collectively this isotopic data contributes unique perspectives on both the hydrologic conditions across the site and the mobility of key radionuclides. Predicting the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is often challenging due to natural heterogeneity and incomplete characterization of the subsurface, however detailed analysis of isotopic variations can provide one additional means of characterizing the subsurface.

  10. Proton transport model in the ionosphere 1. Multistream approach of the transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galand, M.; Lilensten, J.; Kofman, W.; Sidje, R. B.

    1997-09-01

    The suprathermal particles, electrons and protons, coming from the magnetosphere and precipitating into the high-latitude atmosphere are an energy source of the Earth's ionosphere. They interact with ambient thermal gas through inelastic and elastic collisions. The physical quantities perturbed by these precipitations, such as the heating rate, the electron production rate, or the emission intensities, can be provided in solving the kinetic stationary Boltzmann equation. This equation yields particle fluxes as a function of altitude, energy, and pitch angle. While this equation has been solved through different ways for the electron transport and fully tested, the proton transport is more complicated. Because of charge-changing reactions, the latter is a set of two-coupled transport equations that must be solved: one for protons and the other for H atoms. We present here a new approach that solves the multistream proton/hydrogen transport equations encompassing the collision angular redistributions and the magnetic mirroring effect. In order to validate our model we discuss the energy conservation and we compare with another model under the same inputs and with rocket observations. The influence of the angular redistributions is discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  11. A Linear Systems Approach to Segmented Watershed Contaminant Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs simulation models to estimate concentrations of pesticide residues in surface waters for risk assessment. These models have historically been used to simulate runoff loadings from homogeneous landscapes to isolated, well-mixed lentic systems that generically represent vulnerable waters. Recent efforts to refine this approach in terms of realism and geographic specificity have focused on enhancing the level of detail of the landscape representation, rather than that of receiving water hydrology. Linear systems theory and transfer function based approaches have been applied by various investigators to the representation of contaminant leaching through soils, and to surface water hydrology (e.g., unit hydrographs), but rarely to contaminant transport either within surface waters, or through multi-compartment systems such as stream networks. This poster describes a straightforward approach to simulating watersheds as segmented into collections of linked water bodies. The approach employs convolution integrals, impulse response functions, and the Discrete Fourier Transform to propagate concentration time series from upstream to downstream locations. Given knowledge only of estimated mean stream residence times, with appropriately-scaled segmentations of catchments, realistic representations of concentration dynamics are shown to be achievable. These representations are based upon high-frequency atrazine monitoring data sets collected over common time periods from upstream and downstream locations within the same small watersheds. Simulated concentrations are shown to match measured concentrations well in both the temporal and spectral domains without the need for calibration, and despite inherent simplifying assumptions such as steady flow. The approach may have utility for enhancing surface water hydrologic representation in contaminant modeling used for regulatory purposes.

  12. Filtered density function approach for reactive transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering may be used in coarse-grained simulations (CGS) of reactive transport in groundwater, similar to the large eddy simulations (LES) in turbulence. The filtered density function (FDF), stochastically equivalent to a probability density function (PDF), provides a statistical description of the sub-grid, unresolved, variability of the concentration field. Besides closing the chemical source terms in the transport equation for the mean concentration, like in LES-FDF methods, the CGS-FDF approach aims at quantifying the uncertainty over the whole hierarchy of heterogeneity scales exhibited by natural porous media. Practically, that means estimating concentration PDFs on coarse grids, at affordable computational costs. To cope with the high dimensionality of the problem in case of multi-component reactive transport and to reduce the numerical diffusion, FDF equations are solved by particle methods. But, while trajectories of computational particles are modeled as stochastic processes indexed by time, the concentration's heterogeneity is modeled as a random field, with multi-dimensional, spatio-temporal sets of indices. To overcome this conceptual inconsistency, we consider FDFs/PDFs of random species concentrations weighted by conserved scalars and we show that their evolution equations can be formulated as Fokker-Planck equations describing stochastically equivalent processes in concentration-position spaces. Numerical solutions can then be approximated by the density in the concentration-position space of an ensemble of computational particles governed by the associated Itô equations. Instead of sequential particle methods we use a global random walk (GRW) algorithm, which is stable, free of numerical diffusion, and practically insensitive to the increase of the number of particles. We illustrate the general FDF approach and the GRW numerical solution for a reduced complexity problem consisting of the transport of a single scalar in groundwater

  13. Reconciling perturbative approaches in phonon-assisted transport junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira

    2016-02-01

    We present consistent results for molecular conduction using two central-complementary approaches: the non-equilibrium Green's function technique and the quantum master equation method. Our model describes electronic conduction in a donor-acceptor junction in which electron transfer is coupled to nuclear motion, modeled by a harmonic vibrational mode. This primary mode is further coupled to secondary phonon modes, a thermal bath. Assuming weak electron-phonon coupling but an arbitrary large molecule-metal hybridization, we compute several non-equilibrium transport quantities: the mean phonon number of the primary mode, charge current statistics. We further present scaling relations for the cumulants valid in the large voltage regime. Our analysis illustrates that the non-equilibrium Green's function technique and the quantum master equation method can be worked out consistently, when taking into account corresponding scattering processes.

  14. Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons of three modeling approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Rood, Richard B.; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Molod, Andrea M.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary comparison of the GEOS-1 (Goddard Earth Observing System) data assimilation system convective cloud mass fluxes with fluxes from a cloud-resolving model (the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model, GCE) is reported. A squall line case study (10-11 June 1985 Oklahoma PRESTORM episode) is the basis of the comparison. Regional (central U. S.) monthly total convective mass flux for June 1985 from GEOS-1 compares favorably with estimates from a statistical/dynamical approach using GCE simulations and satellite-derived cloud observations. The GEOS-1 convective mass fluxes produce reasonable estimates of monthly-averaged regional convective venting of CO from the boundary layer at least in an urban-influenced continental region, suggesting that they can be used in tracer transport simulations.

  15. Reconciling perturbative approaches in phonon-assisted transport junctions.

    PubMed

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira

    2016-02-21

    We present consistent results for molecular conduction using two central-complementary approaches: the non-equilibrium Green's function technique and the quantum master equation method. Our model describes electronic conduction in a donor-acceptor junction in which electron transfer is coupled to nuclear motion, modeled by a harmonic vibrational mode. This primary mode is further coupled to secondary phonon modes, a thermal bath. Assuming weak electron-phonon coupling but an arbitrary large molecule-metal hybridization, we compute several non-equilibrium transport quantities: the mean phonon number of the primary mode, charge current statistics. We further present scaling relations for the cumulants valid in the large voltage regime. Our analysis illustrates that the non-equilibrium Green's function technique and the quantum master equation method can be worked out consistently, when taking into account corresponding scattering processes. PMID:26896971

  16. An approach to improving transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei

    2014-08-14

    In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles.

  17. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  18. Random walk approach for dispersive transport in pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Robert; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: particle transport, random walk, pipe, network, HYSTEM-EXTAN, OpenGeoSys After heavy pluvial events in urban areas the available drainage system may be undersized at peak flows (Fuchs, 2013). Consequently, rainwater in the pipe network is likely to spill out through manholes. The presence of hazardous contaminants in the pipe drainage system represents a potential risk to humans especially when the contaminated drainage water reaches the land surface. Real-time forecasting of contaminants in the drainage system needs a quick calculation. Numerical models to predict the fate of contaminants are usually based on finite volume methods. Those are not applicable here because of their volume averaging elements. Thus, a more efficient method is preferable, which is independent from spatial discretization. In the present study, a particle-based method is chosen to calculate transport paths and spatial distribution of contaminants within a pipe network. A random walk method for particles in turbulent flow in partially filled pipes has been developed. Different approaches for in-pipe-mixing and node-mixing with respect to the geometry in a drainage network are shown. A comparison of dispersive behavior and calculation time is given to find the fastest model. The HYSTEM-EXTRAN (itwh, 2002) model is used to provide hydrodynamic conditions in the pipe network according to surface runoff scenarios in order to real-time predict contaminant transport in an urban pipe network system. The newly developed particle-based model will later be coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). References: Fuchs, L. (2013). Gefährdungsanalyse zur Überflutungsvorsorge kommunaler Entwässerungssysteme. Sanierung und Anpassung von Entwässerungssystemen-Alternde Infrastruktur und Klimawandel, Österreichischer Wasser-und Abfallwirtschaftsverband, Wien, ISBN, 978-3. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie Gmb

  19. A Fuzzy Modeling Approach to Road Transport with Application to a Case of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Bianchi, Mauro

    2004-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a general fuzzy inference approach to building a model of hazardous road transport that relates given traffic, weather, and vehicle-speed conditions to the accident rate. The development of the model is discussed in detail, and its validation is provided with reference to literature data regarding the transport of spent nuclear fuel to its final confinement repository.

  20. A Systems Approach to Scalable Transportation Network Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2006-01-01

    Emerging needs in transportation network modeling and simulation are raising new challenges with respect to scal-ability of network size and vehicular traffic intensity, speed of simulation for simulation-based optimization, and fidel-ity of vehicular behavior for accurate capture of event phe-nomena. Parallel execution is warranted to sustain the re-quired detail, size and speed. However, few parallel simulators exist for such applications, partly due to the challenges underlying their development. Moreover, many simulators are based on time-stepped models, which can be computationally inefficient for the purposes of modeling evacuation traffic. Here an approach is presented to de-signing a simulator with memory and speed efficiency as the goals from the outset, and, specifically, scalability via parallel execution. The design makes use of discrete event modeling techniques as well as parallel simulation meth-ods. Our simulator, called SCATTER, is being developed, incorporating such design considerations. Preliminary per-formance results are presented on benchmark road net-works, showing scalability to one million vehicles simu-lated on one processor.

  1. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  2. Biomembranes. Part M. Transport in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts: General approaches and transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, S.; Fleischer, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains three sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the paper titles are: Voltammetric Measurement of Quinones; Use of lac Gene Fusions to Study Transport Proteins; Methods for Mutagenesis of the Bacterioopsin Gene; Transport in Mycoplasmas; Alanine Carrier from Thermophilic Bacteria; and Measurement of Citrate Transport in Tumor Mitochondria.

  3. Transport Coefficients of High Temperature SF6 in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Using a Phenomenological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Zong; Rong, Ming-Zhe; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yi

    2014-03-01

    The transport coefficients of high temperature sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium are calculated using collision integrals derived in a phenomenological approach which could be a valuable tool in the calculation of complete data sets for complex mixtures, including interactions hardly handled in the accurate multipotential methods. A systematic comparison with transport coefficients obtained using an old data set and experimental test is performed to check the reliability of the proposed approach in evaluating transport cross sections.

  4. A multi-resolution approach for optimal mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominitz, Ayelet; Angenent, Sigurd; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-09-01

    Optimal mass transport is an important technique with numerous applications in econometrics, fluid dynamics, automatic control, statistical physics, shape optimization, expert systems, and meteorology. Motivated by certain problems in image registration and medical image visualization, in this note, we describe a simple gradient descent methodology for computing the optimal L2 transport mapping which may be easily implemented using a multiresolution scheme. We also indicate how the optimal transport map may be computed on the sphere. A numerical example is presented illustrating our ideas.

  5. A new continuum approach for nonlinear kinetic simulation and transport analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Zongliang Wang, Shaojie; Xu, Yingfeng; Ye, Lei; Xiao, Xiaotao

    2015-02-15

    A numerical code based on the I-transform approach is developed to solve the nonlinear Vlasov equation and carry out the transport analysis. The numerical results given by the I-transform approach agree with the conservative semi-Lagrangian approach in the Landau damping case and the bump-on-tail instability case. The diffusivities induced by the random fields and the quasilinear transport are also successfully demonstrated by using the new approach. It is found that the nonlinear transport in the one-dimensional Langmuir turbulence cannot be well-described by a simple diffusion model, due to the strong particle trapping at the nonlinear stage.

  6. NASA's approach to commercial cargo and crew transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Dennis; Lindenmoyer, Alan; French, George; Musk, Elon; Gump, David; Kathuria, Chirinjeev; Miller, Charles; Sirangelo, Mark; Pickens, Tom

    2008-07-01

    To stimulate the commercial space industry and potentially serve the logistics needs of the International Space Station (ISS) in the post-Space Shuttle era, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 2006 began the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative. NASA entered into agreements with two U.S. firms, Rocketplane Kistler and Space Exploration Technologies to share up to 485,000,000 USD to demonstrate cargo transportation services to and from Low Earth orbit (LEO), with an option for additional funds to demonstrate human transportation services. Subsequently, NASA also entered into unfunded agreements with five companies to develop innovative space transportation capabilities. This paper reviews this unique initiative, describes the concepts of these seven companies, and discusses the potential of this emerging industry to make LEO more accessible.

  7. Thermodynamically constrained averaging theory approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in porous medium systems: 4. Species transport fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cass T.; Gray, William G.

    2008-03-01

    This work is the fourth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are built upon by formulating macroscale models for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, and the balance of entropy for a species in a phase volume, interface, and common curve. In addition, classical irreversible thermodynamic relations for species in entities are averaged from the microscale to the macroscale. Finally, we comment on alternative approaches that can be used to connect species and entity conservation equations to a constrained system entropy inequality, which is a key component of the TCAT approach. The formulations detailed in this work can be built upon to develop models for species transport and reactions in a variety of multiphase systems.

  8. Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: An evaluation of the continuum approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, H.-H.; Haukwa, C.B.; Ahlers, C.F.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Flint, A.L.; Guertal, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    Because the continuum approach is relatively simple and straightforward to implement, it has been commonly used in modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. However, the usefulness of this approach can be questioned in terms of its adequacy for representing fingering flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. The continuum approach thus needs to be evaluated carefully by comparing simulation results with field observations directly related to unsaturated flow and transport processes. This paper reports on such an evaluation, based on a combination of model calibration and prediction, using data from an infiltration test carried out in a densely fractured rock within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Comparisons between experimental and modeling results show that the continuum approach may be able to capture important features of flow and transport processes observed from the test. The modeling results also show that matrix diffusion may have a significant effect on the overall transport behavior in unsaturated fractured rocks, which can be used to estimate effective fracture-matrix interface areas based on tracer transport data. While more theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are needed to provide a conclusive evaluation, this study suggests that the continuum approach is useful for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated, densely fractured rock. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: An evaluation of the continuum approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Haukwa, Charles B.; Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Flint, Alan L.; Guertal, William B.

    2002-09-01

    Because the continuum approach is relatively simple and straightforward to implement, it has been commonly used in modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. However, the usefulness of this approach can be questioned in terms of its adequacy for representing fingering flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. The continuum approach thus needs to be evaluated carefully by comparing simulation results with field observations directly related to unsaturated flow and transport processes. This paper reports on such an evaluation, based on a combination of model calibration and prediction, using data from an infiltration test carried out in a densely fractured rock within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Comparisons between experimental and modeling results show that the continuum approach may be able to capture important features of flow and transport processes observed from the test. The modeling results also show that matrix diffusion may have a significant effect on the overall transport behavior in unsaturated fractured rocks, which can be used to estimate effective fracture-matrix interface areas based on tracer transport data. While more theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are needed to provide a conclusive evaluation, this study suggests that the continuum approach is useful for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated, densely fractured rock.

  10. Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: an evaluation of the continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Haukwa, Charles B; Ahlers, C Fredrik; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S; Flint, Alan L; Guertal, William B

    2003-01-01

    Because the continuum approach is relatively simple and straightforward to implement, it has been commonly used in modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. However, the usefulness of this approach can be questioned in terms of its adequacy for representing fingering flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. The continuum approach thus needs to be evaluated carefully by comparing simulation results with field observations directly related to unsaturated flow and transport processes. This paper reports on such an evaluation, based on a combination of model calibration and prediction, using data from an infiltration test carried out in a densely fractured rock within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Comparisons between experimental and modeling results show that the continuum approach may be able to capture important features of flow and transport processes observed from the test. The modeling results also show that matrix diffusion may have a significant effect on the overall transport behavior in unsaturated fractured rocks, which can be used to estimate effective fracture-matrix interface areas based on tracer transport data. While more theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are needed to provide a conclusive evaluation, this study suggests that the continuum approach is useful for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated, densely fractured rock. PMID:12714290

  11. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  12. A Lagrangian Approach to Modelling Proppant Transport with Tip Screen-Out in KGD Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontsov, E. V.; Peirce, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    This study introduces a continuum approach to model proppant transport in hydraulic fractures in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The model for the proppant transport is based on the recently obtained slurry flow solution inside a channel, where the latter utilizes a phenomenological constitutive relationship for a slurry. This approach allows us to describe the transition from Poiseuille flow with an effective viscosity to Darcy flow as the particle concentration increases towards the maximum value. The algorithm is presented for the one-dimensional case, for which propagation of a symmetric Kristinovich-Zheltov-Geertsma-De Klerk fracture is considered. To examine the effectiveness of the Lagrangian approach for proppant transport modelling, a set of parameters, for which proppant particles reach the fracture tip and cause the development of a proppant plug is selected. In this situation, the coupling between the hydraulic fracture propagation and proppant transport is the most significant. To estimate the accuracy of the Lagrangian proppant transport model, the results are compared to the predictions of an Eulerian proppant transport model, which utilizes the same algorithm for hydraulic fracture propagation. It is shown that, although both approaches have the same convergence rate, the error of the Lagrangian approach is three to five times smaller, which depends on the number of proppant elements used in the Lagrangian approach. This permits us to use a coarser mesh for hydraulic fracture propagation, and to obtain results with similar accuracy up to a hundred times faster.

  13. A Dynamic Tree Approach to Environmental Transport on Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, P.; Zaliapin, I.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ghil, M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of dynamic tree was introduced in Zaliapin et al. (2010) as the basis of an extended conceptual framework to study the transport of spatially heterogeneous fluxes as they propagate down a network of a given topology. Here we are interested in extending this framework over the whole basin by incorporating the hillslope paths and their geometry, which are known to differ from those of the river network. Focusing on the fluxes that start at a source, propagate downstream and have constant velocity, we first capture the static structure of the hillslope network by representing it by a tree (static tree). We then describe the transport down the hillslope tree as a particular case of nearest-neighbor hierarchical aggregation and thus obtaining the so-called dynamic tree. The properties of both the dynamic and static trees are analyzed by applying Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga taxonomies. The results obtained in three hillslope areas of different characteristics, two located in California and one in Oregon, show that both the static and the dynamic tree can be well approximated by Tokunaga self-similar trees (SSTs), in agreement with what previously obtained for the channelized paths of the river network but with different parameters. The degree of side branching is larger for the static tree than for the dynamic. We also observed a phase transition in the dynamics of the three systems which reflects an abrupt emergence of a giant cluster of connected streams.

  14. Conformal supergravity in five dimensions: new approach and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butter, Daniel; Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Novak, Joseph; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    We develop a new off-shell formulation for five-dimensional (5D) conformal supergravity obtained by gauging the 5D superconformal algebra in superspace. An important property of the conformal superspace introduced is that it reduces to the super-conformal tensor calculus (formulated in the early 2000's) upon gauging away a number of superfluous fields. On the other hand, a different gauge fixing reduces our formulation to the SU(2) superspace of arXiv:0802.3953, which is suitable to describe the most general off-shell supergravity-matter couplings. Using the conformal superspace approach, we show how to reproduce practically all off-shell constructions derived so far, including he supersymmetric extensions of R 2 terms, thus demonstrating the power of our formulation. Furthermore, we construct for the first time a supersymmetric completion of the Ricci tensor squared term using the standard Weyl multiplet coupled to an off-shell vector multiplet. In addition, we present several procedures to generate higher-order off-shell invariants in supergravity, including higher-derivative ones. The covariant projective multiplets proposed in arXiv:0802.3953 are lifted to conformal superspace, and a manifestly superconformal action principle is given. We also introduce unconstrained prepotentials for the vector multiplet, the multiplet (i.e., the linear multiplet without central charge) and multiplets, with n = 0 , 1 , . . . Superform formulations are given for the BF action and the non-abelian Chern-Simons action. Finally, we describe locally supersymmetric theories with gauged central charge in conformal superspace.

  15. Transport in fractal media: an effective scale-invariant approach.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Coronado, H; Coronado, M; Herrera-Hernandez, E C

    2012-06-01

    In this paper an advective-dispersion equation with scale-dependent coefficients is proposed for describing transport through fractals. This equation is obtained by imposing scale invariance and assuming that the porosity, the dispersion coefficient, and the velocity follow fractional power laws on the scale. The model incorporates the empirically found trends in highly heterogeneous media, regarding the dependence of the dispersivity on the scale and the dispersion coefficient on the velocity. We conclude that the presence of nontrivial fractal parameters produces anomalous dispersion, as expected, and that the presence of convective processes induces a reescalation in the concentration and shifts the tracer velocity to different values with respect to the nonfractal case. PMID:23005215

  16. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  17. PROGRESS REPORT. QUANTIFYING VADOSE ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT UNCERTAINTIES USING A UNIFIED, HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to develop and demonstrate a general approach for modeling flow and transport in the heterogeneous vadose zone. The approach uses similar media scaling, geostatistics, and conditional simulation methods to estimate soil hydraulic parameters at un...

  18. ANNUAL REPORT. QUANTIFYING VADOSE ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT UNCERTAINTIES USING A UNIFIED, HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to develop and demonstrate a general approach for modeling flow and transport in the heterogeneous vadose zone. The approach uses similar media scaling, geostatistics, and conditional simulation methods to estimate soil hydraulic parameters at un...

  19. A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue.

    PubMed

    Arridge, S R; Schweiger, M; Hiraoka, M; Delpy, D T

    1993-01-01

    The use of optical radiation in medical physics is important in several fields for both treatment and diagnosis. In all cases an analytic and computable model of the propagation of radiation in tissue is essential for a meaningful interpretation of the procedures. A finite element method (FEM) for deriving photon density inside an object, and photon flux at its boundary, assuming that the photon transport model is the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, is introduced herein. Results from the model for a particular case are given: the calculation of the boundary flux as a function of time resulting from a delta-function input to a two-dimensional circle (equivalent to a line source in an infinite cylinder) with homogeneous scattering and absorption properties. This models the temporal point spread function of interest in near infrared spectroscopy and imaging. The convergence of the FEM results are demonstrated, as the resolution of the mesh is increased, to the analytical expression for the Green's function for this system. The diffusion approximation is very commonly adopted as appropriate for cases which are scattering dominated, i.e., where mu s > mu a, and results from other workers have compared it to alternative models. In this article a high degree of agreement with a Monte Carlo method is demonstrated. The principle advantage of the FE method is its speed. It is in all ways as flexible as Monte Carlo methods and in addition can produce photon density everywhere, as well as flux on the boundary. One disadvantage is that there is no means of deriving individual photon histories. PMID:8497214

  20. Comparison of solution approaches for the two-domain model of nonequilibrium transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Claudio; Paniconi, Claudio; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    The two-domain concept is widely used in modelling transport in heterogeneous porous media and transport of rate-limited sorbing contaminants. When a first-order kinetic relationship is used to represent the transfer of mass between domains, the model can be expressed as a modified advection-dispersion equation describing general transport coupled to a first-order ordinary differential equation accounting for mass transfer. Different approaches can be used to solve the resulting system, including: simultaneously solving the coupled transport and kinetic equations; discretising and algebraically solving the mass transfer equation and substituting it into the transport equation; solving the mass transfer equation analytically and substituting the integral solution into the transport equation to obtain a single integro-differential equation; and solving the system in Laplace space and back-transforming the solution into the time domain. These four approaches — coupled, algebraic substitution, integro-differential, and finite element Laplace transform (FELT) — are evaluated on the basis of their general features and on their performance in two test cases. The results indicate that the algebraic substitution approach is robust and, on scalar computers, verr efficient. The FELT approach is easily parallelised and achieves good speed-up on supercomputers, but the method is restricted to time-invariant velocity and saturation fields, and is only useful for obtaining the solution at or not too far from the maximum simulation time. The integro-differential method is as efficient as but less robust than the algebraic substitution approach, requiring a small time step size when the mass transfer coefficient is very large. Finally, the coupled approach is robust and flexible, but requires the solution of a system of equations twice as large as the other methods. On balance, the algebraic substitution and, to a lesser extent, the integro-differential methods appear to be the

  1. Transport through a correlated interface: Auxiliary master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titvinidze, Irakli; Dorda, Antonius; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    We present improvements of a recently introduced numerical method [E. Arrigoni et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 086403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.086403] to compute steady-state properties of strongly correlated electronic systems out of equilibrium. The method can be considered as a nonequilibrium generalization of exact diagonalization based dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The key modification for the nonequilibrium situation consists in addressing the DMFT impurity problem within an auxiliary system consisting of the correlated impurity, Nb uncorrelated bath sites, and two Markovian environments (sink and reservoir). Algorithmic improvements in the impurity solver allow to treat efficiently larger values of Nb than previously in DMFT. This increases the accuracy of the results and is crucial for a correct description of the physical behavior of the system in the relevant parameter range including a semiquantitative description of the Kondo regime. To illustrate the approach, we consider a monoatomic layer of correlated orbitals, described by the single-band Hubbard model, attached to two metallic leads. The nonequilibrium situation is driven by a bias voltage applied to the leads. For this system, we investigate the spectral function and the steady-state current-voltage characteristics in the weakly as well as in the strongly interacting limit. In particular, we investigate the nonequilibrium behavior of quasiparticle excitations within the Mott gap of the correlated layer. We find for low-bias voltage Kondo-type behavior in the vicinity of the insulating phase. In particular, we observe a splitting of the Kondo resonance as a function of the bias voltage.

  2. Physical context for theoretical approaches to sediment transport magnitude-frequency analysis in alluvial channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtes, Joel; Werbylo, Kevin; Bledsoe, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical approaches to magnitude-frequency analysis (MFA) of sediment transport in channels couple continuous flow probability density functions (PDFs) with power law flow-sediment transport relations (rating curves) to produce closed-form equations relating MFA metrics such as the effective discharge, Qeff, and fraction of sediment transported by discharges greater than Qeff, f+, to statistical moments of the flow PDF and rating curve parameters. These approaches have proven useful in understanding the theoretical drivers behind the magnitude and frequency of sediment transport. However, some of their basic assumptions and findings may not apply to natural rivers and streams with more complex flow-sediment transport relationships or management and design scenarios, which have finite time horizons. We use simple numerical experiments to test the validity of theoretical MFA approaches in predicting the magnitude and frequency of sediment transport. Median values of Qeff and f+ generated from repeated, synthetic, finite flow series diverge from those produced with theoretical approaches using the same underlying flow PDF. The closed-form relation for f+ is a monotonically increasing function of flow variance. However, using finite flow series, we find that f+ increases with flow variance to a threshold that increases with flow record length. By introducing a sediment entrainment threshold, we present a physical mechanism for the observed diverging relationship between Qeff and flow variance in fine and coarse-bed channels. Our work shows that through complex and threshold-driven relationships sediment transport mode, channel morphology, flow variance, and flow record length all interact to influence estimates of what flow frequencies are most responsible for transporting sediment in alluvial channels.

  3. Simulated vortex encounters by a twin-engine commercial transport aircraft during final approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulations of encounters with vortices of various ages and degrees of attenuation were performed with the Visual Motion Simulator. In the simulations, a twin-engine, commercial transport on final approach encountered the modeled vortices of a four-engine, wide-body, commercial transport. The data in this report show the effect of vortex age and ground effect on the severity of the initial upset, as well as the effect of the vortex encounters on the landing capability.

  4. A Functional Genomics Approach to Establish the Complement of Carbohydrate Transporters in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bidossi, Alessandro; Mulas, Laura; Decorosi, Francesca; Colomba, Leonarda; Ricci, Susanna; Pozzi, Gianni; Deutscher, Josef; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

    2012-01-01

    The aerotolerant anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal nasopharyngeal microbiota of humans and one of the most important invasive pathogens. A genomic survey allowed establishing the occurrence of twenty-one phosphotransferase systems, seven carbohydrate uptake ABC transporters, one sodium∶solute symporter and a permease, underlining an exceptionally high capacity for uptake of carbohydrate substrates. Despite high genomic variability, combined phenotypic and genomic analysis of twenty sequenced strains did assign the substrate specificity only to two uptake systems. Systematic analysis of mutants for most carbohydrate transporters enabled us to assign a phenotype and substrate specificity to twenty-three transport systems. For five putative transporters for galactose, pentoses, ribonucleosides and sulphated glycans activity was inferred, but not experimentally confirmed and only one transport system remains with an unknown substrate and lack of any functional annotation. Using a metabolic approach, 80% of the thirty-two fermentable carbon substrates were assigned to the corresponding transporter. The complexity and robustness of sugar uptake is underlined by the finding that many transporters have multiple substrates, and many sugars are transported by more than one system. The present work permits to draw a functional map of the complete arsenal of carbohydrate utilisation proteins of pneumococci, allows re-annotation of genomic data and might serve as a reference for related species. These data provide tools for specific investigation of the roles of the different carbon substrates on pneumococcal physiology in the host during carriage and invasive infection. PMID:22428019

  5. Number-resolved master equation approach to quantum measurement and quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the well-known Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function technique for mesoscopic transports, an alternative (and very useful) scheme is quantum master equation approach. In this article, we review the particle-number ( n)-resolved master equation ( n-ME) approach and its systematic applications in quantum measurement and quantum transport problems. The n-ME contains rich dynamical information, allowing efficient study of topics such as shot noise and full counting statistics analysis. Moreover, we also review a newly developed master equation approach (and its n-resolved version) under self-consistent Born approximation. The application potential of this new approach is critically examined via its ability to recover the exact results for noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltage and in presence of strong quantum interference, and the challenging non-equilibrium Kondo effect.

  6. Computational Approaches to Analyze and Predict Small Molecule Transport and Distribution at Cellular and Subcellular Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ah Min, Kyoung; Zhang, Xinyuan; Yu, Jing-yu; Rosania, Gus R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies and mechanistic mathematical modeling approaches have been independently employed for analyzing and predicting the transport and distribution of small molecule chemical agents in living organisms. Both of these computational approaches have been useful to interpret experiments measuring the transport properties of small molecule chemical agents, in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, mechanistic cell-based pharmacokinetic models have been especially useful to guide the design of experiments probing the molecular pathways underlying small molecule transport phenomena. Unlike QSAR models, mechanistic models can be integrated from microscopic to macroscopic levels, to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of small molecule chemical agents from intracellular organelles to whole organs, well beyond the experiments and training data sets upon which the models are based. Based on differential equations, mechanistic models can also be integrated with other differential equations-based systems biology models of biochemical networks or signaling pathways. Although the origin and evolution of mathematical modeling approaches aimed at predicting drug transport and distribution has occurred independently from systems biology, we propose that the incorporation of mechanistic cell-based computational models of drug transport and distribution into a systems biology modeling framework is a logical next-step for the advancement of systems pharmacology research. PMID:24218242

  7. Asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian approach for modeling anisotropic transport in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Modeling electron transport in magnetized plasmas is extremely challenging due to the extreme anisotropy between parallel (to the magnetic field) and perpendicular directions (the transport-coefficient ratio χ/χ˜10^10 in fusion plasmas). Recently, a novel Lagrangian Green's function method has been proposedfootnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2011) to solve the local and non-local purely parallel transport equation in general 3D magnetic fields. The approach avoids numerical pollution, is inherently positivity-preserving, and is scalable algorithmically (i.e., work per degree-of-freedom is grid-independent). In this poster, we discuss the extension of the Lagrangian Green's function approach to include perpendicular transport terms and sources. We present an asymptotic-preserving numerical formulation, which ensures a consistent numerical discretization temporally and spatially for arbitrary χ/χ ratios. We will demonstrate the potential of the approach with various challenging configurations, including the case of transport across a magnetic island in cylindrical geometry.

  8. Comparing approaches for simulating the reactive transport of U(VI) in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, G.P.; Kohler, M.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The reactive transport of U(VI) in a well-characterized shallow alluvial aquifer at a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was predicted for comparative purposes using a surface complexation model (SCM) and a constant K d approach to simulate U(VI) adsorption. The ground water at the site had U(VI) concentrations that ranged from 0.01 to 20 ??M, alkalinities that ranged from 2.5 to 18 meq/L, and a nearly constant pH of 7.1. The SCM used to simulate U(VI) adsorption was previously determined independently using laboratory batch adsorption experiments. Simulations obtained using the SCM approach were compared with simulations that used a constant K d approach to simulate adsorption using previously determined site-specific K d values. In both cases, the ground water flow and transport models used a conceptual model that was previously calibrated to a chloride plume present at the site. Simulations with the SCM approach demonstrated that the retardation factor varied temporally and spatially because of the differential transport of alkalinity and dissolved U(VI) and the nonlinearity of the U(VI) adsorption. The SCM model also simulated a prolonged slow decline in U(VI) concentration, which was not simulated using a constant K d model. Simulations using the SCM approach and the constant K d approach were similar after 20 years of transport but diverged significantly after 60 years. The simulations demonstrate the need for site-specific geochemical information on U(VI) adsorption to produce credible simulations of future transport. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  9. A multiobjective optimization approach to the operation and investment of the national energy and transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Eduardo

    Most U.S. energy usage is for electricity production and vehicle transportation, two interdependent infrastructures. The strength and number of the interdependencies will increase rapidly as hybrid electric transportation systems, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric trains, become more prominent. There are several new energy supply technologies reaching maturity, accelerated by public concern over global warming. The National Energy and Transportation Planning Tool (NETPLAN) is the implementation of the long-term investment and operation model for the transportation and energy networks. An evolutionary approach with underlying fast linear optimization are in place to determine the solutions with the best investment portfolios in terms of cost, resiliency and sustainability, i.e., the solutions that form the Pareto front. The popular NSGA-II algorithm is used as the base for the multiobjective optimization and metrics are developed for to evaluate the energy and transportation portfolios. An integrating approach to resiliency is presented, allowing the evaluation of high-consequence events, like hurricanes or widespread blackouts. A scheme to parallelize the multiobjective solver is presented, along with a decomposition method for the cost minimization program. The modular and data-driven design of the software is presented. The modeling tool is applied in a numerical example to optimize the national investment in energy and transportation in the next 40 years.

  10. Simulating photon-transport in uniform media using the radiative transport equation: a study using the Neumann-series approach

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Masumura, Takahiro; Clarkson, Eric; Maslov, Alexey V.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation, validation, and performance of a Neumann-series approach for simulating light propagation at optical wavelengths in uniform media using the radiative transport equation (RTE). The RTE is solved for an anisotropic-scattering medium in a spherical harmonic basis for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup. The main objectives of this paper are threefold: to present the theory behind the Neumann-series form for the RTE, to design and develop the mathematical methods and the software to implement the Neumann series for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup, and, finally, to perform an exhaustive study of the accuracy, practical limitations, and computational efficiency of the Neumann-series method. Through our results, we demonstrate that the Neumann-series approach can be used to model light propagation in uniform media with small geometries at optical wavelengths. PMID:23201893

  11. A triple-continuum approach for modeling flow and transport processes in fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H H; Bodvarsson, G S

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a triple-continuum conceptual model for simulating flow and transport processes in fractured rock. Field data collected from the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, a repository site of high-level nuclear waste, show a large number of small-scale fractures. The effect of these small fractures has not been considered in previous modeling investigations within the context of a continuum approach. A new triple-continuum model (consisting of matrix, small-fracture, and large-fracture continua) has been developed to investigate the effect of these small fractures. This paper derives the model formulation and discusses the basic triple-continuum behavior of flow and transport processes under different conditions, using both analytical solutions and numerical approaches. The simulation results from the site-scale model of the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain indicate that these small fractures may have an important effect on radionuclide transport within the mountain. PMID:15336793

  12. Springtime trans-pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: a transit-time-pdf approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, M.; McKendry, I.; Jaffe, D.

    2003-04-01

    The atmosphere is known to episodically transport aerosols, dust, and gaseous pollutants from industrialized south-east Asia, the Gobi desert, and Siberian wild fires to western North America. We give a novel characterization of the ever-present background transport from these regions and of the probability of transport ``events", that is, long-range transport of high concentrations with minimal dispersion. Our primary transport diagnostic is the transit-time probability density function (pdf), {\\cal G}, which is a tracer-independent measure of the flow that allows us to isolate the role of transport from other factors such as source variability and chemistry. The pdf approach, unlike typical back-trajectory analyses, captures transport due to all possible paths and accounts for both resolved advection and subgrid processes. We use a numerical model of the global atmosphere (MATCH), driven by NCEP reananlysis data, to establish the springtime statistics of daily averages of {\\cal G}. A suitably defined average of {\\cal G} quantifies the mass fraction of background air of a given transit time, or age, from the source regions. An analysis of the variability of {\\cal G} at fixed transit time allows us to identify transport events and to estimate their probability of occurrence. This is illustrated for transport events to the ``Pacific-North-West" (PNW) region of North America, defined as (43.8o-53.3o{N}) × (115.3o-124.7o{W}). Correlations between {\\cal G} averaged over the PNW and the winds at any point in the atmosphere identify large-scale anomaly structures of the flow that correspond to favorable transport to the PNW.

  13. Asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian approach for modeling anisotropic transport in magnetized plasmas for arbitrary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Hauck, Cory

    2012-10-01

    Modeling electron transport in magnetized plasmas is extremely challenging due to the extreme anisotropy between parallel (to the magnetic field) and perpendicular directions (χ/χ˜10^10 in fusion plasmas). Recently, a Lagrangian Green's function approach, developed for the purely parallel transport case,footnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011)^,footnotetextD. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, 19, 056112 (2012) has been extended to the anisotropic transport case in the tokamak-ordering limit with constant density.footnotetextL. Chac'on, D. del-Castillo-Negrete, C. Hauck, JCP, submitted (2012) An operator-split algorithm is proposed that allows one to treat Eulerian and Lagrangian components separately. The approach is shown to feature bounded numerical errors for arbitrary χ/χ ratios, which renders it asymptotic-preserving. In this poster, we will present the generalization of the Lagrangian approach to arbitrary magnetic fields. We will demonstrate the potential of the approach with various challenging configurations, including the case of transport across a magnetic island in cylindrical geometry.

  14. AN OPTIMAL ADAPTIVE LOCAL GRID REFINEMENT APPROACH TO MODELING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Lagrangian-Eulerian method with an optimal adaptive local grid refinement is used to model contaminant transport equations. pplication of this approach to two bench-mark problems indicates that it completely resolves difficulties of peak clipping, numerical diffusion, and spuri...

  15. Variational approach to solving the spectral Boltzmann transport equation in transient thermal grating for thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zeng, Lingping; Huberman, Samuel; Maznev, Alexei A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    The phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is widely utilized to study non-diffusive thermal transport. We find a solution of the BTE in the thin film transient thermal grating (TTG) experimental geometry by using a recently developed variational approach with a trial solution supplied by the Fourier heat conduction equation. We obtain an analytical expression for the thermal decay rate that shows excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. We also obtain a closed form expression for the effective thermal conductivity that demonstrates the full material property and heat transfer geometry dependence, and recovers the limits of the one-dimensional TTG expression for very thick films and the Fuchs-Sondheimer expression for very large grating spacings. The results demonstrate the utility of the variational technique for analyzing non-diffusive phonon-mediated heat transport for nanostructures in multi-dimensional transport geometries, and will assist the probing of the mean free path distribution of materials via transient grating experiments.

  16. Simulator study of flight characteristics of several large, dissimilar, cargo transport airplanes during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom, ground based simulator study is conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of four dissimilar cargo transport airplanes. These characteristics are compared with those of a large, present-day (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The four very large transport concepts evaluated consist of single-fuselage, twin-fuselage, triple-fuselage, and span-loader configurations. The primary piloting task is the approach and landing operation. The results of his study indicate that all four concepts evaluated have unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral directional low speed flight characteristics and that considerable stability and control augmentation would be required to improve these characteristics (handling qualities) to a satisfactory level. Through the use of rate command/attitude hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn-coordination features, the handling qualities of all four large transports simulated are improved appreciably.

  17. Main Modes of Heat Transport in Rayleigh-Bénard Convection Analyzed by a POD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luelff, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection, i.e. the buoyancy-induced movement of a fluid enclosed between two horizontal plates, is the definite setup to study thermal convection. We are interested in the heat transport of the main modes that are found in the convection cell. To this end, we apply the technique of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to obtain a set of empirical basis modes from simulation data. Usually the POD method results in modes that are optimal in describing the generalized energy, i.e. kinetic energy plus temperature variance. We extend the technique so that instead it gives the optimal modes with respect to the heat transport, measured in terms of the Nusselt number. We then demonstrate at numerical simulations of different RB setups and geometries that the proposed ansatz performs consistently better than the standard approach in describing the heat transport. Furthermore, the coherent structures that are connected to the biggest heat transport are examined.

  18. Chiral transport equation from the quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the on-shell effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Cristina; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.

    2014-10-01

    We derive the relativistic chiral transport equation for massless fermions and antifermions by performing a semiclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen diagonalization of the quantum Dirac Hamiltonian. The Berry connection naturally emerges in the diagonalization process to modify the classical equations of motion of a fermion in an electromagnetic field. We also see that the fermion and antifermion dispersion relations are corrected at first order in the Planck constant by the Berry curvature, as previously derived by Son and Yamamoto for the particular case of vanishing temperature. Our approach does not require knowledge of the state of the system, and thus it can also be applied at high temperature. We provide support for our result by an alternative computation using an effective field theory for fermions and antifermions: the on-shell effective field theory. In this formalism, the off-shell fermionic modes are integrated out to generate an effective Lagrangian for the quasi-on-shell fermions/antifermions. The dispersion relation at leading order exactly matches the result from the semiclassical diagonalization. From the transport equation, we explicitly show how the axial and gauge anomalies are not modified at finite temperature and density despite the incorporation of the new dispersion relation into the distribution function.

  19. The pentabox Master Integrals with the Simplified Differential Equations approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Costas G.; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present the calculation of massless two-loop Master Integrals relevant to five-point amplitudes with one off-shell external leg and derive the complete set of planar Master Integrals with five on-mass-shell legs, that contribute to many 2 → 3 amplitudes of interest at the LHC, as for instance three jet production, γ , V, H + 2 jets etc., based on the Simplified Differential Equations approach.

  20. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali Meidianti, Rahma Wildian, Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  1. Advanced subsonic transport approach noise: The relative contribution of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    With current engine technology, airframe noise is a contributing source for large commercial aircraft on approach, but not the major contributor. With the promise of much quieter jet engines with the planned new generation of high-by-pass turbofan engines, airframe noise has become a topic of interest in the advanced subsonic transport research program. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of airframe noise relative to the other aircraft noise sources on approach. The assessment will be made for a current technology large commercial transport aircraft and for an envisioned advanced technology aircraft. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) will be used to make total aircraft noise predictions for these two aircraft types. Predicted noise levels and areas of noise contours will be used to determine the relative importance of the contributing approach noise sources. The actual set-up decks used to make the ANOPP runs for the two aircraft types are included in appendixes.

  2. A new approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eidelman, Yu.; Mokhov, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. It is based on joint solution of equations of longitudinal and transverse motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field of the linac. This field is a given by distribution (measured or calculated) of the component of the longitudinal electric field on the axis of the linac. New approach is compared with other matrix methods to solve the same problem. The comparison with code ASTRA has been carried out. Complete agreement for tracking results for a TESLA-type cavity is achieved. A corresponding algorithm will be implemented into the MARS15 code. A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. Complete agreement for tracking results with existed code ASTRA is achieved. New algorithm will be implemented into MARS15 code.

  3. Multiphase fluid flow and subsequent geochemical transport invariably saturated fractured rocks: 1. Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2000-08-08

    Reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport in unsaturated fractured rocks has received increasing attention for studies of contaminant transport, groundwater quality, waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, mineral deposits, sedimentary diagenesis, and fluid-rock interactions in hydrothermal systems. This paper presents methods for modeling geochemical systems that emphasize: (1) involvement of the gas phase in addition to liquid and solid phases in fluid flow, mass transport and chemical reactions, (2) treatment of physically and chemically heterogeneous and fractured rocks, (3) the effect of heat on fluid flow and reaction properties and processes, and (4) the kinetics of fluid-rock interaction. The physical and chemical process model is embodied in a system of partial differential equations for flow and transport, coupled to algebraic equations and ordinary differential equations for chemical interactions. For numerical solution, the continuum equations are discretized in space and time. Space discretization is based on a flexible integral finite difference approach that can use irregular gridding to model geologic structure; time is discretized fully implicitly as a first-order finite difference. Heterogeneous and fractured media are treated with a general multiple interacting continua method that includes double-porosity, dual-permeability, and multi-region models as special cases. A sequential iteration approach is used to treat the coupling between fluid flow and mass transport on the one hand, chemical reactions on the other. Applications of the methods developed here to variably saturated geochemical systems are presented in a companion paper (part 2, this issue).

  4. Topologically Massive Non-Abelian Theory:. Superfield Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.

    We apply the well-established techniques of geometrical superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism in the context of four (3+1)-dimensional (4D) dynamical non-Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting its inherent "scalar" and "vector" gauge symmetry transformations and derive the corresponding off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting BRST and anti-BRST symmetry transformations. Our approach leads to the derivation of three (anti-)BRST invariant Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restrictions that are found to be responsible for the absolute anticommutativity of the BRST and anti-BRST symmetry transformations. We derive the coupled Lagrangian densities that respect the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the "vector" gauge transformations. We also capture the (anti-)BRST invariance of the CF-type restrictions and coupled Lagrangian densities within the framework of our superfield approach. We obtain, furthermore, the off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations when the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the "scalar" and "vector" gauge symmetries are merged together. These off-shell nilpotent "merged" (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations are, however, found to be non-anticommuting in nature.

  5. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    SciTech Connect

    Samper, J.; Xu, T.; Yang, C.

    2008-11-01

    CORE{sup 2D} V4 is a finite element code for modeling partly or fully saturated water flow, heat transport and multicomponent reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. It can handle coupled microbial processes and geochemical reactions such as acid-base, aqueous complexation, redox, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/exsolution, ion exchange, sorption via linear and nonlinear isotherms, sorption via surface complexation. Hydraulic parameters may change due to mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. Coupled transport and chemical equations are solved by using sequential iterative approaches. A sequential partly-iterative approach (SPIA) is presented which improves the accuracy of the traditional sequential noniterative approach (SNIA) and is more efficient than the general sequential iterative approach (SIA). While SNIA leads to a substantial saving of computing time, it introduces numerical errors which are especially large for cation exchange reactions. SPIA improves the efficiency of SIA because the iteration between transport and chemical equations is only performed in nodes with a large mass transfer between solid and liquid phases. The efficiency and accuracy of SPIA are compared to those of SIA and SNIA using synthetic examples and a case study of reactive transport through the Llobregat Delta aquitard in Spain. SPIA is found to be as accurate as SIA while requiring significantly less CPU time. In addition, SPIA is much more accurate than SNIA with only a minor increase in computing time. A further enhancement of the efficiency of SPIA is achieved by improving the efficiency of the Newton-Raphson method used for solving chemical equations. Such an improvement is obtained by working with increments of log-concentrations and ignoring the terms of the Jacobian matrix containing derivatives of activity coefficients. A proof is given for the symmetry and non-singularity of the Jacobian matrix

  6. The Heliospheric Transport of Protons and Anti-Protons a Stochastic Modelling Approach to Pamela Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.; Boezio, M.; de Simone, N.; di Felice, V.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I.

    2012-08-01

    Using a newly developed 5D comic ray modulation model, we study the modulation of galactic protons and anti-protons inside the heliosphere. This is done for different heliospheric magnetic field polarity cycles, which, in combination with drifts, lead to charge-sign dependent cosmic ray transport. Computed energy spectra and intensity ratios for the different cosmic ray populations are shown and discussed. Modelling results are extensively compared to recent observations made by the PAMELA space borne particle detector. Using a stochastic transport approach, we also show pseudo-particle traces, illustrating the principle behind charge-sign dependent modulation.

  7. A Semiconductor Device Noise Model: A Deterministic Approach to Semiconductor Device Current Noise for Semiclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Noaman, B. A.; Korman, C. E.

    2009-04-23

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to calculate terminal current noise characteristics in semiconductor devices in the framework of semiclassical transport based on the spherical harmonics of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The model relies on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the frequency domain with special initial and boundary conditions. The terminal current fluctuation is directly related to scattering without the additional Langevin noise term added to the calculation. Simulation results are presented for the terminal current spectral density for a 1-D n{sup +}nn{sup +} structure due to elastic-acoustic and intervally scattering.

  8. Natural Organic Matter Transport Modeling with a Continuous Time Random Walk Approach

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Daniel P.; Bolster, Diogo; Maurice, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In transport experiments through columns packed with naturally Fe/Al oxide-coated quartz sand, breakthrough curves (BTCs) of natural organic matter (NOM) displayed strong and persistent power law tailing that could not be described by the classical advection–dispersion equation. Tailing was not observed in BTCs for a nonreactive tracer (sulforhodamine B); therefore, the anomalous transport is attributed to diverse adsorptive behavior of the polydisperse NOM sample rather than to physical heterogeneity of the porous medium. NOM BTC tailing became more pronounced with decreases in pH and increases in ionic strength, conditions previously shown to be associated with enhanced preferential adsorption of intermediate to high molecular weight NOM components. Drawing from previous work on anomalous solute transport, we develop an approach to model NOM transport within the framework of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) and show that under all conditions examined, the CTRW model is able to capture tailing of NOM BTCs by accounting for differences in transport rates of NOM fractions through a distribution of effective retardation factors. These results demonstrate the importance of considering effects of adsorptive fractionation on NOM mobility, and illustrate the ability of the CTRW model to describe transport of a multicomponent solute. PMID:24596449

  9. An Inverse Analysis Approach to the Characterization of Chemical Transport in Paints

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Matthew P.; Stevenson, Shawn M.; Pearl, Thomas P.; Mantooth, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly characterize chemical transport and interactions that occur within a material (i.e., subsurface dynamics) is a vital component in understanding contaminant mass transport and the ability to decontaminate materials. If a material is contaminated, over time, the transport of highly toxic chemicals (such as chemical warfare agent species) out of the material can result in vapor exposure or transfer to the skin, which can result in percutaneous exposure to personnel who interact with the material. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents, the release of trace chemical quantities is of significant concern. Mapping subsurface concentration distribution and transport characteristics of absorbed agents enables exposure hazards to be assessed in untested conditions. Furthermore, these tools can be used to characterize subsurface reaction dynamics to ultimately design improved decontaminants or decontamination procedures. To achieve this goal, an inverse analysis mass transport modeling approach was developed that utilizes time-resolved mass spectroscopy measurements of vapor emission from contaminated paint coatings as the input parameter for calculation of subsurface concentration profiles. Details are provided on sample preparation, including contaminant and material handling, the application of mass spectrometry for the measurement of emitted contaminant vapor, and the implementation of inverse analysis using a physics-based diffusion model to determine transport properties of live chemical warfare agents including distilled mustard (HD) and the nerve agent VX. PMID:25226346

  10. An inverse analysis approach to the characterization of chemical transport in paints.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Stevenson, Shawn M; Pearl, Thomas P; Mantooth, Brent A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly characterize chemical transport and interactions that occur within a material (i.e., subsurface dynamics) is a vital component in understanding contaminant mass transport and the ability to decontaminate materials. If a material is contaminated, over time, the transport of highly toxic chemicals (such as chemical warfare agent species) out of the material can result in vapor exposure or transfer to the skin, which can result in percutaneous exposure to personnel who interact with the material. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents, the release of trace chemical quantities is of significant concern. Mapping subsurface concentration distribution and transport characteristics of absorbed agents enables exposure hazards to be assessed in untested conditions. Furthermore, these tools can be used to characterize subsurface reaction dynamics to ultimately design improved decontaminants or decontamination procedures. To achieve this goal, an inverse analysis mass transport modeling approach was developed that utilizes time-resolved mass spectroscopy measurements of vapor emission from contaminated paint coatings as the input parameter for calculation of subsurface concentration profiles. Details are provided on sample preparation, including contaminant and material handling, the application of mass spectrometry for the measurement of emitted contaminant vapor, and the implementation of inverse analysis using a physics-based diffusion model to determine transport properties of live chemical warfare agents including distilled mustard (HD) and the nerve agent VX. PMID:25226346

  11. Evaluation of microwave landing system approaches in a wide-body transport simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Feather, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of flying complex curved approaches using the microwave landing system (MLS) with a wide-body transport aircraft. Fifty pilots in crews of two participated in the evaluation using a fixed-base simulator that emulated an MD-11 aircraft. Five approaches, consisting of one straight-in approach and four curved approaches, were flown by the pilots using a flight director. The test variables include the following: (1) manual and autothrottles; (2) wind direction; and (3) type of navigation display. The navigation display was either a map or a horizontal situation indicator (HSI). A complex wind that changed direction and speed with altitude, and included moderate turbulence, was used. Visibility conditions were Cat 1 or better. Subjective test data included pilot responses to questionnaires and pilot comments. Objective performance data included tracking accuracy, position error at decision height, and control activity. Results of the evaluation indicate that flying curved MLS approaches with a wide-body transport aircraft is operationally acceptable, depending upon the length of the final straight segment and the complexity of the approach.

  12. Lateral subsurface stormflow and solute transport in a forested hillslope: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine-Kaulio, Hanne; Backnäs, Soile; Karvonen, Tuomo; Koivusalo, Harri; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-10-01

    Preferential flow dominates water movement and solute transport in boreal forest hillslopes. However, only a few model applications to date have accounted for preferential flow at forest sites. Here we present a parallel and coupled simulation of flow and transport processes in the preferential flow domain and soil matrix of a forested hillslope section in Kangaslampi, Finland, using a new, three-dimensional, physically based dual-permeability model. Our aim is to simulate lateral subsurface stormflow and solute transport at the slope during a chloride tracer experiment, and to investigate the role of preferential flow in the tracer transport. The model was able to mimic the observed tracer transport during tracer irrigation, but overestimated the dilution velocity of the tracer plume in the highly conductive soil horizons near the soil surface after changing the irrigation to tracer-free water. According to the model, 140 times more chloride was transported downslope in the preferential flow domain than in the soil matrix during the tracer irrigation. The simulations showed, together with reference simulations with a traditional one pore domain model, that a two pore domain approach was required to simulate the observed flow and transport event. The event was characterized by the transmissivity feedback phenomenon and controlled by preferential flow mechanisms, in particular by lateral by-pass flow. According to our results, accounting for the slow-flow and fast-flow domains of soil, as well as the water and solute exchange between the domains, is essential for a successful simulation of flow and solute transport in preferential flow dominated hillslopes.

  13. A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536

  14. A mixed finite element/finite volume approach for solving biodegradation transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Claudio; Manzini, Gianmarco

    1998-03-01

    A numerical model for the simulation of flow and transport of organic compounds undergoing bacterial oxygen- and nitrate-based respiration is presented. General assumptions regarding microbial population, bacteria metabolism and effects of oxygen, nitrogen and nutrient concentration on organic substrate rate of consumption are briefly described. The numerical solution techniques for solving both the flow and the transport are presented. The saturated flow equation is discretized using a high-order mixed finite element scheme, which provides a highly accurate estimation of the velocity field. The transport equation for a sorbing porous medium is approximated using a finite volume scheme enclosing an upwind TVD shock-capturing technique for capturing concentration-unsteady steep fronts. The performance and capabilities of the present approach in a bio-remediation context are assessed by considering a set of test problems. The reliability of the numerical results concerning solution accuracy and the computational efficiency in terms of cost and memory requirements are also estimated.

  15. Absolutely and uniformly convergent iterative approach to inverse scattering with an infinite radius of convergence

    DOEpatents

    Kouri, Donald J.; Vijay, Amrendra; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jingfeng; Hoffman, David K.

    2007-05-01

    A method and system for solving the inverse acoustic scattering problem using an iterative approach with consideration of half-off-shell transition matrix elements (near-field) information, where the Volterra inverse series correctly predicts the first two moments of the interaction, while the Fredholm inverse series is correct only for the first moment and that the Volterra approach provides a method for exactly obtaining interactions which can be written as a sum of delta functions.

  16. A two-stage approach for medical supplies intermodal transportation in large-scale disaster responses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the "helicopters and vehicles" intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  17. A quasi-classical mapping approach to vibrationally coupled electron transport in molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Miller, William H.; Wilner, Eli Y.; Thoss, Michael

    2014-03-14

    We develop a classical mapping approach suitable to describe vibrationally coupled charge transport in molecular junctions based on the Cartesian mapping for many-electron systems [B. Li and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 154107 (2012)]. To properly describe vibrational quantum effects in the transport characteristics, we introduce a simple transformation rewriting the Hamiltonian in terms of occupation numbers and use a binning function to facilitate quantization. The approach provides accurate results for the nonequilibrium Holstein model for a range of bias voltages, vibrational frequencies, and temperatures. It also captures the hallmarks of vibrational quantum effects apparent in step-like structure in the current-voltage characteristics at low temperatures as well as the phenomenon of Franck-Condon blockade.

  18. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  19. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: From Born to self-consistent Born approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jinshuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Xin-Qi; Yan, YiJing

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  20. A multiscale-compatible approach in modeling ionic transport in the electrolyte of (Lithium ion) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, A.; Grazioli, D.; Geers, M. G. D.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P. H. L.

    2015-10-01

    A novel approach in modeling the ionic transport in the electrolyte of Li-ion batteries is here presented. Diffusion and migration processes govern the transport of ions in solution in the absence of convection. In the porous electrode theory [1] it is common to model these processes via mass balance equations and electroneutrality. A parabolic set of equations arises, in terms of a non constant electric field which is afflicted by the paradox of being generated without electrical charges. To remedy this contradiction, Maxwell's equations have been used here, coupled to Faraday's law of electrochemical charge transfer. The set of continuity equations for mass and Maxwell's equations lead to a consistent model, with distinctive energy characteristics. Numerical examples show the robustness of the approach, which is well suited for multi-scale analyses [2,3].

  1. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  2. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  3. Design approaches and parameters for magnetically levitated transport systems. [Null flux suspension (Maglev)

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Powell, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically levitated transport system approaches are assessed with regard to thrust power needs, track cost, suspension stability, and safety. The null flux suspension appears as the favored approach, having the least thrust power requirements, highest stability, and lowest amount of track material. Various null flux configurations are described together with their operating parameters. The Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) propulsion system is also described for propelling the suspended vehicles. Cryogenics and superconductivity aspects are discussed and the effect of high T/sub c/ superconductors evaluated. 13 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Diagrammatic and asymptotic approaches to the origins of radiative transport theory: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Cazé, A; Schotland, John C

    2015-08-01

    The radiative transport equation (RTE) is used widely to describe the propagation of multiply scattered light in disordered media. In this tutorial, we present two derivations of the RTE for scalar wave fields. The first derivation is based on diagrammatic perturbation theory, while the second stems from an asymptotic multiscale expansion. Although the two approaches are quite distinct mathematically, some common ground can be found and is discussed. PMID:26367292

  5. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    PubMed

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk. PMID:19087232

  6. Towards a realistic approach to validation of reactive transport models for performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    Performance assessment calculations are based on geochemical models that assume that interactions among radionuclides, rocks and groundwaters under natural conditions, can be estimated or bound by data obtained from laboratory-scale studies. The data include radionuclide distribution coefficients, measured in saturated batch systems of powdered rocks, and retardation factors measured in short-term column experiments. Traditional approaches to model validation cannot be applied in a straightforward manner to the simple reactive transport models that use these data. An approach to model validation in support of performance assessment is described in this paper. It is based on a recognition of different levels of model validity and is compatible with the requirements of current regulations for high-level waste disposal. Activities that are being carried out in support of this approach include (1) laboratory and numerical experiments to test the validity of important assumptions inherent in current performance assessment methodologies,(2) integrated transport experiments, and (3) development of a robust coupled reaction/transport code for sensitivity analyses using massively parallel computers.

  7. Surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatnieks, Janis; De Lucia, Marco; Sips, Mike; Dransch, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Reactive transport models can serve a large number of important geoscientific applications involving underground resources in industry and scientific research. It is common for simulation of reactive transport to consist of at least two coupled simulation models. First is a hydrodynamics simulator that is responsible for simulating the flow of groundwaters and transport of solutes. Hydrodynamics simulators are well established technology and can be very efficient. When hydrodynamics simulations are performed without coupled geochemistry, their spatial geometries can span millions of elements even when running on desktop workstations. Second is a geochemical simulation model that is coupled to the hydrodynamics simulator. Geochemical simulation models are much more computationally costly. This is a problem that makes reactive transport simulations spanning millions of spatial elements very difficult to achieve. To address this problem we propose to replace the coupled geochemical simulation model with a surrogate model. A surrogate is a statistical model created to include only the necessary subset of simulator complexity for a particular scenario. To demonstrate the viability of such an approach we tested it on a popular reactive transport benchmark problem that involves 1D Calcite transport. This is a published benchmark problem (Kolditz, 2012) for simulation models and for this reason we use it to test the surrogate model approach. To do this we tried a number of statistical models available through the caret and DiceEval packages for R, to be used as surrogate models. These were trained on randomly sampled subset of the input-output data from the geochemical simulation model used in the original reactive transport simulation. For validation we use the surrogate model to predict the simulator output using the part of sampled input data that was not used for training the statistical model. For this scenario we find that the multivariate adaptive regression splines

  8. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L; Bui, Quan M; Gable, Carl; Karra, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. We demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less

  9. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks

    SciTech Connect

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L; Bui, Quan M; Gable, Carl; Karra, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. We demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.

  10. Modeling nitrogen transport and transformation in aquifers using a particle-tracking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhengtao; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    We have integrated multispecies biodegradation and geochemical reactions into an existing particle-tracking code to simulate reactive transport in three-dimensional variably saturated media, with a focus on nitrification and denitrification processes. This new numerical model includes reactive air-phase transport so that gases such as N2 and CO2 can be tracked. Although nitrogen biodegradation is the primary problem addressed here, the method presented is also applicable to other reactive multispecies transport problems. We verified the model by comparison with (1) analytical solutions for saturated one- and two-dimensional cases; (2) a finite element model for a one-dimensional unsaturated case; and (3) laboratory observations for a one-dimensional saturated case. Good agreement between the new code and the verification problems is demonstrated. The new model can simulate nitrogen transport and transformation in a heterogeneous permeability field where sharp concentration gradients are present. An example application to nitrogen species biodegradation and transport of a plume emanating from a leaking sewer in a heterogeneous, variably saturated aquifer is presented to illustrate this capability. This example is a novel application of coupling unsaturated/saturated zone transport with nitrogen species biodegradation. The code has the computational advantages of particle-tracking algorithms, including local and global mass conservation and minimal numerical dispersion. We also present new methods for improving particle code efficiency by implementing the concept of tracking surplus/deficit particles and particle recycling in order to control the growth of particle numbers. The new model retains the advantages of the particle tracking approach such as allowing relatively low spatial and temporal resolutions to be used, while incorporating the robustness of grid-based Monod kinetics to simulate biogeochemical reactions.

  11. Two-scale approach for the coupled heat and moisture transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, Jaroslav; Krejčí, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes two-level approach for coupled heat and moisture transport in masonry structures. Motivation for two-level description comes from two major difficulties connected with masonry. First, the size of stone blocks is much larger than the size of mortar layers and very fine mesh has to be used. Second, the masonry composition is always random and therefore the concept of representative volume is reasonable. In two-level approach, the macro-scale level deals with a structure while the meso-scale level is concentrated on detailed composition of the masonry. Connection between the macro and meso level will be described. This two-level approach is suitable for parallel computers.

  12. Large scale atomistic approaches to thermal transport and phonon scattering in nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana

    2012-02-01

    Decreasing the thermal conductivity of bulk materials by nanostructuring and dimensionality reduction, or by introducing some amount of disorder represents a promising strategy in the search for efficient thermoelectric materials [1]. For example, considerable improvements of the thermoelectric efficiency in nanowires with surface roughness [2], superlattices [3] and nanocomposites [4] have been attributed to a significantly reduced thermal conductivity. In order to accurately describe thermal transport processes in complex nanostructured materials and directly compare with experiments, the development of theoretical and computational approaches that can account for both anharmonic and disorder effects in large samples is highly desirable. We will first summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the standard atomistic approaches to thermal transport (molecular dynamics [5], Boltzmann transport equation [6] and Green's function approach [7]) . We will then focus on the methods based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, that are computationally too demanding, at present, to treat large scale systems and thus to investigate realistic materials. We will present a Monte Carlo method [8] to solve the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation [9], that enables computation of the thermal conductivity of ordered and disordered systems with a number of atoms up to an order of magnitude larger than feasible with straightforward integration. We will present a comparison between exact and Monte Carlo Boltzmann transport results for small SiGe nanostructures and then use the Monte Carlo method to analyze the thermal properties of realistic SiGe nanostructured materials. This work is done in collaboration with Davide Donadio, Francois Gygi, and Giulia Galli from UC Davis.[4pt] [1] See e.g. A. J. Minnich, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. F. Ren, and G. Chen, Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 466 (2009).[0pt] [2] A. I. Hochbaum et al, Nature 451, 163 (2008).[0pt

  13. Evaluation of Different Modeling Approaches to Simulate Contaminant Transport in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosthaf, K.; Rosenberg, L.; Balbarini, N.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P. L.; Binning, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to understand the fate and transport of contaminants in limestone aquifers because they are a major drinking water resource. This is challenging because they are highly heterogeneous; with micro-porous grains, flint inclusions, and being heavily fractured. Several modeling approaches have been developed to describe contaminant transport in fractured media, such as the discrete fracture (with various fracture geometries), equivalent porous media (with and without anisotropy), and dual porosity models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for limestone geologies. Given available field data and model purpose, this paper therefore aims to develop, examine and compare modeling approaches for transport of contaminants in fractured limestone aquifers. The model comparison was conducted for a contaminated site in Denmark, where a plume of a dissolved contaminant (PCE) has migrated through a fractured limestone aquifer. Multilevel monitoring wells have been installed at the site and available data includes information on spill history, extent of contamination, geology and hydrogeology. To describe the geology and fracture network, data from borehole logs was combined with an analysis of heterogeneities and fractures from a nearby excavation (analog site). Methods for translating the geological information and fracture mapping into each of the model concepts were examined. Each model was compared with available field data, considering both model fit and measures of model suitability. An analysis of model parameter identifiability and sensitivity is presented. Results show that there is considerable difference between modeling approaches, and that it is important to identify the right one for the actual scale and model purpose. A challenge in the use of field data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias

  14. Simulation of geochemical localization using a multi-porosity reactive transport approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Joaquim; Luquot, Linda; Martinez-Perez, Laura; Saaltink, Maarten; De Gaspari, Francesca; Carrera, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Results of reactive transport laboratory experiments often suggest that pore scale heterogeneity induces localization of reactions (the generation of local micro environments favoring reactions that would not occur in a well-mixed Representative Elementary Volume, REV). Multi-Rate Mass Transfer (MRMT), which has been employed to reproduce hydrodynamic heterogeneity, may also be used to simulate geochemical localization. We extended the Water Mixing Approach (WMA) designed for single porosity media, to simulate chemical reactions caused by the mixing of mobile and immobile zones. The method is termed Multi-Rate Water Mixing (MRWM). The MRWM approach was employed to simulate laboratory experiments of CO2-rich brine transport through carbonate rich samples (Luquot et al. 2016). Chemical heterogeneity in space was reproduced by varying the mineral assemblages in immobile regions. This enabled us to reproduce the generally low pH environment while allowing for high pH local zones required for the localized precipitation of kaolinite, which has been observed in reality, but cannot be modeled with conventional reactive transport formulations. The resulting model is very rich, in that it can reproduce a broad range of pore scale processes in a Darcy scale model, and complex, in that the interaction between chemical kinetics and immobile zones physical parameters is non-trivial.

  15. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  16. A residence-time-based transport approach for the groundwater pathway in performance assessment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Chu, Shaoping

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development and numerical implementation of a new modeling approach for representing the groundwater pathway in risk assessment or performance assessment model of a contaminant transport system. The model developed in the present study, called the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Mixing Model (RTDMM), allows for an arbitrary distribution of fluid travel times to be represented, to capture the effects on the breakthrough curve of flow processes such as channelized flow and fast pathways and complex three-dimensional dispersion. Mathematical methods for constructing the model for a given RTD are derived directly from the theory of residence time distributions in flowing systems. A simple mixing model is presented, along with the basic equations required to enable an arbitrary RTD to be reproduced using the model. The practical advantages of the RTDMM include easy incorporation into a multi-realization probabilistic simulation; computational burden no more onerous than a one-dimensional model with the same number of grid cells; and straightforward implementation into available flow and transport modeling codes, enabling one to then utilize advanced transport features of that code. For example, in this study we incorporated diffusion into the stagnant fluid in the rock matrix away from the flowing fractures, using a generalized dual porosity model formulation. A suite of example calculations presented herein showed the utility of the RTDMM for the case of a radioactive decay chain, dual porosity transport and sorption.

  17. Computational methods for reactive transport modeling: A Gibbs energy minimization approach for multiphase equilibrium calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Allan M. M.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg

    2016-02-01

    We present a numerical method for multiphase chemical equilibrium calculations based on a Gibbs energy minimization approach. The method can accurately and efficiently determine the stable phase assemblage at equilibrium independently of the type of phases and species that constitute the chemical system. We have successfully applied our chemical equilibrium algorithm in reactive transport simulations to demonstrate its effective use in computationally intensive applications. We used FEniCS to solve the governing partial differential equations of mass transport in porous media using finite element methods in unstructured meshes. Our equilibrium calculations were benchmarked with GEMS3K, the numerical kernel of the geochemical package GEMS. This allowed us to compare our results with a well-established Gibbs energy minimization algorithm, as well as their performance on every mesh node, at every time step of the transport simulation. The benchmark shows that our novel chemical equilibrium algorithm is accurate, robust, and efficient for reactive transport applications, and it is an improvement over the Gibbs energy minimization algorithm used in GEMS3K. The proposed chemical equilibrium method has been implemented in Reaktoro, a unified framework for modeling chemically reactive systems, which is now used as an alternative numerical kernel of GEMS.

  18. A lithofacies approach for modeling non-Fickian solute transport in a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic realizations of lithofacies assemblage based on lithological data from a relatively small number of boreholes were used to simulate solute transport at the well-known Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Mississippi (USA). With sharp vertical contrasts and lateral connectivity explicitly accounted for in the corresponding hydraulic conductivity fields, experimental results from a large-scale tracer experiment were adequately reproduced with a relatively simple model based on advection and local dispersion. The geologically based model of physical heterogeneity shows that one well-interconnected lithofacies, with a significantly higher hydraulic conductivity and accounting for 12% of the total aquifer volume, may be responsible for the observed non-Fickian transport behavior indicated by the asymmetric shape of the plumes and by variations of the dispersion rate in both space and time. This analysis provides a lithological basis to the hypothesis that transport at MADE site is controlled by a network of high-conductivity sediments embedded in a less permeable matrix. It also explains the calibrated value of the ratio of mobile to total porosities used in previous modeling studies based on the dual-domain mass transfer approach. The results of this study underscore the importance of geologically plausible conceptualizations of the subsurface for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of contaminants in highly heterogeneous aquifers. These conceptualizations may be developed through integration of raw geological data with expert knowledge, interpretation, and appropriate geostatistical methods.

  19. An expected consequence approach to route choice in the maritime transportation of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Atiq; Verma, Manish

    2013-11-01

    Maritime transportation is the major conduit of international trade, and the primary link for global crude oil movement. Given the volume of oil transported on international maritime links, it is not surprising that oil spills of both minor and major types result, although most of the risk-related work has been confined to the local settings. We propose an expected consequence approach for assessing oil-spill risk from intercontinental transportation of crude oil that not only adheres to the safety guidelines specified by the International Maritime Organization but also outlines a novel technique that makes use of coarse global data to estimate accident probabilities. The proposed estimation technique, together with four of the most popular cost-of-spill models from the literature, were applied to study and analyze a realistic size problem instance. Numerical analyses showed that: a shorter route may not necessarily be less risky; an understanding of the inherent oil-spill risk of different routes could potentially facilitate tanker routing decisions; and the associated negotiations over insurance premium between the transport company and the not-for-profit prevention and indemnity clubs. Finally, we note that only the linear model should be used with one of the three nonlinear cost-of-spill models for evaluating tanker routes. PMID:23614496

  20. Comparison of Flamelet Models with the Transported Mass Fraction Approach for Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenhai; Alabi, Ken; Ladeinde, Foluso

    2015-11-01

    In this study, two fully compressible RANS, LES, and combined RANS/LES flow solvers - AEROFLO and VULCAN, both of which were originally developed by the United States Department of Defense but have since been significantly enhanced and commercialized by our organization, are used to investigate the accuracy of flamelet-based approach when employed to model supersonic combustion. The flamelet results from both codes are assessed relative to solutions obtained by solving the transport equations for the mass fractions - which is also supported by one of the codes, and making familiar assumptions about the closure of the reaction rate. The studies are carried out in the flamelet regime, and the numerical procedures are based on high-order schemes, which are also used to solve the level-set and mixture fraction transport equations used to study, respectively, premixed and non-premixed combustion. The effects of supersonic Mach numbers on the results are discussed.

  1. A single-molecule approach to explore binding, uptake and transport of cancer cell targeting nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamprecht, C.; Plochberger, B.; Ruprecht, V.; Wieser, S.; Rankl, C.; Heister, E.; Unterauer, B.; Brameshuber, M.; Danzberger, J.; Lukanov, P.; Flahaut, E.; Schütz, G.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Ebner, A.

    2014-03-01

    In the past decade carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied as a potential drug-delivery system, especially with functionality for cellular targeting. Yet, little is known about the actual process of docking to cell receptors and transport dynamics after internalization. Here we performed single-particle studies of folic acid (FA) mediated CNT binding to human carcinoma cells and their transport inside the cytosol. In particular, we employed molecular recognition force spectroscopy, an atomic force microscopy based method, to visualize and quantify docking of FA functionalized CNTs to FA binding receptors in terms of binding probability and binding force. We then traced individual fluorescently labeled, FA functionalized CNTs after specific uptake, and created a dynamic ‘roadmap’ that clearly showed trajectories of directed diffusion and areas of nanotube confinement in the cytosol. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single-molecule approach for investigation of drug-delivery vehicles and their targeting capacity.

  2. Motion/visual cueing requirements for vortex encounters during simulated transport visual approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Bowles, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of motion/visual cueing fidelity requirements for vortex encounters during simulated transport visual approaches and landings. Four simulator configurations were utilized to provide objective performance measures during simulated vortex penetrations, and subjective comments from pilots were collected. The configurations used were as follows: fixed base with visual degradation (delay), fixed base with no visual degradation, moving base with visual degradation (delay), and moving base with no visual degradation. The statistical comparisons of the objective measures and the subjective pilot opinions indicated that although both minimum visual delay and motion cueing are recommended for the vortex penetration task, the visual-scene delay characteristics were not as significant a fidelity factor as was the presence of motion cues. However, this indication was applicable to a restricted task, and to transport aircraft. Although they were statistically significant, the effects of visual delay and motion cueing on the touchdown-related measures were considered to be of no practical consequence.

  3. Reactive Transport Modeling Approach and its Initial Saltcake Dilution Chemical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo

    2002-11-29

    During waste retrieval, chemical reactions, waste property changes, and waste movements/mixing interact. Thus,to be accurate, a waste process assessment methodology must account for these physical and chemical waste characteristics and mechanisms. This study provides suggestions for column tests and simulation modeling efforts to investigate saltwell pumping of Hanford Tank S-112. In addition, GMIN chemical modeling was initiated for S-112 saltcake dilution with 50% and 100% water as the first step of evaluating the feasibility of the reactive transport code ARIEL as a waste retrieval assessment methodology. The chemical modeling predicted the S-112 saltcake chemistry reasonably well. Although it is too early to conclude the usefulness of this reactive transport modeling approach, it is worth further evaluating its applicability to the waste retrieval process.

  4. Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations: A bayesian geostatistical parameter estimation approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, M.; Hunt, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Clemo, T.

    2009-01-01

    Flow path delineation is a valuable tool for interpreting the subsurface hydrogeochemical environment. Different types of data, such as groundwater flow and transport, inform different aspects of hydrogeologie parameter values (hydraulic conductivity in this case) which, in turn, determine flow paths. This work combines flow and transport information to estimate a unified set of hydrogeologic parameters using the Bayesian geostatistical inverse approach. Parameter flexibility is allowed by using a highly parameterized approach with the level of complexity informed by the data. Despite the effort to adhere to the ideal of minimal a priori structure imposed on the problem, extreme contrasts in parameters can result in the need to censor correlation across hydrostratigraphic bounding surfaces. These partitions segregate parameters into faci??s associations. With an iterative approach in which partitions are based on inspection of initial estimates, flow path interpretation is progressively refined through the inclusion of more types of data. Head observations, stable oxygen isotopes (18O/16O) ratios), and tritium are all used to progressively refine flow path delineation on an isthmus between two lakes in the Trout Lake watershed, northern Wisconsin, United States. Despite allowing significant parameter freedom by estimating many distributed parameter values, a smooth field is obtained. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. PARTICLE TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSITION IN HOT GAS FILTER VESSELS - A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2002-07-01

    In this project, a computational modeling approach for analyzing flow and ash transport and deposition in filter vessels was developed. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for studying hot-gas filtration process was established. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas flows in the filter vessel, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the particle transport and deposition. Particular attention was given to the Siemens-Westinghouse filter vessel at Power System Development Facility in Wilsonville in Alabama. Details of hot-gas flow in this tangential flow filter vessel are evaluated. The simulation results show that the rapidly rotation flow in the spacing between the shroud and the vessel refractory acts as cyclone that leads to the removal of a large fraction of the larger particles from the gas stream. Several alternate designs for the filter vessel are considered. These include a vessel with a short shroud, a filter vessel with no shroud and a vessel with a deflector plate. The hot-gas flow and particle transport and deposition in various vessels are evaluated. The deposition patterns in various vessels are compared. It is shown that certain filter vessel designs allow for the large particles to remain suspended in the gas stream and to deposit on the filters. The presence of the larger particles in the filter cake leads to lower mechanical strength thus allowing for the back-pulse process to more easily remove the filter cake. A laboratory-scale filter vessel for testing the cold flow condition was designed and fabricated. A laser-based flow visualization technique is used and the gas flow condition in the laboratory-scale vessel was experimental studied. A computer model for the experimental vessel was also developed and the gas flow and particle transport patterns are evaluated.

  6. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. Methods and analysis PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14 000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European

  7. Electronic and transport properties edge functionalized graphene nanoribbons-An ab initio approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Satyendra Singh; Srivastava, Pankaj; Shrivastva, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    With the help of ab initio approach we have investigated the electronic and transport properties of edge functionalized zigzag graphene nanoribbons using density functional theory. We have studied the energetic stability and Fermi energy of ZGNRs. We have reported that the edge functionalization of zigzag graphene nanoribbons can break the degeneracy that can be used to promote the onset of a semiconducting to metal transition or a half metal to semiconducting state. The edge functionalization also promotes a metal-semimetal transition. It has also been observed that the transmission spectrum of the edge functionalized ZGNRs are different from those of pristine.

  8. Automatic guidance and control of a transport aircraft during a helical landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A linear optimal regulator theory was applied to a nonlinear simulation of a transport aircraft performing a helical landing approach. A closed-form expression for the quasi-steady nominal flight path is presented along with the method for determining the corresponding constant nominal control inputs. The Jacobian matrices and the weighting matrices in the cost functional were time varying. A method of solving for the optimal feedback gains is reviewed. The control system was tested on several alternative landing approaches using both 3 deg and 6 deg flight path angles. On each landing approach, the aircraft was subjected to large random initial-state errors and to randomly directed crosswinds. The system was also tested for sensitivity to changes in the parameters of the aircraft and of the atmosphere. Results indicate that performance of the optimal controller on all the 3 deg approaches is very good. The control system proved to be reasonably insensitive to parametric uncertainties. Performance is not as good on the 6 deg approaches. A modification to the 6 deg flight path was proposed for the purpose of improving performance.

  9. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  10. Flight evaluation of two segment approaches for jet transport noise abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. A.; Wohl, B.; Gale, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    A 75 flight-hour operational evaluation was conducted with a representative four-engine fan-jet transport in a representative airport environment. The flight instrument systems were modified to automatically provide pilots with smooth and continuous pitch steering command information during two-segment approaches. Considering adverse weather, minimum ceiling and flight crew experience criteria, a transition initiation altitude of approximately 800 feet AFL would have broadest acceptance for initiating two-segment approach procedures in scheduled service. The profile defined by the system gave an upper glidepath of approximately 6 1/2 degrees. This was 1/2 degree greater than inserted into the area navigation system. The glidepath error is apparently due to an erroneous along-track, distance-to-altitude profile.

  11. Fixed base simulator study of an externally blown flap STOL transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Patton, J. M., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.; Carter, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator study was conducted to determine the flight characteristics of a representative STOL transport having a high wing and equipped with an external-flow jet flap in combination with four high-bypass-ratio fan-jet engines during the approach and landing. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. A visual display of a STOL airport was provided for simulation of the flare and touchdown characteristics. The primary piloting task was an instrument approach to a breakout at a 200-ft ceiling with a visual landing.

  12. Three-dimensional Neumann-series approach to model light transport in nonuniform media

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Clarkson, Eric; Hartman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation, validation, and performance of a three-dimensional (3D) Neumann-series approach to model photon propagation in nonuniform media using the radiative transport equation (RTE). The RTE is implemented for nonuniform scattering media in a spherical harmonic basis for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup. The method is parallelizable and implemented on a computing system consisting of NVIDIA Tesla C2050 graphics processing units (GPUs). The GPU implementation provides a speedup of up to two orders of magnitude over non-GPU implementation, which leads to good computational efficiency for the Neumann-series method. The results using the method are compared with the results obtained using the Monte Carlo simulations for various small-geometry phantoms, and good agreement is observed. We observe that the Neumann-series approach gives accurate results in many cases where the diffusion approximation is not accurate. PMID:23201945

  13. Reactive Transport from Path3D: A Stream Tube Approach for Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, L.

    2001-05-01

    Path3D (Zheng, 1991) is a popular computer program run in series with MODFLOW. Remediation engineers and hydrogeologist use it to track contaminant paths and to estimate solute travel time at heterogeneous sites. In order to predict fate and transport of multiple species at heterogeneous sites, numerical modeling packages, such as MT3D (Zheng,1990) or RT3D (Clement 1997) are often employed. These packages also are based on pre-processing with MODFLOW. However, for complex cases with aquifer heterogeneity, MT3D and RT3D often require very long computer run times. This paper addresses a new, stream-tube, approach that is both highly efficient and accurate to predict multi-species reactive transport at heterogeneous sites with steady flow. Our application of the stream tube approach is different from other stream tube approaches that apply the advection-dispersion-reaction equation in each stream tube (such as Ginn, 2000, Yabusaki, 1998, Charbeneau, 2000). In this work, the authors make use of properties of a linear system,working with decoupled reaction and sorption processes and mixing processes described by residence time distributions (RTDs). RTDs are abstracted from Path3D particle-tracking results and additional temporal and spatial dispersion (not caused by aquifer heterogeneity) is ignored. Reactions, including first order reactions and linear, reversible sorption, are applied through analytical transfer functions (called kinetic response functions). Convolution can then be applied to determine contaminant concentrations at monitoring points, using the RTDs determined from Path3D, kinetic transfer functions (expressed analytically), and expected trends of the source concentration. We are currently testing the approach and noting significant computational advantages for problems in three-dimensions, with first order reaction pathways and different retardation factors. We will demonstrate the method with several examples and compare the performance with MT3D and

  14. A new dust transport approach to quantify anthropogenic sources of atmospheric PM10 deposition on lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Lee; Thé, Jesse; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Stainsby, Eleanor A.; Winter, Jennifer G.

    2014-10-01

    Windblown dust simulations are one of the most uncertain types of atmospheric transport models. This study presents an integrated PM10 emission, transport and deposition model which has been validated using monitored data. This model characterizes the atmospheric phosphorus load focusing on the major local sources within the Lake Simcoe airshed including paved and unpaved roads, agricultural sources, construction sites and aggregate mining sources. This new approach substantially reduces uncertainty by providing improved estimates of the friction velocities than those developed previously. Modeling improvements were also made by generating and validating an hourly windfield using detailed meteorology, topography and land use data for the study area. The model was used to estimate dust emissions generated in the airshed and to simulate the long-range transport and deposition of PM10 to Lake Simcoe. The deposition results from the model were verified against observed bulk collector phosphorus concentration data for both wet and dry deposition. Bulk collector data from stations situated outside the airshed in a remote, undeveloped area were also compared to determine the background contribution from distant sources.

  15. Combinatorial theory of the semiclassical evaluation of transport moments. I. Equivalence with the random matrix approach

    SciTech Connect

    Berkolaiko, G.; Kuipers, J.

    2013-11-15

    To study electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots, there are two main theoretical approaches. One involves substituting the quantum system with a random scattering matrix and performing appropriate ensemble averaging. The other treats the transport in the semiclassical approximation and studies correlations among sets of classical trajectories. There are established evaluation procedures within the semiclassical evaluation that, for several linear and nonlinear transport moments to which they were applied, have always resulted in the agreement with random matrix predictions. We prove that this agreement is universal: any semiclassical evaluation within the accepted procedures is equivalent to the evaluation within random matrix theory. The equivalence is shown by developing a combinatorial interpretation of the trajectory sets as ribbon graphs (maps) with certain properties and exhibiting systematic cancellations among their contributions. Remaining trajectory sets can be identified with primitive (palindromic) factorisations whose number gives the coefficients in the corresponding expansion of the moments of random matrices. The equivalence is proved for systems with and without time reversal symmetry.

  16. Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Nikolka, Mark; Sadhanala, Aditya; Lemaur, Vincent; Zelazny, Mateusz; Kepa, Michal; Hurhangee, Michael; Kronemeijer, Auke Jisk; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Nasrallah, Iyad; Romanov, Igor; Broch, Katharina; McCulloch, Iain; Emin, David; Olivier, Yoann; Cornil, Jerome; Beljonne, David; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-11-20

    Conjugated polymers enable the production of flexible semiconductor devices that can be processed from solution at low temperatures. Over the past 25 years, device performance has improved greatly as a wide variety of molecular structures have been studied. However, one major limitation has not been overcome; transport properties in polymer films are still limited by pervasive conformational and energetic disorder. This not only limits the rational design of materials with higher performance, but also prevents the study of physical phenomena associated with an extended π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone. Here we report a comparative transport study of several high-mobility conjugated polymers by field-effect-modulated Seebeck, transistor and sub-bandgap optical absorption measurements. We show that in several of these polymers, most notably in a recently reported, indacenodithiophene-based donor-acceptor copolymer with a near-amorphous microstructure, the charge transport properties approach intrinsic disorder-free limits at which all molecular sites are thermally accessible. Molecular dynamics simulations identify the origin of this long sought-after regime as a planar, torsion-free backbone conformation that is surprisingly resilient to side-chain disorder. Our results provide molecular-design guidelines for 'disorder-free' conjugated polymers. PMID:25383522

  17. First-principles quantum transport with electron-vibration interactions: A maximally localized Wannier functions approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sejoong; Marzari, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    We present a first-principles approach for inelastic quantum transport calculations based on maximally localized Wannier functions. Electronic-structure properties are obtained from density-functional theory in a plane-wave basis, and electron-vibration coupling strengths and vibrational properties are determined with density-functional perturbation theory. Vibration-induced inelastic transport properties are calculated with nonequilibrium Green's function techniques; since these are based on a localized orbital representation we use maximally localized Wannier functions. Our formalism is applied first to investigate inelastic transport in a benzene molecular junction connected to monoatomic carbon chains. In this benchmark system the electron-vibration self-energy is calculated either in the self-consistent Born approximation or by lowest-order perturbation theory. It is observed that upward and downward conductance steps occur, which can be understood using multieigenchannel scattering theory and symmetry conditions. In a second example, where the monoatomic carbon chain electrode is replaced with a (3,3) carbon nanotube, we focus on the nonequilibrium vibration populations driven by the conducting electrons using a semiclassical rate equation and highlight and discuss in detail the appearance of vibrational cooling as a function of bias and the importance of matching the vibrational density of states of the conductor and the leads to minimize joule heating and breakdown.

  18. Toward Optimized Bioclogging and Biocementation Through Combining Advanced Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wu, Y.; Surasani, V.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Commer, M.; Dou, S.; Kwon, T.; Li, L.; Fouke, B. W.; Coates, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Bioclogging and biocementation offer exciting opportunities for solutions to diverse problems ranging from soil stabilization to microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. The effectiveness of bioclogging and biocementation strategies is governed by processes and properties ranging from microbial metabolism at the submicron scale, to changes in pore geometry at the pore scale, to geological heterogeneities at the field scale. Optimization of these strategies requires advances in mechanistic reactive transport modeling and geophysical monitoring methodologies. Our research focuses on (i) performing laboratory experiments to refine understanding of reaction networks and to quantify changes in hydrological properties (e.g. permeability), the evolution of biominerals and geophysical responses (focusing on seismic and electrical techniques); (ii) developing and using a reactive transport simulator capable of predicting the induced metabolic processes to numerically explore how to optimize the desired effect; and (iii) using loosely coupled reactive transport and geophysical simulators to explore detectability and resolvability of induced bioclogging and biocementation processes at the field scale using time-lapse geophysical methods. Here we present examples of our research focused on three different microbially-mediated methods to enhance hydrocarbon recovery through selective clogging of reservior thief zones, including: (a) biopolymer clogging through dextran production; (b) biomineral clogging through iron oxide precipitation; and (c) biomineral clogging through carbonate precipitation. We will compare the utility of these approaches for enhancing hydrocarbon recovery and will describe the utility of geophysical methods to remotely monitor associated field treatments.

  19. Designing optimal transportation networks: a knowledge-based computer-aided multicriteria approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the applicability of using knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) approach to solve the single-mode (automobile), fixed-demand, discrete, multicriteria, equilibrium transportation-network-design problem. Previous works on this problem has found that mathematical programming method perform well on small networks with only one objective. Needed is a solution technique that can be used on large networks having multiple, conflicting criteria with different relative importance weights. The KBES approach developed in this dissertation represents a new way to solve network design problems. The development of an expert system involves three major tasks: knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and testing. For knowledge acquisition, a computer aided network design/evaluation model (UFOS) was developed to explore the design space. This study is limited to the problem of designing an optimal transportation network by adding and deleting capacity increments to/from any link in the network. Three weighted criteria were adopted for use in evaluating each design alternative: cost, average V/C ratio, and average travel time.

  20. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-01

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) <1 mM) was observed for l-valyl and l-isoleucyl amino acid prodrugs in competition experiments with [(3)H]Gly-Sar, indicating a 3-6 times higher affinity for PEPT1 compared to valacyclovir, a well-known PEPT1 substrate and >30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and

  1. A systems approach to energy management and policy in commuter rail transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owan, Ransome Egimine

    1998-12-01

    This research is motivated by a recognition of energy as a significant part of the transportation problem. Energy is a long-term variable cost that is controllable. The problem is comprised of: the limited supply of energy, chronic energy deficits and oil imports, energy cost, poor fuel substitution, and the undesirable environmental effects of transportation fuels (Green House Gases and global warming). Mass transit systems are energy intensive networks and energy is a direct constraint to the supply of affordable transportation. Commuter railroads are also relatively unresponsive to energy price changes due to travel demand patterns, firm power needs and slow adoption of efficient train technologies. However, the long term energy demand is lacking in existing transportation planning philosophy. In spite of the apparent oversight, energy is as important as urban land use, funding and congestion, all of which merit explicit treatment. This research was conducted in the form of a case study of New Jersey Transit in an attempt to broaden the understanding of the long-term effects of energy in a transportation environment. The systems approach method that is driven by heuristic models was utilized to investigate energy usage, transit peer group efficiency, energy management regimes, and the tradeoffs between energy and transportation, a seldom discussed topic in the field. Implicit in systems thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into smaller parts that in turn were simpler to solve. The research presented five heuristic models: Transit Energy Aggregation Model, Structural Energy Consumption Model, Traction Power Consumption Model, Conjunctive Demand Model, and a Managerial Action Module. A putative relationship was established between traction energy, car-miles, seasonal and ambient factors, without inference of direct causality. The co

  2. Towards a filtered density function approach for reactive transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, N.; Schüler, L.; Attinger, S.; Knabner, P.

    2016-04-01

    Evolution equations for probability density functions (PDFs) and filtered density functions (FDFs) of random species concentrations weighted by conserved scalars are formulated as Fokker-Planck equations describing stochastically equivalent processes in concentration-position spaces. This approach provides consistent numerical PDF/FDF solutions, given by the density in the concentration-position space of an ensemble of computational particles governed by the associated Itô equations. The solutions are obtained by a global random walk (GRW) algorithm, which is stable, free of numerical diffusion, and practically insensitive to the increase of the number of particles. The general FDF approach and the GRW numerical solution are illustrated for a reduced complexity problem consisting of the transport of a single scalar in groundwater. Randomness is induced by the stochastic parameterization of the hydraulic conductivity, characterized by short range correlations and small variance. The objective is to infer the statistics of the random concentration sampled at the plume center of mass, integrated over the transverse dimension of a two-dimensional spatial domain. The PDF/FDF problem can therefore be formulated in a two-dimensional domain as well, a spatial dimension and one in the concentration space. The upscaled drift and diffusion coefficients describing the PDF transport in the physical space are estimated on single-trajectories of diffusion in velocity fields with short-range correlations, owing to their self-averaging property. The mixing coefficients describing the PDF transport in concentration spaces are parameterized by the trend and the noise inferred from the statistical analysis of an ensemble of simulated concentration time series, as well as by classical mixing models. A Gaussian spatial filter applied to a Kraichnan velocity field generator is used to construct coarse-grained simulations (CGS) for FDF problems. The purposes of the CGS simulations are

  3. A Novel Approach to the Representation of Groundwater Flow and Transport with Epistemic Parameter Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, M. M.; Pinder, G. F.

    2006-12-01

    There is a growing need in hydrologic and environmental modeling and management to segregate uncertainty, whether it occurs in input parameters or in possible alternative models, into aleatory uncertainty (i.e., irreducible or stochastic) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., reducible or due to lack of knowledge). While aleatory uncertainty has been known and used as the only source of uncertainty in the hydrologic community for a long time, the notion of epistemic uncertainty is relatively new and it can be due several reasons including 1) field and laboratory methods used in the measurement of parameters, 2) techniques used to interpolate measured values at selected locations, and more importantly, 3) subjective expert opinion interpreting data available to augment existing prior parametric information. A natural framework to quantify epistemic uncertainty has been fuzzy set theory. In this paper, we use the extension principle of fuzzy set theory to simulate groundwater flow and transport with fuzzy model parameters. Our novel implementation of the principle involves two major steps: 1) a tessellation of the parameter space that results in simplexes over which the state variable is approximated by means of trial functions, followed by 2) the optimization of degrees of membership for the state variable in each simplex where the trial functions and the fuzzy parameter membership functions are used as the constraints of the optimization algorithm. We compare our approach to other known approaches to using the extension principle to address groundwater flow and transport in the saturated zone, and highlight features of our approach that apply to any physically based model with fuzzy parameter input.

  4. A dual-permeability approach to preferential water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Gerke, Horst H.; Basile, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The pore systems in most natural soils is dynamically changing due to alternating swelling and shrinkage processes, which induces changes in pore volume and pore size distribution including deformations in pore geometry. This is a serious difficulty for modeling flow and transport in dual permeability approaches, as it will also require that the geometrical deformation of both the soil matrix and the fracture porous systems be taken into account, as well as the dynamics of soil hydraulic properties in response to the domain deformations. This study follows up a previous work by the same authors extending the classical rigid (RGD) approach formerly proposed by Gerke and van Genuchten, to account for shrinking effects (SHR) in modeling water flow and solute transport in dual-permeability porous media. In this study we considered three SHR scenarios, assuming that aggregate shrinkage may change either: (i) the hydraulic properties of the two pore domains, (ii) their relative fractions, and (iii) both, hydraulic properties and fractions of the two domains. The objective was to compare simulation results obtained under the RGD and the SHR assumptions to illustrate the impact of matrix volume changes on water storage, water fluxes and solute concentrations during: 1) An infiltration process bringing an initially dry soil to saturation, 2) A drainage process starting from an initially saturated soil. For an infiltration process, the simulated wetting front and the solute concentration propagation velocity, as well as the water fluxes, water and solute exchange rates, for the three SHR scenarios significantly deviated from the RGD. By contrast, relatively similar water content profiles evolved under all scenarios during drying. Overall, compared to the RGD approach, the effect of changing the hydraulic properties and the weight of the two domains according to the shrinkage behavior of the soil aggregates induced a much more rapid response in terms of water fluxes and

  5. Impedance Analysis of Ion Transport Through Supported Lipid Membranes Doped with Ionophores: A New Kinetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, P. E.; Vallejo, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of facilitated ion transport through planar bilayer membranes are normally analyzed by electrical conductance methods. The additional use of electrical relaxation techniques, such as voltage jump, is necessary to evaluate individual rate constants. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is recognized as the most powerful of the available electric relaxation techniques, it has rarely been used in connection with these kinetic studies. According to the new approach presented in this work, three steps were followed. First, a kinetic model was proposed that has the distinct quality of being general, i.e., it properly describes both carrier and channel mechanisms of ion transport. Second, the state equations for steady-state and for impedance experiments were derived, exhibiting the input–output representation pertaining to the model’s structure. With the application of a method based on the similarity transformation approach, it was possible to check that the proposed mechanism is distinguishable, i.e., no other model with a different structure exhibits the same input–output behavior for any input as the original. Additionally, the method allowed us to check whether the proposed model is globally identifiable (i.e., whether there is a single set of fit parameters for the model) when analyzed in terms of its impedance response. Thus, our model does not represent a theoretical interpretation of the experimental impedance but rather constitutes the prerequisite to select this type of experiment in order to obtain optimal kinetic identification of the system. Finally, impedance measurements were performed and the results were fitted to the proposed theoretical model in order to obtain the kinetic parameters of the system. The successful application of this approach is exemplified with results obtained for valinomycin–K+ in lipid bilayers supported onto gold substrates, i.e., an arrangement capable of emulating biological membranes. PMID:19669528

  6. The Data Transport Network: A Usenet-Based Approach For Data Retrieval From Remote Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentic, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Data Transport Network coordinates the collection of scientific data, instrument telemetry and post-processing for the delivery of real-time results over the Internet from instruments located at remote field sites with limited or unreliable network connections. The system was originally developed in 1999 for the distribution of large data sets collected by the radar, lidars and imagers at the NSF upper atmosphere research facility in Sondrestrom, Greenland. The system helped to mitigate disruptions in network connectivity and optimized transfers over the site's low-bandwidth satellite link. The core idea behind the system is to transfer data files as attachments in Usenet messages. The messages collected by a local news server are periodically transmitted to other servers on the Internet when link conditions permit. If the network goes down, data files continue to be stored locally and the server will periodically attempt to deliver the files for upwards of two weeks. Using this simple approach, the Data Transport Network is able to handle a large number of independent data streams from multiple instruments. Each data stream is posted into a separate news group. There are no limitations to the types of data files that can be sent and the system uses standard Internet protocols for encoding, accessing and transmitting files. A common framework allows for new data collection or processing programs to be easily integrated. The two-way nature of the communications also allows for data to be delivered to the site as well, a feature used for the remote control of instruments. In recent years, the Data Transport Network has been applied to small, low-power embedded systems. Coupled with satellite-based communications systems such as Iridium, these miniature Data Transport servers have found application in a number of remote instrument deployments in the Arctic. SRI's involvement as a team member in Veco Polar Resources, the NSF Office of Polar Programs Arctic

  7. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  8. Restored glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 function as a potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kou; Kong, Qiongman; Lin, Yuchen; Stouffer, Nathan; Schulte, Delanie A; Lai, Liching; Liu, Qibing; Chang, Ling-Chu; Dominguez, Sky; Xing, Xuechao; Cuny, Gregory D; Hodgetts, Kevin J; Glicksman, Marcie A; Lin, Chien-Liang Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Glutamatergic systems play a critical role in cognitive functions and are known to be defective in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Previous literature has indicated that glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 plays an essential role in cognitive functions and that loss of EAAT2 protein is a common phenomenon observed in AD patients and animal models. In the current study, we investigated whether restored EAAT2 protein and function could benefit cognitive functions and pathology in APPSw,Ind mice, an animal model of AD. A transgenic mouse approach via crossing EAAT2 transgenic mice with APPSw,Ind. mice and a pharmacological approach using a novel EAAT2 translational activator, LDN/OSU-0212320, were conducted. Findings from both approaches demonstrated that restored EAAT2 protein function significantly improved cognitive functions, restored synaptic integrity, and reduced amyloid plaques. Importantly, the observed benefits were sustained one month after compound treatment cessation, suggesting that EAAT2 is a potential disease modifier with therapeutic potential for AD. PMID:25711212

  9. Transport phenomena in membranes for PEMFC applications: an analytical approach to the calculation of membrane resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.; Costa, P.

    The transport phenomena of mass and electrical charges play an important role in the proton exchange membrane utilised in fuel cell applications. The calculation of the membrane ion and water transfer is usually determined in two ways: one is a semi-empirical mode that can be experimentally set for any application and cannot be used in the prediction of the characteristics of new cells, and the other is a very complex mathematical approach that needs very long calculation times. In fact, the membrane mass transfer model can cause problems in the management of PEM stack models, by increasing calculation times and, above all, convergence problems. This work attempts to overcome this bottleneck using a novel approach. The validation of the new approach has been made by applying the model results to a PEM fuel cell model and by comparing the overall results to those in the literature. The resulting calculation time warranted the application of this model to a very complex stack simulation, resulting in good fit and reasonable computing times.

  10. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-07-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595-1609) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  11. Nonlinear electronic transport in nanoscopic devices: nonequilibrium Green's functions versus scattering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Alexis R.; Lewenkopf, Caio H.

    2013-04-01

    We study the nonlinear elastic quantum electronic transport properties of nanoscopic devices using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. The Green's function method allows us to expand the I- V characteristics of a given device to arbitrary powers of the applied voltages. By doing so, we are able to relate the NEGF method to the scattering approach, showing their similarities and differences and calculate the conductance coefficients to arbitrary order. We demonstrate that the electronic current given by NEGF is gauge invariant to all orders in powers of V, and discuss the requirements for gauge invariance in the standard density functional theory (DFT) implementations in molecular electronics. We also analyze the symmetries of the nonlinear conductance coefficients with respect to a magnetic field inversion and the violation of the Onsager reciprocity relations with increasing source-drain bias.

  12. Thermal transport in porous Si nanowires from approach-to-equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartoixà, Xavier; Dettori, Riccardo; Melis, Claudio; Colombo, Luciano; Rurali, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    We study thermal transport in porous Si nanowires (SiNWs) by means of approach-to-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the presence of pores greatly reduces the thermal conductivity, κ, of the SiNWs as long mean free path phonons are suppressed. We address explicitly the dependence of κ on different features of the pore topology—such as the porosity and the pore diameter—and on the nanowire (NW) geometry—diameter and length. We use the results of the molecular dynamics calculations to tune an effective model, which is capable of capturing the dependence of κ on porosity and NW diameter. The model illustrates the failure of Matthiessen's rule to describe the coupling between boundary and pore scattering, which we account for by the inclusion of an additional empirical term.

  13. Spatially-resolved investigation of transport in semiconductors: a photothermal deflection approach

    SciTech Connect

    Skumanich, A.; Fournier, D.; Boccara, A.C.; Amer, N.M.

    1985-06-01

    The unique ability of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to probe the local index of refraction of matter is exploited to investigate, in a spatially-resolved manner, thermal and electronic transport in semiconductors. An added advantage of this approach is that it is contactless; hence, it obviates the classical problems associated with electrodes and contacts. The basic premise of the technique is the use of the heat associated with non-radiative processes (e.g., recombination of carriers) to deflect a focussed laser probe beam (sub-gap energy) propagating through the semiconductor. The deflection of the probe beam is caused by a change in the refractive index of the sample which is in turn governed by carrier diffusion and recombination.

  14. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-08-01

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity.

  15. Simulation of decelerating landing approaches on an externally blown flap STOL transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Deal, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator program was conducted to define the problems and methods for solution associated with performing decelerating landing approaches on a representative STOL transport having a high wing and equipped with an external-flow jet flap in combination with four high-bypass-ratio fan-jet engines. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. The pilot's task was to capture the localizer and the glide slope and to maintain them as closely as possible while decelerating from an initial airspeed of 140 knots to a final airspeed of 75 knots, while under IFR conditions.

  16. An on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for in situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mengning; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    In situ monitoring electrochemical interfaces is crucial for fundamental understanding and continued optimization of electrocatalysts. Conventional spectroscopic techniques are generally difficult to implement for in situ electrochemical studies. Here we report an on-chip electrical transport spectroscopy approach for directly probing the electrochemical surfaces of metallic nanocatalysts in action. With a four-electrode device configuration, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ultrafine platinum nanowires are highly sensitive and selective to the electrochemical surface states, enabling a nanoelectronic signalling pathway that reveals electrochemical interface information during in-device cyclic voltammetry. Our results not only show a high degree of consistency with generally accepted conclusions in platinum electrochemistry but also offer important insights on various practically important electrochemical reactions. This study defines a nanoelectronic strategy for in situ electrochemical surface studies with high surface sensitivity and surface specificity. PMID:26245937

  17. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  18. Mobilization and preferential transport of soil particles during infiltration: A core-scale modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdalani, Samer; Michel, Eric; di Pietro, Liliana; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Rousseau, Marine

    2007-05-01

    Understanding particle movement in soils is a major concern for both geotechnics and soil physics with regard to environmental protection and water resources management. This paper describes a model for mobilization and preferential transport of soil particles through structured soils. The approach combines a kinematic-dispersive wave model for preferential water flow with a convective-dispersive equation subject to a source/sink term for particle transport and mobilization. Particle detachment from macropore walls is considered during both the steady and transient water flow regimes. It is assumed to follow first-order kinetics with a varying detachment efficiency, which depends on the history of the detachment process. Estimates of model parameters are obtained by comparing simulations with experimental particle breakthrough curves obtained during infiltrations through undisturbed soil columns. Both water flux and particle concentrations are satisfactorily simulated by the model. Particle mobilization parameters favoring both attachment and detachment of particles are related to the incoming solution ionic strength by a Fermi-type function.

  19. A second order residual based predictor-corrector approach for time dependent pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, S.; Hervouet, J.-M.; Ricchiuto, M.; Ata, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a second order residual distribution scheme for scalar transport problems in shallow water flows. The scheme, suitable for the unsteady cases, is obtained adapting to the shallow water context the explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for scalar equations [1]. The resulting scheme is decoupled from the hydrodynamics yet the continuity equation has to be considered in order to respect some important numerical properties at discrete level. Beyond the classical characteristics of the residual formulation presented in [1,2], we introduce the possibility to iterate the corrector step in order to improve the accuracy of the scheme. Another novelty is that the scheme is based on a precise monotonicity condition which guarantees the respect of the maximum principle. We thus end up with a scheme which is mass conservative, second order accurate and monotone. These properties are checked in the numerical tests, where the proposed approach is also compared to some finite volume schemes on unstructured grids. The results obtained show the interest in adopting the predictor-corrector scheme for pollutant transport applications, where conservation of the mass, monotonicity and accuracy are the most relevant concerns.

  20. Modeling PSA Problems - II: A Cell-to-Cell Transport Theory Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Labeau, P.E.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2005-06-15

    In the first paper of this series, we presented an extension of the classical theory of dynamic reliability in which the actual occurrence of an event causing a change in the system dynamics is possibly delayed. The concept of stimulus activation, which triggers the realization of an event after a distributed time delay, was introduced. This gives a new understanding of competing events in the sequence delineation process.In the context of the level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), the information on stimulus activation mainly consists of regions of the process variables space where the activation can occur with a given probability. The evolution equations of the extended theory of probabilistic dynamics are therefore particularized to a transport process between discrete cells defined in phase-space on this basis. Doing so, an integrated and coherent approach to level-2 PSA problems is propounded. This amounts to including the stimulus concept and the associated stochastic delays discussed in the first paper in the frame of a cell-to-cell transport process.In addition, this discrete model provides a theoretical basis for the definition of appropriate numerical schemes for integrated level-2 PSA applications.

  1. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their

  2. A musculo-mechanical model of esophageal transport based on an immersed boundary-finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-11-01

    This work extends a fiber-based immersed boundary (IB) model of esophageal transport by incorporating a continuum model of the deformable esophageal wall. The continuum-based esophagus model adopts finite element approach that is capable of describing more complex and realistic material properties and geometries. The leakage from mismatch between Lagrangian and Eulerian meshes resulting from large deformations of the esophageal wall is avoided by careful choice of interaction points. The esophagus model, which is described as a multi-layered, fiber-reinforced nonlinear elastic material, is coupled to bolus and muscle-activation models using the IB approach to form the esophageal transport model. Cases of esophageal transport with different esophagus models are studied. Results on the transport characteristics, including pressure field and esophageal wall kinematics and stress, are analyzed and compared. Support from NIH grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 is gratefully acknowledged. BEG is supported by NSF award ACI 1460334.

  3. A space-angle DGFEM approach for the Boltzmann radiation transport equation with local angular refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kópházi, József; Lathouwers, Danny

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the discretization of the radiation transport equation is presented, based on a discontinuous Galerkin method in space and angle that allows for local refinement in angle where any spatial element can support its own angular discretization. To cope with the discontinuous spatial nature of the solution, a generalized Riemann procedure is required to distinguish between incoming and outgoing contributions of the numerical fluxes. A new consistent framework is introduced that is based on the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. The resulting numerical fluxes for the various possible cases where neighboring elements have an equal, higher or lower level of refinement in angle are derived based on tensor algebra and the resulting expressions have a very clear physical interpretation. The choice of discontinuous trial functions not only has the advantage of easing local refinement, it also facilitates the use of efficient sweep-based solvers due to decoupling of unknowns on a large scale thereby approaching the efficiency of discrete ordinates methods with local angular resolution. The approach is illustrated by a series of numerical experiments. Results show high orders of convergence for the scalar flux on angular refinement. The generalized Riemann upwinding procedure leads to stable and consistent solutions. Further the sweep-based solver performs well when used as a preconditioner for a Krylov method.

  4. Realization of a Brownian engine to study transport phenomena: a semiclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2010-06-01

    Brownian particles moving in a periodic potential with or without external load are often used as good theoretical models for the phenomenological studies of microscopic heat engines. The model that we propose here, assumes the particle to be moving in a nonequilibrium medium and we have obtained the exact expression for the stationary current density. We have restricted our consideration to the overdamped motion of the Brownian particle. We present here a self-consistent theory based on the system-reservoir coupling model, within a microscopic approach, of fluctuation induced transport in the semiclassical limit for a general system coupled with two heat baths kept at different temperatures. This essentially puts forth an approach to semiclassical state-dependent diffusion. We also explore the possibility of observing a current when the temperature of the two baths are different, and also envisage that our system may act as a Carnot engine even when the bath temperatures are the same. The condition for such a construction has been elucidated. PMID:20866383

  5. A space–angle DGFEM approach for the Boltzmann radiation transport equation with local angular refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Kópházi, József Lathouwers, Danny

    2015-09-15

    In this paper a new method for the discretization of the radiation transport equation is presented, based on a discontinuous Galerkin method in space and angle that allows for local refinement in angle where any spatial element can support its own angular discretization. To cope with the discontinuous spatial nature of the solution, a generalized Riemann procedure is required to distinguish between incoming and outgoing contributions of the numerical fluxes. A new consistent framework is introduced that is based on the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. The resulting numerical fluxes for the various possible cases where neighboring elements have an equal, higher or lower level of refinement in angle are derived based on tensor algebra and the resulting expressions have a very clear physical interpretation. The choice of discontinuous trial functions not only has the advantage of easing local refinement, it also facilitates the use of efficient sweep-based solvers due to decoupling of unknowns on a large scale thereby approaching the efficiency of discrete ordinates methods with local angular resolution. The approach is illustrated by a series of numerical experiments. Results show high orders of convergence for the scalar flux on angular refinement. The generalized Riemann upwinding procedure leads to stable and consistent solutions. Further the sweep-based solver performs well when used as a preconditioner for a Krylov method.

  6. Directed flow in heavy-ion collisions from the PHSD transport approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent STAR data for the directed flow of protons, antiprotons, charged pions and kaons obtained within the beam energy scan (BES) program are analyzed within the Parton- Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD/HSD) transport models. Both versions of the kinetic approach are used to clarify the role of partonic degrees of freedom. The PHSD results, simulating a partonic phase and its coexistence with a hadronic one, are roughly consistent with the STAR data. Generally, the semi-qualitative agreement between the measured data and model results supports the idea of a crossover type of quark-hadron transition which softens the nuclear EoS but shows no indication of a first-order phase transition. Furthermore, the directed flow of kaons and antikaons is evaluated in the PHSD approach from √sNN ≈ 5-12 GeV which shows a high sensitivity to the hadronic potentials in the FAIR/NICA energy regime √sNN ≤⃒ 8 GeV.

  7. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Li, G.

    2014-08-01

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO2 interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated.

  8. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Li, G.

    2014-08-28

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO{sub 2} interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated.

  9. Bi-functional nonlinearities in monodisperse ZnO nano-grains – Self-consistent transport and random lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Lubatsch, Andreas; Frank, Regine

    2014-08-20

    We report a quantum field theoretical description of light transport and random lasing. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved including maximally crossed diagrams and non-elastic scattering. This is the first theoretical framework that combines so called off-shell scattering and lasing in random media. We present results for the self-consistent scattering mean free path that varies over the width of the sample. Further we discuss the density dependent correlation length of self-consistent transport in disordered media composed of semi-conductor Mie scatterers.

  10. Thermodynamically constrained averaging theory approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in porous medium systems: 5. Single-fluid-phase transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.

    2009-05-01

    This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches.

  11. Collective flow in event-by-event partonic transport plus hydrodynamics hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Jaiswal, Amaresh; Pal, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    Complete evolution of the strongly interacting matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied within a coupled Boltzmann and relativistic viscous hydrodynamics approach. For the initial nonequilibrium evolution phase, we employ a multiphase transport (AMPT) model that explicitly includes event-by-event fluctuations in the number and positions of the participating nucleons as well as of the produced partons with subsequent parton transport. The ensuing near-equilibrium evolution of quark-gluon and hadronic matter is modeled within the (2 +1 ) -dimensional relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. We probe the role of parton dynamics in generating and maintaining the spatial anisotropy in the preequilibrium phase. Substantial spatial eccentricities ɛn are found to be generated in the event-by-event fluctuations in parton production from initial nucleon-nucleon collisions. For ultracentral heavy-ion collisions, the model is able to explain qualitatively the unexpected hierarchy of the harmonic flow coefficients vn(pT) (n =2 -6 ) observed at energies currently available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We find that the results for vn(pT) are rather insensitive to the variation (within a range) of the time of switchover from AMPT parton transport to hydrodynamic evolution. The usual Grad and the recently proposed Chapman-Enskog-like (nonequilibrium) single-particle distribution functions are found to give very similar results for vn(n =2 -4 ) . The model describes well both the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and LHC data for vn(pT) at various centralities, with a constant shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of 0.08 and 0.12, respectively. The event-by-event distributions of v2 ,3 are in good agreement with the LHC data for midcentral collisions. The linear response relation vn=knɛn is found to be true for n =2 ,3 , except at large values of ɛn, where a larger value of kn is required, suggesting a small admixture of positive nonlinear

  12. A Many-Task Parallel Approach for Multiscale Simulations of Subsurface Flow and Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Yang, Xiaofan; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-12-16

    Continuum-scale models have long been used to study subsurface flow, transport, and reactions but lack the ability to resolve processes that are governed by pore-scale mixing. Recently, pore-scale models, which explicitly resolve individual pores and soil grains, have been developed to more accurately model pore-scale phenomena, particularly reaction processes that are controlled by local mixing. However, pore-scale models are prohibitively expensive for modeling application-scale domains. This motivates the use of a hybrid multiscale approach in which continuum- and pore-scale codes are coupled either hierarchically or concurrently within an overall simulation domain (time and space). This approach is naturally suited to an adaptive, loosely-coupled many-task methodology with three potential levels of concurrency. Each individual code (pore- and continuum-scale) can be implemented in parallel; multiple semi-independent instances of the pore-scale code are required at each time step providing a second level of concurrency; and Monte Carlo simulations of the overall system to represent uncertainty in material property distributions provide a third level of concurrency. We have developed a hybrid multiscale model of a mixing-controlled reaction in a porous medium wherein the reaction occurs only over a limited portion of the domain. Loose, minimally-invasive coupling of pre-existing parallel continuum- and pore-scale codes has been accomplished by an adaptive script-based workflow implemented in the Swift workflow system. We describe here the methods used to create the model system, adaptively control multiple coupled instances of pore- and continuum-scale simulations, and maximize the scalability of the overall system. We present results of numerical experiments conducted on NERSC supercomputing systems; our results demonstrate that loose many-task coupling provides a scalable solution for multiscale subsurface simulations with minimal overhead.

  13. Description of sorbing tracers transport in fractured media using the lattice model approach.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hornero, Francisco J; Giráldez, Juan V; Laguna, Ana

    2005-12-01

    The transport of contaminants in fractured media is a complex phenomenon with a great environmental impact. It has been described with several models, most of them based on complex partial differential equations, that are difficult to apply when equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics are considered in complex boundaries. With the aim of overcoming this limitation, a combination of two lattice Bathnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) models, derived from the lattice Boltzmann model, is proposed in this paper. The fractured medium is assumed to be a single fissure in a porous rock matrix. The proposed approach permits us to deal with two processes with different length scales: advection-dispersion in the fissure and diffusion within the rock matrix. In addition to the mentioned phenomena, sorption reactions are also considered. The combined model has been tested using the experimental breakthrough curves obtained by Garnier et al. (Garnier, J.M., Crampon, N., Préaux, C., Porel, G., Vreulx, M., 1985. Traçage par 13C, 2H, I- et uranine dans la nappe de la craie sénonienne en écoulement radial convergent (Béthune, France). J. Hidrol. 78, 379-392.) giving acceptable results. A study on the influence of the lattice BGK models parameters controlling sorption and matrix diffusion on the breakthrough curves shape is included. PMID:16183166

  14. Non-Markovian Effects in the Lindblad Master Equation Approach to Electronic Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, P.; Vieira, V. R.

    Non-equilibrium processes in open quantum systems can be generically described within the framework of the Lindblad master equation i.e. without a memory kernel. This statement holds even for processes where information can flow-back from the environment to the system. This rather contra-intuitive fact lead to define a process as non Markovian if, during the time evolution of two different initial states of the system, their distinguishability increases, reflecting a back-flow of information from the environment to the system. However, for non Markovian dynamics, the set of conditions to ensure the positivity of the density matrix for all times is not known, making difficult the explicit construction of non Markovian Lindblad operators. Using the Keldysh non equilibrium Green's functions, we explicitly solve a generic quadratic model of electrons coupled at t = 0 to a set of wide-band baths characterized by temperature and chemical potential. We identify the equivalent Lindblad operators describing the evolution of the density matrix and show that the resulting dynamical process is generically non Markovian. We further discuss the cases in which Markovian dynamics is recovered. We apply our approach to a simple model for electronic transport thought a one dimensional wire coupled at t = 0 to wide-band metallic leads, and to a XY spin chain attached to two contacts.

  15. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, P.

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios. PMID:26065014

  16. A systems approach to hemostasis: 2. Computational analysis of molecular transport in the thrombus microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Stalker, Timothy J.; Welsh, John D.; Diamond, Scott L.; Sinno, Talid

    2014-01-01

    Hemostatic thrombi formed after a penetrating injury have a heterogeneous architecture in which a core of highly activated, densely packed platelets is covered by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. In the first manuscript in this series, we show that regional differences in intrathrombus protein transport rates emerge early in the hemostatic response and are preserved as the thrombus develops. Here, we use a theoretical approach to investigate this process and its impact on agonist distribution. The results suggest that hindered diffusion, rather than convection, is the dominant mechanism responsible for molecular movement within the thrombus. The analysis also suggests that the thrombus core, as compared with the shell, provides an environment for retaining soluble agonists such as thrombin, affecting the extent of platelet activation by establishing agonist-specific concentration gradients radiating from the site of injury. This analysis accounts for the observed weaker activation and relative instability of platelets in the shell and predicts that a failure to form a tightly packed thrombus core will limit thrombin accumulation, a prediction tested by analysis of data from mice with a defect in clot retraction. PMID:24951425

  17. Network topology, Transport dynamics, and Vulnerability Analysis in River Deltas: A Graph-Theoretic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Longjas, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.

    2014-12-01

    River deltas are intricate landscapes with complex channel networks that self-organize to deliver water, sediment, and nutrients from the apex to the delta top and eventually to the coastal zone. The natural balance of material and energy fluxes which maintains a stable hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecological state of a river delta, is often disrupted by external factors causing topological and dynamical changes in the delta structure and function. A formal quantitative framework for studying river delta topology and transport dynamics and their response to change is lacking. Here we present such a framework based on spectral graph theory and demonstrate its value in quantifying the complexity of the delta network topology, computing its steady state fluxes, and identifying upstream (contributing) and downstream (nourishment) areas from any point in the network. We use this framework to construct vulnerability maps that quantify the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to possible perturbations in hundreds of upstream links. This enables us to evaluate which links (hotspots) and what management scenarios would most influence flux delivery to the outlets, paving the way of systematically examining how local or spatially distributed delta interventions can be studied within a systems approach for delta sustainability.

  18. Modelling nitrogen transport and turnover at the hillslope scale - a process oriented approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, S.; Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wlotzka, M.; Heuveline, V.; Kraft, P.; Breuer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical models used for simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are mainly designed for the plot scale. Lateral fluxes of nutrients such as nitrate, which may be important drivers for soil GHG emissions, are not or only scarcely considered and explored in such models. This is due to the complexity of microbiological, physic-chemical and plant processes which need to be investigated and simulated along one spatial dimension, the depth, so that the introduction of a second (a hillslope) or third (entire landscapes) spatial dimension is likely to introduce additional complexity which can hardly be handled by most models. However, plot scale models, validated with data obtained at plot scale studies, will systematically under- or overestimate key GHG production and consumption processes if lateral in- or efflux of nutrients to or from a given site is of significant importance. E.g. in laterally connected environments, such as riparian zones denitrification will be fuelled by lateral influx of nitrate from uphill positioned fertilized land. Thus, landscape approaches are needed to identify and realistically simulate GHG emissions. The poster will present a coupled modeling system consisting of the fully distributed hydrology model CMF coupled to the regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC. The model coupling was preformed using the OpenPALM coupler from Cerfacs, France which is based on parallel computer technology. The coupler synchronizes the two models with respect to simulation time and performs the exchange of data (water fluxes, nutrient concentrations, etc.) from and to the models. The resulting coupled hydrology-ecosystem model was applied to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling along a three dimensional virtual hillslope. In the experiment the uphill section of the domain consists of intensive arable land (maize - wheat rotation with up to 300 kg N fertilization) whereas the lowland section and riparian zone consists of extensive grassland. The

  19. Transport properties of long straight nano-channels in electrolyte solutions: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy E

    2011-10-14

    The principle of local thermodynamic equilibrium is systematically employed for obtaining various transport properties of long straight nano-channels. The concept of virtual solution is used to describe situations of non-negligible overlap of diffuse parts of electric double layers (EDLs) in nano-channels. Generic expressions for a variety of transport properties of long straight nano-channels are obtained in terms of quasi-equilibrium distribution coefficients of ions and functionals of quasi-equilibrium distribution of electrostatic potential. Further, the Poisson-Boltzmann approach is used to specify these expressions for long straight slit-like nano-channels. In the approximation of non-overlapped diffuse parts of double electric layers in nano-channels, simple analytical expressions are obtained for the apparent electrophoretic mobilities of (trace) analytes of arbitrary charge as well as for the salt reflection coefficient (osmotic pressure), salt diffusion permeability and electro-viscosity (electrokinetic energy conversion). The approximate solutions are compared with the results of rigorous solution of non-linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and the accuracy of approximation is shown to be typically excellent when the nano-channel half-height exceeds ca.3 Debye screening lengths. Due to non-negligible electrostatic adsorption of ions by nano-channels, the apparent electrophoretic mobilities of counter-ionic analytes in nano-channels are smaller than in micro-channels whereas those of co-ionic analytes are larger. This dependence on the charge is useful for the separation of analytes of close electrophoretic mobilities. The osmotic pressure is shown to be positive, negative or pass through maxima as a function of applied salt-concentration difference within a fairly narrow range of ratios of nano-channel height to the Debye screening length. The diffusion permeability of charged nano-channels to single salts is demonstrated (for the first time) to be

  20. A two-tiered approach to reactive transport: Application to Sr mobility under variable pH

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.; Bryant, S.; Wheeler, M.F.; Saunders, J.

    1998-05-01

    One benefit of a coupled geochemistry/transport approach is that interactions between chemical constituents that can change the mobility of species (such as pH) can be treated explicitly, rather than lumping all of the geochemistry into a single term (i.e., the retardation factor). A two-tiered approach to modeling coupled geochemistry/transport is presented here, which allows a comparison of the results of different methods as well as better efficiency in modeling time. The codes ParSSim, a coupled transport code for supercomputers, and PHREEQC, an advective geochemistry code, were used to model Sr mobility under varying pH. The problem was based on liquid low level radioactive waste that was disposed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) in a highly alkaline solution to try to enhance precipitation and sorption. Interactions with carbonate rock and ground water lowered the pH and led to mobilization of radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. Simulation of contaminant migration in this mixing environment requires a coupled geochemistry and transport model. The interplay between propagation of a pH front (which was retarded) and propagation of the Sr front leads to a fast-moving pulse of Sr as well as a strongly retarded front of Sr. This behavior could not have been predicted by a geochemistry or a transport code alone.

  1. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  2. The Italian Spacegate: Study and innovative approaches to future generation transportation based on High Altitude Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Francesco; Bellomo, Alessandro; Bolle, Andrea; Vittori, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the pre-feasibility studies carried out in 2012 on the concept of sub orbital and hypersonic, high altitude flight in support of future generation transportation. Currently, while the High Altitude Flight is mostly instrumental to touristic purposes and emphasizes the so called Spaceports as futuristic, customers-luring airports featured with all the support services, the “Spacegate” concept deals with scheduled traveling in the upper part of the atmosphere between two points over the Earth surface, with significant reduction of the transfer time. The first part of the paper provides a theoretical approach to the matter, by proposing an “operational” mapping of the atmosphere as well as of the different kinds of flight occurring at High Altitude. The second part of the paper addresses the problem of the limited human capability of maintaining an active control of the vehicle during the re-entry phase and introduces the “Spacegate” concept as the conical portion of the atmosphere above the landing site, whose surface delimits the spiral-descending trajectories that the pilot can travel for a safe re-entry. This paper further outlines the results of the preliminary definition of top level operational requirements and derived architecture functional modules in support to the “Spacegate” implementation. Special attention was given to the favorable geographic and climatic conditions of Italy that make this Country suitable enough for future experimental sub orbital flights and related operations. An initial analysis was performed on the regulatory backbone that has to be built to properly operate High Altitude Flight vehicles in Italy according to the concept of an Italian “Spacegate”. A Preliminary Master Plan/Road Map for the “Spacegate” has been laid out, with special emphasis to selected near term activities and support infrastructures necessary to be carried out to better refine the study in preparation

  3. A new geometrical approach to Eulerian transport: an application to the ocean circulation; final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWilliams, J. C.; Chao, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the transport processes in the large-scale ocean circulations using the new transport theory. We focus on the mid-latitude ocean circulation, especially the Gulf Stream, because it is recognized as a most energetic ocean current and plays a crucial role in maintaining the earth's climate system.

  4. Zinc uptake and radial transport in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana: a modelling approach to understand accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Juliane; Bohmann, Ansgar; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Zinc uptake in roots is believed to be mediated by ZIP (ZRT-, IRT-like proteins) transporters. Once inside the symplast, zinc is transported to the pericycle, where it exits by means of HMA (heavy metal ATPase) transporters. The combination of symplastic transport and spatial separation of influx and efflux produces a pattern in which zinc accumulates in the pericycle. Here, mathematical modelling was employed to study the importance of ZIP regulation, HMA abundance and symplastic transport in creation of the radial pattern of zinc in primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods A comprehensive one-dimensional dynamic model of radial zinc transport in roots was developed and used to conduct simulations. The model accounts for the structure of the root consisting of symplast and apoplast and includes effects of water flow, diffusion and cross-membrane transport via transporters. It also incorporates the radial geometry and varying porosity of root tissues, as well as regulation of ZIP transporters. Key Results Steady-state patterns were calculated for various zinc concentrations in the medium, water influx and HMA abundance. The experimentally observed zinc gradient was reproduced very well. An increase of HMA or decrease in water influx led to loss of the gradient. The dynamic behaviour for a change in medium concentration and water influx was also simulated showing short adaptation times in the range of seconds to minutes. Slowing down regulation led to oscillations in expression levels, suggesting the need for rapid regulation and existence of buffering agents. Conclusions The model captures the experimental findings very well and confirms the hypothesis that low abundance of HMA4 produces a radial gradient in zinc concentration. Surprisingly, transpiration was found also to be a key parameter. The model suggests that ZIP regulation takes place on a comparable timescale as symplastic transport. PMID:23258417

  5. Electronic and spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbon mediated by metal adatoms: a study by the QUAMBO-NEGF approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, G. P.; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, C. Z.; Yao, Y. X.; Zhang, Jian; Ho, K. M.

    2013-02-12

    Structural and electronic properties, including deformation, magnetic moment, Mulliken population, bond order, as well as electronic transport properties, of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with Co adatoms on hollow sites are investigated by quasi-atomic minimal basis orbits (QUAMBOs), a first-principles tight binding (TB) scheme based on density functional theory (DFT), combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function. For electronic transport, below the Fermi level the transmission is strongly suppressed and spin dependent as a result of magnetism by Co adatom adsorption, while above the Fermi level the transmission is slightly distorted and spin independent. Due to the local environment dependence of QUAMBOs–TB parameters, we construct QUAMBOs–TB parameters of ZGNR leads and ZGNR with Co adatoms on hollow center sites by a divide-and-conquer approach, and accurately reproduce the electronic transmission behavior. Our QUAMBO–NEGF method is a new and promising way of examining electronic transport in large-scale systems.

  6. Combinatorial theory of the semiclassical evaluation of transport moments II: Algorithmic approach for moment generating functions

    SciTech Connect

    Berkolaiko, G.; Kuipers, J.

    2013-12-15

    Electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots exhibits universal behaviour which can be understood through the semiclassical approximation. Within the approximation, calculation of transport moments reduces to codifying classical correlations between scattering trajectories. These can be represented as ribbon graphs and we develop an algorithmic combinatorial method to generate all such graphs with a given genus. This provides an expansion of the linear transport moments for systems both with and without time reversal symmetry. The computational implementation is then able to progress several orders further than previous semiclassical formulae as well as those derived from an asymptotic expansion of random matrix results. The patterns observed also suggest a general form for the higher orders.

  7. A streamline splitting pore-network approach for computationally inexpensive and accurate simulation of transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Mehmani, Yashar; Oostrom, Martinus; Balhoff, Matthew

    2014-03-20

    Several approaches have been developed in the literature for solving flow and transport at the pore-scale. Some authors use a direct modeling approach where the fundamental flow and transport equations are solved on the actual pore-space geometry. Such direct modeling, while very accurate, comes at a great computational cost. Network models are computationally more efficient because the pore-space morphology is approximated. Typically, a mixed cell method (MCM) is employed for solving the flow and transport system which assumes pore-level perfect mixing. This assumption is invalid at moderate to high Peclet regimes. In this work, a novel Eulerian perspective on modeling flow and transport at the pore-scale is developed. The new streamline splitting method (SSM) allows for circumventing the pore-level perfect mixing assumption, while maintaining the computational efficiency of pore-network models. SSM was verified with direct simulations and excellent matches were obtained against micromodel experiments across a wide range of pore-structure and fluid-flow parameters. The increase in the computational cost from MCM to SSM is shown to be minimal, while the accuracy of SSM is much higher than that of MCM and comparable to direct modeling approaches. Therefore, SSM can be regarded as an appropriate balance between incorporating detailed physics and controlling computational cost. The truly predictive capability of the model allows for the study of pore-level interactions of fluid flow and transport in different porous materials. In this paper, we apply SSM and MCM to study the effects of pore-level mixing on transverse dispersion in 3D disordered granular media.

  8. A streamline splitting pore-network approach for computationally inexpensive and accurate simulation of transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmani, Yashar; Oostrom, Mart; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2014-03-01

    Several approaches have been developed in the literature for solving flow and transport at the pore scale. Some authors use a direct modeling approach where the fundamental flow and transport equations are solved on the actual pore-space geometry. Such direct modeling, while very accurate, comes at a great computational cost. Network models are computationally more efficient because the pore-space morphology is approximated. Typically, a mixed cell method (MCM) is employed for solving the flow and transport system which assumes pore-level perfect mixing. This assumption is invalid at moderate to high Peclet regimes. In this work, a novel Eulerian perspective on modeling flow and transport at the pore scale is developed. The new streamline splitting method (SSM) allows for circumventing the pore-level perfect-mixing assumption, while maintaining the computational efficiency of pore-network models. SSM was verified with direct simulations and validated against micromodel experiments; excellent matches were obtained across a wide range of pore-structure and fluid-flow parameters. The increase in the computational cost from MCM to SSM is shown to be minimal, while the accuracy of SSM is much higher than that of MCM and comparable to direct modeling approaches. Therefore, SSM can be regarded as an appropriate balance between incorporating detailed physics and controlling computational cost. The truly predictive capability of the model allows for the study of pore-level interactions of fluid flow and transport in different porous materials. In this paper, we apply SSM and MCM to study the effects of pore-level mixing on transverse dispersion in 3-D disordered granular media.

  9. The image charge effect and vibron-assisted processes in Coulomb blockade transport: a first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. M.; Rungger, I.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Sanvito, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a combination of density functional theory and of both non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and a Master equation approach to accurately describe quantum transport in molecular junctions in the Coulomb blockade regime. We apply this effective first-principles approach to reproduce the experimental results of Perrin et al., [Nat. Nanotechnol., 2013, 8, 282] for the transport properties of a Au-(Zn)porphyrin-Au molecular junction. We demonstrate that energy level renormalization due to the image charge effect is crucial to the prediction of the current onset in the current-voltage, I-V, curves as a function of electrode separation. Furthermore, we show that for voltages beyond that setting the current onset, the slope of the I-V characteristics is determined by the interaction of the charge carriers with molecular vibrations. This corresponds to current-induced local heating, which may also lead to an effective reduced electronic coupling. Overall our scheme provides a fully ab initio description of quantum transport in the Coulomb blockade regime in the presence of electron-vibron coupling.We present a combination of density functional theory and of both non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and a Master equation approach to accurately describe quantum transport in molecular junctions in the Coulomb blockade regime. We apply this effective first-principles approach to reproduce the experimental results of Perrin et al., [Nat. Nanotechnol., 2013, 8, 282] for the transport properties of a Au-(Zn)porphyrin-Au molecular junction. We demonstrate that energy level renormalization due to the image charge effect is crucial to the prediction of the current onset in the current-voltage, I-V, curves as a function of electrode separation. Furthermore, we show that for voltages beyond that setting the current onset, the slope of the I-V characteristics is determined by the interaction of the charge carriers with molecular vibrations. This corresponds to

  10. Thermodynamically constrained averaging theory approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in porous medium systems: 9. Transition region models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Rybak, I.; Helmig, R.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.

    2012-06-01

    This work is the ninth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. A fundamental approach is developed to model the transition region between a two-fluid-phase porous medium system and a single-fluid-phase system, including species transport. A general model formulation is developed along with an entropy inequality to guide the specification of closure relations. The general model formulation and entropy inequality are then used to specify a closed system. The transition region model developed in this work is a generalization and extension of coupling conditions commonly used in sharp interface models. The theoretical framework has multiple areas of potential applicability including terrestrial-atmospheric contact zones, surface water-sediment interface zones, and industrial drying processes.

  11. The Effect of Manning's Roughness Calibration on Flow and Sediment transport in Wetlands: Vegetation Drag Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, M.; Nalesso, M.; Garcia, R. F.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2013-05-01

    cells in LILA. The constant flowing cell, M2, was selected as the study area. Flow was simulated using FLO2D, a FEMA approved program that simulates flow depth and velocity by using modified manning's roughness coefficient based on vegetation drag approach. The result of this simulation will provide an improved understanding of the effect of vegetation dynamics on hydrology and how different vegetation type and density may change flow velocity and therefore sediment transport over time.

  12. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-09-14

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented.

  13. SELECTION AND CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELS USING A SURROGATE-MODEL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    While standard techniques for uncertainty analysis have been successfully applied to groundwater flow models, extension to reactive transport is frustrated by numerous difficulties, including excessive computational burden and parameter non-uniqueness. This research introduces a...

  14. A variational approach for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-09-01

    Recent development of theoretical method for dissipative quantum transport has achieved notable progresses in the weak or strong electron-phonon coupling regime. However, a generalized theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide parameter space had not been established. In this work, a variational polaron theory for dissipative quantum transport in a wide range of electron-phonon coupling is developed. The optimal polaron transformation is determined by the optimization of the Feynman-Bogoliubov upper bound of free energy. The free energy minimization ends up with an optimal mean-field Hamiltonian and a minimal interaction Hamiltonian. Hence, second-order perturbation can be applied to the transformed system, resulting in an accurate and efficient method for the treatment of dissipative quantum transport with different electron-phonon coupling strength. Numerical benchmark calculation on a single site model coupled to one phonon mode is presented.

  15. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2016-06-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocytes by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The folate receptors FOLR1 and FOLR2 as well as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, SLC19A1 protein) each appeared to be present in follicular cells including granulosa cells. In growing oocytes, however, only FOLR2 immunoreactivity appeared abundant. Localization of apparent FOLR2 immunofluorescence near the plasma membrane increased with oocyte growth and peaked in oocytes as they neared full size. We assessed folate transport using the model folate leucovorin (folinic acid). Unexpectedly, there was a transient burst of folate transport activity for a brief period during oocyte growth as they neared full size, while folate transport was otherwise undetectable for the rest of oogenesis and in fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes. This folate transport was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis, but insensitive to the anion transport inhibitor stilbene 4-acetamido-40-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,20-disulfonic acid, consistent with folate receptor-mediated transport but not with RFC1-mediated transport. Thus, near the end of their growth, growing oocytes may take up folates that could support the final stage of oogenesis or be stored to provide the endogenous folates needed in early embryogenesis. PMID:27122634

  16. On the forward-backward-in-time approach for Monte Carlo solution of Parker's transport equation: One-dimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; La Vacca, G.; Pensotti, S.; Putis, M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.; Zannoni, M.

    2016-05-01

    The cosmic rays propagation inside the heliosphere is well described by a transport equation introduced by Parker in 1965. To solve this equation, several approaches were followed in the past. Recently, a Monte Carlo approach became widely used in force of its advantages with respect to other numerical methods. In this approach the transport equation is associated to a fully equivalent set of stochastic differential equations (SDE). This set is used to describe the stochastic path of quasi-particle from a source, e.g., the interstellar space, to a specific target, e.g., a detector at Earth. We present a comparison of forward-in-time and backward-in-time methods to solve the cosmic rays transport equation in the heliosphere. The Parker equation and the related set of SDE in the several formulations are treated in this paper. For the sake of clarity, this work is focused on the one-dimensional solutions. Results were compared with an alternative numerical solution, namely, Crank-Nicolson method, specifically developed for the case under study. The methods presented are fully consistent each others for energy greater than 400 MeV. The comparison between stochastic integrations and Crank-Nicolson allows us to estimate the systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo methods. The forward-in-time stochastic integrations method showed a systematic uncertainty <5%, while backward-in-time stochastic integrations method showed a systematic uncertainty <1% in the studied energy range.

  17. Reactive Transport Modeling of Induced Calcite Precipitation Reaction Fronts in Porous Media Using A Parallel, Fully Coupled, Fully Implicit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Huang, H.; Gaston, D.; Redden, G. D.; Fox, D. T.; Fujita, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Inducing mineral precipitation in the subsurface is one potential strategy for immobilizing trace metal and radionuclide contaminants. Generating mineral precipitates in situ can be achieved by manipulating chemical conditions, typically through injection or in situ generation of reactants. How these reactants transport, mix and react within the medium controls the spatial distribution and composition of the resulting mineral phases. Multiple processes, including fluid flow, dispersive/diffusive transport of reactants, biogeochemical reactions and changes in porosity-permeability, are tightly coupled over a number of scales. Numerical modeling can be used to investigate the nonlinear coupling effects of these processes which are quite challenging to explore experimentally. Many subsurface reactive transport simulators employ a de-coupled or operator-splitting approach where transport equations and batch chemistry reactions are solved sequentially. However, such an approach has limited applicability for biogeochemical systems with fast kinetics and strong coupling between chemical reactions and medium properties. A massively parallel, fully coupled, fully implicit Reactive Transport simulator (referred to as “RAT”) based on a parallel multi-physics object-oriented simulation framework (MOOSE) has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Within this simulator, systems of transport and reaction equations can be solved simultaneously in a fully coupled, fully implicit manner using the Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method with additional advanced computing capabilities such as (1) physics-based preconditioning for solution convergence acceleration, (2) massively parallel computing and scalability, and (3) adaptive mesh refinements for 2D and 3D structured and unstructured mesh. The simulator was first tested against analytical solutions, then applied to simulating induced calcium carbonate mineral precipitation in 1D columns and 2D flow cells as analogs

  18. A Combined Observational and Modeling Approach to Study Modern Dust Transport from the Patagonia Desert to East Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, S.; Stein, A.; Marino, F.; Castellano, E.; Udisti, R.; Ceratto, J.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of present atmospheric transport processes from Southern Hemisphere (SH) landmasses to Antarctica can improve the interpretation of stratigraphic data in Antarctic ice cores. In addition, long range transport can deliver key nutrients normally not available to marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean and may trigger or enhance primary productivity. However, there is a dearth of observational based studies of dust transport in the SH. This work aims to improve current understanding of dust transport in the SH by showing a characterization of two dust events originating in the Patagonia desert (south end of South America). The approach is based on a combined and complementary use of satellite retrievals (detectors MISR, MODIS, GLAS ,POLDER, OMI,), transport model simulation (HYSPLIT) and surface observations near the sources and aerosol measurements in Antarctica (Neumayer and Concordia sites). Satellite imagery and visibility observations confirm dust emission in a stretch of dry lakes along the coast of the Tierra del Fuego (TdF) island (approx.54deg S) and from the shores of the Colihue Huapi lake in Central Patagonia (approx.46deg S) in February 2005. Model simulations initialized by these observations reproduce the timing of an observed increase in dust concentration at the Concordia Station and some of the observed increases in atmospheric aerosol absorption (here used as a dust proxy) in the Neumayer station. The TdF sources were the largest contributors of dust at both sites. The transit times from TdF to the Neumayer and Concordia sites are 6-7 and 9-10 days respectively. Lidar observations and model outputs coincide in placing most of the dust cloud in the boundary layer and suggest significant de- position over the ocean immediately downwind. Boundary layer dust was detected as far as 1800 km from the source and approx.800 km north of the South Georgia Island over the central sub-Antarctic Atlantic Ocean. Although the analysis suggests the

  19. A combined observational and modeling approach to study modern dust transport from the Patagonia desert to East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassó, S.; Stein, A.; Marino, F.; Castellano, E.; Udisti, R.; Ceratto, J.

    2010-09-01

    The understanding of present atmospheric transport processes from Southern Hemisphere (SH) landmasses to Antarctica can improve the interpretation of stratigraphic data in Antarctic ice cores. In addition, long range transport can deliver key nutrients normally not available to marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean and may trigger or enhance primary productivity. However, there is a dearth of observational based studies of dust transport in the SH. This work aims to improve current understanding of dust transport in the SH by showing a characterization of two dust events originating in the Patagonia desert (south end of South America). The approach is based on a combined and complementary use of satellite retrievals (detectors MISR, MODIS, GLAS, POLDER, OMI), transport model simulation (HYSPLIT) and surface observations near the sources and aerosol measurements in Antarctica (Neumayer and Concordia sites). Satellite imagery and visibility observations confirm dust emission in a stretch of dry lakes along the coast of the Tierra del Fuego (TdF) island (~54° S) and from the shores of the Colihue Huapi lake in Central Patagonia (~46° S) in February 2005. Model simulations initialized by these observations reproduce the timing of an observed increase in dust concentration at the Concordia Station and some of the observed increases in atmospheric aerosol absorption (here used as a dust proxy) in the Neumayer station. The TdF sources were the largest contributors of dust at both sites. The transit times from TdF to the Neumayer and Concordia sites are 6-7 and 9-10 days respectively. Lidar observations and model outputs coincide in placing most of the dust cloud in the boundary layer and suggest significant deposition over the ocean immediately downwind. Boundary layer dust was detected as far as 1800 km from the source and ~800 km north of the South Georgia Island over the central sub-Antarctic Atlantic Ocean. Although the analysis suggests the presence of dust at

  20. A new approach to epithelial isotonic fluid transport: an osmosensor feedback model.

    PubMed

    Hill, A E; Shachar-Hill, B

    2006-03-01

    A model for control of the transport rate and osmolarity of epithelial fluid (isotonic transport) is presented by using an analogy with the control of temperature and flow rate in a shower. The model brings recent findings and theory concerning the role of aquaporins in epithelia together with measurements of epithelial paracellular flow into a single scheme. It is not based upon osmotic equilibration across the epithelium but rather on the function of aquaporins as osmotic sensors that control the tonicity of the transported fluid by mixing cellular and paracellular flows, which may be regarded individually as hyper- and hypo-tonic fluids, to achieve near-isotonicity. The system is built on a simple feedback loop and the quasi-isotonic behavior is robust to the precise values of most parameters. Although the two flows are separate, the overall fluid transport rate is governed by the rate of salt pumping through the cell. The model explains many things: how cell pumping and paracellular flow can be coupled via control of the tight junctions; how osmolarity is controlled without depending upon the precise magnitude of membrane osmotic permeability; and why many epithelia have different aquaporins at the two membranes. The model reproduces all the salient features of epithelial fluid transport seen over many years but also indicates novel behavior that may provide a subject for future research and serve to distinguish it from other schemes such as simple osmotic equilibration. Isotonic transport is freed from constraints due to limited permeability of the membranes and the precise geometry of the system. It achieves near-isotonicity in epithelia in which partial water transport by co-transporters may be present, and shows apparent electro-osmotic effects. The model has been developed with a minimum of parameters, some of which require measurement, but the model is flexible enough for the basic idea to be extended both to complex systems of water and salt transport

  1. Transportation network policy modeling for congestion and pollution control: A variational inequality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, Padma

    1999-08-01

    Public concern over the state of the environment has grown over the past decade. All indications are that this concern will continue to influence policy making into the foreseeable future. Road transport is seen as the major contributor to environmental degradation. Transportation planners around the world face the question: cleaner air and/or faster commutes? While individual vehicles can be made more environmentally friendly, the sheer scale of growth in world-wide vehicle numbers is projected to cause significant environmental degradation in the longer run, and in the absence of newer and stricter polices. It is a challenge for governments to find policies that ensure congestion-free metropolitan areas while guaranteeing both critical environmental quality levels and a sufficient infrastructure access to all groups involved. The objective of the dissertation is to provide a mathematical framework to study transportation policy models for the purpose of controlling congestion and pollution. Towards this objective. a series of transportation policy models are developed to study travel behavior and to quantity the reductions in congestion and automobile emissions. The dissertation begins with a brief historical overview of some of the pioneering works in urban transportation economics and later presents the theoretical foundation for the transportation policy models developed. The dissertation introduces single modal and multimodal transportation network policy models that accomplish road pricing with the imposition of goal targets on link loads. as well as, integrated traffic equilibrium models with marketable mobile emission permits. Furthermore, equilibrium conditions are derived for each model, and both qualitative analysis and computational procedures are studied. Finally, the dissertation concludes with a comparative study of the relationship between regulatory pricing models and marketable emission permit transportation models and a discussion on key factors

  2. Microbial Transport, Retention, and Inactivation in Streams: A Combined Experimental and Stochastic Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Jennifer D; Davies-Colley, Robert J; Stott, Rebecca; Sukias, James P; Nagels, John W; Sharp, Alice; Packman, Aaron I

    2015-07-01

    Long-term survival of pathogenic microorganisms in streams enables long-distance disease transmission. In order to manage water-borne diseases more effectively we need to better predict how microbes behave in freshwater systems, particularly how they are transported downstream in rivers. Microbes continuously immobilize and resuspend during downstream transport owing to a variety of processes including gravitational settling, attachment to in-stream structures such as submerged macrophytes, and hyporheic exchange and filtration within underlying sediments. We developed a stochastic model to describe these microbial transport and retention processes in rivers that also accounts for microbial inactivation. We used the model to assess the transport, retention, and inactivation of Escherichia coli in a small stream and the underlying streambed sediments as measured from multitracer injection experiments. The results demonstrate that the combination of laboratory experiments on sediment cores, stream reach-scale tracer experiments, and multiscale stochastic modeling improves assessment of microbial transport in streams. This study (1) demonstrates new observations of microbial dynamics in streams with improved data quality than prior studies, (2) advances a stochastic modeling framework to include microbial inactivation processes that we observed to be important in these streams, and (3) synthesizes new and existing data to evaluate seasonal dynamics. PMID:26039244

  3. Evaluating woody material transport and deposition in alpine rivers and deducing risk mitigation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Zischg, A.; Hübl, J.; Largiader, A.

    2009-04-01

    The impact levels of recent flashflood events in Switzerland and Western Austria in 2005 have significantly been accentuated by a considerable amount of transported woody material. As a consequence, either protection measures or bridges suffered considerable damage. Furthermore, cross-sectional obstructions due to woody material entrapment caused unexpected floodplain inundations resulting in severe damage to elements at risk. Until now, these woody material transport phenomena are neither sufficiently taken into account nor systematically considered, leading to a decrease in prediction accuracy during the procedure of hazard mapping. To close this gap, a procedure is proposed that (1) allows for the estimation of woody material recruitment from wood covered bankslopes and floodplains within the perimeter of the considered extreme flood event; and (2) permits the analysis of, the disposition for woody material entrainment and transport to selected critical configurations along the channel. The proposed procedure had been implemented into an ArcGIS-environment and provided indications for potential accentuation of flood hazards due to the transport of woody material. Results from a case study suggested the general applicability of the concept. The computational results can be used to devise effective risk mitigation strategies that comprise: (1) selective woody material volume reduction within the source areas, (2) thinning measures to increase the elasticity of the forest structure, (3) preventive interception of transported woody material and (4) redesign of the critical configurations.

  4. Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2005-08-25

    Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

  5. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    SciTech Connect

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.

  6. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less

  7. STS-101 Atlantis aboard the crawler-transporter approaches LC-39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler-transporter, begins the climb up the ramp to Launch Pad 39A. The crawler-transporter carries its cargo at 1 mph, taking about five hours to cover the 3.4 miles from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. A leveling system on the crawler- transporter keeps the top of the Space Shuttle vertical, especially negotiating the ramp leading to the launch pads and when it is raised and lowered on pedestals at the pad. Liftoff of Atlantis on mission STS-101 is scheduled for April 17 at 7:03 p.m. EDT. STS-101 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, to restore full redundancy to the International Space Station power system in preparation for the arrival of the next pressurized module, the Russian-built Zvezda.

  8. A hybrid approach to the neutron transport K-eigenvalue problem using NDA-based algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T.; Knoll, D. A.; Park, H.

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide more physically accurate solutions to the neutron transport equation it has become increasingly popular to use Monte Carlo simulation to model nuclear reactor dynamics. These Monte Carlo methods can be extremely expensive, so we turn to a class of methods known as hybrid methods, which combine known deterministic and stochastic techniques to solve the transport equation. In our work, we show that we can simulate the action of a transport sweep using a Monte Carlo simulation in order to solve the k-eigenvalue problem. We'll accelerate the solution using nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) as in [1,2]. Our work extends the results in [1] to use Monte Carlo simulation as the high-order solver. (authors)

  9. Theoretical study of electronic transport through quasicrystalline nanotubes using mesh inflation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Lin; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces the mesh inflation method to construct (dodecagonal) quasicrystalline shell structures, and investigates the properties and functions of quantum transport through quasiperiodic components, e.g. the nanotube device. We model the quantum dynamics of a system described by a nearest neighbor tight-binding formulism, and apply the non-equilibrium Green’s function technique to calculate the electronic transport properties, in which the non-equilibrium (transmitted) electronic density is self-consistently determined by solving Poisson’s equation in capacitive network modeling. Numerical results find that the transmission spectrum of the quasicrystalline nanotube illustrates crossover characteristics from local order (like in periodic lattices) to global disorder (like in amorphous solids) with varying energy. Moreover, the electronic transport properties of nanoprobes through multiple atomic channels follow the rule of Landauer’s formula.

  10. a Diffusive-Transport Approach to Determine the Electrical Conductance of AN Imperfect Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grado-Caffaro, Maria Angeles; Grado-Caffaro, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a diffusive-transport-based analytical formulation to calculate the linear electrical conductance through a multiwalled carbon nanotube with defects. In fact, on the one hand, by considerations on diffusive transport and, on the other hand, using the Drude model, we find out that the conductance (at Fermi energy) of an imperfect multiwalled carbon nanotube is approximately equal to the fundamental conductance quantum multiplied by the number of layers (or shells) of the tube. Our result agrees with experimental data.