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1

Titanium offers offshore advantages  

SciTech Connect

Titanium is slowly becoming the answer to many of the corrosion problems associated with offshore drilling and sour hydrocarbons. The possible implications of titanium's resistance to hypochlorite solutions is still under study. Various tests have been run on this and its alloys. A growing number of applications will also take advantage of the strength to weight ratio of titanium.

Gilbert, R.

1984-04-01

2

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

3

Using worms to process food discards offers several advantages  

E-print Network

Using worms to process food discards offers several advantages.Allyou willneedareanearthwormbin,bedding,water, compostingearthworms,andfoodscrapsorany appropriateorganicmaterials. Worm Bin.Toprovide Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage Vermicomposting (earthworm composting) turns many types of kitchen food

Langerhans, Brian

4

The Brownian Bridge Does Not Offer a Consistent Advantage in Quasi-Monte Carlo Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brownian bridge has been suggested as an effective method for reducing the quasi-Monte Carlo error for problems in finance. We give an example of a digital option where the Brownian bridge performs worse than the standard discretization. Hence, the Brownian bridge does not offer a consistent advantage in quasi-Monte Carlo integration. We consider integrals of functions of d variables

Anargyros Papageorgiou

2002-01-01

5

Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional teaching  

E-print Network

Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional, mail sent to students should be addressed to Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, PO Box 5389 to Coos Bay. For More Information Oregon Institute of Marine Biology PO Box 5389, Charleston OR 97420

Oregon, University of

6

The second generation of COX-2 inhibitors: what advantages do the newest offer?  

PubMed

The discovery of two cyclooxygenase (COX)-isoenzymes, a constitutive COX-1, serving homeostatic prostanoid synthesis, and an inducible COX-2, responsible for proinflammatory prostanoid production, led to the development of new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the selective COX-2 inhibitors, promising minimal NSAID-typical toxicity with full anti-inflammatory efficacy. So far, the strategy of selective COX-2 inhibition has been successful. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have significantly less gastrotoxicity and no effects on platelet aggregation. However, with regard to renal adverse events, selective COX-2 inhibitors do not offer a clinically relevant advantage over non-selective inhibitors. Moreover, concerns over the cardiovascular risk of selective COX-2 inhibitors have recently been raised. The second generation of COX-2 inhibitors with higher COX-2 selectivity was developed with the promise of further reduction of NSAID-typical adverse effects. The leading compounds are valdecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib and lumaricoxib. At the present time they have proven efficacy for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Parecoxib as a parenteral, highly selective COX-2 inhibitor has the potential to become the NSAID of choice for treatment of postoperative pain. In clinical trials, valdecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib and lumaricoxib have caused no more endoscopic ulcers than placebo. However, to date, no data on the clinically relevant endpoints perforation, symptomatic ulcer and bleeding are available. Furthermore, no definite conclusions on renal and cardiovascular safety are possible. Current evidence points to a marginal, if any, gain of safety compared with the first generation of COX-2 inhibitors. However, trials with the new COX-2 inhibitors offer the chance to address these open questions of highly selective COX-2 inhibition; that is, thrombogenic risk, sodium and water retention, and interference with tissue repair, in particular, healing of mucosal damage. PMID:12487621

Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Frölich, Jürgen C

2003-01-01

7

The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used, recent results, and future plans.

Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

2012-12-01

8

The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used, recent results, and future plans.

Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

9

Operating agricultural equipment accurately can be difficult, tedious, or even hazardous. Automatic control offers many potential advantages over human  

E-print Network

, and automatic control. CDGPS-based control systems have been utilized in a number of applications, including. An automatic control system was developed, simulated in software using a simple kinematic vehicle model. Automatic control offers many potential advantages over human control; however, previous efforts to automate

Stanford University

10

Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering. management, and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboration is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of current programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example, major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities, produce highly visible achievements, and appeal to an additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

2008-01-01

11

Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering, management. and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboratioi is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of cLul+sent programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example. major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities. produce highly visible achievements. and appeal to a11 additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

2008-01-01

12

Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages  

SciTech Connect

The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

Tanner, R.

1983-12-01

13

The advantages of air addition on the methane steam reforming over Ni/?-Al 2O 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of adding air to the feed in methane steam reforming over Ni/?-Al 2O 3 was investigated. The catalyst exhibited a high specific surface area, but low metal surface area, with large Ni particles, which favor the deposition of carbon. A great quantity of carbon was seen to form on the catalyst during steam reforming, without any decrease in the reaction rate. This constant catalytic activity was consistent with the formation of filamentous whiskers of carbon during the process, verified by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of air decreased the energy consumed by the reaction and reduced significantly the carbon deposited on the catalyst during the process, making it a viable alternative for industrial application.

Dias, Joelmir A. C.; Assaf, José M.

14

wanted more information, so he approached ECE Prof. Robert Sainati and asked for an additional course offering at the 8000  

E-print Network

course offering at the 8000 level. Prof. Sainati agreed that a class in wireless application antennas to convince his employer to fund an "Advanced Antennas for Wireless Applications" class at the University introduced students to the types of antennas being used today and some of the design philosophies behind them

Minnesota, University of

15

The University of Kentucky Libraries offers students many services all around campus. In addition to the William T. Young Library (which  

E-print Network

38 C Libraries The University of Kentucky Libraries offers students many services all around campus. In addition to the William T. Young Library (which is open 24 hours during the school year), the library has operations in many of the colleges. Once your student ID is validated by the library, you can use it at any

MacAdam, Keith

16

Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Addition games First let\\'s practice our Fast Addition Let\\'s try to beat the Addition Machine You can help the bear while he is Catching Tens. Try to make your own picture using addition skills at the Hidden Picture Addition addition game. ...

Mchale, Ms.

2007-10-25

17

Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

Smalheer, C. V.

1973-01-01

18

Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

Benson, J.

1969-01-01

19

Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages  

E-print Network

on municipal solid waste. Both district heating and CHP plants can also pro- duce pellets for local housing quality stan- dards. Wood pellets are an attractive alternative for home heating or for larger individual build- ings. Pellets are used in furnaces built for fairly high combustion temperatures. This technology

20

Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages  

E-print Network

an economic standpoint, American higher education is our nation's fifth-largest service-sector export. Foreign. Even more important, many of those students will stay here, providing a "brain gain" that will help are now going to Europe, in part because of tightened U.S. visa requirements in the wake of September 11

Southern California, University of

21

Advantages offered by high average power picosecond lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As electronic devices shrink in size to reduce material costs, device size and weight, thinner material thicknesses are also utilized. Feature sizes are also decreasing, which is pushing manufacturers towards single step laser direct write process as an attractive alternative to conventional, multiple step photolithography processes by eliminating process steps and the cost of chemicals. The fragile nature of these thin materials makes them difficult to machine either mechanically or with conventional nanosecond pulsewidth, Diode Pumped Solids State (DPSS) lasers. Picosecond laser pulses can cut materials with reduced damage regions and selectively remove thin films due to the reduced thermal effects of the shorter pulsewidth. Also, the high repetition rate allows high speed processing for industrial applications. Selective removal of thin films for OLED patterning, silicon solar cells and flat panel displays is discussed, as well as laser cutting of transparent materials with low melting point such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). For many of these thin film applications, where low pulse energy and high repetition rate are required, throughput can be increased by the use of a novel technique to using multiple beams from a single laser source is outlined.

Moorhouse, C.

2011-03-01

22

Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.  

PubMed

Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

Heller, Richard E

2014-02-01

23

The Power of Mechanical Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the mechanical advantage offered by pulleys in an interactive and game-like manner. By virtue of the activity's mechatronic presentation, they learn to study a mechanical system not as a static image, but rather as a dynamic system that is under their control. Using a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® robotics platform and common hardware items, students build a mechanized elevator system. The ability to control different parameters (such as motor power, testing load and pulley arrangement) enables the teacher, as well as the students, to emphasize and reinforce particular aspects/effects of mechanical advantage.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

24

The advantage of first mention in Spanish  

PubMed Central

An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

2015-01-01

25

Investigating Home Court Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Dan Nettleton of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, presents data from 1997 Big Ten Conference men's basketball games involving the University of Iowa Hawkeyes. These games are analyzed in a series of scatterplots which are accompanied by bivariate statistical inference. Additionally, the data can be used to represent inference techniques such as confidence regions, paired comparisons, and simultaneous confidence intervals. This is a great activity for a sports fan wanting to learn more about the statistics attached to his or her favorite sport.

Nettleton, Dan

26

NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

Gittell, Ross

2012-01-01

27

Wideband radar (advantages and problems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of advantages and problems of wideband radar is given. Some criteria of wideband (UWB) radar are discussed to avoid misunderstanding when only the relative signal bandwidth is used as a criterion. Brief historical outline of the first and follow up experiments by different authors is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of bandwidth widening can be compared using the computer simulation

Y. D. Shirman; S. P. Leshchenko; V. M. Orlenko

2004-01-01

28

OFFER GUIDELINES FOR EMPLOYERS  

E-print Network

for Internship Recruitment (Summer 2014) - Class of 2015/`16 Fall Recruitment for Professional Entry-Level Career of the summer internship or CoOp we request that you give the student until November 1, 2013 to make a decision. If you extend an offer during the Fall recruiting process for internships or full time opportunities (for

Jornsten, Rebecka

29

Practical advantages of evolutionary computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

Fogel, David B.

1997-10-01

30

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

2005-02-01

31

Energy Advantages for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

Griffin, J. Tim

2012-01-01

32

Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages,  

E-print Network

to require a cost- efficient, highly effective and scaleable process. Later, the marketing of Monsanto from E. coli. Monsanto's bGH product sells for only $11.60/g (http://www.monsanto.com/dairy/ 3_econom

Lebendiker, Mario

33

Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

2013-01-01

34

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

, industrial, consumer, and portable electronics". The IC group produces power ICs for motor drivers, motor), industrial, automotive and portable electronics markets. Electrical Engineering No Entry LevelCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description

New Hampshire, University of

35

Technical advantages of digital EEG.  

PubMed

Digital EEG (DEEG) is the paperless recording of an EEG using computer-based instrumentation. The data are stored on electronic media, such as magnetic drives or optical disks, and displayed on a monitor. DEEG has many advantages compared to analog EEG including automatic event detection, storage, quantification, and networking capabilities. The flexibility of DEEG allows for changes of recording parameters, such as montage, filters, and horizontal and vertical display scales retrospectively during record review. In this review numerous clinical EEG examples are used to demonstrate how these post hoc changes, particularly reformatting the montage, allow for more accurate interpretation of the EEG. PMID:9881917

Van Cott, A; Brenner, R P

1998-11-01

36

Selective advantage of diffusing faster.  

PubMed

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability. PMID:24856726

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

37

Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

38

Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

2000-01-01

39

Principles and advantages of robotics in urologic surgery.  

PubMed

Although the available minimally invasive surgical techniques (ie, laparoscopy) have clear advantages, these procedures continue to cause problems for patients. Surgical tools are limited by set axes of movement, restricting the degree of freedom available to the surgeon. In addition, depth perception is lost with the use of two-dimensional viewing systems. As surgeons view a "virtual" target on a television screen, they are hampered by decreased sensory input and a concurrent loss of dexterity. The development of robotic assistance systems in recent years could be the key to overcoming these difficulties. Using robotic systems, surgeons can experience a more natural and ergonomic surgical "feel." Surgical assistance, dexterity and precision enhancement, systems networking, and image-guided therapy are among the benefits offered by surgical robots. In return, the surgeon gains a shorter learning curve, reduced fatigue, and the opportunity to perform complex procedures that would be difficult using conventional laparoscopy. With the development of image-guided technology, robotic systems will become useful tools for surgical training and simulation. Remote surgery is not a routine procedure, but several teams are working on this and experiencing good results. However, economic concerns are the major drawbacks of these systems; before remote surgery becomes routinely feasible, the clinical benefits must be balanced with high investment and running costs. PMID:12648427

Renda, Antonio; Vallancien, Guy

2003-04-01

40

Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees  

E-print Network

Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees Make the Most of a Beneficial Facility Visual *$10.00/sample non-Jefferson County resident Identification of plants: o $2.00 per species o $5.00 per species non-Jefferson County resident o Maximum of 10 plants per person * Additional $3.00 surcharge per

41

The Advantages and Disadvantages of  

E-print Network

. Research has shown that the potential benefits of EHRs are tremendous. With electronic health records health care settings and among a variety of health care providers. EHRs may include a range of data outcomes and quality of patient care. Additionally, EHRs facilitate greater access to medical records

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

42

Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

43

How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan  

MedlinePLUS

How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Revised April 2014 Medicare offers prescription ... MA-PDs.” You’ll get all of your Medicare coverage including Part A (Hospital Insurance), Part B ( ...

44

Dental Materials Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED  

E-print Network

Dental Materials ­ Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL This type of porcelain for crowns and fixed bridges Advantages Good resistance to further decay if the restoration fits well Very for crowns and fixed bridges and some partial denture frameworks Advantages Good resistance to further decay

Klein, Ophir

45

Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed acrossfirms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link betweenfirm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value,

Jay Barney

1991-01-01

46

Comparing Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency of Pulleys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity is designed to allow students to experience what an increase in mechanical advantage means. Students determine the mechanical advantage of three pulley set-ups. Students also measure the work input and output, then calculate the efficiency. Finally, students determine the relationship between the mechanical advantage and the efficiency of the pulleys.

Leatham, Shelly

47

bulletin 2012 1 DEGREES OFFERED  

E-print Network

and Cybersecurity, Forensic Mental Health Counseling, Forensic Psychology, Forensic Science, International Crime COUNSELING (MA) FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY (MA) FORENSIC SCIENCE (MS) INTERNATIONAL CRIME AND JUSTICE (MA of our graduate class offerings. Our master's degree programs in Criminal Justice, Digital Forensics

Rosen, Jay

48

Mice Offer Lessons on Aging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Science Beat offers interesting feature articles about research from Berkeley lab and partner organizations. This article offers a fascinating look at aging research utilizing transgenic mice -- an inquiry into "the genetic roots of aging in everyone." The article includes Web links to related material from the institutions participating in these research projects, as well as links to academic articles from the journal Science (not available without paid subscription).

Krotz, Dan.

2003-01-01

49

Technology Offer Extension of the microscope stage of an  

E-print Network

Technology Offer Extension of the microscope stage of an optical microscope Keywords life cell imaging, microscope stage insert, microscope slide imaging, life cell imaging culture chambers Advantages Biotechnology Pharmaceutics Overview The extension of the microscope stage has three main features. First

50

Multiple Rankine topping cycles offer high efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is primarily determined by the temperatures of heat addition and heat rejection. However, no working fluid has been identified that will operate in a Rankine cycle over an extremely wide temperature range. Multiple Rankine topping cycles offer a technique for achieving high thermal efficiencies in power plants by allowing the use of several working fluids to span larger temperature ranges.

McWhirter, J.D. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

1997-10-01

51

Amazing Addition!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math can be fun! Practice your addtion facts in one of these amazing games! Go on a mission with math! -- Addition Mission Count your apples! -- Apple Addition Be a math teacher! -- Chalkboard Addition ...

Staggs, Ms.

2008-04-01

52

Offering memorable patient experience through creative,  

E-print Network

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer’s behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. It is a reality that economic transformations of advanced economies are becoming dominated by services which overwhelm all other sectors. „The service revolution”, that we are part of nowadays which affects all sectors including

unknown authors

53

Offering Reflection to an Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden…

Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

2010-01-01

54

technology offer Magnetic Gradient Sensor  

E-print Network

technology offer Magnetic Gradient Sensor magnetic gradient sensor, micromechanical structure The invention concerns a sensor for the magnetic field gradient and applies micromechanical structures. Lorentz are typically measured by Hall- sensors which suffer from a large offset and offset drift. For the measurement

Szmolyan, Peter

55

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

56

What can Simulation offer Retailers?  

E-print Network

of customers, sales staff, managers etc. Visual Dynamic Stochastic Simulation Model Interface for User the system Identification of bottlenecks #12;13 Conceptual Model Design (Customer) Example of a state chartWhat can Simulation offer Retailers? Peer-Olaf Siebers, Uwe Aickelin Nottingham University - School

Aickelin, Uwe

57

Amazing Addition!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I want you to practice your awesome addition skills on the websites below. I know you will do beautifully! Start by going to this website first: Addition Fun!!! Once you finish that website you may continue onto this website: Alien Addition If you have extra time play Around the World Addition: Once you have clicked on the link, click on the button for addition.After that you can choose to play on easy or ...

Bolton, Ms.

2009-04-22

58

The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

2009-01-01

59

Sun Tzu and sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) has been a strategic concern to enterprises. In the era of knowledge economy, such an advantage migrates to the human-brain oriented intangible assets, or, intellectual property right (IPR). Combined with strategy, this brings up the importance of multi-disciplinary integration and business renovation in management infrastructure for the sake of SCA. Because a strong philosophical foundation is

MuChiu Chang

2004-01-01

60

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

61

Offering effective feedback to trainees.  

PubMed

Abstract Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result. PMID:24846339

Iskander, Morkos

2015-01-01

62

Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

2008-01-01

63

Electronic Recruiting: An Alternative with Many Advantages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses electronic recruiting, a process which enables employers to directly access computerized college student resume information via modem. Addresses such advantages as providing up-to-date student information and alleviating paperwork. Provides an example of this system. (BHK)

Hicks, Mary J.; Woo, Tony Chi-Hung

1989-01-01

64

The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project  

SciTech Connect

The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

Hedden, R. [Oil Heat Management Services, Pawlet, VT (United States); Bately, J.E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1995-04-01

65

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

processes and procedures, and providing technical expertise/support to manufacturing. Additional tasks may with engineering tasks including participating in new product/process development, establishing manufacturing involvement, and product studies. www.tbvc.com Manufacturing Company Overview: Degree: Paid Fall, Spring

New Hampshire, University of

66

MSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter  

E-print Network

MSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter wheat systems August 13, 2003 Ag researchers are studying winter peas and lentils to see whether they offer enough yield advantage over spring peas and lentils that they would make a better rotation choice for winter

Maxwell, Bruce D.

67

Fuel additive  

SciTech Connect

A novel nonacidic fuel additive which is soluable in gasoline, diesel fuels and other liquid aliphatic hydrocarbons, and which comprises the product produced by mixing ketone peroxides, ketones, a Group III metal, an alcohol, and borontrifloride, or liquid cobalt, or a chlorobenzine. The fuel additive further comprises a ketone solvent, said ketones preferrably being methyl etyhl ketones and their peroxides and solvents. The fuel additive of the present invention, serves to increase power output, lower the ignition point of the carrier fuel, increase mileage, and, especially when used with diesel, reduces the effect of cold temperatures on the viscosity, turbidity, and color of the diesel fuel to temperatures as severe as-40/sup 0/ C.

Osgood, G. L.; Reinhard, G. G.

1984-11-13

68

Policy offers protection from harassment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

McNutt, Marcia

69

Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

2012-01-01

70

Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.  

PubMed

When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p < .01) for increasing tangential forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive. PMID:22431218

Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

2012-02-01

71

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

72

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE FREE! SUPERCOMPUTING TIME &  

E-print Network

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE FREE! SUPERCOMPUTING TIME & RESOURCES FOR UC RESEARCHERS-associates@sdsc.edu The Academic Associates Program (AAP) at University of California at San Diego (UCSD)/San Diego Supercomputer can request supercomputing time, free of charge, through the AAP administrator for his or her

Brody, James P.

73

Predicting the Future: Advantages of Semilocal Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating gaussian radial basis function (RBF) networks for their ability to model nonlinear time series, we have found that while RBF networks are much faster than standard sigmoid unit backpropagation for low-dimensional problems, their advantages diminish in high-dimensional input spaces. This is particularly troublesome if the input space contains irrelevant variables. We suggest that this limitation is due to

Eric Hartman; James D. Keeler

1991-01-01

74

Commuting Student Lacks Advantages of Dorm Resident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College and university students who live in campus residence halls are found to have a significant educational advantage over those who commute to campus, either from their parents' homes or from apartments or other off-campus housing. Residence hall dwellers are better off financially, educationally, and in other ways to begin with. Then, largely…

Peterson, Nancy A.

1975-01-01

75

Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

2002-01-01

76

Advantages of the color octet gluon picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that there are several advantages in abstracting properties of hadrons and their currents from a Yang-Mills gauge model based on colored quarks and color octet gluons. On leave from Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern, Switzerland.

H. Fritzsch; M. Gell-Mann; H. Leutwyler

1973-01-01

77

Agricultural Productivity, Business Services, and Comparative Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

By explicitly incorporating both the intermediate business service sector and non-homothetic preferences, this study develops a two-good (the agricultural good and the manufactured good) model of trade that captures the role of agricultural productivity, which deepens the division of labor in the manufactured good sector. The level of agricultural productivity is found to determine the structure of comparative advantage: the

Toru Kikuchi

2004-01-01

78

Advantages and problems of wideband radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the definition, properties and modeling requirements of wideband and ultra-wideband radars. It begins by establishing the criteria by which the designation 'wideband' might be specified, since the common definition based purely on relative bandwidth fails to invoke some important associations. Next, the role of simulation is discussed and a representative simulation environment is described. The advantages and

Y. D. Shirman; S. P. Leshchenko; V. M. Orlenko

2003-01-01

79

Bilateral field advantage in visual crowding  

PubMed Central

Thirty randomly oriented T’s were presented in a circle around fixation at an eccentricity of 11 degrees such that each T was crowded by its neighbors. Two locations within the same hemifield (unilateral condition) or one location in each hemifield (bilateral condition) were precued for subsequent probing. Observers were then asked to report the orientation of a target T at one of these locations. A bilateral field advantage was found: target identification was better when the two precued targets were in different hemifields than when they were within the same hemifield. This bilateral advantage was absent when only targets were presented, without any distracters. Further controls showed that this advantage could not be attributed to differences between horizontal and vertical target alignments or to visual field anisotropies. A similar bilateral advantage has been reported for multiple object tracking (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005) and other attentional tasks. Our results suggest that crowding also demonstrates separate attentional resources in the left and right hemifields. There was a cost to attending to two targets presented unilaterally over attending to a single target. However, this cost was reduced when the two crowded targets were in separate hemifields. PMID:19362572

Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Cavanagh, Patrick

2009-01-01

80

Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage  

E-print Network

crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, viewsCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest as to the amount of "reserves" remaining globally, the future of Canadian oil and energy supply, the view

Boisvert, Jeff

81

Agricultural cooperative insurance: Policy advantages & growth routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract-- Agricultural insurance cooperatives (hereafter abbreviated AIC) have great policy advantages in operating agriculture insurance. Development of agricultural cooperative insurance involves series of difficulties, such as lag in legislation, weak in taxation, lack of effective risk diversification mechanisms, low familiarity and acceptance of farmers, higher costs of organizational problems. Therefore, it is urgent to

Xie Wangsong; Jiang Chen

2011-01-01

82

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

83

Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

2014-05-01

84

Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

85

Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

86

Phosphazene additives  

DOEpatents

An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

2013-11-26

87

Potlining Additives  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

Rudolf Keller

2004-08-10

88

Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.  

PubMed

In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

2007-04-01

89

Sandia Group Medicare Advantage Plan Enrollment Form Senior Advantage Health Plan Choices (Choose One)  

E-print Network

One): Lovelace Senior Plan n Presbyterian MediCare PPO n Name of Employer: Sandia National: Presbyterian Plan No. H3206_PPO91104 Lovelace Plan No. H3251-1217-1109 #12;2 Sandia Group Medicare Advantage Lovelace Plan No. H3251-1217-1109 #12;3 Sandia Group Medicare Advantage Plan Enrollment Form 8. Are you

Fuerschbach, Phillip

90

Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.  

PubMed

In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

Macfarlane, Michael Alex

2014-01-01

91

Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?  

PubMed

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

Gillings, Michael R

2014-09-01

92

Advantages of Foveation in Vehicle Sensor Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a virtual cylindrical screen (VCS) algorithm is proposed for detecting stationary objects inside a VCS when a sensor is moving in the forward direction along its optical axis. Simulations are carried out to investigate the advantages of foveation in the use of the VCS algorithm, and the advantages are discussed by comparing the pinhole camera (PHC) model with the sine curve (SC) model and the advanced wide angle foveated (AdWAF) model. A correction weight function is introduced for estimating the error in the optical flow that is calculated by using each image model. Moreover, the uniform optical flow (UOF) model for the VCS is developed for use in various applications, and an approximate image-height function is formulated for this model. The accuracy of the optical flow corresponding to a point on the VCS is investigated in simulations carried out using the correction weight function.

Shimizu, Sota

93

Locomotory Advantages to Flapping Out of Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between two fish swimming side by side are examined. An inviscid fluid model is employed to argue that flapping\\u000a out of phase can lead to locomotory advantages for both fish. Two effects are examined: (a) the effect of the cooperation\\u000a between the wakes of the two fish in increasing their forward swimming velocities and (b) the effect of

E. Kanso; P. K. Newton

2010-01-01

94

The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

Peter Alpert

2006-01-01

95

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

96

Some lesser-known advantages of the metric system for acceleration research.  

PubMed

The metric system offers, due to its simplicity and uniformity, substantial advantages for the entire scientific community. To encourage those who may feel the the road to metrication is paved with agonizing frustrations, the author points out some lesser-known advantased of the metric system pertaining to acceleration research. PMID:1156296

Beckh, G J

1975-06-01

97

THE RELATIONAL VIEW: COOPERATIVE STRATEGY AND SOURCES OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we offer a view that suggests that a firm's critical resources may span firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis for understanding competitive advan- tage is the relationship between firms and identify four potential sources of interor- ganizational competitive advantage: (1) relation-specific assets, (2)

JEFFREY H. DYER; HARBIR SINGH

1998-01-01

98

Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites  

PubMed Central

The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

2014-01-01

99

3D cell culture systems: advantages and applications.  

PubMed

Cell cultures are important material of study for the variety of advantages that they offer. Both established continuous cell lines and primary cell cultures continue to be invaluable for basic research and for direct applications. Technological advancements are necessary to address emerging complex challenges and the way cells are cultured in vitro is an area of intense activity. One important advancement in cell culture techniques has been the introduction of three dimensional culture systems. This area is one of the fastest growing experimental approaches in life sciences. Augmented with advancements in cell imaging and analytical systems, as well as the applications of new scaffolds and matrices, cells have been increasingly grown as three dimensional models. Such cultures have proven to be closer to in vivo natural systems, thus proving to be useful material for many applications. Here, we review the three dimensional way of culturing cells, their advantages, the scaffolds and matrices currently available, and the applications of such cultures in major areas of life sciences. PMID:24912145

Ravi, Maddaly; Paramesh, V; Kaviya, S R; Anuradha, E; Solomon, F D Paul

2015-01-01

100

Perfect equilibria in simultaneous-offers bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalization of the Nash demand game is examined. Agents make simultaneous offers in each period as to how a pie is to be divided. Incompatible offers send the game to the next period, while compatible offers end the game with a split-the-difference trade. The set of perfect equilibria of this game includes any individually rational outcome, including inefficient outcomes

Kalyan Chatterjee; Larry Samuelson

1990-01-01

101

Accounting I (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accounting I, a multimedia course, was the first course produced by the University of Mid-America, and was offered publicly for the first time by the State University of Nebraska in October 1974. A brief overview of this first offering includes: (1) a description of its development; (2) details of its initial offering, such as registration…

Brown, Lawrence A.

102

[Additional qualifications in "special pain therapy"--an advantage to surgeons as well?].  

PubMed

Deficits in the treatment of patients with chronic pain lead the German Parliament of Physicians (Deutscher Arztetag) in 1996 to adapt a special curriculum called "Special Pain Treatment". Objectives and contents are defined in detail in guidelines accepted from 10 out of 17 federal commissions in Germany at this time. Because transitional regulations have been administered until now, surgeons have not yet been required to obtain the qualification. The prescribed curriculum and particularly the contract between the association of general practitioners and the insurance companies make the acquisition of the qualification and the permission to use it in private practice covered by insurance very difficult for surgeons. PMID:9931697

Bauer, H

1998-01-01

103

[Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].  

PubMed

This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for each organ, together with external and cut-surface features. A third section allows the examiner to report other observations not requested previously, while a final section is also provided for the epicrisis and for the formulation of the final diagnosis, the same as that reported in the first form. The database is coupled with an interactive system for collecting voice comments, thereby replacing the need for tape-recorders in the autopsy room. The user can recall a dictation window, dictate a text, check spelling and insert additional text. The database is also coupled to an image acquisition system, on the assumption that moving images allow a more faithful documentation of reality. Therefore, all rooms in which autopsies are carried out on fetuses or neonates have been equipped with a fixed camera linked to a monitor and a video-recorder. A PCB, used for image digitalization, recognizes up to 16,000,000 different colors. Guided by dedicated software, image files are transferred to a computer and then saved with the autoptic report. The database can be consulted and queried in two principle ways: by key words in the contents or main disease descriptions, or by individual words or phrases contained within the complete text of the reports. The present database system for autopsy reporting has proved itself useful in a pathological anatomy service. The combined presence of images and texts renders the system useful also as a research tool. By linking to a Web site dedicated to pathologic anatomy, it will be possible to display online rare cases involving diagnostic difficulties. The system offers great advantages for present and retrospective diagnostics, as well as for research and education purposes. PMID:11725353

Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

2001-10-01

104

Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

2007-09-01

105

A Selective Advantage for Conservative Viruses  

E-print Network

In this letter we study the full semi-conservative treatment of a model for the co-evolution of a virus and an adaptive immune system. Regions of viability are calculated for both conservatively and semi-conservatively replicating viruses interacting with a realistic semi-conservatively replicating immune system. The conservative virus is found to have a selective advantage in the form of an ability to survive in regions with a wider range of mutation rates than its semi-conservative counterpart. This may help explain the existence of a rich range of viruses with conservatively replicating genomes, a trait which is found nowhere else in nature.

Yisroel Brumer; Eugene I. Shakhnovich

2004-01-16

106

Additive Manufacturing for Mass Customization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive manufacturing technology that requires no tooling for production. AM requires\\u000a three dimensional computer aided design (3DCAD) data in order to additively build parts from numerous materials, including polymers, metals and ceramics. Within this chapter the advantages realized\\u000a by taking an AM approach are considered as well as their application in mass customization MC). Particular

Phil Reeves; Chris Tuck; Richard Hague

107

Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

2012-05-01

108

High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

2011-12-01

109

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

110

Design advantages of run-time reconfiguration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FPGAs have been successfully used to accelerate a wide variety of applications on a large number of systems. The FPGA devices in these systems are typically configured once by the application and seldom perform any sort of reconfiguration during execution. With the advent of new device architectures and new software tools, the interest in Run-Time Reconfiguration or RTR has increased. As with previous efforts, the focus of RTR has primarily been either in purely theoretical work or in demonstrating performance improvements over software-based solutions. In this paper we explore some of the more practical design issues surrounding RTR systems, and evaluate the advantages of RTR in terms of savings in hardware and software complexity. Preliminary results indicate that RTR can dramatically reduce the amount of FPGA logic and software support necessary for even simple coprocessing applications.

Guccione, Steven A.; Levi, Delon

1999-08-01

111

Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

Krischel, Detlef

112

FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

113

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

PubMed Central

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

114

ERASMUS Placement Offer Form EMPLOYER INFORMATION  

E-print Network

and numeracy Literacy and numeracy Personal skills Personal skills Education Teacher training and education1 ERASMUS Placement Offer Form EMPLOYER INFORMATION Name of Organization Agricultural University PLACEMENT INFORMATION Number of positions offered for student placement 2 per semester In the Department

Herrmann, Samuel

115

Payment for research participation: a coercive offer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payment for research participation has raised ethical concerns, especially with respect to its potential for coercion. We argue that characterising payment for research participation as coercive is misguided, because offers of benefit cannot constitute coercion. In this article we analyse the concept of coercion, refute mistaken conceptions of coercion and explain why the offer of payment for research participation is

A Wertheimer; F G Miller

2010-01-01

116

OFFER TO LEASE SPACE IN RESPONSE TO  

E-print Network

OFFER TO LEASE SPACE IN RESPONSE TO SOLICITATION NUMBER DATED SECTION I - DESCRIPTION OF PREMISES 1 that will be charged for each parking space. SECTION III - LEASE TERMS 14. INITIAL LEASE 15. RENEWAL OPTIONS 16. Offer LEASE 18. NUMBER OF DAYS NOTICE REQUIRED TO EXERCISE RENEWAL OPTION and delivered within __________ days

117

Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

2008-07-01

118

Advantages of scaling up gravitational wave detectors  

E-print Network

Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Two facilities with $4~{\\rm km}$ long L-shaped vacuum envelops were built at two sites in Washington state and Louisiana. Initial LIGO reached its design sensitivity and finished observing in 2010. Advanced LIGO has just been installed in the same facility and will have 10 times better sensitivity than Initial LIGO. Looking further into the future, design studies for third generation detectors in the same facility are in progress. However, they are severely restricted by the size of the existing vacuum system, leading to no more than a factor of a few improvement in sensitivity. We make a case for the advantages of longer arm cavities and show that a ten-fold increase in sensitivity over Advanced LIGO is possible. Furthermore, this can be achieved by reusing existing Advanced LIGO hardware with only modest changes. This third generation observatory would be able to see binary black hole mergers up to a hori...

Dwyer, Sheila E; Ballmer, Stefan; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

2014-01-01

119

Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

2010-01-01

120

Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors  

PubMed Central

High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (?GB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm?2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle ?c of ?9°, which is substantially larger than the ?c of ?5° for YBa2Cu3O7–?. Even at ?GB>?c, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–?. PMID:21811238

Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

2011-01-01

121

Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol  

SciTech Connect

In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

122

The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

2011-01-01

123

Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

Johnson, Odis, Jr.

2013-01-01

124

Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage ?6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in ?6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for ?6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

Turner, Paul E.

2003-02-01

125

Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

126

Corporate global culture as competitive advantage: learning from Germany and Japan in Alabama and Austria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cross-border corporate mergers and acquisitions find organizations outgrowing their cultural boundaries, transnational companies may try to capture the strengths of the best talent and technology that cultures offer. The Daimler Chrysler (DC) transatlantic merger foreshadows how industrial corporations may change 21st century work relationships and it raises questions about the complexities of cross-cultural collaboration to achieve competitive advantage. We

Gerhard Apfelthaler; Helen J. Muller; Robert R. Rehder

2002-01-01

127

Embryonic Stem Cell Derivatives for Cardiac Therapy: Advantages, Limitations, and Long-Term Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ultimate goal of cardiovascular regenerative medicine is to ­generate functional myocardial tissue that can engraft, survive,\\u000a mature, and become well integrated with host myocardium leading to restoration of the myocardial ­electromechanical properties.\\u000a Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) (Science 282:1145–7, 1998) offer a number of theoretical advantages to achieve this objective\\u000a because of their availability and expandability, their diverse ­differentiation

Michal Weiler-Sagie; Lior Gepstein

128

43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12...Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do not apply when the...

2013-10-01

129

43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12...Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do not apply when the...

2014-10-01

130

43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12...Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do not apply when the...

2010-10-01

131

43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12...Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do not apply when the...

2011-10-01

132

43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of...

2010-10-01

133

43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12...Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do not apply when the...

2012-10-01

134

43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of...

2012-10-01

135

43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of...

2011-10-01

136

43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of...

2013-10-01

137

43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of...

2014-10-01

138

Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends  

MedlinePLUS

... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

139

Learn what FAU has to offer www.fau.edu/admissions  

E-print Network

:1, an advantage normally offered by small, private colleges. Primarily, classes are taught by the University the workforce. #12;AppLicAtion procedures Admission decisions are made on a rolling basis. Decisions begin rolling on October 1 for freshman applicants. Students are encouraged to apply early in their senior year

Fernandez, Eduardo

140

A greener, efficient approach to Michael addition of barbituric acid to nitroalkene in aqueous diethylamine medium.  

PubMed

An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a-t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a-k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. PMID:24445342

Al-Najjar, Hany J; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Weber, Manuel; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

2014-01-01

141

An update on therapeutic opportunities offered by cancer glycolytic metabolism.  

PubMed

Almost all invasive cancers, regardless of tissue origin, are characterized by specific modifications of their cellular energy metabolism. In fact, a strong predominance of aerobic glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation (Warburg effect) is usually associated with aggressive tumour phenotypes. This metabolic shift offers a survival advantage to cancer cells, since they may continue to produce energy and anabolites even when they are exposed to either transient or permanent hypoxic conditions. Moreover, it ensures a high production rate of glycolysis intermediates, useful as building blocks for fast cell proliferation of cancer cells. This peculiar metabolic profile may constitute an ideal target for therapeutic interventions that selectively hit cancer cells with minimal residual systemic toxicity. In this review we provide an update about some of the most recent advances in the discovery of new bioactive molecules that are able to interfere with cancer glycolysis. PMID:25288186

Granchi, Carlotta; Fancelli, Daniele; Minutolo, Filippo

2014-11-01

142

Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.  

PubMed

Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging. PMID:24815585

Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

2014-04-01

143

ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

144

Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regression analysis of competitors' tournament results in relation to their world rankings was proposed to identify the effect of home advantage in international ‘grand-slam’ tennis and ‘major’ golf tournaments. The results provided little evidence of home advantage in either the grand-slam tennis or the golf tournaments held in 1993. The only possible evidence of home advantage was found in

Alan M. Nevill; Roger L. Holder; Andrew Bardsley; Helen Calvert; Stephen Jones

1997-01-01

145

Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on oVer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found

NIGEL J. BALMER; ALAN M. NEVILL

146

Evaluating the sustainable competitive advantage model for corporate real estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to establish empirical connections between corporate real estate management (CREM) practices and organisations' sources of sustainable competitive advantage (SSCA). The alignment of CREM practices with modes of achieving competitiveness provides greater competitive advantage from CREM. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model for sustainable competitive advantage for corporate real estate (CRE) theorising the connections between CREM practices and

Christopher Heywood; Russell Kenley

2008-01-01

147

The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

2014-09-01

148

The metabolic advantage of tumor cells.  

PubMed

1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase). 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

Israël, Maurice; Schwartz, Laurent

2011-01-01

149

Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts  

SciTech Connect

Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

Not Available

1993-11-22

150

Home advantage in speed skating: evidence from individual data.  

PubMed

Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantage in some individual sports, but there is a much more limited literature. This paper addresses the issue of home advantage in speed skating. From a methodological point of view, it is difficult to identify home advantage, because skaters vary in their abilities and the conditions of tournaments vary. There is a small but significant home advantage using a generalized linear mixed model, with random effects for skaters and fixed effects for skating rinks and seasons. Even though the home advantage effect exists, it is very small when compared to variation in skating times due to differences of rinks and individual abilities. PMID:16089186

Koning, Ruud H

2005-04-01

151

Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.  

PubMed

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

Purc?rea, Victor Lorín; Ra?íu, Monica; Purc?rea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

2008-01-01

152

MULTIPLE BUYING OR SELLING WITH VECTOR OFFERS  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE BUYING OR SELLING WITH VECTOR OFFERS F. THOMAS BRUSS , Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles was suggested to us by James B. MacQueen who modeled it as a buying problem. You want to buy Christmas presents for your two children. After deciding which two presents to buy, you go to various stores. With two

Ferguson, Thomas S.

153

The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

Perlmutter, David D.

2013-01-01

154

Precision Dentistry Offers Exciting New Options  

E-print Network

Precision Dentistry Offers Exciting New Options UCSF Launches Center for Children's Oral Health / 2014 University of California, San Francisco magazine School of Dentistry #12;dentistry.ucsf.edu VOLUME 9 / 2014 Update > Featherstone Renewed as Dean for Five Years / PAGE 2 > UCSF Dentistry Joins All

Derisi, Joseph

155

Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada!  

E-print Network

Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada! November 18, 19, 25, 26 Vancouver, British Columbia The Appreciative Leadership Development Program is an innovative strengths-based learning process during which you discover and build upon your Leadership Positive Core -- your unique strengths, skills

Pulfrey, David L.

156

Chemistry & Biology -Mediated Synthetic Biosystems Offer  

E-print Network

Chemistry & Biology Article Ca2+ -Mediated Synthetic Biosystems Offer Protein Design Versatility localized the Ca2+ -activated RhoA chimera to the plasma membrane, where it re- sponded specifically). Activation of the same Ca2+ -generating system (RYR and IP3R) can lead to different physiological processes

157

...offers early cost-effectiveness check  

E-print Network

been used to evaluate a new device to check blood glucose levels in diabetics and also to compare a treatment and how healthy they are (Quality Adjusted Life Years/QALYs). With these figures, the spreadsheet, the conclusion is more blurred, indicating that, for example, the device offers uncertain health benefits

Oakley, Jeremy

158

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign...Rights Offerings, Exchange Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption...in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of...

2010-04-01

159

Organisations Offering Support and Guidance V4 7.8.14 Organisations Offering Advice and Support  

E-print Network

Organisations Offering Support and Guidance V4 7.8.14 Organisations Offering Advice and Support for voluntary organisations, volunteers and communities and manages a range of grant programmes. Environment and accessible to communities in Wales through free, expert advice for landowners and community organisations

160

Career Center The Career Center offers individualized assistance, programs, and technologically advanced resources to educate  

E-print Network

We offer the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Strong Interest Inventory. These activities can-minute introduction about yourself. In addition to stating your name, school, major, and the type of position you seek

Rollins, Andrew M.

161

Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

2014-01-01

162

17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for purposes solely of...

2014-04-01

163

17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for purposes solely of...

2010-04-01

164

17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for purposes solely of...

2011-04-01

165

17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for purposes solely of...

2012-04-01

166

17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section...Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for purposes solely of...

2013-04-01

167

Teaching youths with autism to offer assistance.  

PubMed Central

Three adolescent boys with autism were taught to offer assistance to a person stating inability to complete a task. The study used a multiple baseline across the 3 youths and a multiple baseline across three tasks for each student. Both designs provided clear support for the ability of the youths to discriminate those settings in which offers of assistance were desired. All 3 participants showed relatively rapid acquisition of responding. Generalization was assessed to a new person in the training setting, to a familiar person in a new room at the center, to the mother in the youth's home, and to three novel tasks. Generalization to a new person in the familiar setting was most likely to occur, with very high levels of responding for all 3 youths. Generalization to the other conditions varied across youths, although all 3 boys showed some transfer of skills to all conditions. PMID:2249966

Harris, S L; Handleman, J S; Alessandri, M

1990-01-01

168

An approach to evaluate the energy advantage of two axes solar tracking systems in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work shows an alterative method for determining the tracking energy advantage, defined as the additional electrical energy produced by two axes tracking systems respect to fixed devices, in order to analyze the economical profitability in Spain. For this purpose, 52 main cities of this country have been analyzed. The proposed methodology starts from irradiation data, combining diffuse models

Fernando Cruz-Peragón; Pedro J. Casanova-Peláez; Francisco A. Díaz; Rafael López-García; José M. Palomar

2011-01-01

169

University Archives offers Orange Bowl Exhibit  

E-print Network

& Databases Catalog: books & more E-journals Research by Subject Course Reserves Library Pages A-Z Images KU ScholarWorks KU Digital Collections Hours My Account Request Articles, Books,… Friends & Benefactors Suggestions University Archives offers Orange Bowl... Exhibit KU's University Archives, located in Spencer Research Library, has brought together items from its collections relating to the 1948 and 1969 Orange Bowl games. Included in the small exhibit are a souvenir KU '68 Orange Bowl gym bag, photographs...

2007-12-11

170

Advantageous swirling flow in 45° end-to-side anastomosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of swirling flow on the flow field in 45° end-to-side anastomosis are experimentally investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique to reveal fluid dynamic advantages of swirling flow in the vascular graft. Non-swirling Poiseuille inlet flow unnecessarily induces pathological hemodynamic features, such as high wall shear stress (WSS) at the `bed' side and large flow separation at the `toe' side. The introduction of swirling flow is found to equalize the asymmetric WSS distribution and reduces the peak magnitude of WSS. In particular, the intermediate swirling intensity of S = 0.45 induces the most uniform axial velocity and WSS distributions compared with weaker or stronger swirling flows, which addresses the importance of proper selection of swirling intensity in the vascular graft to obtain optimum flow fields at the host vessel. In addition, swirling flow reduces the size of flow separation because it disturbs the formation of Dean-type vortices in secondary flow and inhibits secondary flow collision. The beneficial fluid dynamic features of swirling flow obtained in this study are helpful for designing better vascular graft suppressing pathological hemodynamic features in the recipient host vessel.

Ha, Hojin; Choi, Woorak; Park, Hanwook; Lee, Sang Joon

2014-12-01

171

Gene Networks and Metacommunities: Dispersal Differences Can Override Adaptive Advantage  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is an important mechanism contributing to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In metapopulation and metacommunity ecology, dispersal enables new patches to be colonized; in evolution, dispersal counter-acts local selection, leading to regional homogenization. Here, I consider a three-patch metacommunity in which two species, each with a limiting quantitative trait underlain by gene networks of 16 to 256 genes, compete with one another and disperse among patches. Incorporating dispersal among heterogeneous patches introduces a tradeoff not observed in single-patch simulations: if the difference between gene network size of the two species is greater than the difference in dispersal ability (e.g., if the ratio of network sizes is larger than the ratio of dispersal abilities), then genetic architecture drives community outcome. However, if the difference in dispersal abilities is greater than gene network differences, then any adaptive advantages afforded by genetic architecture are over-ridden by dispersal. Thus, in addition to the selective pressures imposed by competition that shape the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, dispersal among patches creates an escape that may further alter the effects of different genetic architectures. These results provide a theoretical expectation for what we may observe as the field of ecological genomics develops. PMID:21738698

Malcom, Jacob W.

2011-01-01

172

Crossing the arms confuses the clocks: sensory feedback and the bimanual advantage.  

PubMed

The bimanual advantage refers to the finding that tapping with two fingers on opposite hands exhibits reduced timing variability, as compared with tapping with only one finger. Two leading theories propose that the bimanual advantage results from the addition of either sensory (i.e., enhanced feedback) or cognitive (i.e., multiple timekeeper) processes involved in timing. Given that crossing the arms impairs perception of tactile stimuli and modulates cortical activation following tactile stimulation, we investigated the role of crossing the arms in the bimanual advantage. Participants tapped unimanually or bimanually with their arms crossed or uncrossed on a tabletop or in the air. With arms crossed, we expected increased interval timing variance. Similarly, for air tapping, we expected reduced bimanual advantage, due to reduced sensory feedback. A significant bimanual advantage was observed for the uncrossed, but not the crossed posture in tabletop tapping. Furthermore, removing tactile feedback from taps eliminated the bimanual advantage for both postures. Together, these findings suggest that crossing the arms likely impairs integration of internal (i.e., effector-specific) and external (i.e., environment-specific) information and that this multisensory integration is crucial to reducing timing variability during repetitive coordinated bimanual tasks. PMID:23943555

Studenka, Breanna E; Eliasz, Kinga L; Shore, David I; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

2014-04-01

173

The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidates the underlying economics of the resource-based view of competitive advantage and integrates existing perspectives into a parsimonious model of resources and firm performance. The essence of this model is that four conditions underlie sustained competitive advantage, all of which must be met. These include superior resources (heterogeneity within an industry), ex post limits to competition, imperfect resource

Margaret A. Peteraf

1993-01-01

174

Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

Hansen, I. G.

1983-01-01

175

Study on the comparative advantage of China's agricultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article overviews the China's agricultural trade in recent years, analyzes the comparative advantages in the pro- duction of agricultural products by RCA and TC index. The study shows that the competitiveness of China's agricultural products decreased further. The labor-intensive products are of competitive advantage while the land-intensive ones are of com- petitive disadvantage. The deep processing agricultural products have

Xiaoyan Wu; Jin Zhang; Jianzhao Qi

2011-01-01

176

32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form. The use of the latest revision of ENG Form 42, Offer to Sell Real Property...contract (accepted offer) to vendor by ENG Form 53, Notice of Acceptance of Offer...acquisition offer form. (1) The use of ENG Form 2970, Offer to Sell Easement,...

2010-07-01

177

Petrofina offers to buy up Fina  

SciTech Connect

Petrofina has offered to buy all publicly held shares of Fina, its US chemical and oil subsidiary. The shares are worth $266 million and amount to about 15% of the unit, which, combined with Petrofina`s existing 85% stake, would give Petrofina full ownership of Fina. While Petrofina does not give a reason for the buyout, analysts say the company may be planning to sell the entire unit outright or spin off some of its less profitable businesses. Ron Haddock, Fina`s CEO, denies the speculation. {open_quotes}This deal is merely a confirmation of Petrofina`s confidence in a commitment to our company.{close_quotes}

Vames, S.

1997-03-05

178

Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

Not Available

1992-04-20

179

Procedures offered in the medical spa environment.  

PubMed

Medical spas' menus of services vary widely and depend greatly on the medical director or owner's experience and predilection. Core services include: microdermabrasion, mild chemical peels, medical facials, laser hair removal, photorejuvenation, botulinum toxin, and injectable fillers. Common procedures include cellulite reduction, tissue tightening, and acne treatments. Less common procedures that are more likely to be performed in medical spas with direct on-site daily involvement of the medical director include: laser resurfacing, laser-assisted lipoplasty, sclerotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and cosmetic surgery. Multisite spas often use multi-platform devices to assist with uniformity in menu offerings and training. PMID:18555951

Taub, Amy F

2008-07-01

180

On the advantages of word frequency and contextual diversity measures extracted from subtitles: The case of Portuguese.  

PubMed

We examined the potential advantage of the lexical databases using subtitles and present SUBTLEX-PT, a new lexical database for 132,710 Portuguese words obtained from a 78 million corpus based on film and television series subtitles, offering word frequency and contextual diversity measures. Additionally we validated SUBTLEX-PT with a lexical decision study involving 1920 Portuguese words (and 1920 nonwords) with different lengths in letters (M?=?6.89, SD?=?2.10) and syllables (M?=?2.99, SD?=?0.94). Multiple regression analyses on latency and accuracy data were conducted to compare the proportion of variance explained by the Portuguese subtitle word frequency measures with that accounted by the recent written-word frequency database (Procura-PALavras; P-PAL; Soares, Iriarte, et al., 2014 ). As its international counterparts, SUBTLEX-PT explains approximately 15% more of the variance in the lexical decision performance of young adults than the P-PAL database. Moreover, in line with recent studies, contextual diversity accounted for approximately 2% more of the variance in participants' reading performance than the raw frequency counts obtained from subtitles. SUBTLEX-PT is freely available for research purposes (at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases ). PMID:25263599

Soares, Ana Paula; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Alvaro; Simões, Alberto; de Almeida, José João; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

2014-11-01

181

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2013-04-01

182

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2011-04-01

183

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Compliance with...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2014-04-01

184

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2010-04-01

185

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2012-04-01

186

Portable artificial kidney with advantages of hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and hemoperfusion.  

PubMed

The FDA (filtration, dialysis, absorption) system developed in the present study operates on the principle of simultaneous filtration of blood and dialysis against its purified filtrate, the filtrate being purified by a multi-adsorption system. The filtration of blood is done using a hemofilter which permits clearance of solutes up to 50,000 daltons and easy removal of excess fluid overload under minimal osmotic imbalance conditions. The clearance of small solutes in the above pure-convective filtration process is enhanced by returning the purified filtrate to the hemofilter which introduces an additional diffusive mass transport to the otherwise pure-convective process. The purification of the filtrate is done by 3 kg charcoal and 450 gm of cation exchanger in the Ca++ and Na+ form. Sufficient urea binding is achieved by raising the post-treatment urea level from 50 mg% to 150 mg% which may be justified as the blood urea level below 300 mg% was found to be nontoxic by others. By this procedure, about 40 gm urea is removed per treatment by 3 kg charcoal and 3 to 4 liters of excess fluid discarded. Three kg of charcoal is found to bind an adequate amount of phosphate, thus eliminating the use of phosphate binders, such as alumina, which is a toxic material. The ion exchangers in the Ca++ and Na+ form bind an adequate amount of K+ without altering Na+ and Ca++ levels. The filtrate purification cartridge can be easily regenerated and sterilized, if necessary, thus making it inexpensive. A comparison of the FDA system with other systems clearly showed that it has the advantages of HD, HF, and HP while the major disadvantages of HD, HF, and HP are eliminated in the FDA system. PMID:7073517

Shettigar, U R; Reul, H

1982-02-01

187

Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an acceleration of several times compared to standard CPU calculations.

Peši?, J.; Gaji?, R.

2014-09-01

188

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents

Terry V. Clapp; Rene Paquet; Ann Norris; Babette Pettersen

2005-01-01

189

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

Frazier, William E.

2014-06-01

190

What FM can offer DFCS design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

Rushby, John

1990-01-01

191

Offering individual genetic research results: context matters.  

PubMed

The disclosure of individual genetic research results to study participants continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, centered primarily on the nature of the results. We suggest that research context, which is foreseeable when a study is designed, is a vital consideration that has not been sufficiently incorporated into the discussion. Adapting an ancillary care framework to explore what different contexts might call for with regard to offering individual genetic research results, our analysis suggests that, beyond exceptionally rare circumstances that give rise to a duty to rescue, a one-size-fits-all threshold cannot be developed for decisions about returning individual results. Instead, researchers and institutional review boards must consider the scope of entrustment involved in the research, as well as the intensity and duration of interactions with participants and the vulnerability and dependence of the study population. PMID:20592417

Beskow, Laura M; Burke, Wylie

2010-06-30

192

Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?  

PubMed

It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. PMID:25475825

de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

2015-01-01

193

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript - Hospice Advantages  

MedlinePLUS

... NLM Director’s Comments Transcript Hospice Advantages: 01/12/2015 To use the sharing features on this page, ... to find new ways to serve you in 2015. Mobile version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS ...

194

Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

Denman, O. S.

1978-01-01

195

A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable   

E-print Network

of advantage in executive function found in previous research. Tests of auditory attention and attentional switching were taken from the Test of Everyday Attention battery (TEA; Robertson, Ward, Ridgeway & Nimmo-Smith, 1994), a test of mental flexibility...

Clarkson, Harriet

196

Detection of change in shape: an advantage for concavities  

E-print Network

Detection of change in shape: an advantage for concavities Elan Barenholtz*, Elias H. Cohen, Jacob.elsevier.com/locate/COGNIT * Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: elanbz@ruccs.rutgers.edu (E. Barenholtz), elias@ruccs.rutgers.edu (E

Tong, Frank

197

Disconnects between popular discourse and home advantage research: what can fans and media tell us about the home advantage phenomenon?  

PubMed

Many of the factors identified as influencing the home advantage have an underlying social basis, presumably through the influence exerted by the home crowd. Beliefs in the home advantage and the causes of that advantage also have a social basis: sports coverage and fan discourse focus on some aspects of the phenomenon at the expense of others. This paper compares home advantage research with the use of the concept in media narratives and fan Intemet postings. While there are many similarities across sources, the findings suggest three major differences. Fans, and to a lesser extent the media, (1) focus almost exclusively on winning as the evidence for a home advantage, (2) see crowd noise as the main factor for the home advantage, and (3) treat the phenomenon as much more transient than is suggested by academic studies. I identify several features of the phenomenon that facilitate popular views of the home advantage and suggest how future research may benefit from incorporating those views. PMID:16089180

Smith, D Randall

2005-04-01

198

Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?  

PubMed Central

The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or Average Revenue/Average Cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans’ margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan’s margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC’s in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high margin HCC’s in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

2013-01-01

199

Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

200

Comparing models of the combined-stimulation advantage for speech recognition  

PubMed Central

The “combined-stimulation advantage” refers to an improvement in speech recognition when cochlear-implant or vocoded stimulation is supplemented by low-frequency acoustic information. Previous studies have been interpreted as evidence for “super-additive” or “synergistic” effects in the combination of low-frequency and electric or vocoded speech information by human listeners. However, this conclusion was based on predictions of performance obtained using a suboptimal high-threshold model of information combination. The present study shows that a different model, based on Gaussian signal detection theory, can predict surprisingly large combined-stimulation advantages, even when performance with either information source alone is close to chance, without involving any synergistic interaction. A reanalysis of published data using this model reveals that previous results, which have been interpreted as evidence for super-additive effects in perception of combined speech stimuli, are actually consistent with a more parsimonious explanation, according to which the combined-stimulation advantage reflects an optimal combination of two independent sources of information. The present results do not rule out the possible existence of synergistic effects in combined stimulation; however, they emphasize the possibility that the combined-stimulation advantages observed in some studies can be explained simply by non-interactive combination of two information sources. PMID:22559370

Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

201

addition and subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are addition and subtraction problems related? Recording chart Graphic Organizer Use this link to work on addition with pictures. addition with pictures Go here to work on addition with sentences. addition with sentences Now, go here to work on subtraction sentences. Subtraction sentences Use this link to practice subtraction with pictures. Subtraction with pictures Now let's review! Click here. Fact Family Practice ...

Ms. Hayes

2011-04-07

202

31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifying a price). All offers must state the security description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must...You must express offered prices in terms of price per $100 of par with three decimals, e.g., 102.172. The first...

2010-07-01

203

Alternative Addition Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores recall of multiple alternative addition strategies of two-digit numbers. The lesson focus is to encourage students to use more than one strategy to solve addition problems. By reinforcing the multiple alternative addition strategies students will develop a strong understanding of addition structures and mechanics before moving on to three-digit addition. The lesson includes making an Addition Strategies Mini Booklet, which students can keep and use as a reference tool.

Judith Scapecchi

2012-07-31

204

Immunization services offered in Québec (Canada) pharmacies.  

PubMed

Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administration. In 2008-09, an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all Québec pharmacy owners (n = 1663). Among the 1102 (66%) respondents, 90% stated that vaccines were sold, 27% that a nurse administered vaccines in their pharmacy and 44% were planning to offer vaccine administration in the next five years. Three out of four stated they were doing vaccine promotion and 65%, vaccine counselling. Half of respondents said they would be willing to administer vaccines themselves if legislative modifications were made. Recommendations for cold chain maintenance were followed in 23% of pharmacies selling vaccines. Presence of another health professional in the pharmacy, higher number of opening hours, not being located in the same building than a medical clinic and having an agreement to collaborate with a public health unit or a medical clinic for immunization were positively associated with vaccine administration in multivariate analysis. Higher perceived difficulties with lack of demand from patients were negatively associated with vaccine administration. Most pharmacists are willing to increase their involvement in immunization. Collaboration between public health professionals and pharmacists should be reinforced. PMID:23782530

Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne

2013-09-01

205

Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

2015-01-01

206

Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

Zaridis, Apostolos D.

2009-08-01

207

Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?  

PubMed Central

We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

2014-01-01

208

Increased flexibility in the delivery of ultrapure water The Milli-Q Advantage system offers flexibility in the quality and delivery of various ultrapure  

E-print Network

for drug discovery together with LC-MS as well as cell-based assays for lead selection and qualification steps. Environmental laboratories gather standard data on ion dosage, trace-level analysis of persistent of monitoring devices and qualification of water purification units. Millipore has developed a new water

Cai, Long

209

Laser Additive Manufacturing of Gas Permeable Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser additive manufacturing offers a variety of new design possibilities. In mold making laser additive manufactured inserts with conformal cooling channels are already state of the art. Pneumatic ejectors for injection molds are a new application for laser additive manufacturing. The pneumatic ejectors require a durable gas permeable material. This material is produced by placing the scan vectors for the laser additive manufacturing process in a defined pattern. Trials with different plastics proofed the function and reliability of the pneumatic ejector concept in the injection molding cycle.

Klahn, C.; Bechmann, F.; Hofmann, S.; Dinkel, M.; Emmelmann, C.

210

A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2013-01-01

211

Potential advantages of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past studies of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters have generally emphasized the advantages of flight time reduction and payload increases. However, several subtle advantages exist, which may become important in an environment of increasingly difficult requirements as ways to extend current technology are sought. These advantages accrue primarily because of the inherent capability, unique to electric propulsion, to efficiently shape a trajectory while enroute. Stressed in this paper are: the ability to meet orbital constraints due to assumed radiation belts, science flexibility in a dual launch program, increased numbers of observational passes, and the lengthening of launch periods. These are examined for years representative of relatively easy and difficult ballistic missions. The results indicate that an early investment in solar electric technology will provide a strong performance foundation for a long range outer planet exploration program which evolves from current spacecraft technology.

Sauer, C. G.; Atkins, K. L.

1972-01-01

212

Free Math Worksheets/Addition and Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers printable and online worksheets to practice addition and subtraction facts. Pages include a set of problems, the answer sheet, and printable flashcards. There is the option for students to fill in the answers to the problem sheets, which will be graded by the computer; next students could print a copy of their work. Additionally flash cards may be answered on-line with immediate feedback.

Math Fact Cafe

2009-03-16

213

For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology  

E-print Network

For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology Montana State University 325.montana.edu/wwwpy psydept@montana.edu PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE FOR FUTURE CAREERS Our department offers a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in psychology. This degree prepares undergraduate students for employment in applied settings

Maxwell, Bruce D.

214

For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology  

E-print Network

For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology Montana State University 310 Lewis Hall P.O. Box 173460 Bozeman, MT 59717-3460 Tel: 406-994-4548 Fax: 406-994-3190 www.montana.edu/ecology/ ecology@montana.edu The Department of Ecology at Montana State University offers undergraduate majors

Maxwell, Bruce D.

215

An asymmetric model of heterozygote advantage at major histocompatibility complex genes: degenerate pathogen recognition and intersection advantage.  

PubMed

We characterize the function of MHC molecules by the sets of pathogens that they recognize, which we call their "recognition sets." Two features of the MHC-pathogen interaction may be important to the theory of polymorphism construction at MHC loci: First, there may be a large degree of overlap, or degeneracy, among the recognition sets of MHC molecules. Second, when infected with a pathogen, an MHC genotype may have a higher fitness if that pathogen belongs to the overlapping portion, or intersection, of the two recognition sets of the host, when compared with a genotype that contains that pathogen in only one of its recognition sets. We call this benefit "intersection advantage," gamma, and incorporate it, as well as the degree of recognition degeneracy, m, into a model of heterozygote advantage that utilizes a set-theoretic definition of fitness. Counterintuitively, we show that levels of polymorphism are positively related to m and that a high level of recognition degeneracy is necessary for polymorphism at MHC loci under heterozygote advantage. Increasing gamma reduces levels of polymorphism considerably. Hence, if intersection advantage is significant for MHC genotypes, then heterozygote advantage may not explain the very high levels of polymorphism observed at MHC genes. PMID:18245836

Stoffels, Rick J; Spencer, Hamish G

2008-03-01

216

Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

217

Unreinforced sheeting material offers strength, chemical resistance  

SciTech Connect

The ability of multiple application structural or sheeting Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material to function in severe chemical and mechanical environments at extreme temperatures garnered it a 1995 Chemical Processing Vaaler Award. The 100% Teflon PTFE resin yields sheeting with high levels of tear and tensile strength and a flex life that allows it to be used without additional support. The resin provides chemical resistance, heat sealability, simple fabrication, and rugged construction. The material functions in temperatures to 500 degrees F and has found many uses in the chemical industry like chemical tank covers, drop-in tank liners, flue gas barriers in non-metallic expansion joints, gasketing, pump diaphragms, insulating jacketing and pipe lagging, protective suiting materials, inflatable liners for chemical service, heat-sealed insulation jackets for severe chemical service and many others.

NONE

1995-10-01

218

MANUFACTURABILITY ANALYSIS TO COMBINE ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE PROCESSES  

E-print Network

MANUFACTURABILITY ANALYSIS TO COMBINE ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE PROCESSES Authors: Olivier Kerbrat of the tool may advantageously be machined or manufactured by an additive process. Originality/value: Nowadays is proposed to combine additive and subtractive processes, for tooling design and manufacturing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding article in the special issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes on the foundations of knowledge transfer in organizations argues that the creation and transfer of knowledge are a basis for competitive advantage in firms. The article builds on a framework of knowledge reservoirs to show why knowledge transfer can be difficult and to identify the kinds

Linda Argote; Paul Ingram

2000-01-01

220

Location Advantages and Strategy Selection of Changsha Auto Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheaper land, cheaper labor, cheaper capital and convenient mass transportation are determinants of auto industrial location in a completely competitive market. Empirically, Changsha, a city locating in the centre of south China and crossing two main transportation corridors, possesses the location advantages, namely possesses the comparative low cost to develop auto industry. Spatial location of Chinese motor industry is experiencing

Qilin Ding; Zuoxiang Liu

2009-01-01

221

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

222

Amateur Sports Clubs. Their Salient Features and Major Advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promotion of sport, the extension of the sporting experience into an ever wider section of the population, is an important aim which can be pursued in many different ways. Some of the most important agents in providing an initial experience of sport are amateur sports clubs, about which little is known. Such clubs have several advantages in sports promotion,

John Boothby; Malcolm F. Tungatt

1978-01-01

223

Informational Advantage and Influence of Communicating Central Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes empirically whether first the central bank has an informational advantage over the private sector and second influences it, for five countries in which the central bank publishes forecasts in real time. Contrary to the relation between the Fed, which publishes its forecasts with a 5-year lag, and private agents, these issues are handled only by a tiny

Paul Hubert

2009-01-01

224

Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments.  

PubMed

A regression analysis of competitors' tournament results in relation to their world rankings was proposed to identify the effect of home advantage in international 'grand-slam' tennis and 'major' golf tournaments. The results provided little evidence of home advantage in either the grand-slam tennis or the golf tournaments held in 1993. The only possible evidence of home advantage was found in the Wimbledon tennis and the US Open golf championships. Even these findings can be explained, at least partially, by (1) the availability of information concerning the low world rankings of the British tennis players competing at Wimbledon, and (2) selective entry, allowing only the world's top-ranked foreign golfers into the US open golf tournament. In both cases, the lower ranking home competitors have a greater opportunity to perform above their anticipated world rankings. Therefore, provided entry into tennis and golf tournaments is truly 'open' to both the host nation's representatives and foreign competitors alike, home advantage does not appear to be a major factor influencing the competitors' performance in such competitions. These findings may be explained by the relatively objective nature of the scoring systems used in tennis and golf, unlike the subjective influence of refereeing decisions on the results of team-games such as soccer. PMID:9293420

Nevill, A M; Holder, R L; Bardsley, A; Calvert, H; Jones, S

1997-08-01

225

Online Data Collection in Academic Research: Advantages and Limitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online data collection in academic research might be replacing paper-and-pencil surveys or questionnaires in the near future. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of online data collection, with particular reference to the conduct of two qualitative studies involving upper secondary school teachers and students in Iceland in 2002.…

Lefever, Samuel; Dal, Michael; Matthiasdottir, Asrun

2007-01-01

226

Achieving Competitive Advantage in a High Turnover, Dynamic Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a dynamic systems perspective to establish a causal model of how organizations can achieve and maintain competitive advantage in highly competitive situations where unique resources do not exist. The study is grounded in the resource based theory of the firm, and the model is developed from research surrounding this theory and from an extensive fifteen month in-depth

Thomas D. Clark; Mary C. Jones

227

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in  

E-print Network

Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in evolving yeast populations Clifford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex is a general feature of the life cycle of eukaryotes. It is not universal, however, as many organisms seem to lack sex entirely1 . The widespread occurrence of sex is puzzling, both because meiotic

Johnston, Mark

228

Home advantage and player nationality in international club football  

Microsoft Academic Search

The home advantage effect was investigated at a team and player level in Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League football using in-depth performance and disciplinary variables. Performance analysis revealed that the home team scored more goals, had more shots on and off target, had a greater share of possession, and won more corners than the away team. There

Damian R. Poulter

2009-01-01

229

Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

2008-01-01

230

Rural-Urban Migration in Bolivia: Advantages and Disadvantages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty

Lykke E. Andersen

231

A Selective Advantage to Immigrant Genes in a Daphnia Metapopulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immigrants to habitats occupied by conspecific organisms are usually expected to be competitively inferior, because residents may be locally adapted. If residents are inbred, however, mating between immigrants and residents results in offspring that may enjoy a fitness advantage from hybrid vigor. We demonstrate this effect experimentally in a natural Daphnia metapopulation in which genetic bottlenecks and local inbreeding are

Dieter Ebert; Christoph Haag; Mark Kirkpatrick; Myriam Riek; Jürgen W. Hottinger; V. Ilmari Pajunen

2002-01-01

232

On the Advantage of WellBalanced Schemes for  

E-print Network

On the Advantage of Well­Balanced Schemes for Moving­Water Equilibria of the Shallow Water Equations Yulong Xing1 , Chi­Wang Shu2 , and Sebastian Noelle3 Bericht Nr. 315 Dezember 2010 Key words: Shallow water equation, still water, moving water equilibrium, high order accuracy, well balanced scheme

233

Courtship strategies of male insects: when is learning advantageous?  

E-print Network

Courtship strategies of male insects: when is learning advantageous? REUVEN DUKAS*, COLIN W. CLARKMaster University yDepartment of Mathematics, University of British Columbia (Received 12 December 2005; initial that male insects are either indiscriminate or rely on innate rules for courtship. We investigated the con

Dukas, Reuven

234

The advantages and evolution of a morphological novelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE role of selective agents in the origin of evolutionary novelties has been controversial1-3 and has remained outside the realm of experiments. Here we experimentally determine both the benefits of a single trait and the advantages accrued during the presumed sequence of evolutionary steps leading to the fully specialized structure. By comparison of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra, L.), in which

Craig W. Benkman; Anna K. Lindholm

1991-01-01

235

Hatching order explains an extrapair chick advantage in western bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within-family comparisons of offspring growth rates have provided important tests of genetic benefits of extrapair mating for females. Here, we demonstrate that hatching order explains the growth advantage for extrapair young in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana); extrapair nestlings are larger than within-pair nestlings in the same nest, but they also hatch earlier in the clutch, thus benefiting from hatching asynchrony.

Elise D. Ferree; Janis Dickinson; Wallace Rendell; Caitlin Stern; Stephanie Porter

2010-01-01

236

Elasticity and Mechanical Advantage in Cables and Ropes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract. The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity of…

O'Shea, M. J.

2007-01-01

237

forest ecology Competitive Advantage of Black Spruce Over  

E-print Network

forest ecology Competitive Advantage of Black Spruce Over Balsam Fir in Coniferous Boreal Forests by balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) in the south and by coniferous forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.) in the north. Site index values of balsam fir and black spruce were

Asselin, Hugo

238

Environmental advantages to the utilization of geothermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal energy is a technically-proven, cost effective source of electrical and thermal energy that has been utilized for many decades. Recent estimates indicate that over 6700 MWe (megawatts electrical) and 8200 MWt (megawatts thermal) are currently developed throughout the world. This paper discusses the specific environmental advantages to the development of geothermal electrical power and direct use projects and demonstrates

Paul Brophy

1997-01-01

239

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E Klinck5 , François A Auger4 and Jacques Huot1* Abstract Background: Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.  

PubMed

The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage. PMID:25265557

Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

2015-01-01

241

Information technology applications and competitive advantage in hotel companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to propose a conceptual framework that illustrates how information technology (IT) applications may lead to competitive advantage in hotel companies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is written based on a synthesis of previous literature in this area. Findings – Multiple areas need to be carefully evaluated in developing and implementing IT projects so that they can

Anil Bilgihan; Fevzi Okumus; Khaldoon “Khal” Nusair; David Joon-Wuk Kwun

2011-01-01

242

Advantages of In-house Audio Visual Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the primary advantage of having an in-plant audiovisual production unit is having creative and technical personnel on hand when you most need them, experience shows that such a unit can also provide real benefits to the company both in terms of higher quality and lower costs. (VT)

Burrell, Ralph

1978-01-01

243

Understanding the Diminishing Academic Advantage of Full-Day Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people agree that young children benefit academically from attending kindergarten; however, some research suggests that any academic advantage attributed to attending full day kindergarten compared to half-day programs will disappear as early as third grade. Based on the results of this study which looked at students in typical classroom…

Davies, Randall S.; Cress, Susan

2010-01-01

244

The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage  

E-print Network

Plus The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS The DELTA V isotope ratio mass spectrometers isotope ratio MS applications in the mass range up to m/z 96. Its versatility puts virtuallyThe Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage DELTA V Plus Analyze · Detect · Measure

Lachniet, Matthew S.

245

Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility

Romanato

2008-01-01

246

A combination of wireless multicast advantage and hitch-hiking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the minimum energy broadcast problem, each node adjusts its transmission power to minimize the total energy consumption while still delivering data to all the nodes in a network. The minimum energy broadcast problem is proved to be NP-complete. The Wireless Multicast Advantage (WMA) is that a single transmission can be received by all the nodes that are within the

My T. Thai; Yingshu Li; Ding-Zhu Du

2005-01-01

247

What advantages has it? The Reasons for Choosing Python  

E-print Network

by #12;What advantages has it? #12;The Reasons for Choosing Python Python is free It is object modules for interfacing with Solids Works #12;Getting Started with Python Python(x,y) package from http://code.google.com/p/pythonxy The Python(x,y) package comes with all numerical and scientific Python modules. Python(x,y) is a free

Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

248

Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

1999-01-01

249

The UNIX/XENIX Advantage: Applications in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the application of the UNIX/XENIX operating system to support administrative office automation functions--word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic mail, and communications--at the Central Michigan University Libraries. Advantages and disadvantages of the XENIX operating system and system configuration are…

Gordon, Kelly L.

1988-01-01

250

[Food additives and healthiness].  

PubMed

Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

Heinonen, Marina

2014-01-01

251

OPENING OFFER AND FREQUENCY OF CONCESSION AS BARGAINING STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE EXPERIMENT WAS ALLEGEDLY A SIMULATED BARGAINING SESSION BETWEEN A BUYER AND A SELLER, WHO COMMUNICATED VIA WRITTEN OFFERS. ACTUALLY, THE E SUBSTITUTED STANDARDIZED BARGAINING PATTERNS FOR THE OFFERS OF BOTH OPPONENTS, AND CONDUCTED SIMULTANEOUS BARGAINING SESSIONS WITH EACH OF THE SS. IN A FACTORIAL DESIGN, THE TYPE OF INITIAL OFFER, EXTREME OR MODERATE, THE FREQUENCY OF CONCESSION, MODERATE OR

JEROME M. CHERTKOFF; MELINDA CONLEY

1967-01-01

252

40 CFR 22.23 - Objections and offers of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 22.23 Section 22.23 Protection... § 22.23 Objections and offers of proof. (a) Objection. Any objection...participation in the hearing. (b) Offers of proof. Whenever the Presiding Officer...

2010-07-01

253

43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior...Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken...

2010-10-01

254

40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection... § 305.32 Objections and offers of proof. (a) Objection. Any objection...participation in the hearing. (b) Offer of proof. Whenever evidence is excluded...

2010-07-01

255

46 CFR 502.152 - Offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 502.152 Section 502.152 Shipping FEDERAL...Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.152 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection...

2010-10-01

256

High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

2012-01-01

257

LC-MS-based holistic metabolic profiling. Problems, limitations, advantages, and future perspectives.  

PubMed

The present review aims to critically discuss some of the major problems and limitations of LC-MS based metabolomics as experienced from an analytical chemistry standpoint. Metabolomics offers distinct advantages to a variety of life sciences. Continuous development of the field has been realised due to intensive efforts from a great many scientists from widely divergent backgrounds and research interests as demonstrated by the contents of this special issue. The aim of this commentary is to describe current hindrances to field's progress, (some unique to metabolomics, some common with other omics fields or with conventional targeted bioanalysis) to propose some potential solutions to overcome these constraints and to provide a future perspective for likely developments in the field. PMID:24618029

Gika, Helen G; Wilson, Ian D; Theodoridis, Georgios A

2014-09-01

258

Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films.  

PubMed

Polarized second-harmonic generation using two fundamental beams, instead of one, offers significant advantages for characterizing nonlinear optical thin films. The technique is more precise and allows the internal consistency of the results to be verified. The superiority of the two-beam arrangement over the traditional single-beam arrangement is demonstrated by determining the susceptibility tensors of Langmuir-Blodgett films. We show that, for a well-understood reference sample, the results obtained using two fundamental beams agree qualitatively with those obtained with a single fundamental beam, but are more precise. In a more complicated situation, however, the single-beam technique appears to work well but yields results that are, in fact, incorrect. The two-beam technique, instead, yields clearly inconsistent results, thereby highlighting systematic errors in the experimental arrangement or in the theoretical model used to interpret the results. PMID:15267861

Cattaneo, Stefano; Vuorimaa, Elina; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Kauranen, Martti

2004-05-15

259

Creating Strategic Advantage through Entrepreneurial Governance in New Ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important literature has made a fundamental link between corporate governance and corporate strategy. According to agency theory, assigning managers stock options aligns their interests with the interests of the owners of the firm. This paper suggests that this may not apply in the context of new ventures. Instead, an alternative perspective offered in this paper suggests that if contracts

David B. Audretsch; Erik E. Lehmann; Lawrence A. Plummer

2007-01-01

260

Advantages of PDS Products Extreme flexibility that allows  

E-print Network

) carried on and in an inert porous Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrate Grade Active Component PH-900 100% CeP5O to assist in all technical needs and support. PDS® Products Phosphorus N-Type Source Wafers Overview PDS Products Phosphorus source wafers offer low cost, in-situ, n-type planar sources for silicon diffusions. In

261

Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.  

PubMed

How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

2013-01-01

262

The binocular advantage in visuomotor tasks involving tools  

PubMed Central

We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a “buzz-wire” task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing). We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity. PMID:23755355

Read, Jenny C. A.; Begum, Shah Farzana; McDonald, Alice; Trowbridge, Jack

2013-01-01

263

Advantageous diversity maintained by balancing selection in humans.  

PubMed

Most human polymorphisms are neutral or slightly deleterious, but some genetic variation is advantageous and maintained in populations by balancing selection. Considered a rarity and overlooked for years, balanced polymorphisms have recently received renewed attention with several lines of evidence showing their relevance in human evolution. From theoretical work on its role in adaptation to empirical studies that identify its targets, recent developments have showed that balancing selection is more prevalent than previously thought. Here we review these developments and discuss their implications in our understanding of the influence of balancing selection in human evolution. We also review existing evidence on the biological functions that benefit most from advantageous diversity, and the functional consequences of these variants. Overall, we argue that balancing selection must be considered an important selective force in human evolution. PMID:25173959

Key, Felix M; Teixeira, João C; de Filippo, Cesare; Andrés, Aida M

2014-12-01

264

Paedomorphic Facial Expressions Give Dogs a Selective Advantage  

PubMed Central

How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

Waller, Bridget M.; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C.; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M.; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

2013-01-01

265

Advantages of Zr 705 in the acetic acid industry  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium 705 (Zr + 2--3% niobium) is finding its way into more acetic acid plants as a replacement for Zirconium 702 (unalloyed Zr). The alloy was first proposed for the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) use in the early 1970s, but has not found wide spread use because of a few problems early in its history. Research revealed that the problems encountered were related to delayed hydride cracking (DHC). However, proper processing of the alloy after welding produces components free of DHC. The main advantage of Zirconium 705 (Zr 705) as compared to Zirconium 702 (Zr 702) is higher tensile and yield strengths. This allows pressure containing components to be rated at higher pressures which can increase plant efficiencies or they can be fabricated with thinner wall sections, thus reducing equipment cost. These advantages of Zr 705 will be reviewed as well as actual plant history of the alloy in acetic acid services.

Bird, K.W. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States); Breig, P.G.; Spence, T.C. [Duriron Company, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

266

Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations  

SciTech Connect

We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

Girard, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Baggio, J. [CEA CESTA, BP 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Meunier, J. P. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France)

2011-07-01

267

Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

2013-10-01

268

Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.  

PubMed

In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

2013-01-01

269

The half-truth of first-mover advantage.  

PubMed

Many executives take for granted that the first company in a new product category gets an unbeatable head start and reaps long-lasting benefits. But that doesn't always happen. The authors of this article discovered that much depends on the pace at which the category's technology is changing and the speed at which the market is evolving. By analyzing these two factors, companies can improve their odds of succeeding as first movers with the resources they possess. Gradual evolution in both the technology and the market provides a first mover with the best conditions for creating a dominant position that is long lasting (Hoover in the vacuum cleaner industry is a good example). In such calm waters, a company can defend its advantages even without exceptional skills or extensive financial resources. When the market is changing rapidly and the product isn't, a first entrant with extensive resources can obtain a long-lasting advantage (as Sony did with its Walkman personal stereo); a company with only limited resources probably must settle for a short-term benefit. When the market is static but the product is changing constantly, first-mover advantages of either kind--durable or short-lived--are unlikely. Only companies with very deep pockets can survive (think of Sony and the digital cameras it pioneered). Rapid churn in both the technology and the market creates the worst conditions. But if companies have an acute sense of when to exit-as Netscape demonstrated when it agreed to be acquired by AOL-a worthwhile short-term gain is possible. Before venturing into a newly forming market, you need to analyze the environment, assess your resources, then determine which type offirst-mover advantage is most achievable. Once you've gone into the water, you have no choice but to swim. PMID:15807045

Suarez, Fernando; Lanzolla, Gianvito

2005-04-01

270

Nanomaterials in the application of tumor vaccines: advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Tumor vaccines are a novel approach to the treatment of malignancy, and are attracting the attention of the medical profession. Nanomaterials have significant advantages in the preparation of a tumor vaccine, including their ability to penetrate and target cancer tissue and their antigenic properties. In this review, we focus on several nanomaterials, ie, carbon nanotubes, nanoemulsions, nanosized aluminum, and nanochitosan. Applications for these nanomaterials in nanovaccines and their biological characteristics, as well as their potential toxicity, are discussed. PMID:23776336

Li, XD; Gao, JY; Yang, Y; Fang, HY; Han, YJ; Wang, XM; Ge, W

2013-01-01

271

Welcome to the Wyndham Hotel Group Member Benefit program. Associates of your institution may now take advantage of 20% discounts at all of our brands. The program  

E-print Network

take advantage of 20% discounts at all of our brands. The program: may be used by employees and is not applicable to group travel. Up to 9 rooms may be booked for all brands under one reservation save on rooms at 15 brands and over 7,000 participating hotels worldwide. Hotel Discount Offer

Rock, Chris

272

Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikk{beta} confers growth advantages  

SciTech Connect

Mice lacking hepatocyte IKK{beta} (Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep}) are defective in TNF{alpha}-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G{sub 0} {yields} G{sub 1} transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikk{beta} also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGF{alpha} and TNF{alpha}, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, {beta}-actin and integrin {beta}1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikk{beta}-deleted hepatocytes.

Koch, Katherine S. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States); Maeda, Shin [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); He, Guobin; Karin, Michael [Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0723, La Jolla, CA 92093-0723 (United States); Leffert, Hyam L. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States)], E-mail: hleffert@ucsd.edu

2009-03-06

273

Career Center The Career Center offers individualized assistance, programs, and technologically advanced resources to educate students in the  

E-print Network

We offer the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Strong Interest Inventory. These activities can. In addition to stating your name, school, major, and the type of position you seek, you should express why you

Rollins, Andrew M.

274

Certificate in Geographic Information Science The Environmental Science programs and the Departments of Earth Sciences and Biology offer  

E-print Network

Certificate in Geographic Information Science The Environmental Science programs and the Departments of Earth Sciences and Biology offer a Certificate in Geographic Information Science information science. This Certificate can be completed by a student in a BSc program, in addition

Adl, Sina

275

Addition and Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome students, Using this website, you can play fun and interactive games and print out fun worksheets that will help you practice addition and subtraction. Please explore the website and print out as many worksheets as you would like. Print out and answer the problems on this worksheet. Addition and Subtraction Worksheet This game is for more advanced students in addition and subtraction. Figure out what sign to put in between the numbers to make the combination on the right. Advanced Add and Subtract Game This fun animal game will help you practice your addition and subtraction. Farm Animal Game Print ...

Ms. Roberts

2011-04-20

276

Advantages of list-mode acquisition of high resolution dynamic cardiac data  

SciTech Connect

Frame-mode acquisition of MUGA studies is an imprecise means to study cardiac dynamics. List-mode acquisition offers significant advantages in temporal and spatial resolution as well as allowing flexibility in selecting those beats included in the final image sequence. Using list-mode, spatial coordinates (x and y), energy value (e), and an encoded physiologic/timing signal (p/t) are stored on an event-by-event basis as byte integer values. The four integers associated with each detected event (x,y,e, and p/t) are streamed onto a hard disk storage device allowing even stress gated blood pool studies to be recorded. Among the advantages we have been able to demonstrate are: Using the stored multispectral energy information to perform scatter correction on the dynamic images; measuring and correcting respirational displacement of the ventricle to minimize motion blurring; applying a variable zoom window after the fact to keep the ventricles centered for analysis; allowing formation of gated sequences representing only a specific aberrancy for detection of ectopic ventricular foci; and improving temporal precision necessary to analyze complex ventricular dynamics associated with aberrant neural conduction affecting the synchrony of muscle contraction. To demonstrate the improved resolution of the list-mode methodology, a dynamic phantom was used to simulate blurring due to respiration and segmental wall motion defects.

Koss, J.E.; Kirch, D.L.; Little, E.P. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

277

VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the

2004-11-01

278

76 FR 59623 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer (DFARS Case 2011-D013)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...must resolicit for an additional period of at least 30 days, if the solicitation allowed fewer than 30 days for receipt of proposals and only one offer is received. If a period of at least 30 days was allowed for receipt of proposals, the...

2011-09-27

279

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB  

E-print Network

, electroanalytical, and spectroscopic instrumentation. For chemistry and life science majors, as well as studentsCHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 (10/31/12) CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB Atomic, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry

Kounaves, Samuel P.

280

For additional information, contact: Department of History, Philosophy  

E-print Network

For additional information, contact: Department of History, Philosophy & Religious Studies Montana. The program offers many opportunities for graduate students to collaborate with peers, professors and visiting topics have included analyzing differences between urban and rural coyote behavior, researching religion

281

Carbamate deposit control additives  

SciTech Connect

Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

1980-11-25

282

Tackifier for addition polyimides containing monoethylphthalate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improvement of addition polyimides wherein an essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers is disclosed. The improved process takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer such as monoethylphthalate (MEP) which is used in lieu of an alcohol solvent, and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepreg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepreg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the layup process. This improvement results in both longer life of the polymer prepreg and the processing of low void laminate and appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

St.clair, T. L.; Butler, J. M. (inventors)

1981-01-01

283

Do central venous catheters have advantages over arteriovenous fistulas or grafts?  

PubMed

Central venous accesses have become an integral component of vascular access procedures for hemodialysis. Although the DOQI guidelines recommend that less than 10% of chronic hemodialysis patients should be maintained on catheters, in some countries higher prevalences are reported, as in the United States and the United Kingdom (18% and 24%, respectively, according to the DOPPS). The native arteriovenous fistulas are still the best suited accesses for hemodialysis. However, this option is impractical in many situations, so that several justifiable reasons exist for protracted dialysis catheter use; these include the catheter as a bridge angioaccess device, while the patient is awaiting living-related kidney donor transplantation or maturation of an autologous fistula or graft or, increasingly, as the permanent vascular access for patients with unsuitable vascular anatomy who have exhausted all other options. Moreover, the surgical creation of an AVF is felt to be impossible or at least seems to entail significant risks in situations of high output cardiac failure, myocardial ischaemic events and steal syndrome. In these cases, the dialysis access catheter brings considerable advantages, but it also carries tremendous drawbacks. In addition to the increased risk of luminal thrombosis, infection, unreliable blood flows, central venous stenosis, shorter use life and patient cosmetic concern, tunneled catheters are associated with an increased risk of death. Tunnellization, exit site protection, antibiotic-coated or antiseptic-impregnated hemodialysis catheters, antibiotic lock solutions could be helpful in preventing and treating catheter-related bacteremias. Moreover, the development of a subcutaneous port, that is durable, offers a high blood flow and is fully implantable subcutaneously, may become an alternative for chronic use. In our 10-year experience we implanted in our center over 450 central venous catheters with a satisfactory survival (86% at 1 year and 79% at 2 years for the subcutaneous port). In a matched comparison between Tesio twin catheters and Dialock ports (37 vs. 35, respectively), followed for a 2 year period, no significant differences emerged as regards bacteremia incidence, 0.58/1,000 catheter-days in the Tesio catheter group vs. 0.9/1000 catheter-days in the subcutaneous port group, p=0.12; thrombolytic agents needed, 4.5% vs 4.3% of dialysis sessions; or access failure with removal of the device, 8.1% vs 14.2%, p=0.4. The longer duration of antibiotic therapy in the Tesio group (24.6 vs 14.3 days, p=0.006) was due to the higher incidence of cutaneous infectious episodes (3.8 vs 0.16/1,000 catheter-days). In conclusion, although central venous catheter is the vascular access of last choice, in particular cases it can be a useful alternative, provided that strict protocols for nursing care and proper catheter management are implemented in every center. PMID:16874685

Quarello, Francesco; Forneris, Giacomo; Borca, Marco; Pozzato, Marco

2006-01-01

284

Awesome Addition Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are fun to play and will test your addition skills! Click on the links to play the games! Play in the Kitten Match and test your math skills!! Pick the grade level you want to play on. Then pick numbers that add up to equal the number that they give you. Hurry, you're being timed! Use your addition skills to win a Diaper Derby!! First decide what you want your baby to look like! Then perform the addition problem that ...

Smith, Ms.

2010-10-14

285

Color Chips - Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.

Utah State University

2011-06-28

286

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

287

Medicare's private plans: a report card on Medicare Advantage.  

PubMed

With higher payments and expanded private-plan authority, Medicare Advantage (MA) has caused the market to grow. One in three Medicare beneficiaries with Part D now gets this coverage through MA. Analysis of the sources of and reasons for enrollment growth suggest a troubling report card. Clearly, the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) has expanded choice and the private-sector role. But it also has added to Medicare's complexity and costs and has created potential inequities, without apparent improvements in quality. However the debate ends, a stronger system of performance monitoring and accountability is needed to meet Medicare's essential fiduciary requirements and oversight responsibilities. PMID:19029152

Gold, Marsha

2009-01-01

288

Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

2010-01-01

289

[Round ligament suspension in laparoscopic hepatic surgery: technical advantages].  

PubMed

Transabdominal suspension sutures are generally described in different laparoscopic surgical techniques. During the different phases of the surgical procedure, this solution permits the surgeon to achieve better exposure of the "target organ" or adequate stabilisation of it without adding more ports and instruments. In a limited working space, the use of many instruments may interfere with the surgeon's movements. In the present paper, we present the use of suspension sutures of the round ligament in different hepatic surgical techniques performed laparoscopically in our department of surgery, analysing the technical advantages. PMID:16845874

Perrotta, Nicola; Guzzo, Guglielmo; Anselmucci, Valter; Perrotta, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

290

Smog control fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

Lundby, W.

1993-06-29

291

A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant ({Lambda}) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ({sub PST}{Lambda}) was then compared to those determined by TLD ({sub TLD}{Lambda}) and Monte Carlo ({sub MC}{Lambda}) techniques. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average {Lambda} values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average {sub PST}{Lambda} value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Intersource variation in {sub PST}{Lambda} was less than 0.01%. The {sub PST}{Lambda} was within 2% of the reported {sub MC}{Lambda} values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported {sub TLD}{Lambda}. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated to be (0.688{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} {sup 103}Pd sources. Conclusions: An independent {Lambda} determination has been performed for the Advantage Pd-103 source. The {sub PST}{Lambda} obtained in this work provides additional information needed for establishing a more accurate consensus {Lambda} value for the Advantage Pd-103 source.

Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-02-15

292

Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?  

PubMed Central

Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

2013-01-01

293

Ecological advantages of partial migration as a conditional strategy.  

PubMed

Partial migration is a widespread phenomenon characterized by migrant and resident forms from the same population. In phenotypically plastic taxa with indeterminate growth, resident and migrant ecophenotypes can differ in size and life history traits in ways expected to maximize fitness in the different habitats they exploit. Studies of partial migration in different taxa have advocated either density-dependence or environmental stochasticity as explanations for partial migration. We used a demographic approach for a virtual Brook Trout population to demonstrate the ecological consequences of partial migration under interacting density dependence and environmental stochasticity. The maintenance of partial migration as a conditional strategy in species/populations where resident and migrant forms exhibit life history asymmetries provides ecological advantages. We show that density-dependent migration is expected to increase population fitness under constant environmental conditions or low environmental variation, but decreases population fitness under high environmental variation. These conditions favor intermediate levels of migration as an advantageous tactic. However, there are threshold rates of return migration below which partial migration is no longer a viable tactic. Our modeling approach also allowed the exploration of the distribution of the population by life stage and habitat in response to the strength of density dependence, costs of migration, and return rates, and demonstrated the importance of the conservation of ecophenotypes in partially migratory populations. PMID:23353041

Vélez-Espino, Luis A; McLaughlin, Robert L; Robillard, Melissa

2013-05-01

294

Proton radiotherapy for liver tumors: dosimetric advantages over photon plans.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V(30)) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V(45) were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V(40) and V(50) of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications. PMID:18973852

Wang, Xiaochun; Krishnan, Sunil; Zhang, Xiaodong; Dong, Lei; Briere, Tina; Crane, Christopher H; Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

2008-01-01

295

Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

Wang Xiaochun [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: springxwang@yahoo.com; Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-01-01

296

Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

297

Technical advantages for weak value amplification: When less is more  

E-print Network

The technical merits of weak value amplification techniques are analyzed. We consider models of several different types of technical noise in an optical context and show that weak value amplification techniques (which only use a small fraction of the photons) compare favorably with standard techniques (which uses all of them). Using the Fisher information metric, we demonstrate that weak value techniques can put all of the Fisher information about the detected parameter into a small portion of the events and show how this fact alone gives technical advantages. We go on to consider a time correlated noise model, and find that a Fisher information analysis indicates that while the standard method can have much larger information about the detected parameter than the postselected technique. However, the estimator needed to gather the information is technically difficult to implement, showing that the inefficient (but practical) signal-to-noise estimation of the parameter is usually superior. We also describe other technical advantages unique to imaginary weak value amplification techniques, focusing on beam deflection measurements. In this case, we discuss combined noise types (such as detector transverse jitter, angular beam jitter before the interferometer and turbulence) for which the interferometric weak value technique gives higher Fisher information over conventional methods. We go on to calculate the Fisher information of the recently proposed photon recycling scheme for beam deflection measurements, and show it further boosts the Fisher information by the inverse postselection probability relative to the standard measurement case.

Andrew N. Jordan; Julián Martínez-Rincón; John C. Howell

2013-09-19

298

Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and mechanical advantage in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).  

PubMed

Weaning represents a challenging transition for young mammals, one particularly difficult for species coping with extreme conditions during feeding. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) experience such extreme conditions imposed by intense feeding competition during which the ability to consume large quantities of food quickly is highly advantageous. As adult spotted hyenas have massive skulls specialized for durophagy and can feed very rapidly, young individuals are likely at a competitive disadvantage until that specialized morphology is completely developed. Here we document developmental changes in skull size, shape, and mechanical advantage of the jaws. Sampling an ontogenetic series of Crocuta skulls from individuals ranging in age from 2 months to 18 years, we use linear measurements and geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses suggesting that size, limited mechanical advantage of the jaws, and/or limited attachment sites for jaw muscles might constrain the feeding performance of juveniles. We also examine skull development in relation to key life history events, including weaning and reproductive maturity, to inquire whether ontogeny of the feeding apparatus is slower or more protracted in this species than in carnivores not specialized for durophagy. We find that, although mechanical advantage reaches maturity in hyenas at 22 months, adult skull size is not achieved until 29 months of age, and skull shape does not reach maturity until 35 months. The latter is nearly 2 years after mean weaning age, and more than 1 year after reproductive maturity. Thus, skull development in Crocuta is indeed protracted relative to that in most other carnivores. Based on the skull features that continue to change and to provide additional muscle attachment area, protracted development may be largely due to development of the massive musculature required by durophagy. These findings may ultimately shed light on the adaptive significance of the unusual "role-reversed" pattern of female dominance over males in this species. PMID:19862838

Tanner, Jaime B; Zelditch, Miriam L; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

2010-03-01

299

Disomic Addition of Rye Chromosome II to Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been suggested1 that the most satisfactory way of transferring agriculturally advantageous characters to Triticum vulgare (2n = 42), bread wheat, from diploid species of related genera may be by the production of alien chromosome disomic additions or substitutions. During work concerned with the production of rye (Secale cereale) chromosome additions in T. vulgare, a 28-chromosome plant, which arose

V. Chapman; Ralph Riley

1955-01-01

300

The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact

J Brennan-Craddock; D Brackett; R Wildman; R Hague

2012-01-01

301

Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

Gaddy, Darrell

2014-01-01

302

ENGINEERING PHYSICS An Interdisciplinary Program Jointly Offered by the  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING PHYSICS An Interdisciplinary Program Jointly Offered by the School of Engineering in engineering fundamentals, but also an understanding of the physical principles of the underlying mechanisms is required. The goal of the Engineering Physics Program is to offer students a solid background

Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

303

NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

Momentum, 2003

2003-01-01

304

Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial public offerings of common stocks are typically underpriced . In this paper, the author develops and tests the hypothesis that underpricing serves as a form of insurance against legal liabili ty and the associated damages to the reputations of investment banker s. The empirical results, based on samples of initial public offering s of common stocks that were brought

Seha M Tinic

1988-01-01

305

http://forensicscience.ucdavis.edu Offered by the UC Davis  

E-print Network

http://forensicscience.ucdavis.edu Offered by the UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Group in collaboration with UC Davis Extension Master of Science in Forensic Science Take part in this unique master of Science in Forensic Science offers a unique opportunity to obtain a research-based, forensic science

Peisert, Sean

306

University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

2014-01-01

307

Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free,  

E-print Network

Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean. One of these sources, wind energy, offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, and it is virtually inexhaustible. In recent years, research on wind energy has accelerated

Langendoen, Koen

308

Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.  

PubMed

This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers. PMID:10181647

Colucci, C

1998-01-01

309

Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages  

E-print Network

Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176Lu (IRL) continues to be exploited. In this paper, research literatures about IRL in PET detectors are reviewed. Details about the adverse effects of IRL to PET and their solutions, as well as the useful applications are presented and discussed.

Wei, Qingyang

2015-01-01

310

Experimentally Quantifying the Advantages of Weak-Values-Based Metrology  

E-print Network

We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-values-based metrology versus standard methods. To accomplish this we, measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-values-based technique), or by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external modulations of the detector, and transverse beam-jitter, we quantify the mitigation of these sources in the weak values-based experiment versus the standard focusing experiment. The experiments are compared using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. In all cases, the weak-values technique performs the same or better than the standard technique by up to two orders of magnitude in precision for our parameters. We further measure the statistical efficiency of the weak-values-based technique. By post-selecting on $1\\%$ of the photons, we obtain $99\\%$ of the available Fisher information of the beam deflection parameter.

Gerardo I. Viza; Julián Martínez-Rincón; Gabriel B. Alves; Andrew N. Jordan; John C. Howell

2014-10-31

311

Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

Cole, Daniel H.

2015-02-01

312

Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25492891

2015-01-01

313

Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses  

E-print Network

activities. May be repeated once for credit. PHED 1007 Yoga Stretching/Relaxation (2) This course will cover mental and physical relaxation associated with yoga. Yoga uses slow movement and stretching to improve flexibility, improve balance and is an excellent stress reducer. May be repeated once for credit. PHED 1008

Dasgupta, Dipankar

314

Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses  

E-print Network

-based fitness activities over land-based physical activities. May be repeated once for credit. PHED 1007 Yoga to stretch muscles, release tension, and effect mental and physical relaxation associated with yoga. Yoga uses slow movement and stretching to improve flexibility, improve balance and is an excellent stress

Dasgupta, Dipankar

315

Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems  

SciTech Connect

Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more-traditional credit vehicle, to recover both system and administrative costs. This approach has a number of features that should appeal to PV owners, including long-term, fixed-cost, attractive financing; loans that are tied to the tax capacity of the property rather than to the owner's credit standing; a repayment obligation that transfers along with the sale of the property; and a potential ability to deduct the repayment obligation from federal taxable income as part of the local property tax deduction. For these reasons, Berkeley's program, which was first announced on October 23, 2007, has received considerable nationwide attention in both the trade and general press. Since the announcement, cities from throughout California and the broader U.S. have expressed keen interest in the possibility of replicating this type of program. In California alone, the cities of Santa Cruz, Santa Monica and Palm Desert are all reportedly considering similar programs, while the city of San Francisco has recently announced its own program, portions of which closely parallel Berkeley's approach. In addition, a bill (AB 811) that would authorize all cities in California, not just charter cities like Berkeley, to create this type of program was approved by the California General Assembly on January 29 and is currently under consideration in the State Senate. A similar bill in Colorado (HB 1350) was signed into law on May 28. Elsewhere, the city of Tucson, Arizona has also considered this financing approach.

Bolinger, Mark A

2008-07-06

316

Additional information: Anthropology  

E-print Network

Additional information: Anthropology: Dr. De Ann Pendry dpendry@utk.edu 865.974.4408 Department of Anthropology 250 South Stadium Hall Spanish: Dr. Ã?scar Rivera-Rodas oriverar@utk.edu 865.974.7005 Department academic tracks: Latin American Anthropology (taught in English), and Language and Latin American

Tennessee, University of

317

Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

2013-07-23

318

More Than Additional Space...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

CEFP Journal, 1973

1973-01-01

319

Additional Sources of Information  

Cancer.gov

Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

320

Electrophilic addition of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been

Yu. V. Norseev; L. Vasaros; D. D. Nhan; N. K. Huan

1988-01-01

321

Fluency with Basic Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition

Garza-Kling, Gina

2011-01-01

322

Advantages in using LEDs as the main light source in solar simulators for measuring PV device characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in photovoltaic technology resulted in increased complexity of device calibration, largely being affected by deviations of test spectrum from natural spectra. While the output spectrum of some solar simulators is adjustable, generally only light intensity and module temperature can be varied. This is due to the light sources used in current simulators. LEDs offer an additional degree of freedom,

M. Bliss; T. R. Betts; R. Gottschalg

2008-01-01

323

UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants  

E-print Network

UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse Growers The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants - Spring 2015! This educational program will feature, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT · Diseases of Spring Crops and Their Management, Yonghao Li, Plant

Alpay, S. Pamir

324

Note: This syllabus may represent a past offering of this course and future course offerings may differ.  

E-print Network

Note: This syllabus may represent a past offering of this course and future course offerings may. Prepare for future course: Be prepared for engaging in future coursework in relationship to one's intended on the rubrics on the Assignments page of the class website (see each assignment description). Assignments Below

325

Bi-center bit/reamer tool demonstrates its advantages  

SciTech Connect

A downhole drill bit and reamer combination that features a unique eccentric fixed-blade design has been developed by Hughes Christensen. The new system is called RWD, Ream While Drilling. The concept was thoroughly tested by Amoco in its Catoosa Test Facility (CTF) in Oklahoma, and it was successfully applied offshore Trinidad, and in at least two US Gulf of Mexico wells. For specific features, the RWD tool`s design offers a patented hole opening blade, Carbide Supported Edge (CSE) PDC cutters, a blade relief gauge pad, and other blade features, plus interchangeable nozzles that maximize cleaning and minimize hole erosion. The stabilization pad`s size is determined by pilot hole size and amount of imbalance force generated. The two-piece design allows different style pilot bits to be used with the RWD. Tricone or PDC bits can be selected based on lithology and operating parameters.

NONE

1996-02-01

326

Living arrangements of ever-married older Lebanese women: is living with married children advantageous?  

PubMed

In many Middle Eastern countries including Lebanon, the family as a social institution is greatly valued and local norms regarding family ties and living arrangements are especially important for older adults, in particular older women. While the presence of an adult child is often seen as responsive to the financial, health and social needs of older parents, it is not clear whether co-residence with married children offers a similar advantage as in the case of co-residence with unmarried children. Using data from a national Population and Housing Survey, this study examines associations of co-residence with adult children among ever-married women aged 65 years and older in Lebanon. Results showed a considerable proportion of elderly women who were living alone (18%) at the time of the survey. Co-residence was more frequent with unmarried than married children, but the gender ratio of the co-residing child varied with the marital status of both the older woman and the child. Moreover, among those co-residing with married children, results indicate a greater likelihood of co-residence with married sons over married daughters. Co-residence with an adult child associated positively with the availability of surviving children and negatively with the socioeconomic status of the woman and her spouse. Compared to other living arrangements, co-residence with a married child entailed the least advantageous Household Socioeconomic Status (HSES) score in terms of housing characteristics, infrastructure, and material possessions, for both married and unmarried women. PMID:18283537

Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Beydoun, May A; Tohme, Rania A

2009-03-01

327

Vinyl capped addition polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

Vannucci, Raymond D. (inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (inventor); Delvigs, Peter (inventor)

1991-01-01

328

Addition deletion networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study structural properties of growing networks where both addition and deletion of nodes are possible. Our model network evolves via two independent processes. With rate r, a node is added to the system and this node links to a randomly selected existing node. With rate 1, a randomly selected node is deleted and its parent node inherits the links of its immediate descendants. We show that the in-component size distribution decays algebraically, ck ~ k-? as k ? ?. The exponent ? = 2 + (r - 1)-1 varies continuously with the addition rate r. Structural properties of the network including the height distribution, the diameter of the network, the average distance between two nodes and the fraction of dangling nodes are also obtained analytically. Interestingly, the deletion process leads to a giant hub, a single node with a macroscopic degree whereas all other nodes have a microscopic degree.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2007-07-01

329

DNR offers 284 tracts in lease Sale 40  

SciTech Connect

The State of Alaska's Department of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals and Energy Management, offered 284 tracts of submerged lands in Cook Inlet and uplands on Kalgin Island, the Kenai Peninsula, the west side of Cook Inlet and in the lower Susitna Valley. State geologists classify the area as low in its potential for commercial discoveries of oil, but many companies feel that Cook Inlet has some promise. Major oil companies offered the highest cash bonus bids, but independents and speculators managed to pick up the bulk of the 284 tracts offered.

Not Available

1983-11-01

330

Generalized Additive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\\\\sum \\\\beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\\\\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\\\\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are

Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

1986-01-01

331

Gasoline detergent additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gasoline fuel composition. It comprises a major portion of a gasoline fuel and a minor amount, as a gasoline detergent additive, of a Mannich coupled product of bis-polyisobutylene succinimide of an amine, prepared by: reacting an alkenyl succinimide acid anhydride with an amine to form a bis-succinimide; treating the bis-succinimide with nonylphenol in the presence of

S. Herbstman; T. E. Hayden; T. E. Nalesnik; N. Benfaremo

1991-01-01

332

Diesel fuel detergent additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a diesel fuel composition. It comprises a major portion of a diesel fuel, and a minor amount, as a diesel fuel injector detergent additive, of a Mannich coupled product of bis-polyisobutylene succinimide of an amine, prepared by: reacting an alkenyl succinimide acid anhydride with an amine to form a bis-succinimide; treating the bis-succinimide with nonylphenol in the

S. Herbstman; K. S. Verk; T. E. Nalesnik; N. Benfaremo

1991-01-01

333

Addition and Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the following information you will be able to add and subtract . You will master adding and subtracting up to 12. Adding and subtracting can be done! At this site you will be able to go on a space mission, the mission is... answer all of the horizontal addition and subtraction problems. If you get the problem right, then the mission is passed. If no mission is failed. Just ...

Ms.Richards

2006-10-10

334

Electrophilic addition of astatine  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

1988-03-01

335

Functional Generalized Additive Models.  

PubMed

We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

2014-01-01

336

Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.  

PubMed

Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (<1 ?m thick) sections of biological specimens, many questions involve the three-dimensional organization of a cell or the interconnectivity of cells. X-ray microscopy offers superior imaging resolution compared to light microscopy, and unique capability of nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of hydrated unstained biological cells, complementary to existing light and electron microscopy. Until now, X-ray microscopes operating in the "water window" energy range between carbon and oxygen k-shell absorption edges have produced outstanding 3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (<540 eV) of the water window imposes two important limitations: limited penetration (<10 ?m) not suitable for imaging larger cells or tissues, and small depth of focus (DoF) for high resolution 3D imaging (e.g., ~1 ?m DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. PMID:22521962

Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu

2013-01-01

337

The Bionic Handling Assistant: a success story of additive manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This review will describe the development of the Bionic Handling Assistant as well as the additive manufacturing (AM) process of robot grippers and its possibilities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – AM offers the chance to use the additive processes to produce highly flexible automation parts and systems as the Bionic Handling Assistant in small and medium quantities that can utilize a

Andrzej Grzesiak; Ralf Becker; Alexander Verl

2011-01-01

338

17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Offerings by blank check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to...the assets or similar assets made within a reasonable time, forecasts of expected cash flows, independent appraisals, etc....

2010-04-01

339

Flu Shot May Offer Less Protection This Winter: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Shot May Offer Less Protection This Winter: CDC ... 2015) Thursday, December 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Dec. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- This ...

340

NEW COURSE OFFERED FALL 2014 Special Topics in Anthropology  

E-print Network

NEW COURSE OFFERED FALL 2014 Special Topics in Anthropology (ANTH 395) Salmon and People Instructor speakers, activities, and exhibits at the Museum of Anthropology. This innovative course fields, including anthropology, fisheries science/ management, Native American studies, and wildlife

Collins, Gary S.

341

9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

2011-01-01

342

Early Study Offers Hope for an Ebola Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Early Study Offers Hope for an Ebola Vaccine Precursor of vaccine now being tested in ... 2015) Tuesday, December 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Immunization TUESDAY, Dec. 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- There's ...

343

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2014-04-01

344

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2012-04-01

345

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2013-04-01

346

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2011-04-01

347

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2010-04-01

348

Annual Report Highlights from workshops offered during 2013  

E-print Network

and Planning was offered in February 2013 to 24 participants at Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS communications, and how to use a fire shelter. They then went to nearby Ordway-Swisher Biological Station to suit

Jawitz, James W.

349

7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

2011-01-01

350

7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

2010-01-01

351

Internship Offer: Sino-German Climate Change Programme  

E-print Network

Internship Offer: Sino-German Climate Change Programme (Component 1: Capacity Building for Climate before a nationwide emissions market will be established in 2015. Despite the plethora of problem solving

Schubart, Christoph

352

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2013-10-01

353

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2014-10-01

354

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2012-10-01

355

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2011-10-01

356

Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

2011-01-01

357

Making Medicare advantage a middle-class program.  

PubMed

This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the "middle class." Current Medicare policy of a "single premium" for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare. PMID:23454916

Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G

2013-03-01

358

Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.  

PubMed

There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. PMID:24795451

Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

2014-05-01

359

Advantages of High vs. Low Earth Orbit for SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the subject of this workshop, which we will refer to as ET (for Enlightenment Telescope), is a dazzling successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, its location is unlikely to be the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) used by HST. Locations suggested for ET include High Earth Orbit (HEO) and the moon. The first space telescope to occupy HEO will be the liquid helium cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The selection of HEO for SIRTF was the outcome of a recent study led by the Ames Research Center which showed significant advantages for SIRTF in HEO vs. LEO. This article summarizes the main results of that study. We begin with a review of SIRTF's rationale and requirements, in part because the IR capabilities and low temperature proposed for ET make it something of a successor to SIRTF as well as to HST. We conclude with some comments about another possible location for both SIRTF and ET, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point.

Eisenhardt, Peter; Werner, Michael W.

1989-01-01

360

Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

2000-01-01

361

[Immunohistochemistry and personalised medicine in lung oncology: advantages and limitations].  

PubMed

The concept of personalized or stratified medicine in thoracic oncology have led to the development of companion diagnostic testing in the laboratories in order to detect genomic alterations which can be targeted by therapeutic molecules. The use of these companion tests has to be associated with an optimized quality control with the aim of getting solid results before treatment administration to the patients. The great majority of these tests is based on molecular biology approach. However, since the commercial availability of different antibodies targeting genomic alterations which can be used in formalin fixed paraffin sections, an alternative method to the molecular approach is the immunohistochemistry (IHC). Some of these antibodies are or will be probably soon used in a daily routine practice (such as anti-ALK or anti-MET antibodies). Other antibodies have currently a more restricted use in thoracic oncology (such as anti-BRAF V600E, anti-ROS1 and mutation-specific anti-EGFR antibodies). In this review, we aim to detail the advantages and the limits of IHC method in thoracic oncology field for personalized medicine, in particular comparatively to the molecular biology technology. Moreover, we discuss the opportunity to provide accredited IHC tests in the context of stratified medicine for lung cancer patients. PMID:25373695

Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Long, Elodie; Lassalle, Sandra; Butori, Catherine; Bence, Coraline; Washetine, Kevin; Lalvee, Salomé; Hofman, Paul

2014-10-01

362

Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

2014-01-01

363

Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MHD-kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall ? (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration.

Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.; Liu, Y. Q.

2013-11-01

364

Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2008-07-01

365

4 JULY/AUGUST 2006 BRANDINGCreating Intangible Competitive Advantages  

E-print Network

-to-business brand that it is now successfully used in consumer product branding (clothing, shoes, etc.). The What it substance beyond basic qualities (e.g., physical attributes and price). In addition to differentiating its- ing a brand holds in consumer minds. Overall, brand knowledge can be high, low, positive, or negative

366

Information enrichment: designing the supply chain for competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speed of response to customer demand has long been recognized as a key attribute to business success since customer loyalty can be won or lost on product availability. With everyone implementing lean manufacturing philosophies, companies additionally need to become smart chain managers and ensure continuous improvement to stay competitive. Exploits further the concept of the “seamless supply chain”, by encouraging

R. Mason-Jones; D. R. Towill

1997-01-01

367

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

368

Siloxane containing addition polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

1984-01-01

369

Oil additive process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

Bishop, H.

1988-10-18

370

Stepping to phase-perturbed metronome cues: multisensory advantage in movement synchrony but not correction  

PubMed Central

Humans can synchronize movements with auditory beats or rhythms without apparent effort. This ability to entrain to the beat is considered automatic, such that any perturbations are corrected for, even if the perturbation was not consciously noted. Temporal correction of upper limb (e.g., finger tapping) and lower limb (e.g., stepping) movements to a phase perturbed auditory beat usually results in individuals being back in phase after just a few beats. When a metronome is presented in more than one sensory modality, a multisensory advantage is observed, with reduced temporal variability in finger tapping movements compared to unimodal conditions. Here, we investigate synchronization of lower limb movements (stepping in place) to auditory, visual and combined auditory-visual (AV) metronome cues. In addition, we compare movement corrections to phase advance and phase delay perturbations in the metronome for the three sensory modality conditions. We hypothesized that, as with upper limb movements, there would be a multisensory advantage, with stepping variability being lowest in the bimodal condition. As such, we further expected correction to the phase perturbation to be quickest in the bimodal condition. Our results revealed lower variability in the asynchronies between foot strikes and the metronome beats in the bimodal condition, compared to unimodal conditions. However, while participants corrected substantially quicker to perturbations in auditory compared to visual metronomes, there was no multisensory advantage in the phase correction task—correction under the bimodal condition was almost identical to the auditory-only (AO) condition. On the whole, we noted that corrections in the stepping task were smaller than those previously reported for finger tapping studies. We conclude that temporal corrections are not only affected by the reliability of the sensory information, but also the complexity of the movement itself. PMID:25309397

Wright, Rachel L.; Elliott, Mark T.

2014-01-01

371

[Conclusions. The precautionary principle: its advantages and risks].  

PubMed

The proposed extension to health of the precautionary principle is the reaction to two social demands: the desire for greater health safety and for more transparency in the decision making process by associating the public. In medical care, all decisions are based on the balance between cost (dangers induced by the treatment) and benefit (the therapeutic effect). It is as dangerous to overestimate the cost, in other words the risks, as it is to underestimate them. The same problem is encountered in public health. If a vaccination is to be prescribed, the beneficial effects must outweigh the risks; however, these risks are inevitable and have been known to exist since the 18th century, but they have been accepted for the public good. It takes courage to make a vaccination mandatory because those who benefit from it will never know, while those who suffer from its ill effects could take legal action. In order to counter accusations, an evaluation must be made beforehand of the risks and benefits, which underlines the important role of expert opinion. Within the framework of the precautionary principle, actions cannot be taken in ignorance and, at the very least, plausible estimations must be made. The analysis of several recent events (contaminated blood, BSE, growth hormone and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) shows that the precautionary principle would have had a very limited impact and that only once there was sufficient knowledge was action made possible. The same is true concerning current debates (the possible risks associated with electromagnetic fields, mobile phones and radon); in these three cases, no country in the world has invoked the precautionary principle, but rather the priority has been given to research. The public understands quite readily the cost/benefit relationship. In the case of oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy the public was aware of their possible health risks but judged that the advantages outweighed the risks. The estimation of risks and benefits, the putting into proper perspective the possible risks that can be incurred from any given action, enables the main pitfalls of the precautionary principle to be avoided: the opposition to progress and the refusal of innovation, ever greater bureaucracy, and the waste of funds in the pursuit of an utopian "zero risk". Other drawbacks are more insidious: increased anxiety in the population, the manipulation of opinion by campaigns fomented by commercial or ideological interests, the influencing of practitioners and decision-makers to choose not the best solution but rather the one that will protect them from any future accusations. At the international level, efforts must be made to avoid that the precautionary principle be used for protectionist reasons. Nevertheless, the precautionary principle can have advantages, such as motivating decision-makers in the public or private sector to explain and quantify their reasoning, and to give objective information. However, the medical practitioner should not be tempted to ask that documents be signed as proof of the information given. This example underlines the possible dangers of the strict application of the law in certain cases and the importance of the role of jurisprudence. The precautionary principle will also impose new obligations on the State, which also must conform to the requirements of proportionality between risk and action, transparency and information in the field of care and health. The application of the precautionary principle will require good judgment because the way it is implemented will determine whether its outcome will be for the better or the worse. That is why it is indispensable that jurists, medical practitioners, and scientists work together so that the precautionary principle will be as precisely defined and codified as possible. PMID:11077719

Tubiana, M

2000-01-01

372

Mandibular osteotomies for tumor extirpation: the advantages of rigid fixation.  

PubMed

Adequate exposure of intraoral tumors occupying the posterior oral cavity, base of tongue, tonsil, and superior hypopharynx for wide-field primary surgical resection is critical to precise tumor ablation. The exposure resulting from a mandibular osteotomy has greatly assisted the tumor ablation of these areas. This procedure has also been beneficial in providing exposure to the anterior skull base, pterygomaxillary, and infratemporal space, clivus, and nasopharynx. In evaluating various osteotomy sites and methods of fixation, we reviewed 26 patients treated for benign or malignant neoplasia of the head and neck requiring mandibulotomy. The osteotomy complication rate was 2 (29%) of 7 for wire osteosynthesis and 1 (5.3%) of 19 for plate osteosynthesis. All patients with osteotomy complications had received preoperative radiation therapy. The one complication in the plated group was associated with a lateral stairstep osteotomy and two screws on either side of the osteotomy. This study suggests advantages of absolute rigid internal fixation of mandibular osteotomies used for tumor ablation. It is also concluded that a midline osteotomy reapproximated with rigid internal fixation has the benefits of 1. primary bone healing by means of plating counteracting the balanced forces acting on the symphysis; 2. improved reapproximation with minimal bony loss, improving occlusion; 3. decreased incidence of osteoradionecrosis as the symphysis lies outside the usual radiation ports; 4. preservation of the neurovascular bundle; and 5. maintenance of osteotomy-site immobility in an infected field. This review helped identify surgical techniques that decrease the complications that are commonly associated with mandibular osteotomies for precise tumor ablation. PMID:1731161

Sullivan, P K; Fabian, R; Driscoll, D

1992-01-01

373

Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program  

PubMed Central

Background In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Data Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004–2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006–2011. Measures Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Results Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006–2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Discussion Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary. PMID:25068076

Kronick, Richard; Welch, W. Pete

2014-01-01

374

Feeding kinematics of freshwater turtles: what advantage do invasive species possess?  

PubMed

The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) is an invasive turtle species that is displacing the populations of native freshwater turtles in many countries. However, the mechanism that makes red-eared sliders superior competitors has been less well studied. In this study, we compare the feeding kinematics of the red-eared slider with those of Reeves' pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii), a turtle native to East Asia, and offer an explanation as to why red-eared sliders are superior in food competition. Reeves' pond turtles sympatric to red-eared sliders have been reported to have a mainly durophagous diet in contrast to the preference for a soft diet in areas of allopatry to red-eared sliders, indicating the dietary shift resulted from food competition. Maximum neck extension and retraction speed are considered to be indicators of striking ability, but were not found to be superior in red-eared sliders. In fact, maximum neck extension speed was significantly higher in Reeves' pond turtles, though this advantage may be counteracted by the longer neck of Reeves' pond turtles, resulting in similar neck extension times. On the other hand, red-eared sliders had a significantly shorter gape cycle time and neck retraction time, indicating that they can complete feeding in a short time. Therefore, red-eared sliders are suggested to be superior in food competition not due to their striking ability, but due to exploiting preferable food in a shorter time. PMID:25156933

Nishizawa, Hideaki; Tabata, Runa; Hori, Tomoya; Mitamura, Hiromich; Arai, Nobuaki

2014-10-01

375

The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

2011-01-01

376

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2011-04-01

377

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2013-04-01

378

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2012-04-01

379

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2014-04-01

380

Olfactory morphology of carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks: does the cephalofoil confer a sensory advantage?  

PubMed

Many hypotheses have been advanced to explain the adaptive significance of the sphyrnid cephalofoil, including potential advantages of spacing the olfactory organs at the distal tips of the broad surface. We employed comparative morphology to test whether the sphyrnid cephalofoil provides better stereo-olfaction, increases olfactory acuity, and samples a greater volume of the medium compared to the situation in carcharhiniform sharks. The broadly spaced nares provide sphyrnid species with a significantly greater separation between the olfactory rosettes, which could lead to an enhanced ability to resolve odor gradients. In addition, most sphyrnid species possess prenarial grooves that greatly increase the volume of water sampled by the nares and thus increase the probability of odorant encounter. However, despite a much greater head width, and a significantly greater number of olfactory lamellae, scalloped hammerhead sharks do not possess a greater amount of olfactory epithelial surface area than the carcharhiniform sandbar sharks. Therefore, sphyrnid sharks might not possess any greater olfactory acuity than carcharhinids. Despite this, there are clear olfactory advantages to the cephalofoil head morphology that could have led to its evolution, persistence, and diversification. persistence, and diversification. PMID:15549717

Kajiura, Stephen M; Forni, Jesica B; Summers, Adam P

2005-06-01

381

Performance Boosting Additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

1999-01-01

382

RGB Additive Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

Engelman, Mr.

2010-12-05

383

Advantageous Decaborane Ion Implantation for Ultra-shallow Junction of PMOSFETs Compared with Boron Monomer Implantation into Germanium Preamorphized Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the advantage of the decaborane (B10Hx +) ion implantation for sub-40-nm-gate-length PMOSFETs compared with conventional boron monomer ion implantation into pre-amorphized layer. PMOSFETs with decaborane ion implantation have a 5% higher on-current than those with boron monomer into pre-amorphized layer. In addition, the threshold voltage fluctuation of the PMOSFETs is also smaller. This high performance of the PMOSFETs

Takayuki Aoyama; S. Umisedo; N. Hamamoto; T. Nagayama; M. Tanjyo

2006-01-01

384

The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

2012-01-01

385

Uniqueness, Advantages, Challenges, Solutions, and Perspectives in Therapeutics Applying RNA Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

The field of RNA nanotechnology is rapidly emerging. RNA can be manipulated with the simplicity characteristic of DNA to produce nanoparticles with a diversity of quaternary structures by self-assembly. Additionally RNA is tremendously versatile in its function and some RNA molecules display catalytic activities much like proteins. Thus, RNA has the advantage of both worlds. However, the instability of RNA has made many scientists flinch away from RNA nanotechnology. Other concerns that have deterred the progress of RNA therapeutics include the induction of interferons, stimulation of cytokines, and activation of other immune systems, as well as short pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. This review will provide some solutions and perspectives on the chemical and thermodynamic stability, in vivo half-life and biodistribution, yield and production cost, in vivo toxicity and side effect, specific delivery and targeting, as well as endosomal trapping and escape. PMID:22913595

Haque, Farzin; Hallahan, Brent; Reif, Randall; Li, Hui

2012-01-01

386

Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax: the advantages of coronal and sagittal planes  

SciTech Connect

A major advantage of MRI of the thorax is its ability to display sagittal and coronal planes without relying on cumbersome patient positioning or reformatting of multiple transverse slices as in CT. The vertical orientation of viscera and vessels within the mediastinum is ideally suited to imaging in these planes, which may be considered analogous to the standard radiographic posteroanterior (PA) and lateral views of the chest. Since radiologists and clinicians alike are thoroughly familiar with thoracic anatomay in these planes, it would seem desirable to adopt coronal and sagittal MR images as the standard projections for MRI of the thorax, reserving axial and oblique projections for situations in which they may provide additional information. To this end, the authors describe normal sagittal and coronal anatomy of the thorax and illustrate some examples of pathology in these planes.

O'Donovan, P.B.; Ross, J.S.; Sivak, E.D.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Meaney, T.F.

1984-12-01

387

Addition and Subtraction... Why Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice doing Addition and Subtraction! Addition: Here you can use virtual blocks to make addition problems. Addition with Base-10 Blocks Now you rock at doing addition with blocks. Try doing some Subtraction! Subtraction: Try solving subtraction problems using the blocks. Subtraction with Base-10 Blocks Just for fun: Check out this site and just try some fun stuff... Addition and Subtraction Mania ...

Mr. Baggaley

2008-11-17

388

Salmonellosis in cattle: advantages of being an experimental model.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is an important disease of cattle caused predominantly by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Dublin (S. dublin). S. typhimurium causes acute enteritis and exudative diarrhea in calves. In addition to enteric disease, S. dublin can cause systemic infections, and may cause abortion in pregnant cows. Calves are considered a relevant model for non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. Experimental oral infections or inoculation of ligated ileal loops in calves have been extensively studied recently. This article reviews relevant published results regarding bovine salmonellosis as a natural disease or as an animal model. PMID:22483382

Costa, Luciana F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J; Santos, Renato L

2012-08-01

389

THE OFFER OF ACTIVITIES AND SERVICES CAN BE FOUND  

E-print Network

-wide), the Sports Workshop. You can train for sport (directed activities, rowing courses...); do sports promotion and the Band Competitions at UPF; sign up for cultural promotion courses and workshops, and take advantage of discounts and benefits on cultural products. CULTURAL ACTIVITIES You can do sport at UPF participating

Geffner, Hector

390

Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs.  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one example of this kind of technology. AM offers geometric flexibility in its products and therefore allows customisation to suit individual needs. Clinical success has been shown with models for surgical planning, implants, assistive devices and scaffold-based tissue engineering. The use of AM to print tissues and organs that mimic nature in structure and function remains an elusive goal, but has the potential to transform personalised medicine, drug development and scientific understanding of the mechanisms of disease.  PMID:25214247

Douglas, Tania S

2014-06-01

391

41 CFR 60-30.19 - Objections; exceptions; offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Objections; exceptions; offer of proof. 60-30.19 Section 60-30.19...19 Objections; exceptions; offer of proof. (a) Objections. If a party...recommendations and conclusions. (c) Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in...

2010-07-01

392

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

Perkins, W. D.

1987-01-01

393

Testing Advantageous Selection by Hidden Action: Evidence from Automobile Liability Insurance  

E-print Network

Testing Advantageous Selection by Hidden Action: Evidence from Automobile Liability Insurance Selection by Hidden Action: Evidence from Automobile Liability Insurance Abstract This paper examines advantageous selection in automobile liability insurance from the approach with hidden action, which argues

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

394

Nonlinear directed acyclic structure learning with weakly additive noise models  

E-print Network

Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA rtillman@cmu.edu Arthur Gretton Carnegie Mellon University, MPI for Biological Cybernetics Pittsburgh, PA arthur.gretton@gmail.com Peter Spirtes Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA ps7z@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract The recently proposed additive noise model has advantages over

Spirtes, Peter

395

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, FALL, 2013 (Updated 8/1/13)  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, FALL, 2013 (Updated 8/1/13) CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 - CHEMICAL and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16, and coordination chemistry, and chemistry of selected elements. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation

Kounaves, Samuel P.

396

Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy  

E-print Network

Minor in Philosophy "In virtually any of our 24 programs within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, computers, business, health care, bio-medial technologies, sexual practices, and punishment by the state metropolitan location, PSU offers many excellent opportunities for its students to obtain internships and part

397

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Selected Continuing Education Offerings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presented at the 1976 National Conference on Continuing Education in Nursing describes evaluation methodology used to determine the effectiveness of different continuing education offerings in nursing. The evaluation design, workshops for inservice directors, findings and problems, and examples of three evaluation forms used are…

Deets, Carol; Blume, Dorothy

1977-01-01

398

www.pdx.edu/music Undergraduate Degrees Offered  

E-print Network

, pedagogy, music technology, and ethnomusicology. Consistent with the University's motto, "Let KnowledgeMUSIC www.pdx.edu/music Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Music Bachelor of Science in Music Bachelor of Music in Composition Bachelor of Music in Music Education Bachelor of Music

399

Music Technology Stetson University offers two degrees combining music with  

E-print Network

Music Technology Stetson University offers two degrees combining music with emerging technologies for artistic expression. The bachelor of music in music technology integrates music performance (voice with technology, it is an option for all students accepted into the School of Music. Applicants who wish to pursue

Miles, Will

400

What Serious Video Games Can Offer Child Obesity Prevention  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physically active. Lessons learned are provided, as well as examples gleaned from personal experiences. PMID:25654589

2014-01-01

401

Creative Writing Stetson University's English department offers a vibrant  

E-print Network

Creative Writing Stetson University's English department offers a vibrant undergraduate program in creative writing for students of all interests and abilities. The creative writing faculty work with students who love language and wish to experiment in poetry, fiction, dramatic writing and creative

Miles, Will

402

Organisations Offering Advice and Support Llais y Goedwig  

E-print Network

Organisations Offering Advice and Support Llais y Goedwig www.llaisygoedwig.org.uk The community of the voluntary sector in Wales - represents and campaigns for voluntary organisations, volunteers and communities Voluntary Sector Network Wales www.bvsnw.org.uk An umbrella organisation that actively represents supports

403

Investment banking, reputation, and the underpricing of initial public offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and tests two propositions. We demonstrate that there is a monotone relation between the (expected) underpricing of an initial public offering and the uncertainty of investors regarding its value. We also argue that the resulting underpricing equilibrium is enforced by investment bankers, who have reputation capital at stake. An investment banker who \\

Randolph P. Beatty; Jay R. Ritter

1986-01-01

404

Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Political Science  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Political Science Bachelor of Science in Political Science Minor in Political Science Minor in Law and Legal Studies e undergraduate program in political science is designed for: the student who wishes to emphasize public affairs and citizenship

405

Offered Credit Prerequisites LIFE 320 Ecology F, S 3  

E-print Network

Advisor: Offered Credit Prerequisites _______ LIFE 320 Ecology F, S 3 BZ 120 or similar, MATH 141 credits NR 440 Applications in Conservation Planning F 3 NRRT 340 _______ F 311 Forest Ecology F, S 3 Ecology FW 477 Habitat for Wildlife F 3 FW 260 FW 400 Conservation of Fish in Aquatic Ecosystems F 3 LIFE

406

Technology Offer Ammonia and Humidity Sensor for the  

E-print Network

Technology Offer Ammonia and Humidity Sensor for the Detection of Food Spoilage Keywords Ammonia. Overview The measurement of ammonia at ultra-low concentrations at varying levels of humidity is a challenging task but is highly promising, as it allows the detection of ammonia produced by bacteria upon

407

ASTERS Teacher Training will not be offered during  

E-print Network

ASTERS Teacher Training will not be offered during the 2013-2014 school year. For information Training 2012 The Wonderful World of Plants - For Teachers Grades K - 2 This course will assist you regarding our program, see below. #12;Habitats, Energy Cycles, and Adaptations - For Teachers Grades 3 - 5

Hutcheon, James M.

408

MAINTENANCE The Aviation Maintenance Technology Program offers an associate of  

E-print Network

AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY The Aviation Maintenance Technology Program offers an associate of applied science in aviation maintenance and certificates in airframe, powerplant, or airframe and powerplant maintenance. It is one of the few twelve month Federal Aviation Administration Part-147 certified

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

409

Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Sociology  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Sociology Bachelor of Science in Sociology Minor in Sociology Secondary Education Program - Social Science "In virtually any of our 24 programs within Sociology is the study of human interaction and social organization. Students in the Department of Sociology

410

Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

Fukushima, Saeko

1990-01-01

411

Contrastive Pragmatics of English and Japanese Offers and Requests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes a study by Fukushima (1990) of the English offers and responses of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and reports on an experiment designed to address the perceived weaknesses of Fukushima's work. Fukushima's study found that many Japanese EFL learners could not use appropriate levels of politeness in…

Christianson, Kiel

412

Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239  

E-print Network

- 1 - Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 May 29, 2012 Nuclear magnetic signal of plutonium 239's unique nuclear magnetic resonance signature has been detected by scientists on the subject, "Observation of 239 Pu Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," was published in the May 18 issue of Science

413

Summer Degree Courses UC offers a selection of degree  

E-print Network

2013/2014 Summer Degree Courses Summer. UCMore FeelMore DoMore #12;UC offers a selection of degree courses in a range of subjects over summer (November ­ February). Why study over summer? The Summer enrol in summer courses starting in November 2013 (13SU2) and January 2014 (14SU1) by either

Hickman, Mark

414

Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

415

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation  

E-print Network

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

416

MFR PAPER 990 A new device offers fishermen  

E-print Network

term movements 01 albacore off central Caillor- nia as determined by ultra-sonic tracking Na- tionalMFR PAPER 990 A new device offers fishermen and scientists a means for tracking king crabs under water. Sonic Tags Attached to Alaska King Crab GERALD E. MONAN and DONALD L. THORNE ABSTRACT ,.l1\\'1(( 1

417

Causal Analysis of Reduced Occupational Education Enrollments and Course Offerings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the causes contributing to the decline in occupational education enrollments and course offerings in Washoe County, Clark County, and Carson City School Districts in Nevada. Mailed or personally administered surveys were given to a sample of 1,454 high-school students from the school districts. Responses were…

Foldesy, Eunice; Carpenter, John

418

What serious video games can offer child obesity prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physi...

419

12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities...2) Tax-qualified employee stock ownership plans. (3) Supplemental...operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon a purchaser or...holding company or resulting stock holding company, that...

2012-01-01

420

12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities...2) Tax-qualified employee stock ownership plans. (3) Supplemental...operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon a purchaser or...holding company or resulting stock holding company, that...

2013-01-01

421

12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities...2) Tax-qualified employee stock ownership plans. (3) Supplemental...operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon a purchaser or...holding company or resulting stock holding company, that...

2014-01-01

422

48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating...Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1...is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that...

2010-10-01

423

What Are High Schools Offering as Preparation for Employment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine (a) the patterns that existed in employment preparation courses offered by districts across a midwestern state and (b) the primary intent, primary method of instruction, and location of the classroom-based and work-based components of these courses. Findings indicated that (a) employment preparation…

Guy, Barbara A.; Sitlington, Patricia L.; Larsen, Michael D.; Frank, Alan R.

2009-01-01

424

Tsunami-Made Electric Current Could Offer Warning  

E-print Network

Tsunami-Made Electric Current Could Offer Warning Killer ocean waves apparently generate electric currents in the ocean that might be used to detect tsunamis quickly. By Larry O'Hanlon | Fri Jan 22, 2010 07:52 AM ET THE GIST: · A new model predicts that tsunamis can generate small surges of electricity

Harinarayana, T.

425

PROFESSIONAL The UAF Community & Technical College offers an associate of  

E-print Network

PROFESSIONAL PILOTING The UAF Community & Technical College offers an associate of applied science towards an associate of applied science degree in professional piloting or a minor in aviation technology degree in professional piloting. With more pilots and aircraft per capita than any other state

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

426

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013)  

E-print Network

of chromatographic, electroanalytical, and spectroscopic instrumentation. For chemistry and life science majorsCHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013) CHEM 0001-01 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16

Kounaves, Samuel P.

427

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

Weible, Rick

2010-01-01

428

47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices ...subscribers' reception of signals shall offer to supply...reception of all other signals that do not need to...individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators...reception of multiple signals that are made at...

2013-10-01

429

47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices ...subscribers' reception of signals shall offer to supply...reception of all other signals that do not need to...individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators...reception of multiple signals that are made at...

2012-10-01

430

47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices ...subscribers' reception of signals shall offer to supply...reception of all other signals that do not need to...individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators...reception of multiple signals that are made at...

2010-10-01

431

47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices ...subscribers' reception of signals shall offer to supply...reception of all other signals that do not need to...individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators...reception of multiple signals that are made at...

2011-10-01

432

www.history.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered  

E-print Network

HISTORY www.history.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in History Bachelor of Science in History Minor in History History Honors Option "Portland State students are such a compelling.D. Professor of History Students of history, through investigation of the past, gain skills and perspectives

433

Compensatory Advantage as a Mechanism of Educational Inequality: A Regression Discontinuity Based on Month of Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compensatory advantage is a mechanism of social stratification that complements cumulative advantage and path dependence. In this article, I first discuss the theoretical foundations of the compensatory advantage and path dependence mechanisms and the methodological challenges that complicate identification of their effects. Next, I present a…

Bernardi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

434

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker  

E-print Network

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker MFE ITER/Exp Plenary #12;What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? Advantages Fusion has had experiment such as ITER is beyond what individual governments are willing to invest in fusion. Only

435

Sustainable competitive advantage in electronic business: towards a contingency perspective on the resource-based view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the nature of competitive advantage has not been helped by a tendency for theorists to adopt a unitary position, suggesting, for example, that advantage is industry based or resource based. In examining the nature of competitive advantage in an electronic business (e-business) environment this paper adopts a contingency perspective. Several intriguing questions emerge. Do 'new economy' companies

JOHN FAHY; GRAHAM HOOLEY

2002-01-01

436

Processing of Invisible Stimuli: Advantage of Upright Faces and Recognizable Words in Overcoming Interocular Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familiar and recognizable stimuli enjoy an advantage of predominance during binocular rivalry, and this advantage is usually attributed to their enhanced processing during the dominant phase. However, do fa- miliar and recognizable stimuli have an advantage in breaking suppression? Test images were gradually intro- duced to one eye to compete against a standard high-con- trast dynamic noise pattern presented to

Yi Jiang; Patricia Costello; Sheng He

2007-01-01

437

Technical advantages of disk laser technology in short and ultrashort pulse processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates that disk-laser technology introduces advantages that increase efficiency and allows for high productivity in micro-processing in both the nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) regimes. Some technical advantages of disk technology include not requiring good pump beam quality or special wavelengths for pumping of the disk, high optical efficiencies, no thermal lensing effects and a possible scaling of output power without an increase of pump beam quality. With cavity-dumping, the pulse duration of the disk laser can be specified between 30 and hundreds of nanoseconds, but is independent of frequency, thus maintaining process stability. TRUMPF uses this technology in the 750 watts average power laser TruMicro 7050. High intensity, along with fluency, is important for high ablation rates in thinfilm removal. Thus, these ns lasers show high removal rates, above 60 cm2/s, in thin-film solar cell production. In addition, recent results in paint-stripping of aerospace material prove the green credentials and high processing rates inherent with this technology as it can potentially replace toxic chemical processes. The ps disk technology meanwhile is used in, for example, scribing of solar cells, wafer dicing and drilling injector nozzles, as the pulse duration is short enough to minimize heat input in the laser-matter interaction. In the TruMicro Series 5000, the multi-pass regenerative amplifier stage combines high optical-optical efficiencies together with excellent output beam quality for pulse durations of only 6 ps and high pulse energies of up to 0.25 mJ.

Graham, P.; Stollhof, J.; Weiler, S.; Massa, S.; Faisst, B.; Denney, P.; Gounaris, E.

2011-03-01

438

Nonindigenous Plant Advantage in Native and Exotic Australian Grasses under Experimental Drought, Warming, and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment  

PubMed Central

A general prediction of ecological theory is that climate change will favor invasive nonindigenous plant species (NIPS) over native species. However, the relative fitness advantage enjoyed by NIPS is often affected by resource limitation and potentially by extreme climatic events such as drought. Genetic constraints may also limit the ability of NIPS to adapt to changing climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated evidence for potential NIPS advantage under climate change in two sympatric perennial stipoid grasses from southeast Australia, the NIPS Nassella neesiana and the native Austrostipa bigeniculata. We compared the growth and reproduction of both species under current and year 2050 drought, temperature and CO2 regimes in a multifactor outdoor climate simulation experiment, hypothesizing that NIPS advantage would be higher under more favorable growing conditions. We also compared the quantitative variation and heritability of growth traits in populations of both species collected along a 200 km climatic transect. In contrast to our hypothesis we found that the NIPS N. neesiana was less responsive than A. bigeniculata to winter warming but maintained higher reproductive output during spring drought. However, overall tussock expansion was far more rapid in N. neesiana, and so it maintained an overall fitness advantage over A. bigeniculata in all climate regimes. N. neesiana also exhibited similar or lower quantitative variation and growth trait heritability than A. bigeniculata within populations but greater variability among populations, probably reflecting a complex past introduction history. We found some evidence that additional spring warmth increases the impact of drought on reproduction but not that elevated atmospheric CO2 ameliorates drought severity. Overall, we conclude that NIPS advantage under climate change may be limited by a lack of responsiveness to key climatic drivers, reduced genetic variability in range-edge populations, and complex drought-CO2 interactions. PMID:24832795

Godfree, Robert C.; Robertson, Bruce C.; Gapare, Washington J.; Ivkovi?, Miloš; Marshall, David J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Zwart, Alexander B.

2013-01-01

439

Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization. PMID:25520686

Brito, Natalie H.; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

2014-01-01

440

Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.

Cooley, Victor M.

2013-01-01

441

Nisshesha rechaka pranayama offers benefits through brief intermittent hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia has been a frightening term for doctors and medical students because of the possibility of damage to cells, tissues and organs. However, we now know that brief, episodic hypoxia gives rise to several adaptive responses. These responses in general prepare the body for better tolerating such hypoxic episodes, and also offer protection against several other types of insults. Indeed, scientists at the erstwhile U.S.S.R. have developed what is known as ‘hypoxia therapy’ and reaped the benefits of brief intermittent hypoxia for the last several decades. In India, yogic treatment of various diseases is common. A lesser known but important variety of Pranayama is ‘nisshesha rechaka’, which may be described as breath holding at residual volume. Studies done at our centre have demonstrated that Nisshesha rechaka is the easiest way to produce brief, intermittent hypoxia. There is therefore reason to believe that Nisshesha rechaka pranayama may offer benefits through this mechanism. PMID:22661835

Malshe, Prakash Chintamani

2011-01-01

442

Art History Undergraduate Course Offerings for FW2013-14  

E-print Network

Art History Undergraduate Course Offerings for FW2013-14 HIST-1010(6) ART AND HISTORY (Le3. HIST-2800(6) HISTORY OF EUROPEAN ART (Le3) The historical development of art forms in the European:30 PM - 5:15 PM, room 4BC57. HIST-3813(3) ART HISTORY IN FOCUS I (Le, S3) This lecture/seminar course

Martin, Jeff

443

Virtual Options Program Offers Global Reach to Fall Meeting Presentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the Fall Meeting Virtual Options program, AGU expanded existing virtual offerings and piloted new concepts at the 2013 Fall Meeting. The program seeks to engage AGU members and the broader scientific community in a global knowledge-sharing effort that goes beyond a physical meeting. This includes the dissemination of research outside the meeting venue and the inclusion of remote audiences and presenters in the on-site discourse.

Robichaux, Emily

2014-02-01

444

Should we offer antibiotic prophylaxis post sexual assault?  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered to women post sexual assault by considering acceptability of prophylaxis, follow up attendance rates and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in these women. Retrospective case notes review of female survivors of rape or sexual assault attending the Rose Clinic, Ambrose King Centre, Royal London Hospital between 1 January 1997 and 31 May 1999 was carried out. The following selection criteria were applied: age greater than 16 years; attending within two weeks of assault; having experienced vaginal and/or anal penetration. All women were screened for STI using standard investigation methods detailed below. Antibiotic prophylaxis was offered within two weeks of the assault, the antibiotic regimens used as recommended. The women were invited to attend for results at two weeks and offered a further screen at three months post assault. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 32% of the women screened, Chlamydia trachomatis was identified in 8%, none tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Of the 25 women who were offered antibiotic prophylaxis, 88% accepted. Follow up attendances were 57% at two weeks and 30% at three months. Antibiotic prophylaxis was acceptable to women. Among recent rape victims, follow-up rates are low confirmed by our study. These factors support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis post sexual assault. There was an apparently high prevalence of STIs amongst women in this study. More research is required with respect to this aspect of the work and to consider the cost-benefit analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:12662387

Gibb, A M; McManus, T; Forster, G E

2003-02-01

445

UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE OPTIONS The Department of Earth Sciences offers a Bachelor of Science in the following options  

E-print Network

UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE OPTIONS The Department of Earth Sciences offers a Bachelor of Science Students taking field notes on Sacajawea Peak in the Bridger Mountains 1 2 3 4 5 EARTH SCIENCES For additional information, contact: Department of Earth Sciences Montana State University 226 Traphagen Hall P

Maxwell, Bruce D.

446

Drug Offers as a Context for Violence Perpetration and Victimization  

PubMed Central

Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai`i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this paper explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Method Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier than their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students discussed what they thought they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Results While aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated aggression and violence were perceived to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer, and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

2014-01-01

447

5. Building #3, original structure, second addition, and first addition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Building #3, original structure, second addition, and first addition (from right to left), south and east sides, looking northwest. - S. W. Shattuck Chemical Company, Incorporated, Building No. 3, 1805 South Bannock Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

448

48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requiring offers for development or production...The original supplier of the item or...unable to satisfy program schedule or delivery...throughout the program life cycle as...of additional suppliers. (x) Periodic system or program reviews to address...contractor for the development or...

2010-10-01

449

www.biology.pdx.edu For additional information about  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY www.biology.pdx.edu For additional information about the Biology Department: Visit: Biology Department Portland State University P.O. Box 751 Portland, OR 97207-0751/ Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Biology Bachelor of Science in Biology Minor in Biology Our challenging

450

Self-assembly in additive manufacturing: opportunities and obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Additive manufacturing (AM) offers substantial flexibility in shape, but much less flexibility in materials and functionality – particularly at small size scales. A system for automatically incorporating microscale components would enable the fabrication of objects with more functionality. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of self-assembly to serve as an automated programmable integration method.

N. B. Crane; J. Tuckerman; G. N. Nielson

2011-01-01

451

Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating

C. Emmelmann; P. Sander; J. Kranz; E. Wycisk

2011-01-01

452

Revisiting the out-group advantage in emotion recognition in a multicultural society: further evidence for the in-group advantage.  

PubMed

Recent studies have accumulated supporting evidence for in-group advantage in emotion recognition, with individuals more accurately perceiving emotions expressed by cultural in-group members. However, inconsistent results appear in balanced-design studies involving the majority and minority groups residing within a single nation: There is an apparent pattern of an out-group advantage, implying that minority group members show heightened sensitivity toward emotional expressions of the majority group members. Two studies were conducted to further explore why the out-group advantage emerged in multicultural societies. In Study 1, based on a careful review of existing studies involving majority and minority groups, both new and previously reviewed, a new approach to assess the in-group and out-group advantage was proposed and applied. In Study 2, the minority out-group advantage was further tested in an experimental study. European American and Asian American students were asked to identify emotions of European and Asian Americans presented in static photos of imitated emotional expressions and full-channel video presentations of spontaneous emotional expressions. The results revealed that a mutual in-group advantage was observed in the spontaneous expressions condition, but not in the imitated expression condition. Significance and implications of the findings from this study are discussed regarding intergroup interactions in a multicultural society. PMID:23163711

Kang, Sun-Mee; Lau, Anna S

2013-04-01

453

Starch — Value Addition by Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking

Rudrapatnam N. Tharanathan

2005-01-01

454

Snapshot advantage: a review of the light collection improvement for parallel high-dimensional measurement systems  

PubMed Central

The snapshot advantage is a large increase in light collection efficiency available to high-dimensional measurement systems that avoid filtering and scanning. After discussing this advantage in the context of imaging spectrometry, where the greatest effort towards developing snapshot systems has been made, we describe the types of measurements where it is applicable. We then generalize it to the larger context of high-dimensional measurements, where the advantage increases geometrically with measurement dimensionality. PMID:22791926

Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2012-01-01

455

Competing through operations and supply : The role of classic and extended resource-based advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to analyze the evolution of competitive advantage using both “classic” and “extended” resource-based theory (RBT). The aim is to examine the different ways in which “classic” and “extended” resource-based advantage develops and how they might combine to create long-term advantage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A single case study method is used to examine the process by which

Michael Lewis; Alistair Brandon-Jones; Nigel Slack; Mickey Howard

2010-01-01

456

Additive manufacturing method of producing  

E-print Network

Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

Painter, Kevin

457

Manufacturing responsiveness as a competitive advantage and implementation in a make-to-order environment  

E-print Network

Many companies have been successful differentiating themselves and creating growth opportunities by developing a competitive advantage through their manufacturing operations. During the last century, this operational ...

Smith, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

2005-01-01

458

Potential advantage of higher-order modes of birdcage coil for parallel imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential advantages of the higher-order resonant modes of a low-pass birdcage coil for parallel imaging are investigated using FDTD simulations in a spherical phantom. Better parallel imaging performance can be achieved in axial planes than in sagittal planes. If more modes are employed, the average g-factor ( gmean) and maximum g-factor ( gmax) will be improved for a specific acceleration factor ( R). G-factor performance at 3 T ( gmean = 1.79, gmax = 3.55) and 7 T ( gmean = 1.60, gmax = 2.45) can be achieved even with an acceleration factor as high as four when all six order modes of 12-rung low-pass birdcage coil are incorporated for imaging on a mid-axial plane. For a specific number of channels, the optimum combination of corresponding modes can be obtained for different acceleration factors. Based on the g-factor and SNR performance, the total degenerate multi-mode birdcage coil with six order resonant modes has better homogeneous coverage and SENSE performance than the 8-element phased array coil, although requiring fewer channels. In addition, the dielectric effects at high field can improve the parallel imaging performance.

Wang, Chunsheng; Qu, Peng; Shen, Gary X.

2006-09-01

459

Potential advantage of higher-order modes of birdcage coil for parallel imaging.  

PubMed

The potential advantages of the higher-order resonant modes of a low-pass birdcage coil for parallel imaging are investigated using FDTD simulations in a spherical phantom. Better parallel imaging performance can be achieved in axial planes than in sagittal planes. If more modes are employed, the average g-factor (gmean) and maximum g-factor (gmax) will be improved for a specific acceleration factor (R). G-factor performance at 3 T (gmean=1.79, gmax=3.55) and 7 T (gmean=1.60, gmax=2.45) can be achieved even with an acceleration factor as high as four when all six order modes of 12-rung low-pass birdcage coil are incorporated for imaging on a mid-axial plane. For a specific number of channels, the optimum combination of corresponding modes can be obtained for different acceleration factors. Based on the g-factor and SNR performance, the total degenerate multi-mode birdcage coil with six order resonant modes has better homogeneous coverage and SENSE performance than the 8-element phased array coil, although requiring fewer channels. In addition, the dielectric effects at high field can improve the parallel imaging performance. PMID:16829146

Wang, Chunsheng; Qu, Peng; Shen, Gary X

2006-09-01

460

Advantages of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell depletion using DEREG mice.  

PubMed

Several mechanisms enable immunological self-tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized T cell subset that prevents autoimmunity and excessive immune responses, but can also mediate detrimental tolerance to tumors and pathogens in a Foxp3-dependent manner. Genetic tools exploiting the foxp3 locus including bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-transgenic DEREG mice have provided essential information on Treg biology and the potential therapeutic modulation of tolerance. In DEREG mice, Foxp3(+) Tregs selectively express eGFP and diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor, allowing for the specific depletion of Tregs through DT administration. We here provide a detailed overview about important considerations such as DT toxicity, which affects any mouse strain treated with DT, and Treg rebound after depletion. Additionally, we point out the specific advantages of BAC-transgenic DEREG mice including their suitability to study organ-specific autoimmunity such as type I diabetes. Moreover, we discuss recent insights into the role of Tregs in viral infections. In summary, DEREG mice are an important tool to study Treg-mediated tolerance and its therapeutic circumvention. PMID:25505550

Mayer, Christian T; Lahl, Katharina; Milanez-Almeida, Pedro; Watts, Deepika; Dittmer, Ulf; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Huehn, Jochen; Kopf, Manfred; Kretschmer, Karsten; Rouse, Barry; Sparwasser, Tim

2014-11-01

461

Advantages of Foxp3+ regulatory T cell depletion using DEREG mice  

PubMed Central

Several mechanisms enable immunological self-tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized T cell subset that prevents autoimmunity and excessive immune responses, but can also mediate detrimental tolerance to tumors and pathogens in a Foxp3-dependent manner. Genetic tools exploiting the foxp3 locus including bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-transgenic DEREG mice have provided essential information on Treg biology and the potential therapeutic modulation of tolerance. In DEREG mice, Foxp3+ Tregs selectively express eGFP and diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor, allowing for the specific depletion of Tregs through DT administration. We here provide a detailed overview about important considerations such as DT toxicity, which affects any mouse strain treated with DT, and Treg rebound after depletion. Additionally, we point out the specific advantages of BAC-transgenic DEREG mice including their suitability to study organ-specific autoimmunity such as type I diabetes. Moreover, we discuss recent insights into the role of Tregs in viral infections. In summary, DEREG mice are an important tool to study Treg-mediated tolerance and its therapeutic circumvention. PMID:25505550

Mayer, Christian T; Lahl, Katharina; Milanez-Almeida, Pedro; Watts, Deepika; Dittmer, Ulf; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Huehn, Jochen; Kopf, Manfred; Kretschmer, Karsten; Rouse, Barry; Sparwasser, Tim

2014-01-01

462

IMAGE-BASED VERIFICATION: SOME ADVANTAGES, CHALLENGES, AND ALGORITHM-DRIVEN REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Imaging technologies may be a particularly useful technique that supports monitoring and verification of deployed and stockpiled nuclear weapons and dismantlement components. However, protecting the sensitive design information requires processing the image behind an information barrier and reporting only non-sensitive attributes related to the image. Reducing images to attributes may destroy some sensitive information, but the challenge remains. For example, reducing the measurement to an attribute such as defined shape and X-ray transmission of an edge might reveal sensitive information relating to shape, size, and material composition. If enough additional information is available to analyze with the attribute, it may still be possible to extract sensitive design information. In spite of these difficulties, the implementation of new treaty requirements may demand image technology as an option. Two fundamental questions are raised: What (minimal) information is needed from imaging to enable verification, and what imaging technologies are appropriate? PNNL is currently developing a suite of image analysis algorithms to define and extract attributes from images for dismantlement and warhead verification and counting scenarios. In this talk, we discuss imaging requirements from the perspective of algorithms operating behind information barriers, and review imaging technologies and their potential advantages for verification. Companion talks will concentrate on the technical aspects of the algorithms.

Seifert, Allen; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Misner, Alex C.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Pitts, William K.

2011-06-10

463

Evaluation of darwin's fecundity advantage hypothesis in parthenium beetle, zygogramma bicolorata pallister.  

PubMed

In the Parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), variation in body size exists between and within the sexes. The females are larger than the males. Darwin (1874) proposed the fecundity advantage hypothesis, i.e. large sized female produce more progeny, with subsequent studies supporting as well as refuting the hypothesis. Thus, in order to evaluate whether this hypothesis stands in Z. bicolorata we performed experiments to investigate the role of body size in influencing: (i) assortative mating, (ii) reproductive attributes, and (iii) growth, development and survival of offspring. It is the first attempt in this beetle. We found that size influenced assortative mating, reproductive output and offspring fitness. Larger males and females were preferred as mates over smaller ones. The pairs having larger adults as mates had higher fecundity while the egg viability was influenced by the male size only. The offspring of larger parents had fast development and higher survival indicating thereby possible better nutrient allotment by the female and supply of accessory gland proteins by the male in addition to better quality of genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24006336

Omkar, Omkar; Afaq, Uzma

2013-09-01

464

Hydrolytic stability of helical RNA: a selective advantage for the natural 3',5'-bond.  

PubMed Central

Dodecaadenylic acid containing a single 2', 5'-linkage at a defined position was formed by the coupling of two hexamers on a poly(U) template at 2 degrees. The rate of hydrolysis of this dodecamer was compared with that of a dodecamer that contained only the natural 3', 5'-linkages. At 40 degrees, in 1 M aqueous ethylenediamine at pH 8 in the absence of poly(U), both dodecamers hydrolyzed at comparable rates, but the addition of two equivalents of poly(U) caused a 7-fold increase in the initial rate of hydrolysis of the oligomer containing the 2', 5'-bond, and a 5-fold decrease in the initial rate of hydrolysis of the natural oligomer. When the oligomers are fully constrained in helical form, the ratio of the rates of cleavage of one 2', 5'-bond to one 3', 5'-bond under these conditions is probably about 900:1. The use of the 3', 5'-bond, in combination with a right-handed helix, appears to have had a large selective advantage over the use of the 2', 5'-bond for the storage of genetic information. PMID:1063396

Usher, D A; McHale, A H

1976-01-01

465

Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.  

PubMed

Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

2008-01-15

466

Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests  

PubMed Central

Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

Crofoot, Margaret C.; Gilby, Ian C.; Wikelski, Martin C.; Kays, Roland W.

2008-01-01

467

The advantages of mosquito biocontrol by stocking edible fish in rice paddies.  

PubMed

Edible fish stocked in rice fields at a density of 600-800 fry per mu (1 mu = 1/15 hectare) for 150-170 days may act as an effective mosquito biocontrol agent. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Tilopia spp. killed late stage larvae and pupae of Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorrhyncus in laboratory and field trials. Stocking of fish in experimental rice fields decreased larval numbers significantly in comparison with control areas. Expansion of fish stocking in rice fields on a large scale over several years correlated with a marked decrease in malaria transmission. The addition of fish to the rice fields also resulted in increased yields. A ditch-ridge system of field arrangements is described for optimization of fish handling. Preliminary cost-benefit analysis indicates that this approach to mosquito control conveys considerable economic advantage and thus provides incentive to the community to participate in vector control programs. Farmers' experience in Guangxi over a number of years indicates that the use of edible fish for this purpose can be carried on a large, commercially viable scale. PMID:1818398

Wu, N; Liao, G H; Li, D F; Luo, Y L; Zhong, G M

1991-09-01

468

Competitive advantage and tolerance of selected shochu yeast in barley shochu mash.  

PubMed

A shochu yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAW-6, was previously isolated from Kagoshima yeast strain Ko, and has since been utilized in shochu production. The BAW-6 strain carries pho3/pho3 homozygous genes in contrast to the heterozygous PHO3/pho3 genes in the parental Ko strain. However, absence of the PHO3 gene per se cannot explain the fermentation superiority of BAW-6. Here, we demonstrate the growth advantage of the BAW-6 strain over the Ko strain by competitive cultivation in barley shochu preparation, where alcohol yield and nihonshudo of the former strain were higher than those of the latter strain. In addition, the maximum growth rate of BAW-6 was less affected than that of Ko by high Brix values of barley koji medium, suggesting that BAW-6 is less sensitive to growth inhibitory compounds derived from barley or barley koji. The tolerance of BAW-6 to growth inhibitory compounds, cerulenin and diethylstilbestrol (an H?-ATPase inhibitor), was also higher than that of other yeast strains. Consistent with BAW-6's tolerance to diethylstilbestrol in the presence of 8% ethanol (pH 4.5), H?-ATPase activity, but not transcription of its gene, was higher in BAW-6 than in Ko. We conclude that the BAW-6 strain is associated with certain gene alterations other than PHO3, such that it can maintain cellular ion homeostasis under conditions of ethanol stress during the latter phase of fermentation. PMID:23453279

Takashita, Hideharu; Fujihara, Emi; Furutera, Mihoko; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Shimoda, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Takahira; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

2013-07-01

469

Biomechanical Phenotyping of Central Arteries in Health and Disease: Advantages of and Methods for Murine Models  

PubMed Central

The stiffness and structural integrity of the arterial wall depends primarily on the organization of the extracellular matrix and the cells that fashion and maintain this matrix. Fundamental to the latter is a delicate balance in the continuous production and removal of structural constituents and the mechanical state in which such turnover occurs. Perturbations in this balance due to genetic mutations, altered hemodynamics, or pathological processes result in diverse vascular phenotypes, many of which have yet to be well characterized biomechanically. In this paper, we emphasize the particular need to understand regional variations in the biaxial biomechanical properties of central arteries in health and disease and, in addition, the need for standardization in the associated biaxial testing and quantification. As an example of possible experimental methods, we summarize testing protocols that have evolved in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Moreover, we note advantages of a four fiber family stress – stretch relation for quantifying passive biaxial behaviors, the use of stored energy as a convenient scalar metric of the associated material stiffness, and the utility of appropriate linearizations of the nonlinear, anisotropic relations both for purposes of comparison across laboratories and to inform computational fluid-solid-interaction models. We conclude that, notwithstanding prior advances, there remain many opportunities to advance our understanding of arterial mechanics and mechanobiology, particularly via the diverse genetic, pharmacological, and surgical models that are, or soon will be, available in the mouse. PMID:23549898

Ferruzzi, J.; Bersi, M.R.; Humphrey, J.D.

2013-01-01

470

Advantages of closed-loop calibration in intracortical brain-computer interfaces for people with tetraplegia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim to provide a means for people with severe motor disabilities to control their environment directly with neural activity. In intracortical BCIs for people with tetraplegia, the decoder that maps neural activity to desired movements has typically been calibrated using ‘open-loop’ (OL) imagination of control while a cursor automatically moves to targets on a computer screen. However, because neural activity can vary across contexts, a decoder calibrated using OL data may not be optimal for ‘closed-loop’ (CL) neural control. Here, we tested whether CL calibration creates a better decoder than OL calibration even when all other factors that might influence performance are held constant, including the amount of data used for calibration and the amount of elapsed time between calibration and testing. Approach. Two people with tetraplegia enrolled in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial performed a center-out-back task using an intracortical BCI, switching between decoders that had been calibrated on OL versus CL data. Main results. Even when all other variables were held constant, CL calibration improved neural control as well as the accuracy and strength of the tuning model. Updating the CL decoder using additional and more recent data resulted in further improvements. Significance. Differences in neural activity between OL and CL contexts contribute to the superiority of CL decoders, even prior to their additional ‘adaptive’ advantage. In the near future, CL decoder calibration may enable robust neural control without needing to pause ongoing, practical use of BCIs, an important step toward clinical utility.

Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Bacher, Daniel; Cash, Sydney S.; Eskandar, Emad; Friehs, Gerhard; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

2013-08-01

471

Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

472

Despite high costs, specialty drugs may offer value for money comparable to that of traditional drugs.  

PubMed

Specialty drugs are often many times more expensive than traditional drugs, which raises questions of affordability and value. We compared the value of specialty and traditional drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the period 1999-2011. To do this, we identified published estimates of additional health gains (measured in quality-adjusted life-years, or QALYs) and increased costs of drug and health care resource use that were associated with fifty-eight specialty drugs and forty-four traditional drugs, compared to preexisting care. We found that specialty drugs offered greater QALY gains (0.183 versus 0.002 QALYs) but were associated with greater additional costs ($12,238 versus $784), compared to traditional drugs. The two types of drugs had comparable cost-effectiveness. However, the distributions across the two types differed, with 26 percent of specialty drugs--but only 9 percent of traditional drugs--associated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of greater than $150,000 per QALY. Our study suggests that although specialty drugs often have higher costs than traditional drugs, they also tend to confer greater benefits and hence may still offer reasonable value for money. PMID:25288419

Chambers, James D; Thorat, Teja; Pyo, Junhee; Chenoweth, Matthew; Neumann, Peter J

2014-10-01

473

Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

2011-12-01

474

Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has been researched and developed for more than 20 years. Rather than removing materials, AM processes make three-dimensional parts directly from CAD models by adding materials layer by layer, offering the beneficial ability to build parts with geometric and material complexities that could not be produced by subtractive manufacturing processes. Through intensive research over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development and commercialization of new and innovative AM processes, as well as numerous practical applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, energy and other fields. This paper reviews the main processes, materials and applications of the current AM technology and presents future research needs for this technology.

Guo, Nannan; Leu, Ming C.

2013-09-01

475

17 CFR 230.152a - Offer or sale of certain fractional interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. 230.152a...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. Any offer...by a scrip certificate, order form or similar document which represents a fractional interest in a...

2013-04-01

476

17 CFR 230.152a - Offer or sale of certain fractional interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. 230.152a...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. Any offer...by a scrip certificate, order form or similar document which represents a fractional interest in a...

2014-04-01

477

17 CFR 230.152a - Offer or sale of certain fractional interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. 230.152a...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. Any offer...by a scrip certificate, order form or similar document which represents a fractional interest in a...

2012-04-01

478

17 CFR 230.152a - Offer or sale of certain fractional interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. 230.152a...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. Any offer...by a scrip certificate, order form or similar document which represents a fractional interest in a...

2011-04-01

479

17 CFR 230.152a - Offer or sale of certain fractional interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. 230.152a...Offer or sale of certain fractional interests. Any offer...by a scrip certificate, order form or similar document which represents a fractional interest in a...

2010-04-01

480

48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT...

2010-10-01

481

48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 3052.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (JUN...

2010-10-01

482

17 CFR 229.505 - (Item 505) Determination of offering price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...505) Determination of offering price. 229.505 Section 229...SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...Determination of offering price. (a) Common equity. ...disparity between the offering price of the common equity being...

2014-04-01

483

17 CFR 201.321 - Evidence: Objections and offers of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Evidence: Objections and offers of proof. 201.321 Section 201.321 Commodity...321 Evidence: Objections and offers of proof. (a) Objections. Objections...accordance with § 201.410. (b) Offers of proof. Whenever evidence is excluded...

2010-04-01

484

17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prohibition does not apply to any purchases or arrangements to purchase made during the time of any subsequent offering...the tender offer from the time of public announcement of...offer expires; (F) Purchases or arrangements to...

2013-04-01

485

17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...prohibition does not apply to any purchases or arrangements to purchase made during the time of any subsequent offering...the tender offer from the time of public announcement of...offer expires; (F) Purchases or arrangements to...

2014-04-01

486

17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prohibition does not apply to any purchases or arrangements to purchase made during the time of any subsequent offering...the tender offer from the time of public announcement of...offer expires; (F) Purchases or arrangements to...

2012-04-01

487

Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers  

E-print Network

-of-concept system integrates: · · · · · · Dimming ballast with decoder Ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor PCC encoder that does not require additional control wiring in the ceiling. The system uses a new power line control adding additional ceiling wires. W I R I N G C O S T S L I M I T D I M M I N G A P P L I C A T I O N

488

Genome analysis of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra JG1 reveals various survival advantages in marine environment  

PubMed Central

Background Competition between bacteria for habitat and resources is very common in the natural environment and is considered to be a selective force for survival. Many strains of the genus Pseudoalteromonas were confirmed to produce bioactive compounds that provide those advantages over their competitors. In our previous study, P. flavipulchra JG1 was found to synthesize a Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra antibacterial Protein (PfaP) with L-amino acid oxidase activity and five small chemical compounds, which were the main competitive agents of the strain. In addition, the genome of this bacterium has been previously sequenced as Whole Genome Shotgun project (PMID: 22740664). In this study, more extensive genomic analysis was performed to identify specific genes or gene clusters which related to its competitive feature, and further experiments were carried out to confirm the physiological roles of these genes when competing with other microorganisms in marine environment. Results The antibacterial protein PfaP may also participate in the biosynthesis of 6-bromoindolyl-3-acetic acid, indicating a synergistic effect between the antibacterial macromolecule and small molecules. Chitinases and quorum quenching enzymes present in P. flavipulchra, which coincide with great chitinase and acyl homoserine lactones degrading activities of strain JG1, suggest other potential mechanisms contribute to antibacterial/antifungal activities. Moreover, movability and rapid response mechanisms to phosphorus starvation and other stresses, such as antibiotic, oxidative and heavy metal stress, enable JG1 to adapt to deleterious, fluctuating and oligotrophic marine environments. Conclusions The genome of P. flavipulchra JG1 exhibits significant genetic advantages against other microorganisms, encoding antimicrobial agents as well as abilities to adapt to various adverse environments. Genes involved in synthesis of various antimicrobial substances enriches the antagonistic mechanisms of P. flavipulchra JG1 and affords several admissible biocontrol procedures in aquaculture. Furthermore, JG1 also evolves a range of mechanisms adapting the adverse marine environment or multidrug rearing conditions. The analysis of the genome of P. flavipulchra JG1 provides a better understanding of its competitive properties and also an extensive application prospect. PMID:24131871

2013-01-01

489

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock  

E-print Network

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock Robert L. McDonald First draft with implicit borrowing--such as put sales and call purchases--are tax-disadvantaged relative to the equivalent--such as compensation calls--are tax-advantaged. We also show that firms are better off from a tax perspective issuing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

490

On the Bilingual Advantage in Conflict Processing: Now You See It, Now You Don't  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two experiments exploring more in detail the bilingual advantage in conflict resolution tasks. In particular, we focus on the origin of the bilingual advantage on overall reaction times in the flanker task. Bilingual and monolingual participants were asked to perform a flanker task under different task versions. In Experiment 1, we used…

Costa, Albert; Hernandez, Mireia; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

2009-01-01

491

Electrophysiological Explorations of the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence from a Stroop Task  

PubMed Central

Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this ‘bilingual advantage’ behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a ‘conflict-specific advantage’) was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300–500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a ‘non-conflict-specific advantage’) was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings) between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment. PMID:25068723

Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

2014-01-01

492

Everyday Speech Acts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Mothers to Their Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, everyday mother-to-toddler speech patterns among disadvantaged and advantaged groups were examined in the home environment. The Schachter FIS-C (Functions of Interpersonal Speech of Caretakers) language measuring instrument was applied to mother speech in three sociolinguistic urban groups: black disadvantaged, black advantaged, and…

Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

493

Extending Home Advantage Theory and Four Factor Theory to Men's Collegiate Basketball  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In sporting events, the home team has been found to win a disproportionate amount of games. Research into this home advantage phenomenon resulted in Courneya and Carron's framework of home advantage theory. In collegiate athletics, administrators face a competitive environment and a goal of enhancing revenues. The problem is that home…

Kelly, Yvan J.

2013-01-01

494

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

495

An Own-Race Advantage for Components as Well as Configurations in Face Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The own-race advantage in face recognition has been hypothesized as being due to a superiority in the processing of configural information for own-race faces. Here we examined the contributions of both configural and component processing to the own-race advantage. We recruited 48 Caucasian participants in Australia and 48 Chinese participants in…

Hayward, William G.; Rhodes, Gillian; Schwaninger, Adrian

2008-01-01

496

A Visual Short-Term Memory Advantage for Objects of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects; this advantage may stem from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this advantage, object expertise--which also relies on holistic processing--should endow experts…

Curby, Kim M.; Glazek, Kuba; Gauthier, Isabel

2009-01-01

497

A critical evaluation of the principles governing the advantages of intra-arterial infusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the literature, there appears to be inadequate evidence supporting the clinical use of intraarterial infusions as a method of drug administration. This problem has been evaluated with consideration of the advantages gained in increased total drug delivery and increased drug effectiveness in the region supplied by the infused artery and consideration of the advantage of reduced systemic drug delivery

Walter W. Eckman; Clifford S. Patlak; Joseph D. Fenstermacher

1974-01-01

498

Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

2010-01-01

499

50 CFR 86.132 - What are the advantages to doing a plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What are the advantages to doing a plan? 86.132 Section...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE...Program Plans § 86.132 What are the advantages to doing a plan? Plans provide...

2010-10-01

500

50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE...Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys...

2010-10-01