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Sample records for offer additional advantages

  1. Tetherless ROV offers major advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Tethers supply the current generation of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) with power, navigational commands and data links. The power required by ROVs to carry long tethers increases rapidly in proportion to depth, and additionally, snagging on subsea obstacles is very common. A technical advancement could come with the development of autonomous subsea vehicles with onboard power and an acoustic, rather than hard wire, data link to the surface. Important research in this area presently is being conducted at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University. The feasibility of the system is discussed.

  2. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  5. A Neurocognitive Investigation of Bilingual Advantages at Additional Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated bilingual advantages at additional languages learning by comparing early, highly proficient bilinguals to monolinguals' learning of an additional language in adulthood. The study used both behavioral and neurocognitive measures (event-related potentials) and tested subjects along the trajectory of learning from low to high

  6. Rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems offer additional options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, Paul A.

    The propulsion cycles presented at the 1991 IAF Congress in Montreal, and at The World Hydrogen Conference 1992 in Paris were the subject of an IAF paper for the 1992 World Space Conference in Washington DC. RBCC propulsion systems from several nations were analyzed in terms of a SSTO space launcher with a 7-Mg payload. The RBCC concept emerged from the advanced injector ramjet research of the early 1960s. The performance of the current RBCC propulsion systems such that the specific thrust of a rocket is combined with the specific impulse of an airbreather. This performance offers a new perspective to the options available. In a brief review of the present RBCC the reasons for these options are developed. The spectrum of the system options is presented in three examples, a LACE VTOL SSTO, an HTOL SSTO and a HTOL TSTO. Results using the present RBCC are dramatically different from the past concept of the Conventional Combined Cycle propulsion system, i.e., combinations of separate engines. The integration of the engine cycles into a single thermodynamically integrated system significantly changes the propulsion performance.

  7. First-Year Seminar (FYS)--The Advantages That This Course Offers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaijairam, Paul

    2016-01-01

    First-Year Seminar (FYS) is an introductory class offered to first-year students to help them acclimate to the college environment, develop effective strategies for studying, and learn techniques that will allow them to swiftly complete small assignments and sizable research projects. In 2014, approximately 80 percent of universities offered FYS,…

  8. Vasectomy offers many advantages.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1997-01-01

    Vasectomy, surgical sterilization for men, is very safe, has few side effects, and results in reported annual pregnancy rates of less than 1%. However, men in only a few countries widely adopt vasectomy as their contraceptive method of choice even though it is safer and easier to perform than female sterilization. Approximately 45 million men worldwide have been vasectomized, largely in China, Thailand, India, Korea, the UK, Canada, and the US. Vasectomy is not available in many developing countries, and even if it is available and men have heard of it, many have the misconception that vasectomy causes weakness and adversely affects male sexual function. When trying to increase the access, acceptability, and uptake of vasectomy, enough providers must be trained so that their services are readily available, sustained promotional campaigns should encourage method use, and male clinics and services should be available to help men feel comfortable. Competent counseling is essential to success. The myths and facts of vasectomy, the no-scalpel approach, and promotional campaigns are discussed. PMID:12321061

  9. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering. management, and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboration is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of current programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example, major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities, produce highly visible achievements, and appeal to an additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  10. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering, management. and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboratioi is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of cLul+sent programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example. major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities. produce highly visible achievements. and appeal to a11 additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  11. REU Programs at Field Research Stations Offer Unique Advantages that may Enhance Retention of Students in STEM Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. Y.; Marinelli, R. L.; Heidelberg, K., IV

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that undergraduate participation in research opportunities strengthens the retention of students in STEM fields. Increasing students' confidence levels in their scientific abilities, aiding in the development of their scientific identity, and strengthening their sense of belonging to a scientific community have been cited as important contributing factors. Research field stations offer unique advantages that amplify these benefits by challenging students to plan and work in the field, enhancing networking opportunities with multi-disciplinary professionals from numerous institutions and hierarchical levels, and creating a stronger sense of belonging and comradery within a science community. The USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies' (WIES) Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program is an 8-week program that begins on the main USC campus in Los Angeles and moves to a marine field station on Catalina Island during weeks 2-7, before returning to the mainland to complete the last week of the program. This unique model provides REU students with an opportunity to become integrated into faculty mentors' labs on the main campus, while exposing them to life as a researcher at a field station, both of which contribute significantly to the students' development as a scientist. Here, we present the WIES REU model and include a discussion of benefits and challenges to this unique infrastructure.

  12. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  13. The HNO donor Angeli's salt offers potential haemodynamic advantages over NO or dobutamine in ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat heart ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kai Yee; Michel, Lisa; Qin, Cheng Xue; Cao, Nga; Woodman, Owen L; Ritchie, Rebecca H

    2016-02-01

    Available inotropic pharmacotherapy for acute heart failure (HF) remains largely ineffective at ameliorating marked impairments in contractile function. Nitroxyl (HNO), the redox sibling of NO•, has recently attracted interest as a therapeutic approach for acute HF. We now compare the impact of ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury on acute haemodynamic responsiveness of the HNO donor, Angeli's salt (AS), to that of NO and dobutamine. Dose-response curves to bolus doses of AS, diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO, both 0.001-μmol) and dobutamine (0.1-100 nmol) were performed in rat isolated hearts, following I-R or normoxic perfusion. An additional 10μmol dose of Angeli's salt was included, to permit roughly equivalent inotropic responses to dobutamine. Changes in cardiac contraction, heart rate and coronary flow (CF) were determined. Although AS and DEA/NO elicited comparable dose-dependent increases in CF in normoxic hearts, only AS vasodilation was preserved after I-R. AS and dobutamine elicited dose-dependent inotropic responses in normoxic hearts and I-R blunted inotropic responses to both. Dobutamine however increased heart rate, which was exacerbated by I-R; this was not evident with AS. Further, AS infusion during reperfusion (1μM), in a separate cohort of rat hearts, improved recovery of cardiac contractility, with lower incidence of I-R-induced ventricular fibrillation. In conclusion, these observations suggest that HNO offers haemodynamic advantages over NO following I-R. Although I-R suppresses inotropy to both agents, residual contractile responses to AS following I-R is likely free of concomitant pro-arrhythmic events. HNO donors may thus offer haemodynamic advantages over existing pharmacotherapy in acute HF. PMID:26747404

  14. DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

  15. Do Bayesian adaptive trials offer advantages for comparative effectiveness research? Protocol for the RE-ADAPT study

    PubMed Central

    Luce, Bryan R; Broglio, Kristine R; Ishak, K Jack; Mullins, C Daniel; Vanness, David J; Fleurence, Rachael; Saunders, Elijah; Davis, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials, particularly for comparative effectiveness research (CER), are frequently criticized for being overly restrictive or untimely for health-care decision making. Purpose Our prospectively designed REsearch in ADAptive methods for Pragmatic Trials (RE-ADAPT) study is a ‘proof of concept’ to stimulate investment in Bayesian adaptive designs for future CER trials. Methods We will assess whether Bayesian adaptive designs offer potential efficiencies in CER by simulating a re-execution of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) study using actual data from ALLHAT. Results We prospectively define seven alternate designs consisting of various combinations of arm dropping, adaptive randomization, and early stopping and describe how these designs will be compared to the original ALLHAT design. We identify the one particular design that would have been executed, which incorporates early stopping and information-based adaptive randomization. Limitations While the simulation realistically emulates patient enrollment, interim analyses, and adaptive changes to design, it cannot incorporate key features like the involvement of data monitoring committee in making decisions about adaptive changes. Conclusion This article describes our analytic approach for RE-ADAPT. The next stage of the project is to conduct the re-execution analyses using the seven prespecified designs and the original ALLHAT data. PMID:23983160

  16. Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

  17. Mixing weld gases offers advantages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, J. L.; Mendenhall, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    Argon added to helium during gas tungsten arc cover-pass welding in the horizontal position results in a better controlled wider bead width, increased arc stability, and reduction in heat input. Adequate filler material wetness and penetration pass coverage is possible with only one pass.

  18. Snip punctoplasty offers little additive benefit to lower eyelid tightening in the treatment of pure lacrimal pump failure.

    PubMed

    Guercio, Brian; Keyhani, Kayvan; Weinberg, David A

    2007-03-01

    Lacrimal pump failure refers to epiphora due to reduced tear outflow in the presence of a patent lacrimal drainage system and well-positioned puncta. This condition has been managed with dacryocystorhinostomy and lower eyelid tightening, which carry success rates of 50-94% and 84-91%, respectively. In this retrospective study, 23 eyes with symptomatic epiphora attributed to lacrimal pump failure underwent the lateral tarsal strip procedure and lower eyelid snip punctoplasty, and 20 eyes (87%) experienced complete or nearly complete resolution of tearing. This success rate is quite similar to that of prior studies of eyelid tightening alone for lacrimal pump failure, suggesting that the addition of the snip punctoplasty may not offer any additional benefit in patients with little or no punctal stenosis. All patients displayed some degree of lower eyelid laxity on lid distraction testing preoperatively, and those with only mild lid laxity responded at least as well as those with more severe laxity. PMID:17510865

  19. Repeated administration of frusemide does not offer an advantage over single dosing in attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Goetz, T E; Manohar, M; Magid, J H

    1999-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to ascertain whether administration of a second dose of frusemide would attenuate exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension more than a single dose. Right atrial, right ventricular and pulmonary vascular pressures were determined in 7 healthy, sound, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses at rest and during exercise (14.2 m/s + a 3.5% uphill grade) performed at maximal heart rate (217 +/- 3 beats/min [mean +/- s.e.]). Horses were studied during the following 3 treatments in random order 7 days apart: control (no medication), frusemide single dose (250 mg i.v. 4 h pre-exercise), and frusemide double dose (250 mg i.v., 4 h pre-exercise + 250 mg i.v. 2 h pre-exercise). In the control study, exercise resulted in significant (P < 0.05) right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension. In the frusemide single dose experiments, a significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of the exercise-induced rise in right atrial and pulmonary vascular pressures was observed. However, compared with frusemide single dose experiments, significant changes in the exercise-induced right atrial and pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension were not observed in the frusemide double dose experiments. Therefore, it is concluded that administration of an additional dose of frusemide is unlikely to affect the severity of EIPH in racing Thoroughbred horses more than a single dose. PMID:10659314

  20. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB requirement? 127.504 Section 127.504 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL...

  1. The advantages of air addition on the methane steam reforming over Ni/γ-Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Joelmir A. C.; Assaf, José M.

    The effect of adding air to the feed in methane steam reforming over Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 was investigated. The catalyst exhibited a high specific surface area, but low metal surface area, with large Ni particles, which favor the deposition of carbon. A great quantity of carbon was seen to form on the catalyst during steam reforming, without any decrease in the reaction rate. This constant catalytic activity was consistent with the formation of filamentous whiskers of carbon during the process, verified by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of air decreased the energy consumed by the reaction and reduced significantly the carbon deposited on the catalyst during the process, making it a viable alternative for industrial application.

  2. Medicare Advantage Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... enrollment Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Medicare Advantage Plans A type of Medicare health plan offered ... your Part A and Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, ...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Providing patients with pharmacogenetic test results affects adherence to statin therapy: results of the Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins (AKROBATS) trial.

    PubMed

    Charland, S L; Agatep, B C; Herrera, V; Schrader, B; Frueh, F W; Ryvkin, M; Shabbeer, J; Devlin, J J; Superko, H R; Stanek, E J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of statin therapy and the numerous strategies used to improve adherence, no strategy has used direct communication of genetic test results to the patient as an adherence and persistence motivator. We investigated in a real-world setting the effect of a process of providing KIF6 test results and risk information directly to 647 tested patients on 6-month statin adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)) and persistence compared with concurrent non-tested matched controls. Adjusted 6-month statin PDC was significantly greater in tested patients: 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.82) vs controls 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), P<0.0001. Significantly more tested patients were adherent (PDC?0.80) (63.4% (59.6-67.1%) vs 45.0% (41.1-48.8%), P<0.0001) and persisted on therapy (69.1% (65.4-72.5%) vs 53.3% (49.4-57.1%), P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in a secondary comparison with 779 unmatched patients who declined testing. The Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins trial provides the first evidence that pharmacogenetic testing may modify patient adherence. PMID:23979174

  5. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... representations and certifications on ORCA are accurate and complete at the time it submits its offer to the... corresponding to the NAICS code assigned to the contract; (b) It is listed on CCR and ORCA as an EDWOSB or...

  6. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certifications on ORCA are accurate and complete at the time it submits its offer to the contracting officer... NAICS code assigned to the contract; (2) It is listed on CCR and ORCA as an EDWOSB or WOSB; and...

  7. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certifications on ORCA are accurate and complete at the time it submits its offer to the contracting officer... NAICS code assigned to the contract; (2) It is listed on CCR and ORCA as an EDWOSB or WOSB; and...

  8. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several potential applications. PMID:26338226

  9. Advantage of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil regimen for cytotoxic T cell-mediated defence and its inhibition by additive steroid administration in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, S; Ozawa, K; Kaido, T; Mori, A; Fujimoto, Y

    2016-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that the recipients with the highest pre-existing numbers of CD8(+) effector T cells (TE ) [hyperparathyroidism (HPT)E recipients] occupied approximately 30% of adult transplant recipients performed in our hospital. HPTE recipients demonstrated very poor clinical outcome compared with the remaining 70% of recipients with the lowest pre-existing TE (LPTE recipient). This study aimed to clarify the best combined immunosuppressive regimen related to function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for HPTE recipients. Eighty-one HPTE recipients were classified into three types, according to the immunosuppressive regimens: type 1, tacrolimus (Tac)/glucocorticoid (GC); type 2, Tac/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/GC; and type 3, Tac/MMF. Frequencies of severe infection, rejection and hospital death were the highest in types 1 and 2, whereas the lowest occurred in type 3. The survival rate in type 3 was the highest (100%) during follow-up until post-operative day 2000. Regarding the immunological mechanism, in type 1 TE perforin and interferon (IFN)-γ were generated through the self-renewal of CD8(+) central memory T cells (TCM ), but decreased in the early post-transplant period due to marked down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 of TCM. In type 2, the self-renewal TCM did not develop, and the effector function could not be increased. In type 3, in contrast, the effectors and cytotoxicity were correlated inversely with IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM levels, and increased at the highest level around the pre-transplant levels of IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM . However, the immunological advantage of Tac/MMF therapy was inhibited strongly by additive steroid administration. PMID:26560892

  10. Exendin-4 therapy still offered an additional benefit on reducing transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy-caused myocardial damage in DPP-4 deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-I; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tein-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lung; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Lee, Fan-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) enzyme activity has been revealed to protect myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion through enhancing the endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level. However, whether exogenous supply of exendin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, would still offer benefit for protecting myocardial damage from trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in preexistence of DPP-4 deficiency (DPP-4D) remained unclear. Male-adult (DPP-4D) rats (n = 32) were randomized into group 1 [sham control (SC)], group 2 (DPP-4D + TAC), group 3 [DPP-4D + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg/day], and group 4 [DPP-4D + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg + exendin-9-39 10 µg/day]. The rats were sacrificed by day 60 after last echocardiographic examination. By day 60 after TAC, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (%) was highest in group 1 and lowest in group 2, and significantly lower in group 4 than that in group 3 (all p < 0.001). The protein expressions of oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NOX-1, NOX-2), inflammatory (MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB), apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP), fibrotic (TGF-β, Smad3), heart failure (BNP, β-MHC), DNA damaged (γ-H2AX) and ischemic stress (p-P38, p-Akt, p53, ATM) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of LVEF among the four groups (all p < 0.03). Fibrotic area (by Masson’s trichrome, Sirius red), and cellular expressions of DNA-damaged markers (Ki-67+, γ-H2AX+, CD90+/53BP1+) displayed an identical pattern, whereas cellular expressions of angiogenesis (CD31+, α-SMA+) and sarcomere length exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of oxidative stress among the four groups (all p < 0.001). Take altogether, Exendin-4 effectively suppressed TAC-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy in DPP-4D rat. PMID:27158369

  11. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  12. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  13. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  14. Hybrid catfish offers performance advantages for US catfish farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the only hybrid among 28 interspecific hybrid crosses and backcrosses evaluated within the family Ictaluridae to exhibit dominant traits desirable for intensive aquaculture. In a 2004 pond trial, hybrid catfish outperformed channel catfish in all the production trai...

  15. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international

  16. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

  17. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  18. The open access advantage.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open access papers continues to widen. I conclude with the observation that the "open access advantage" has at least three components: (1) a citation count advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), (2) an end user uptake advantage, and (3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. More research is needed, and JMIR is inviting research on all aspects of open access. As the advantages for publishing open access from a researchers' point of view become increasingly clear, questions around the sustainability of open access journals remain. This journal is a living example that "lean publishing" models can create successful open access journals. Open source tools which have been developed by the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia with contributions from the Epublishing & Open Access group at the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation in Toronto are an alternative to hosting journals on commercial open access publisher sites. PMID:16867971

  19. Polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, C.; Swift, G.

    1993-12-31

    Polymers, because of the unique properties offered by them, are being employed to larger extents as additives. Polymeric additives may offer incentives such as cost, performance and unique properties. Polymeric additives have been used for years as viscosity modifiers in motor oils, plastisols, antifoaming agents and fillers. New uses are quickly emerging as permanent coloring agent, antibacterial agents and as delivery aids for metals and metal oxides.

  20. First offers as anchors: the role of perspective-taking and negotiator focus.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, A D; Mussweiler, T

    2001-10-01

    Three experiments explored the role of first offers, perspective-taking, and negotiator self-focus in determining distributive outcomes in a negotiation. Across 3 experiments, whichever party, the buyer or seller, made the 1st offer obtained a better outcome. In addition, 1st offers were a strong predictor of final settlement prices. However, when the negotiator who did not make a 1st offer focused on information that was inconsistent with the implications of the opponent's 1st offer, the advantageous effect of making the 1st offer was eliminated: Thinking about one's opponent's alternatives to the negotiation (Experiment 1), one's opponent's reservation price (Experiment 2), or one's own target (Experiment 3) all negated the effect of 1st offers on outcomes. These effects occurred for both face-to-face negotiations and E-mail negotiations. Implications for negotiations and perspective-taking are discussed. PMID:11642352

  1. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  2. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    PubMed

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the abundance of cells. We also report that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration positively co-varied with each other and, in males, were positively correlated with testosterone. In summary, we offer a higher resolution of understanding of the function of GnRH-I and GnIH during the breeding period of European starlings. PMID:26078369

  3. Creating Collaborative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Chris, Ed.

    Although interorganizational collaboration is becoming increasingly significant as a means of achieving organizational objectives, it is not an easy process to implement. Drawing on the work of authors with extensive experience, an accessible introduction to the theory and practice of creating collaborative advantage is presented in this volume.…

  4. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition Threshold 570.303-3 Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. Follow...

  5. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition Threshold 570.303-3 Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. Follow...

  6. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition Threshold 570.303-3 Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. Follow...

  7. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Acquisition Threshold 570.303-3 Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. Follow...

  8. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in

  9. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  10. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  11. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  12. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  13. Community College Advantages: The Roles of Accreditation with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges offer many advantages over other types of institutions, financially and educationally. This article will explore some of those advantages, including comparisons to other types of institutions. A brief introduction to accreditation will contextualize how community colleges have advantages of certain institutions. Lastly,…

  14. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan membership are warranted to move more beneficiaries into MA. PMID:24890251

  15. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  16. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... evaluated by how well the proposed products meet the Government requirement instead of predetermined...) Select the offer that is most advantageous to the Government based on the factors contained in...

  17. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... evaluated by how well the proposed products meet the Government requirement instead of predetermined...) Select the offer that is most advantageous to the Government based on the factors contained in...

  18. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... evaluated by how well the proposed products meet the Government requirement instead of predetermined...) Select the offer that is most advantageous to the Government based on the factors contained in...

  19. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... evaluated by how well the proposed products meet the Government requirement instead of predetermined...) Select the offer that is most advantageous to the Government based on the factors contained in...

  20. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription drug coverage for everyone ... t offer Medicare prescription drug coverage. • A Medicare Cost Plan if it doesn’t offer Medicare prescription ...

  1. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.303-3 Late...

  2. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  3. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  4. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief

  5. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  6. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Urea Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  7. Can saliva offer an advantage in monitoring of diabetes mellitus? – A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subhas G.; Sucheta, Kumari N.; Shetty, Shishir R.; Rangare, Anusha L.; Castelino, Renita L.; Fazil, Areekat K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus is emerging as a major health problem over these years. Present method of blood glucose monitoring by venepuncture is invasive leading to reduced patient compliance and thereby ineffective judicious monitoring. The need of the hour is to direct research in the direction of establishing painless and more acceptable blood glucose analysis method.The objective of the study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the concentrations of salivary glucose and blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Study Design: This study assessed glucose levels using the glucose oxidase method in blood and unstimulated saliva in 90 subjects who were divided into 3 equal groups of controlled type 2 diabetes, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and those without diabetes. Statistical analysis was carried out using one way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukeys tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes than controls. There was a significant positive correlation between salivary and plasma glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Conclusions: Glucose concentration in saliva is higher in diabetics but hyperglycemia does not influence salivary glucose levels. Further clarification is required to claim the diagnostic potentials of saliva in diabetes. Key words:Salivary glucose, type 2 diabetes mellitus, blood glucose. PMID:25593652

  8. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  9. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  10. Job Corps Vocational Offerings Review. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    The relative effectiveness of current Job Corps vocational offerings was evaluated, and occupations suitable for addition to the Job Corps vocational curricula were identified. Characteristics of Job Corps enrollees and the occupations in which training was provided were identified. To assess their comparative effectiveness, training occupations

  11. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden

  12. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  13. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  14. The offerings from the Hyperboreans.

    PubMed

    Ruck, C A

    1983-08-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a secret item hidden within the sheaf. The mythical traditions about these Hyperboreans recalled the Hellenic peoples' Indo-European origins, back in the time before the tribal migrations that brought them eventually into the Mediterranean lands, and the secret offering pertained to Apollo's more ancient religion in that pre-Greek Hyperborean context.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6685798

  15. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  16. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  17. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  18. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  19. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and

  20. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  1. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  2. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  3. Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.

    PubMed

    Pointer, D D

    1990-01-01

    One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

  4. Advantage, Absence of Advantage, and Disadvantage Among Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy DiTomaso

    2008-09-23

    DiTomaso talks about survey data on the career experiences of 3,200 scientists and engineers from 24 major companies. Her survey findings indicate that most people who do well in their careers and make significant contributions to their organizations get assistance from others in their workplace in many forms, including offering opportunities such as good projects, providing resources that make good performance more likely, and opening up networking possibilities.

  5. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  6. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision. PMID:25197892

  7. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  8. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or her..., recommending a final offer under the applicable statute. The final offer notice will contain sufficient detail... reasons justifying a compromise offer. The offer letter should include language indicating that if...

  9. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or her..., recommending a final offer under the applicable statute. The final offer notice will contain sufficient detail... reasons justifying a compromise offer. The offer letter should include language indicating that if...

  10. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or her..., recommending a final offer under the applicable statute. The final offer notice will contain sufficient detail... reasons justifying a compromise offer. The offer letter should include language indicating that if...

  11. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  12. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  13. Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

  14. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  15. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  16. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  17. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  18. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  19. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary...

  20. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    PubMed

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance. PMID:11217011

  1. Oleophilic Sieve seeks interest in public offering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Oleophilic Sieve Development of Canada Ltd is seeking expression of interest for a public stock offering to finance further development of its process. The process has a large number of applications that range from mined tar sand extraction to gold recovery from river sands. The Oleophilic Sieve Process takes a unique approach to oil sand separation. It does not require density differences to recover bitumen from sand and water but makes use of the affinity of bitumen for an oil-loving sieve. A slurry or mined oil sand is dropped onto an Oleophilic Sieve conveyor. Sand and water pass through the Sieve to a recovery unit where globules of bitumen are squeezed from the Sieve. Sieve recovers much more bitumen from a ton of mined oil sand than the Hot Water Process, particularly with low grade ores. Other advantages, the operation of the separator, testing of the process on mined oil sands and on tailings, and other applications are discussed. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  3. Good things come to those who wait: late first offers facilitate creative agreements in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Maddux, William W; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Perez Nückel, Ricardo; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-06-01

    Although previous research has shown that making the first offer leads to a distributive advantage in negotiations, the current research explored how the timing of first offers affects the creativity of negotiation agreements. We hypothesized that making the first offer later rather than earlier in the negotiation would facilitate the discovery of creative agreements that better meet the parties' underlying interests. Experiment 1 demonstrated that compared with early first offers, late first offers facilitated creative agreements that better met the parties' underlying interests. Experiments 2a and 2b controlled for the duration of the negotiation and conceptually replicated this effect. The last two studies also demonstrated that the beneficial effect of late first offers was mediated by greater information exchange. Thus, negotiators need to consider the timing of first offers to fully capitalize on the first offer advantage. Implications for our understanding of creativity, motivated information exchange, and timing in negotiations are discussed. PMID:23696126

  4. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line...

  5. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 225.503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the...

  6. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 570.306... Real Property 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a) You must evaluate offers solely in accordance with the... solicitation. The file must include the basis for evaluation, an analysis of each offer, and a summary...

  7. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  8. [Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadre, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankr, Frdric; Lamas, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

  9. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  10. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  11. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-22

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  12. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  13. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  14. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introductory offers. 502.101 Section 502.101... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer”...

  15. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable offer. 536.104 Section 536.104... Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention eligibility or entitlement must be terminated under § 536.207 or 536.208, the offer of a position is a...

  16. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or...

  17. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included. The offering statement consists of the facing sheet of Form...

  18. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2... § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement which..., or origin of the product offered, or which may otherwise misrepresent the product in such a...

  19. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers. (a) Where technical information is necessary for evaluation of offers, agencies should, as part of...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a) The Agency will offer a borrower,...

  1. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253 Offering circular. (a) Contents. An offering...

  2. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons...

  3. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable offer. 536.104 Section 536.104... Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention eligibility or entitlement must be terminated under § 536.207 or 536.208, the offer of a position is a...

  4. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... price of a domestic end product is unreasonable when the lowest acceptable domestic offer exceeds the lowest acceptable foreign offer (see § 12.705), inclusive of duty, by— (1) More than 6 percent, if the domestic offer is from a large business that is not a labor surplus area concern; or (2) More than...

  5. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer” or... introductory offer unless: (1) The product contained in the package is new, has been changed in a functionally... packager or labeler clearly and conspicuously qualifies each offer on a package or label with the...

  6. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer” or... introductory offer unless: (1) The product contained in the package is new, has been changed in a functionally... packager or labeler clearly and conspicuously qualifies each offer on a package or label with the...

  7. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer” or... introductory offer unless: (1) The product contained in the package is new, has been changed in a functionally... packager or labeler clearly and conspicuously qualifies each offer on a package or label with the...

  8. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... price of a domestic end product is unreasonable when the lowest acceptable domestic offer exceeds the lowest acceptable foreign offer (see § 12.705), inclusive of duty, by— (1) More than 6 percent, if the domestic offer is from a large business that is not a labor surplus area concern; or (2) More than...

  9. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... price of a domestic end product is unreasonable when the lowest acceptable domestic offer exceeds the lowest acceptable foreign offer (see § 12.705), inclusive of duty, by— (1) More than 6 percent, if the domestic offer is from a large business that is not a labor surplus area concern; or (2) More than...

  10. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  11. Effectiveness studies: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, so-called “effectiveness studies,” also called “real-world studies” or “pragmatic trials, ” have gained increasing importance in the context of evidencebased medicine. These studies follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedication, and other design issues, and their results should therefore be better generalizable than those of phase III trials. Effectiveness studies, like other types of phase IV studies, can therefore contribute to knowledge about medications and supply relevant information in addition to that gained from phase III trials. However, the less restrictive design and inherent methodological problems of phase IV studies have to be carefully considered. For example, the greater variance caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues, such as insensitive primary outcome criteria, unblinded treatment conditions, inclusion of chronic refractory patients, etc, can lead to wrong conclusions. Due to these methodological problems, effectiveness studies are on a principally lower level of evidence, adding only a complementary view to the results of phase III trials without falsifying their results. PMID:21842617

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. The Accreditation Process: Focusing on the Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, J. Harvey; Bailey, Gerald Douglass

    1976-01-01

    Community and school personnel are not always aware of the many advantages that are derived from accreditation activities. Unless these advantages are recognized, the authors contend, many of their benefits will be lost. (Editor)

  14. Medial frontal negativity reflects advantageous inequality aversion of proposers in the ultimatum game: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangrong; Li, Jianbiao; Li, Zheng; Wei, Mengxing; Li, Shaodong

    2016-05-15

    Inequality aversion is a typical form of fairness preferences, which can explain the behaviors in many social exchange situations such as the ultimatum game (UG). There are two kinds of inequality aversion-disadvantageous inequality aversion of responders and advantageous inequality aversion of proposers in the ultimatum game. Although neuroscience research has reported neural correlates of disadvantageous inequality aversion, there are still debates about advantageous inequality aversion of proposers. In this paper, we developed a variant of ultimatum game in which participants played the UG as proposers. On each trial, first, the offer was randomly presented, then, participants as proposers decided whether to choose this offer; next, responders decided whether to accept or not. Offers that responders got 1-20% of the pie are defined as advantageous unfair offers of proposers, whereas offers that responders got 31-50% are defined as fair offers. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that more negative-going medial frontal negativity (MFN) was elicited by advantageous unfair offers compared to fair offers in the early time window (250-350ms), which suggested that proposers were averse to advantageous inequality. PMID:26930614

  15. ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

  16. Modular and Manufactured Houses Offer Homeowners the Building America and ENERGY STAR(R) Advantage: Genesis Homes -- Auburn Hills, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Genesis Homes is headquartered in Auburn, Michigan, and has 11 factories throughout the nation. They build modular and manufactured homes with quality design, construction practice, and building materials that qualify for the Energy Star label.

  17. Energy considerations show that low-barrier hydrogen bonds do not offer a catalytic advantage over ordinary hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Warshel, A; Papazyan, A

    1996-11-26

    Low-barrier hydrogen bonds have recently been proposed as a major factor in enzyme catalysis. Here we evaluate the feasibility of transition state (TS) stabilization by low-barrier hydrogen bonds in enzymes. Our analysis focuses on the facts that (i) a low-barrier hydrogen bond is less stable than a regular hydrogen bond in water, (ii) TSs are more stable in the enzyme active sites than in water, and (iii) a nonpolar active site would destabilize the TS relative to its energy in water. Combining these points and other experimental and theoretical facts in a physically consistent frame-work shows that a low-barrier hydrogen bond cannot stabilize the TS more than an ordinary hydrogen bond. The reason for the large catalytic effect of active site hydrogen bonds is that their formation entails a lower reorganization energy than their solution counterparts, due to the preorganized enzyme environment. PMID:8942991

  18. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  19. Competitive Advantage of PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  20. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  1. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Fainman, M.Z.

    1989-05-01

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and additive composition for use in a reciprocating liquid fuel engine, the additive being present in an amount sufficient to increase engine performance and reduce smoke emissions, from about 100 to 1,000 parts per million by volume of the fuel. It comprises: a mixture of: from 10 to 90 wt% of the additive being a straight-chain carboxylic acid ester having a molecular weight of abut 125 to 200; and form about 90 to 10 wt.% of a combustion-survivable neopentylpoly of ester of a straight-chain carboxylic acid, having a molecular weight of from about 300 to 1000.

  2. Cumulative Advantage in the Skill Development of STEM Graduate Students: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.; Maher, Michelle A.; Roksa, Josipa; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Studies of skill development often describe a process of cumulative advantage, in which small differences in initial skill compound over time, leading to increasing skill gaps between those with an initial advantage and those without. We offer evidence of a similar phenomenon accounting for differential patterns of research skill development in…

  3. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... price of a domestic end product is unreasonable when the lowest acceptable domestic offer exceeds...

  4. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  5. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  6. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  7. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  8. Should Student Affairs Offer Remedial Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel E.; Butner, Bonita K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the opinions of 108 community college chief student affairs officers regarding whether student affairs offices should offer remedial instruction. Through examination of personal and institutional variables, two opposing opinions emerged - one for student affairs offering remediation and the other against. Few characteristics significantly…

  9. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2... § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement which... violated if the first contact or interview is secured by deception....

  10. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR 240.14d-1 through 240.14f-1. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  11. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.815 Section 12.815 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  12. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715... Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of the grantee organization or a designee at a level no lower than the grantee's designated awarding official determines otherwise, the...

  13. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  14. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 570.306 Section 570.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING... Real Property Over the Simplified Lease Acquisition Threshold 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 570.306 Section 570.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING... Real Property Over the Simplified Lease Acquisition Threshold 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a)...

  16. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 570.306 Section 570.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING... Real Property Over the Simplified Lease Acquisition Threshold 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a)...

  17. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  18. Introductory Psychology (Second Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, G. Roger

    The second phase of field testing for an Introductory Psychology course offered in the regional open learning program of the University of Mid-America is reported. Learner characteristics and learner evaluations of the instructional units are compared with findings from the first course offering. Throughout the paper, learner comments are inserted…

  19. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  20. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  1. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel believe that a claim should be compromised,...

  2. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  3. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  4. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  5. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and

  6. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  7. Using membrane stress to our advantage.

    PubMed

    Shearman, G C; Attard, G S; Hunt, A N; Jackowski, S; Baciu, M; Sebai, S C; Mulet, X; Clarke, J A; Law, R V; Plisson, C; Parker, C A; Gee, A; Ces, O; Templer, R H

    2007-06-01

    The nature of the bilayer motif coupled with the ability of lipids and proteins to diffuse freely through this structure is crucial to the viability of cells and their ability to compartmentalize domains contained therein. It seems surprising to find then that biological as well as model membranes exist in a dynamic state of mechanical stress. The stresses within such membranes are surprisingly large, typically reaching up to 50 atm (1 atm=101.325 kPa) at the core of the membrane and vary as a function of depth. The uneven distribution of lateral pressures within monolayer leaflets causes them to bend away from or towards the water interface. This can result in the formation of complex, self-assembled mesophases, many of which occur in vivo. Our knowledge of the principles underlying membrane mechanics has reached the point where we are now able to manipulate them and create nano-structures with reasonable predictability. In addition, they can be used both to explain and control the partitioning of amphipathic proteins on to membranes. The dependence of the dynamics of membrane-bound proteins and the chemical reactivity of amphipathic drug molecules on membrane stresses suggests that Nature itself takes advantage of this. Understanding and manipulating these internal forces will be a key element in creating self-assembled, biocompatible, nanoscale cell-like systems. PMID:17511638

  8. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  9. Cross-border utility investment: Translating investment risk into global advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, A.; Graham, E.

    1995-06-01

    Investment in the rapidly expanding utility sector in many emerging markets offers real growth prospects for utility companies. But one must execute a global strategy that addresses the many additional risk factors, political obstacles, management challenges, tax complications and long-term funding requirements to succeed in this demanding environment. There is skepticism in some quarters that investments in foreign assets will prove fruitful for utilities and their shareholders. US utilities must realiza higher returns on foreign investment in order to compensate shareholders adequately for the added political and currency risk associated with these investments. This article describes the environment leading to cross-border power investment, several key strategic considerations related to the international power sector, and how these considerations can be used to create strategic advantage.

  10. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  11. Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    2001-01-01

    Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments. PMID:11862646

  12. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  16. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  17. Will Medicare Advantage Benchmark Reforms Impact Plan Rebates and Enrollment?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act payment reforms. Study Design and Methods First difference regressions of county-level Medicare Advantage payment and enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2006 – 2010. Results A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to Medicare Advantage plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point decrease in MA penetration (p < 0.001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (p < 0.001). Changes were markedly larger in counties with low levels of Traditional Medicare spending, a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. Affordable Care Act reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in low spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 2.7 percentage points in the lowest spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. Conclusions Medicare Advantage enrollment responds to the generosity of supplemental benefits available. MA plans in low-cost counties may have difficulty offering the supplemental benefits that attract enrollees even when benchmarks are set at levels well above Traditional Medicare spending if plans do not find ways to deliver standard Medicare benefits at lower cost. PMID:25495112

  18. Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

  19. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  20. Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Merriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the use of individualized instruction, known as the personalized system of instruction (PSI), in teaching college physical science courses. Tables summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of PSI from the viewpoints of students, teachers, and administrators are presented. (HM)

  1. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this notice to revise...

  2. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  3. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... (either to the trade in the event such commodity is not sold at retail by the packager or labeler, or...

  6. Special Report on Cocurricular Offerings and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Robert L.; Humm, William L., Ed.

    This report describes results of a study of secondary school student participation in extracurricular activities. The activity offerings were identified and classified into eleven groups: 1) class-related, 2) athletics, 3) music, 4) school services, 5) drama, 6) school publications, 7) personal interests, 8) honor, 9) student government, 10)…

  7. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  8. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  9. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 570.306 Section 570.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Acquisition Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property Over the...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  14. Can Community Colleges Offer Opportunity and Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four community college presidents (i.e., Robert A. Anderson, New Mexico Junior College; Flora Mancuso Edwards, Hostos Community College (NY); D. Kent Sharples, Horry-Georgetown Technical College (SC); and George B. Vaughan, Piedmont Virginia Community College) offer explanations of how community colleges can maintain open-door admissions, provide…

  15. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...'s designated awarding official determines that using a particular domestic construction...

  16. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...'s designated awarding official determines that using a particular domestic construction...

  17. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...'s designated awarding official determines that using a particular domestic construction...

  18. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...'s designated awarding official determines that using a particular domestic construction...

  19. 12 CFR 239.58 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offering circular. 239.58 Section 239.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.58...

  20. 12 CFR 239.58 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offering circular. 239.58 Section 239.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.58...

  1. 12 CFR 239.58 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offering circular. 239.58 Section 239.58 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions from Mutual to Stock Form § 239.58...

  2. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  3. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  4. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  5. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  6. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  7. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  8. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  9. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  10. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  11. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  12. Offering Individual Genetic Research Results: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Beskow, Laura M.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of individual genetic research results to participants continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, centered primarily on the nature of the results: What are the criteria for the kinds of information that should, could, or should not be offered? There are widely diverging views about how to define these categories, as reasonable people can disagree about the value of various kinds of information. Data concerning participant preferences regarding receipt of results are important, but not determinative of researchers’ fundamental obligations. We suggest that research context is a vital consideration that has not been sufficiently incorporated into the discussion. We adapt an ancillary care framework to explore what different contexts might call for with regard to offering individual genetic research results. Our analysis suggests that, beyond exceptionally rare circumstances that give rise to a duty to rescue, a “one size fits all” threshold cannot be developed for decisions about return of individual results. Instead, researchers and IRBs must consider the scope of entrustment involved in the research, the intensity and duration of interactions with participants, and the vulnerability and dependence of the study population. The strength of this approach is that research context is foreseeable at the time a study is designed. Assessments of the nature and value of the information may still be required to decide whether to offer a particular result, but perhaps will be facilitated by a more grounded understanding of researchers’ obligations in different contexts. PMID:20592417

  13. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ..., which has been extended through April 30, 2011. (75 FR 80561, December 22, 2010) No new Community... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: SBA is introducing a new pilot loan program called...

  14. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of

  15. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup

  16. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Raţiu, M; Purcărea, T

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  17. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, Victor Lorín; Raţíu, Monica; Purcărea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  18. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  19. Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits. PMID:22049623

  20. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  1. Advantage 24 nonoxynol-9 product discussed at meeting. Contraception (spermicides).

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Columbia Laboratories, Inc., Miami, Florida, reported safety data on the spermicidal product Advantage 24 that show it is safe even when administered four times a day, according to data from the UN Global Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). The data were reported at a meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs, Reproductive Health Drugs, Anti-Infective Drugs, and Antiviral Drugs advisory committees of the US Food and Drug Administration. Because of its favorable safety profile, Advantage 24 was the only product that UNAIDS selected for testing to determine its effectiveness against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, in May 1996, Columbia Laboratories and UNAIDS announced the initiation of an international Phase III clinical study of Advantage 24 for the prevention of the heterosexual transmission of HIV and STDs in approximately 2000 women. Additionally, the NIH is performing similar testing in Africa. Advantage 24, which uses Columbia Laboratories' patented bioadhesive delivery system to deliver nonoxynol-9, currently is marketed in the US by Lake Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and in Canada by Roberts Pharmaceuticals, as a long-lasting, vaginally delivered spermicide, pursuant to strategic alliance agreements with Columbia Laboratories. PMID:12320493

  2. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  3. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  5. Connecting in Megaclasses: The Netnographic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Norman J.; Rahinel, Ryan; Foster, Mary K.; Patterson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large universities are increasingly offering marketing courses in classes of 300 or more students. Without access to the usual verbal and nonverbal cues, instructors in these megaclasses are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to respond to learners' needs. As a result, marketing instructors have supplemented course infrastructure with…

  6. What factors contribute to an ownership advantage?

    PubMed

    Fayed, S A; Jennions, M D; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-04-23

    In most taxa, owners win fights when defending a territory against intruders. We calculated effect sizes for four factors that potentially contribute to an 'owner advantage'. We studied male fiddler crabs Uca mjoebergi, where owners won 92% of natural fights. Owners were not more successful because they were inherently better fighters (r=0.02). There was a small effect (r=0.18) of the owner's knowledge of territory quality (food availability) and a medium effect (r=0.29) of his having established relations with neighbours (duration of active tenure), but neither was statistically significant. There was, however, a significant effect due to the mechanical advantage the owner gained through access to the burrow during fights (r=0.48, p<0.005). PMID:18089521

  7. The advantage of cyclic spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    April, Eric

    1991-12-01

    This report shows that cyclic spectral analysis, as a general tool for signal spectral analysis, is much superior to more conventional spectral analysis. Three major advantages are pointed out: (1) its signal's discriminatory capability enables signal selectivity (even for highly corrupted environments); (2) it provides a richer domain for signal analysis; and (3) the theory of spectral correlation allows much more complete mechanism for modelling communication signals in several applications. A conceptual view of the cyclic spectrum is presented along with a working example. A strong mathematical foundation for the theory of spectral correlation involved in cyclic spectral analysis is provided. Finally, investigations are made on some interesting applications where exploitation of the inherent redundancy associated with spectral correlation can be used advantageously.

  8. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

  9. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  10. Will the Latino Mortality Advantage Endure?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Noreen

    2016-04-01

    Persons of Mexican origin and some other Latino groups in the United States have experienced a survival advantage compared with their non-Latino White counterparts, a pattern known as the Latino, Hispanic, or epidemiological paradox. However, high rates of obesity and diabetes among Latinos relative to Whites and continued increases in the prevalence of these conditions suggest that this advantage may soon disappear. Other phenomena, including high rates of disability in the older Latino population compared with Whites, new evidence of health declines shortly after migration to the United States, increasing environmental stressors for immigrants, and high-risk values of inflammatory markers among Latinos compared with Whites support this prediction. One powerful counterargument, however, is substantially lower smoking-attributable mortality among Latinos. Still, it is questionable as to whether smoking behavior can counteract the many forces at play that may impede Latinos from experiencing future improvements in longevity on a par with Whites. PMID:26966251

  11. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  12. Variability in the clear speech intelligibility advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Kenneth; Smiljanic, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann

    2005-09-01

    The overall intelligibility advantage for sentences produced in clear versus conversational speech is well-documented. This study looked at recognition accuracy across words in early and late positions in semantically anomalous and meaningful sentences spoken in clear versus conversational speaking styles. For both sentence types, the results showed the expected overall intelligibility advantage for clear speech over conversational speech. For the semantically anomalous sentences, in both speaking styles, a decline in keyword identification rate was observed with words earlier in the sentence being more accurately recognized than words later in the sentence. Furthermore, the intelligibility advantage for clear over conversational speech remained relatively constant across word positions. For the meaningful sentences, the decline in keyword identification rate across word positions was observed for conversational speech only. Meaningful sentences spoken in clear speech yielded a high, relatively stable word identification rate across position-in-sentence, resulting in a larger clear speech intelligibility benefit for words late in the sentence than for words early in the sentence. These results suggest that for typical meaningful sentences, the acoustic-phonetic enhancements of clear speech and the availability of semantic-contextual information combine to ``boost'' the intelligibility of words in late sentence positions.

  13. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes. PMID:24567791

  14. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  15. Advantages of catalytically de-waxed lubricant base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonmaker, J.P.; Stiponavic, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The production of base oils used in the formulation of lubricants involves the vacuum distillation of crude oil followed by a series of processing steps that improve physical and chemical properties including viscosity index and oxidative stability. An important stage in this process is the removal of linear parafins (wax) from the base oil which can crystalize causing poor flow properties at low temperatures. {open_quotes}De-waxing{close_quotes} may be accomplished using a solvent precipitation batch process (solvent de-waxing: SDW) or through a more modern continuous catalytic process (catalytic de-waxing: CDW) which offers many advantages. In general, catalytically de-waxed base oils exhibit improved low temperature fluidity which provides enhanced performance for transmission fluids and other lubricants required to operate efficiently at temperature reaching -40{degrees}C. A discussion of the molecular mechanisms involved in CDW and results of viscometric testing at low temperatures will be presented.

  16. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  17. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  18. To offer or not to offer: the role of price in employers' health insurance decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of changes in price on employers' decisions to offer health insurance. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A 1993 survey of 22,347 private employers in ten states was used. STUDY DESIGN: Probit regression was used to estimate the probability of offering insurance as a function of the price and employer characteristics. For employers who did not offer insurance, a price cannot be directly observed. We estimated price for nonofferors using reported quotes received by recent shoppers and a selection model to correct for differences between recent shoppers and nonshoppers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in price affect decisions to offer insurance; however, even a 40 percent reduction in premiums would lead to only a 2 to 3 percentage point increase in the share of employers offering insurance. Employers of low-wage workers are substantially less likely to offer health insurance than other employers. CONCLUSIONS: Policies to reduce the number of uninsured that focus on increasing the supply of employment-based insurance are unlikely to have the intended effect unless coupled with policies to help low-wage workers afford insurance. PMID:11666111

  19. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  20. Taking advantage of real-time pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.; Renner, R.; Drenker, S.; Carmicheal, L.; Flood, J.

    1997-09-01

    Linking RTP with automatic energy management and control systems can create win-win scenarios for utilities and their commercial/industrial customers. Widely offered by utilities in the United States and abroad, real-time pricing (RTP) is a proven method of reducing energy costs for a broad range of commercial and industrial customers. Utilities in turn benefit directly by retaining key customers. Now EPRI is leading efforts to make RTP even more attractive to power suppliers and consumers alike. Linking automated energy management systems in customers` commercial buildings and industrial facilities to hourly price signals from the utility can be beneficial to both parties, as shown in several recent EPRI-sponsored demonstrations. With industry deregulation, as new entities like energy service companies change the way electricity is offered to customers, RTP is likely to become part of the vocabulary of more power providers, service providers, regulators, and end users.

  1. Advantages of a video-assisted approach to parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; De Crea, Carmela; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Sollazzi, Liliana; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Bellantone, Rocco

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the advances in preoperative localization studies, the availability of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay and the introduction of cervicoscopy revolutionized the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Several endoscopic and video-assisted techniques for parathyroidectomy have been described. In spite of the enthusiasm manifested by some authors, the role of these techniques with respect to the time-honored conventional surgery have been largely debated. Among them, video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) has emerged as one of the leading and more diffuse techniques. To date many large and comparative studies have shown that VAP is an efficacious and feasible procedure with the same complication rate as conventional surgery. Moreover, VAP seems to have significant advantages in terms of cosmetic results, postoperative pain, recovery, and patient satisfaction. When compared with other minimally invasive techniques, it offers the significant advantages of being more similar to conventional surgery and reproducible in different surgical settings. Moreover, it permits bilateral neck exploration, associated thyroid resections and can be performed under locoregional anesthesia. All these characteristics and the excellent results obtained render VAP a valid and well-validated, and even preferable, alternative to conventional surgery for the surgical treatment of sporadic PHPT, especially in case of suspected single adenoma. PMID:18971596

  2. Home advantage in sport: an overview of studies on the advantage of playing at home.

    PubMed

    Nevill, A M; Holder, R L

    1999-10-01

    This review identifies the most likely causes of home advantage. The results of previous studies have identified 4 factors thought to be responsible for the home advantage. These can be categorised under the general headings of crowd, learning, travel and rule factors. From the accumulated evidence, rule factors were found to play only a minor role (in a limited number of sports) in contributing to home advantage. Studies investigating the effect of learning factors found that little benefit was to be gained from being familiar with the local conditions when playing at home. There was evidence to suggest that travel factors were responsible for part of the home advantage, provided the journey involved crossing a number of time zones. However, since high levels of home advantage are observed within countries where travel distances are not great. travel factors were not thought to be a major cause of home advantage. The evidence from studies investigating crowd factors appeared to provide the most dominant causes of home advantage. A number of studies provide strong evidence that home advantage increases with crowd size, until the crowd reaches a certain size or consistency (a more balanced number of home and away supporters), after which a peak in home advantage is observed. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain these observations: either (i) the crowd is able to raise the performance of the home competitors relative to the away competitors; or (ii) the crowd is able to influence the officials to subconsciously favour the home team. The literature supports the latter to be the most important and dominant explanation. Clearly, it only takes 2 or 3 crucial decisions to go against the away team or in favour of the home team to give the side playing at home the 'edge'. PMID:10565549

  3. The Mechanisms Underlying the ASD Advantage in Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Giserman, Ivy; Carter, Alice S; Blaser, Erik

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are faster or more successful than typically developing control participants at various visual-attentional tasks (for reviews, see Dakin and Frith in Neuron 48:497-507, 2005; Simmons et al. in Vis Res 49:2705-2739, 2009). This "ASD advantage" was first identified in the domain of visual search by Plaisted et al. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:777-783, 1998). Here we survey the findings of visual search studies from the past 15 years that contrasted the performance of individuals with and without ASD. Although there are some minor caveats, the overall consensus is that-across development and a broad range of symptom severity-individuals with ASD reliably outperform controls on visual search. The etiology of the ASD advantage has not been formally specified, but has been commonly attributed to 'enhanced perceptual discrimination', a superior ability to visually discriminate between targets and distractors in such tasks (e.g. O'Riordan in Cognition 77:81-96, 2000). As well, there is considerable evidence for impairments of the attentional network in ASD (for a review, see Keehn et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:164-183, 2013). We discuss some recent results from our laboratory that support an attentional, rather than perceptual explanation for the ASD advantage in visual search. We speculate that this new conceptualization may offer a better understanding of some of the behavioral symptoms associated with ASD, such as over-focusing and restricted interests. PMID:24091470

  4. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  5. The semantic advantage in object memorization.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wick, Farahnaz; Pomplun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies (Hwang et al., 2011) indicate that our strategies for memorizing objects in naturalistic scenes can be predicted by the semantic relationships between objects in that scene. That is, we tend to make saccades to objects that are most semantically related to the object in the current fixation. A possible explanation is that consecutive inspection of semantically similar objects facilitates object memorization. Previous work in our lab has shown that indeed, characteristic objects from a specific context have a close semantic relationship that facilitates recognition. The observed high recognition rate was not induced by gist-based errors, as performance did not decline even when false recognition rates were significantly reduced. When and how does this 'semantic advantage' arise during processing? We investigated this question using a rapid serial visual presentation task, which mimics sequential eye movements. A series of eight grayscale object images on a white background were shown for 250 ms each. Subsequently, participants saw another image and indicated whether it had been in the series (same/different judgment). The object sets were randomly chosen or taken from specific contexts such as airport, park or bedroom. In three experiments, we measured recognition accuracy as we varied target position (excluding first and last image in the series) and primed participants with context labels either before or after a trial. The context labels provided for random trials were randomly chosen and misleading. Results show that the semantic advantage starts after viewing approximately three objects in the context trials when compared to random trials. Priming with context labels (either before or after the trial) diminishes this advantage and in general hurts performance. These results reveal that object memory benefits from the semantic structure established by an efficient, unconscious mechanism that is impeded by conscious category processing. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326631

  6. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed habitats. PMID:26858732

  7. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    PubMed

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

  8. PSRO: advantages, risks, and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, R; Sullivan, F

    1975-08-01

    The authors propose that active physician participation in current review methodologies, including PSRO, can lessen the potential for such problems as the development of unrealistic standards, emphasis on review and record keeping as ends rather than means, and ineffectuality of the systems themselves. Potential advantages of PSRO are seen in areas of quality assessment and improvement, economy, and enhancement of the continuing learning processess of physicians. The authors suggest that physicians should resist pressures toward separation of reviewing authority from clinical competence. PMID:1170765

  9. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Acceptance of offers for a CCC bonus on a competitive basis. An offer from an eligible exporter for a CCC... to determine if the offer contains an acceptable sales price. If the sales price contained in the offer is found to be acceptable, then the CCC bonus contained in the offer will be reviewed to...

  10. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must equal or exceed the minimum offer... 32nd of a dollar, and must be a 0, 2, 4, or 6. For example, an offer of 102.172 means one hundred two... no limit on the number of eligible securities you may offer....

  11. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filing, a written offer of securities may be made if it meets the following requirements: (1) The outside... Offering Circular shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sales of these securities in any state in which such offer, solicitation or sale would...

  12. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must equal or exceed the minimum offer... 32nd of a dollar, and must be a 0, 2, 4, or 6. For example, an offer of 102.172 means one hundred two... no limit on the number of eligible securities you may offer....

  13. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filing, a written offer of securities may be made if it meets the following requirements: (1) The outside... Offering Circular shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sales of these securities in any state in which such offer, solicitation or sale would...

  14. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must equal or exceed the minimum offer... 32nd of a dollar, and must be a 0, 2, 4, or 6. For example, an offer of 102.172 means one hundred two... no limit on the number of eligible securities you may offer....

  15. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must equal or exceed the minimum offer... 32nd of a dollar, and must be a 0, 2, 4, or 6. For example, an offer of 102.172 means one hundred two... no limit on the number of eligible securities you may offer....

  16. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Acceptance of offers for a CCC bonus on a competitive basis. An offer from an eligible exporter for a CCC... to determine if the offer contains an acceptable sales price. If the sales price contained in the offer is found to be acceptable, then the CCC bonus contained in the offer will be reviewed to...

  17. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... description, par amount, and price of each security offered. All offers must equal or exceed the minimum offer... 32nd of a dollar, and must be a 0, 2, 4, or 6. For example, an offer of 102.172 means one hundred two... no limit on the number of eligible securities you may offer....

  18. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Acceptance of offers for a CCC bonus on a competitive basis. An offer from an eligible exporter for a CCC... to determine if the offer contains an acceptable sales price. If the sales price contained in the offer is found to be acceptable, then the CCC bonus contained in the offer will be reviewed to...

  19. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... filing, a written offer of securities may be made if it meets the following requirements: (1) The outside... Offering Circular shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sales of these securities in any state in which such offer, solicitation or sale would...

  20. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filing, a written offer of securities may be made if it meets the following requirements: (1) The outside... Offering Circular shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sales of these securities in any state in which such offer, solicitation or sale would...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  3. Will sublingual immunotherapy offer benefit for asthma?

    PubMed

    Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Teijeiro, Alvaro; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Evidence shows that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is indicated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). In this article we discuss whether SLIT could offer benefit for children and adults with asthma.We reviewed individual trials on SLIT in asthmatic patients, but also asthma data reported in some SLIT trials conducted in AR patients. Findings were complemented with data from systematic reviews and metaanalysis on the subject since 2000 and some guidelines that mention immunotherapy for asthma treatment. In AR patients with concomitant persistent asthma, SLIT reduces medication needs while maintaining symptom control. This holds especially true for house dust mite SLIT. Data on pollen SLIT and lung symptom improvement with SLIT, however, are less convincing. Therefore, we suggest SLIT should be added as an optional add-on therapy for patients with asthma whenever a causative allergen has been demonstrated and AR is associated with asthma. For the future, SLIT should be studied in specifically designed asthma studies in allergic asthmatics without AR. PMID:24022465

  4. New blood thinner offers first potential alternative in 50 years: ximelagatran.

    PubMed

    Nutescu, Edith A; Helgason, Cathy M; Briller, Joan; Schwertz, Dorie W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional anticoagulants employed in the treatment of thrombosis include the injectable heparins and oral warfarin. Though effective, these traditional agents are fraught with limitations in their ease of use in the clinical setting. Warfarin, for example, has many pharmacokinetic properties and food-and-drug interactions that result in unpredictable patient response and the need for expensive and time-consuming monitoring of coagulation status. Ximelagatran is a novel, promising, orally active, direct thrombin inhibitor currently in development that, for the first time in 50 years, offers a potential alternative to the mainstay oral agent "warfarin." Advantages of ximelagatran over warfarin include predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a broad therapeutic window, no routine anticoagulant monitoring, no clinically significant drug interactions, and fixed-dose administration. Ximelagatran has been evaluated for thromboprophylaxis following orthopedic surgery, acute treatment and secondary prevention of venous thrombosis, stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, and acute coronary syndromes. Results of clinical trials suggest that ximelagatran is equally or more efficacious than warfarin and/or low-molecular-weight heparin therapy without increasing rates of minor or major bleeding. Although postmarketing surveillance will provide the final test of this drug, the future looks promising for addition of a new anticoagulant with the potential to provide excellent efficacy, predictable response, and reduced adverse effects. Pending regulatory approval, ximelagatran may help overcome barriers to appropriate anticoagulant therapy, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with thrombotic diseases. PMID:15529058

  5. [Subjective estimations of the treatment programmes offered in inpatient and outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Morfeld, M; Bürger, W; Dietsche, S; Koch, U

    2002-01-01

    The survey of psychosocial, somatic and economic outcomes is regarded as standard in establishing the effectiveness of various rehabilitative forms of medical care. Another important part is the patient's perspective for the subjective valuation of the entire measure or different facets of the rehabilitation measure. During a comparison of the effectiveness of different forms of care of orthopaedic rehabilitation (inpatient, outpatient in the hospital, outpatient) 1176 patients were questioned in writing at 4 different time points. The results concerning the general measurement of the satisfaction with the rehabilitation measure showed a high level and a high acceptance in all forms of medical care at the end of and after the measure. The result relating to the selection of the correct hospital for the specific troubles of the patient was positive as well. This can also be stated for the patients' estimation of the contacts between the doctors and the physiotherapists. At the end of measure, all the patients in every form of care viewed these contacts as being helpful. The outpatient offers were viewed a bit better by the patients concerning the contacts to doctors and physiotherapists. The extent of the care specific to the different occupational groups was estimated by almost all patients of all forms as being just about right. Additionally, the course organization and the work of the administration had a good evaluation - with slight advantages for the inpatient forms. PMID:12007035

  6. [Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].

    PubMed

    Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

    2001-10-01

    This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for each organ, together with external and cut-surface features. A third section allows the examiner to report other observations not requested previously, while a final section is also provided for the epicrisis and for the formulation of the final diagnosis, the same as that reported in the first form. The database is coupled with an interactive system for collecting voice comments, thereby replacing the need for tape-recorders in the autopsy room. The user can recall a dictation window, dictate a text, check spelling and insert additional text. The database is also coupled to an image acquisition system, on the assumption that moving images allow a more faithful documentation of reality. Therefore, all rooms in which autopsies are carried out on fetuses or neonates have been equipped with a fixed camera linked to a monitor and a video-recorder. A PCB, used for image digitalization, recognizes up to 16,000,000 different colors. Guided by dedicated software, image files are transferred to a computer and then saved with the autoptic report. The database can be consulted and queried in two principle ways: by key words in the contents or main disease descriptions, or by individual words or phrases contained within the complete text of the reports. The present database system for autopsy reporting has proved itself useful in a pathological anatomy service. The combined presence of images and texts renders the system useful also as a research tool. By linking to a Web site dedicated to pathologic anatomy, it will be possible to display online rare cases involving diagnostic difficulties. The system offers great advantages for present and retrospective diagnostics, as well as for research and education purposes. PMID:11725353

  7. Rural Medicare Advantage Plan Payment in 2015.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Payment to Medicare Advantage (MA) plans was fundamentally altered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). MA plans now operate under a new formula for county-level payment area benchmarks, and in 2012 began receiving quality-based bonus payments. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Payment Demonstration expanded the bonus payments to most MA plans through 2014; however, with the end of the demonstration bonus payments has been reduced for intermediate quality MA plans. This brief examines the impact that these changes in MA baseline payment are having on MA plans and beneficiaries in rural and urban areas. Key Data Findings. (1) Payments to plans in rural areas were 3.9 percent smaller under ACA payment policies in 2015 than they would have been in the absence of the ACA. For plans in urban areas, the payments were 8.8 percent smaller than they would have been. These figures were determined using hypothetical pre-ACA and actual ACA-mandated benchmarks for 2015. (2) MA plans in rural areas received an average annual bonus payment of $326.77 per enrollee in 2014, but only $63.76 per enrollee in 2015, with the conclusion of the demonstration. (3) In 2014, 92 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that received quality-based bonus payments under the demonstration, while in March 2015, 56 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that was eligible for quality-based bonus payments. PMID:26793822

  8. Creating and promoting a sports performance service offering.

    PubMed

    Harr, Shannon; Shireman, Christopher W; Jebson, R Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Many private hospitals and physician groups are exploring the possibility of expanding their facilities to include advanced ancillary services. Services such as a sports performance center provide additional opportunities for quality patient care and at the same time augment the bottom line. By offering additional ancillary services, healthcare organizations such as an orthopaedics practice can become a full-service center enabling clinicians to more fully provide care to their patients. Marketing and promotion play a crucial role in this type of service. These activities must be designed and carried out in a way that encourages productive results and collaboration as the organization strives to position itself as a full-service center and as a sports specialist in its community. PMID:17494488

  9. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract But Not Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A

    2016-02-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in J Mem Lang 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this ambiguity advantage may in reality be a polysemy advantage: caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings (homonymy). We report two lexical decision studies that investigated the effects of polysemy with new word sets. In both studies, polysemy was factorially manipulated while homonymy was controlled for. In Experiment 1, where the stimulus set consisted solely of concrete nouns, there was no effect of polysemy. However, in Experiment 2, where the stimulus set consisted of a mix of abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there was a significant polysemy advantage. Together, these two studies strongly suggest that polysemy affects abstract but not concrete nouns. In addition, they rule out several alternative explanations for these polysemy effects, e.g., sense dominance, age-of-acquisition, familiarity, and semantic diversity. PMID:25373555

  10. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,

  11. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  12. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  13. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  14. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  15. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  16. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  17. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-01

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

  18. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops. PMID:26301381

  19. Research on the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Tender Offer for Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minli, Zhang; Shanshan, Qiao

    The BP model in artificial neural network is used in this paper. Various factors that affect the tender offer is identified and these factors as the input nodes of network to conduct iterated operation in the network is applied in this paper. Through taking advantage of the self-learning function of network, this paper constantly modifies the weight matrix to achieve the objective error of the network error to achieve the function of predicting offer. As a software support tool, MATLAB is used in artificial neural network, the neural network toolbox helps to reduce the workload of writing code greatly and make the application of neural network more widely.

  20. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  1. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  2. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering of notes. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the United States,...

  3. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 604.43 Section 604.43..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has... respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the record when filing an appeal....

  4. 49 CFR 1018.71 - Referral of a compromise offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral of a compromise offer. 1018.71 Section... § 1018.71 Referral of a compromise offer. The Board may refer a debtor's firm written offer of compromise which is substantial in amount to GAO or to DOJ if the Board is uncertain whether the offer should...

  5. 31 CFR 316.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 316.1 Section 316..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES E § 316.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  6. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified offers. 301.7430-7 Section 301.7430-7... Qualified offers. (a) In general. Section 7430(c)(4)(E) (the qualified offer rule) provides that a party to... qualified offer of the party as defined in section 7430(g). For purposes of this section, the term...

  8. 31 CFR 332.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 332.1 Section 332..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  9. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203... 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a) Solicit offers by providing each prospective offeror a proposed short..., evaluation procedures and submissions of offers....

  10. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its filing, a written offer of securities may be made if it meets the following requirements: (1) The...

  11. 46 CFR 201.144 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 201.144 Section 201.144 Shipping... PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.144 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an... accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  12. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with... identification and shall accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  13. 38 CFR 18b.64 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 18b.64... Procedures § 18b.64 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any... record as the offer of proof....

  14. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for offer. 3110.4 Section... § 3110.4 Requirements for offer. (a) An offer to lease shall be made on a current form approved by the... advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and...

  15. 26 CFR 601.203 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Firearms. (2) An offer in compromise of taxes, interest, delinquency penalties, or specific... regardless of whether the amount of the offer is tendered in full at the time the offer is filed or the amount of the offer is to be paid by deferred payment or payments. Copies of Form 656 and Form 433 may...

  16. 26 CFR 601.203 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Firearms. (2) An offer in compromise of taxes, interest, delinquency penalties, or specific... regardless of whether the amount of the offer is tendered in full at the time the offer is filed or the amount of the offer is to be paid by deferred payment or payments. Copies of Form 656 and Form 433 may...

  17. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for offer. 3110.4 Section... § 3110.4 Requirements for offer. (a) An offer to lease shall be made on a current form approved by the... advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and...

  18. 26 CFR 601.203 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Firearms. (2) An offer in compromise of taxes, interest, delinquency penalties, or specific... regardless of whether the amount of the offer is tendered in full at the time the offer is filed or the amount of the offer is to be paid by deferred payment or payments. Copies of Form 656 and Form 433 may...

  19. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for offer. 3110.4 Section... § 3110.4 Requirements for offer. (a) An offer to lease shall be made on a current form approved by the... advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and...

  20. 26 CFR 601.203 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Firearms. (2) An offer in compromise of taxes, interest, delinquency penalties, or specific... regardless of whether the amount of the offer is tendered in full at the time the offer is filed or the amount of the offer is to be paid by deferred payment or payments. Copies of Form 656 and Form 433 may...

  1. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for offer. 3110.4 Section... § 3110.4 Requirements for offer. (a) An offer to lease shall be made on a current form approved by the... advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and...

  2. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

  3. Advantage of Microscope Integrated for Both Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Videoangiography on Aneurysmal Surgery: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIOKA, Hideyuki; KINOUCHI, Hiroyuki; NISHIYAMA, Yoshihisa; KANEMARU, Kazuya; YAGI, Takashi; HANIHARA, Mitsuto; HORIKOSHI, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Neck clipping of a large middle cerebral artery aneurysm was performed using a newly developed surgical microscope integrated with modules for both indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein videoangiography. During surgery, ICG and fluorescein videoangiography by intra-arterial or intravenous injection were safely carried out without interrupting the surgical procedure. Based on the findings obtained from the case, we evaluated the differences between the dyes and the injection routes. With intra-arterial injection, fluorescein offered sharper contrast images and was better at depicting fine arteries than ICG. Patchy staining of vessel walls was observed in intravenous fluorescein videoangiography, while it was not evident in ICG. Intra-arterial injection method had a great advantage in the rapid clearance of the dyes, which allowed us to perform repeated videoangiography within a short period, and was useful in detecting incomplete clipping in this case; however, catheter insertion requires additional work and carries a potential risk. Use of a microscope integrated for both ICG and fluorescein videoangiography would be another method for repeated evaluation. Namely, alternate use of the dyes enables us to perform videoangiography in a short time even via intravenous injection. PMID:24097092

  4. Advantage of microscope integrated for both indocyanine green and fluorescein videoangiography on aneurysmal surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Yagi, Takashi; Hanihara, Mitsuto; Horikoshi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Neck clipping of a large middle cerebral artery aneurysm was performed using a newly developed surgical microscope integrated with modules for both indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein videoangiography. During surgery, ICG and fluorescein videoangiography by intra-arterial or intravenous injection were safely carried out without interrupting the surgical procedure. Based on the findings obtained from the case, we evaluated the differences between the dyes and the injection routes. With intra-arterial injection, fluorescein offered sharper contrast images and was better at depicting fine arteries than ICG. Patchy staining of vessel walls was observed in intravenous fluorescein videoangiography, while it was not evident in ICG. Intra-arterial injection method had a great advantage in the rapid clearance of the dyes, which allowed us to perform repeated videoangiography within a short period, and was useful in detecting incomplete clipping in this case; however, catheter insertion requires additional work and carries a potential risk. Use of a microscope integrated for both ICG and fluorescein videoangiography would be another method for repeated evaluation. Namely, alternate use of the dyes enables us to perform videoangiography in a short time even via intravenous injection. PMID:24097092

  5. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel—audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel—interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel—key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics approval City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. Planned outputs We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: ‘what to expect in your virtual consultation’. Discussion The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they bring significant technical, logistical and regulatory challenges. We anticipate that this study will contribute to a balanced assessment of when, how and in what circumstances this model might be introduced. PMID:26826147

  6. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  7. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  8. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology. PMID:21141667

  9. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  10. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of human dichromacy.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Lindsay T; de Luca, Emanuela; Hansen, Thorsten; Jägle, Herbert; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2006-01-01

    We compared the visual detection thresholds for cone-isolating stimuli of trichromats (those with normal color vision) with those of X-linked dichromats, who lack either the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) cones (protanopes) or middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones (deuteranopes). At low (1 Hz) temporal frequencies, dichromats have significantly higher (twofold) thresholds for all colored stimuli than trichromats; whereas at high (16 Hz) temporal frequencies, they perform as well or better than trichromats. The advantages of dichromats in detecting high temporally modulated targets can be related to an increased number, through replacement, of the remaining L- or M-cone type. However, their disadvantages in detecting low temporally modulated targets, even in directions of color space where their increased number of cone photoreceptors might be expected to be beneficial, are best explained in terms of the loss of L-M cone opponency and the inability of the visual pathways to reorganize to allow the detection of low-frequency luminance modulation. PMID:16643091

  12. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  13. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  14. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  15. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  16. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25603375

  17. The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

  18. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  19. Breaking the barriers to commercialization of MEMS: a firm's search for competitive advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Steven T.; Linton, Jonathan D.

    1999-08-01

    A model of infrastructure development for MEMS manufacturing Technologies is offered. The role of discontinuous innovation in achieving competitive advantage is briefly reviewed. This is followed by the development of a model that describes the stages in the growth of an infrastructure to support Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems infrastructure. We briefly describe how an infrastructure gradually grows to support a new industry, resulting from discontinuous innovation. the model indicates the evolving nature of the actions and investments that firms and governments need to make to support the growth of an immature industry. Consequently, we aim to not only offer a descriptive model, but offer guidance to firms on whether their intentions and resources fit with the state of the industry and to offer policy makers guidance on the timing of different types of support.

  20. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...

  1. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...

  2. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...

  3. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting...

  4. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of innovation, highly restrictive administrative procedures, and a waste of funds on the search for the utopian goal of zero risk. Other drawbacks are more insidious. The precautionary principle could contribute to a general feeling of anxiety and unease in the population. It could be used by campaigns to manipulate public opinion in favor of a particular commercial interest or ideology. Furthermore, practitioners and public policy makers could be led to make choices not dictated by a search for the optimal solution but rather a solution that would protect them from future accusations (the so-called umbrella phenomenon). On the international level, the precautionary principle must not be used to mask protectionism. Nevertheless, a clear advantage of the precautionary principle is that it requires decision-makers to explain the rationale behind their decisions, to quantify the risks, and to provide objective information. However, the physician must not be tempted to make patients sign documents certifying that they have been given all relevant information on his or her diagnosis and treatment. This example underlines the role of legal texts and jurisprudence in the application of the precautionary principle. Finally, the precautionary principle implies new obligations for the State. In the field of health and healthcare, the State must undertake actions based on fully open and undisguised decision-making and provide complete information to the public. A pplication of the precautionary principle requires much discernment because the final outcome can be beneficial or harmful, depending on the way it is implemented. The precautionary principle, and its applications, must be precise and detailed within a well-defined framework. PMID:11319454

  5. 2014: Rural Medicare Advantage Enrollment Update.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy; Mueller, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) Reclassification of rural and urban county designations (due to the switch from 2000 census data to 2010 census data) resulted in a 10 percent decline in the number of Medicare eligible Americans living in rural counties in 2014 (from roughly 10.7 million to 9.6 million). These changes also resulted in a decline in the number of MA enrollees considered to be living in a rural area, from 2.19 million to 1.95 million. However, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in MA and prepaid plans in rural areas declined only slightly from 20.6 percent to 20.3 percent. (2) Rural Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plan enrollment in March 2014 was nearly 1.95 million, or 20.3 percent of all rural Medicare beneficiaries, an increase of more than 216,000 from March 2013. Enrollment increased to 1.99 million (20.4 percent) in October 2014. (3) In March 2014, 56 percent of rural MA enrollees were enrolled in Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans, 29 percent were enrolled in Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) or Point-of-Service (POS) plans, 7 percent were enrolled in Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) plans, and 8 percent were enrolled in other prepaid plans, including Cost plans and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) plans. (4) States with the highest percentage of rural Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in MA and other prepaid plans include Minnesota (49.1 percent), Hawaii (41.1 percent), Pennsylvania (35.4 percent), Wisconsin (34.3 percent), New York (30.4 percent), and Ohio (30.1 percent). PMID:26364324

  6. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of <10μs and repetition rates can be adjusted continuously from several kHz up to cw mode while addressing power levels from 0-100%. By combining trigger signals with analog modulations nearly any kind of pulse form can be realized. Diode lasers also offer a wide, adaptable range of wavelengths, and wavelength stabilization. We report a line width of less than 0.1nm while the wavelength stability is in the range of MHz which is comparable to solid state lasers. In terms of applications, especially our (broad) wavelength combining technology for power scaling opens the window to new processes of cutting or welding and process control. Fast power modulation through direct current control allows pulses of several microseconds with hundreds of watts average power. Spot sizes of less than 100 μm are obtained at the work piece. Such a diode system allows materials processing with a pulse parameter range that is hardly addressed by any other laser system. High productivity material ablation with cost effective lasers is enabled. The wide variety of wavelengths, high brightness, fast power modulation and high efficiency of diode lasers results in a strong pull of existing markets, but also spurs the development of a wide variety of new applications.

  7. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  8. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. Pulse oximetry advantages in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Solimano, A J; Smyth, J A; Mann, T K; Albersheim, S G; Lockitch, G

    1986-11-01

    We studied 12 infants with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia who were oxygen dependent and older than 30 days. Simultaneous readings of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) determined by two pulse oximeters (Nellcor 100, BTI Biox III) and transcutaneous (tc) PO2 (Sensor Medics, Transend) were correlated with SaO2 (Radiometer, OSM 2 Hemoximeter) and PaO2 (Corning 178) measured on blood from an indwelling arterial catheter. For each infant, the fractional inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) was adjusted to obtain three to five sets of data in the range of 70% to 95% SaO2. Fifty-three data points were generated and pooled for analysis. The slope of the regression line generated for the Nellcor 100 was .86; for the BTI Biox III, it was .91; and for the Sensor Medics Transend, it was .55, resulting in average errors of +2.5%, +1.0%, and -29%, respectively, when comparing corresponding transcutaneous and arterial values. When SaO2 was equal to or less than 95%, no infants were hyperoxic. These data confirm reports by others that tcPO2 values do not accurately represent PaO2 values in older infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pulse oximeters do not require user calibration, and their sensor is unheated so they will not cause skin burns. We conclude that pulse oximetry offers major advantages over tcPO2 measurements in the management of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PMID:3763297

  10. Medicare Advantage associated with lower mortality for incident dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Steven M; Sibbel, Scott; Colson, Carey; Hunt, Abigail; Nissenson, Allen R; Krishnan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Physicians across the care continuum are increasingly aligned around the belief that coordinated care can improve patient outcomes. As the principal caregivers for one of the most medically fragile patient groups in healthcare, nephrologists are especially attuned to the potential value of integrated care. Medicare Advantage (MA) offers one way to test this hypothesis. By law, end-stage renal disease patients currently cannot enroll into an MA plan, but if they develop ESRD while in such a plan, they may continue to be enrolled. The contrast between these patients and their counterparts who carry Medicare fee for service (MFFS) thereby represents a natural experiment that affords an opportunity to examine whether enrollment in a coordinated care system may improve outcomes. In order to promote (unbiased) comparison of patients in a non-randomized context, we propensity score-matched incident dialysis patients enrolled in MA versus those in MFFS. The data demonstrate that patients who were enrolled in an MA plan upon initiation of dialysis had a 9% lower mortality rate than their MFFS counterparts. This beneficial association of MA enrollment was found to be sustained over the first two years of dialysis treatment. PMID:26767249

  11. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  12. Building and Accessing Clausal Representations: The Advantage of First Mention versus the Advantage of Clause Recency

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Hargreaves, David J.; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two seemingly contradictory phenomena: the Advantage of the First-Mentioned Participant (participants mentioned first in a sentence are more accessible than participants mentioned second) and the Advantage of the Most Recent Clause (concepts mentioned in the most recent clause are more accessible than concepts mentioned in an earlier clause). We resolved this contradiction by measuring how quickly comprehenders accessed participants mentioned in the first versus second clauses of two-clause sentences. Our data supported the following hypotheses: Comprehenders represent each clause of a two-clause sentence in its own mental substructure. Comprehenders have greatest access to information in the substructure that they are currently developing; that is, they have greatest access to the most recent clause. However, at some point, the first clause becomes more accessible because the substructure representing the first clause of a two-clause sentence serves as a foundation for the whole sentence-level representation. PMID:25505819

  13. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    SciTech Connect

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration for carbon ions as compared to opposing fields. In contrast, for protons, the PER{sub BIO} is almost independent on the field configuration. Concerning the artificial lateral OAR, the volume receiving 20% of the prescribed RBE-weighted dose (V20) was reduced by over 35% using helium ions and by over 40% using carbon ions compared to protons. The analysis of the patient plan showed that protons, helium, and carbon ions are similar in terms of target coverage whereas the dose to the surrounding tissue is increasing from carbon ions toward protons. The mean dose to the brain stem can be reduced by more than 55% when using helium ions and by further 25% when using carbon ions instead of protons. Conclusions: The comparison of the PER{sub RBE} and PER{sub PHY} {sub S} of the three ion types suggests a strong dependence of the advantages of the three ions on the dose-level, tissue type, and field configuration. In terms of conformity, i.e., dose to the normal tissue, a clear gain is expected using carbon or helium ions compared to protons.

  14. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  15. The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

  16. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  17. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  18. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  19. 46 CFR 201.144 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 201.144 Section 201.144 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.144 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the...

  20. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to offer examinations. 339.302... QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Medical Examinations § 339.302 Authority to offer examinations. An agency may,...

  1. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering... issued by the Federal Financing Bank. Each notice will set forth the amount offered, the issue date,...

  2. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering... issued by the Federal Financing Bank. Each notice will set forth the amount offered, the issue date,...

  3. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering... issued by the Federal Financing Bank. Each notice will set forth the amount offered, the issue date,...

  4. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering... issued by the Federal Financing Bank. Each notice will set forth the amount offered, the issue date,...

  5. 49 CFR 1503.641 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 1503.641 Section 1503.641... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.641 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the ALJ may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  6. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  7. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  8. 48 CFR 619.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 619.804-2 Section 619.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... offering. (a) When applicable, this notification shall identify that the offering is in accordance with...

  9. 14 CFR 16.231 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 16.231 Section 16.231... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.231 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the hearing officer may offer the evidence on the...

  10. 31 CFR 348.0 - Offering of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of securities. 348.0 Section... § 348.0 Offering of securities. The Secretary of the Treasury (the Secretary) under authority of Title 31, Chapter 31, offers, at par, Depositary Compensation Securities (securities) to financial...

  11. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offers. 12.602 Section 12.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When evaluation factors are used... evaluation factors. (b) Offers shall be evaluated in accordance with the criteria contained in...

  12. 31 CFR 343.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 343.0 Section 343..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS General Information § 343.0 Offering of bonds....

  13. 27 CFR 70.436 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.436 Section 70.436 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cigarette Papers and Tubes § 70.436 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise...

  14. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  15. 27 CFR 70.415 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.415 Section 70.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Beer § 70.415 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise of liabilities...

  16. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  17. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to offer examinations. 339.302... QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Medical Examinations § 339.302 Authority to offer examinations. An agency may,...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Offers. 52.247-51 Section 52.247-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-51 Evaluation of Export Offers. As prescribed in 47.305-6(e), insert the following provision: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water...

  19. 7 CFR 15.122 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 15.122 Section 15.122 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.122 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the hearing...

  20. 27 CFR 70.449 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.449 Section 70.449 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.449 Offers in compromise. The procedures in the case of offers in...

  1. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with its obligation under § 655.122(l), an employer must offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent offering period... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-11 Subsequent offering period. A bidder may elect to provide a subsequent offering period of at least three business days during which tenders will be...

  3. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0... CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.0 Offering of certificates. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended, offers to borrowers from the...

  4. 48 CFR 19.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 19.804-2....804-2 Agency offering. (a) After completing its evaluation, the agency must notify the SBA of the... statement that prior to the offering no solicitation for the specific acquisition has been issued as a...

  5. 34 CFR 101.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 101.85 Section 101.85 Education... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 101.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the presiding...

  6. 31 CFR 341.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 341.0 Section 341... BONDS § 341.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the Second..., offers for sale, effective as of January 1, 1963, bonds of the United States, designated as United...

  7. 31 CFR 902.5 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Further review of compromise offers... COMPROMISE OF CLAIMS § 902.5 Further review of compromise offers. If an agency is uncertain whether to accept a firm, written, substantive compromise offer on a debt that is within the agency's...

  8. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6 Section 309.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  9. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13... PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer,...

  10. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155... Transportation Adjudications § 406.155 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the administrative law judge may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  11. 27 CFR 31.73 - Place of offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Place of offering for sale... offering for sale. Liquors are considered to be offered for sale at the place where they are kept for sale and where a sale could take place, and at any place where sales are in fact consummated. Liquors...

  12. 27 CFR 31.73 - Place of offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Place of offering for sale... offering for sale. Liquors are considered to be offered for sale at the place where they are kept for sale and where a sale could take place, and at any place where sales are in fact consummated. Liquors...

  13. 27 CFR 31.73 - Place of offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Place of offering for sale... offering for sale. Liquors are considered to be offered for sale at the place where they are kept for sale and where a sale could take place, and at any place where sales are in fact consummated. Liquors...

  14. 27 CFR 31.73 - Place of offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Place of offering for sale... offering for sale. Liquors are considered to be offered for sale at the place where they are kept for sale and where a sale could take place, and at any place where sales are in fact consummated. Liquors...

  15. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  16. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and the policies underlying...

  17. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  2. 28 CFR 7.1 - Standing offer of reward.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standing offer of reward. 7.1 Section 7.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REWARDS FOR CAPTURE OF ESCAPED FEDERAL PRISONERS § 7.1 Standing offer of reward. A standing offer of reward is made for the capture, or for assisting in,...

  3. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  4. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  5. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  6. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Qualified offers. (a) In general. Section 7430(c)(4)(E) (the qualified offer rule) provides that a party to... qualified offer of the party as defined in section 7430(g). For purposes of this section, the term judgment... determination in the court proceeding. In making the comparison between the liability under the qualified...

  8. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Only One Offer. 252.215... Clauses 252.215-7008 Only One Offer. As prescribed at 215.408(4), use the following provision: Only One Offer (JUN 2012) (a) The provision at FAR 52.215-20, Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Qualified offers. (a) In general. Section 7430(c)(4)(E) (the qualified offer rule) provides that a party to... qualified offer of the party as defined in section 7430(g). For purposes of this section, the term judgment... determination in the court proceeding. In making the comparison between the liability under the qualified...

  10. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Only One Offer. 252.215... Clauses 252.215-7008 Only One Offer. As prescribed at 215.408(4), use the following provision: Only One Offer (JUN 2012) (a) The provision at FAR 52.215-20, Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Qualified offers. (a) In general. Section 7430(c)(4)(E) (the qualified offer rule) provides that a party to... qualified offer of the party as defined in section 7430(g). For purposes of this section, the term judgment... determination in the court proceeding. In making the comparison between the liability under the qualified...

  12. 46 CFR 502.152 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 502.152 Section 502.152 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.152 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the...

  13. The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The high voltage solar array offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. Conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT 2 experience are discussed and the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT 2 thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are reported. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

  14. Comparing the level of dexterity offered by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Jo; Bennett, Allan

    2006-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of latex allergy has been concurrent with the increasing use of latex gloves by laboratory and healthcare workers. In recent years nitrile gloves have been used to replace latex gloves to prevent latex allergy. Nitrile gloves offer a comparable level of protection against chemical and biological agents and are more puncture resistant. However, if manual dexterity is compromised by nitrile gloves to a greater degree than latex then this may increase the risk of sharps injuries. The Purdue pegboard test, which measures both gross and fine finger dexterity, was used to test the dexterity levels of two glove types used at HPA CEPR; Kimberly-Clark SafeSkin nitrile and latex laboratory gloves. There was a statistically significant 8.6% increase in fine finger dexterity provided by latex compared with nitrile SafeSkin laboratory gloves but no difference in gross dexterity between the glove types. There was no significant relationship between glove dexterity and age or gender. The selection of glove size was influenced by the digit length of participants. Moreover, those with longer, thinner fingers appeared to have an advantage when using nitrile SafeSkin gloves. The level of dexterity provided by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves for tasks on a gross dexterity level are comparable and health workers will benefit from the non-allergenic properties of nitrile. For tasks requiring fine finger dexterity nitrile SafeSkin gloves may impede dexterity. Despite this, the degree of restriction appears to have a negligible impact on safety in this study when compared with the risk of latex sensitization and subsequent allergy. In addition to glove material, working practices must also take into account glove size, fit, grip and thickness, as these factors can all influence dexterity. PMID:16357028

  15. A greener, efficient approach to Michael addition of barbituric acid to nitroalkene in aqueous diethylamine medium.

    PubMed

    Al-Najjar, Hany J; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Weber, Manuel; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a-t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a-k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. PMID:24445342

  16. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Israël, Maurice; Schwartz, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase). 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  17. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  18. 17 CFR 230.506 - Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering. 230.506 Section 230.506 Commodity and... Securities Act of 1933 § 230.506 Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount...

  19. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  20. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created by temperature difference between injected fluid and the host formation, may be particularly important for reservoir stability in high-temperature offshore locations. Overall, unconventional reservoirs in offshore locations offer the potential benefits of vast and safe storage for captured CO2 emissions.

  1. Knee arthoplasty: recently developed ceramics offer new solutions.

    PubMed

    Heimke, Günther; Leyen, Stefan; Willmann, Gerd

    2002-04-01

    Knee arthroplasty has reached a high degree of reliability. Many of the remaining long-term loosening cases are due to the polyethylene wear debris. The introduction of the alumina ceramic to polyethylene bearing couple had been a promising means for its reduction. The discussion of its applications in total knee replacements shows the possibilities and limitations of this bearing couple. The complete avoidance of the polyethylene debris can be expected from the articulation of alumina ceramic against itself, as long-term follow-up studies of total hip replacements clearly indicate. However, this combination can only be considered with a design of the prostheses in which any incongruity of the articulating surfaces can be excluded. As this necessitates the introduction of an additional component into the relatively narrow space between the femoral condyle and the tibia replacement, a further condition is the availability of a material which, whilst maintaining the tribological advantages of the alumina ceramic, has a much higher mechanical strength than the medical grade alumina ceramic available before. As the specifications of a recently developed modification of an alumina ceramic are in the desired range, with an improvement by a factor of two for nearly all relevant properties, a total knee replacement in which all articulating surfaces are in complete congruity and consist of this extremely wear resistant modified alumina ceramic could be designed, manufactured, and tentatively implanted in a human cadaver knee. PMID:11922460

  2. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  3. Offering Global Collaboration Services beyond CERN and HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, J.; Ferreira, P.; Baron, T.

    2015-12-01

    The CERN IT department has built over the years a performant and integrated ecosystem of collaboration tools, from videoconference and webcast services to event management software. These services have been designed and evolved in very close collaboration with the various communities surrounding the laboratory and have been massively adopted by CERN users. To cope with this very heavy usage, global infrastructures have been deployed which take full advantage of CERN's international and global nature. If these services and tools are instrumental in enabling the worldwide collaboration which generates major HEP breakthroughs, they would certainly also benefit other sectors of science in which globalization has already taken place. Some of these services are driven by commercial software (Vidyo or Wowza for example), some others have been developed internally and have already been made available to the world as Open Source Software in line with CERN's spirit and mission. Indico for example is now installed in 100+ institutes worldwide. But providing the software is often not enough and institutes, collaborations and project teams do not always possess the expertise, or human or material resources that are needed to set up and maintain such services. Regional and national institutions have to answer needs, which are growingly global and often contradict their operational capabilities or organizational mandate and so are looking at existing worldwide service offers such as CERN's. We believe that the accumulated experience obtained through the operation of a large scale worldwide collaboration service combined with CERN's global network and its recently- deployed Agile Infrastructure would allow the Organization to set up and operate collaborative services, such as Indico and Vidyo, at a much larger scale and on behalf of worldwide research and education institutions and thus answer these pressing demands while optimizing resources at a global level. Such services would be built over a robust and massively scalable Indico server to which the concept of communities would be added, and which would then serve as a hub for accessing other collaboration services such as Vidyo, on the same simple and successful model currently in place for CERN users. This talk will describe this vision, its benefits and the steps that have already been taken to make it come to life.

  4. Employer Health Insurance Offerings and Employee Enrollment Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; Stein, Rebecca; Nicholson, Sean; Bundorf, M Kate

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine how the characteristics of the health benefits offered by employers affect worker insurance coverage decisions. Data Sources The 1996–1997 and the 1998–1999 rounds of the nationally representative Community Tracking Study Household Survey. Study Design We use multinomial logistic regression to analyze the choice between own-employer coverage, alternative source coverage, and no coverage among employees offered health insurance by their employer. The key explanatory variables are the types of health plans offered and the net premium offered. The models include controls for personal, health plan, and job characteristics. Principal Findings When an employer offers only a health maintenance organization married employees are more likely to decline coverage from their employer and take-up another offer (odds ratio (OR)=1.27, p<.001), while singles are more likely to accept the coverage offered by their employer and less likely to be uninsured (OR=0.650, p<.001). Higher net premiums increase the odds of declining the coverage offered by an employer and remaining uninsured for both married (OR=1.023, p<.01) and single (OR=1.035, p<.001) workers. Conclusions The type of health plan coverage an employer offers affects whether its employees take-up insurance, but has a smaller effect on overall coverage rates for workers and their families because of the availability of alternative sources of coverage. Relative to offering only a non-HMO plan, employers offering only an HMO may reduce take-up among those with alternative sources of coverage, but increase take-up among those who would otherwise go uninsured. By modeling the possibility of take-up through the health insurance offers from the employer of the spouse, the decline in coverage rates from higher net premiums is less than previous estimates. PMID:16174133

  5. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion and surface modifications using bifunctional crosslinkers are presented with advantages, drawbacks and a general outlook.

  6. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following... and surveying, air carrier operations, aircraft sales and services, sale of aviation...

  7. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  8. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  9. Three Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advantages and Advances

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich data sets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. PMID:20542136

  10. The development and advantages of helium ion microscopy for the study of block copolymer nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan P.; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Leeson, Michael; Morris, Mick A.

    2015-03-01

    Helium ion microscopy (HIM) has been used to study nanopatterns formed in block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Owing to its' small spot size, minimal forward scattering of the incident ion and reduced velocity compared to electrons of comparable energy, HIM has considerable advantages and provides pattern information and resolution not attainable with other commercial microscopic techniques. In order to realize the full potential of BCP nanolithography in producing high density ultra-small features, the dimensions and geometry of these BCP materials will need to be accurately characterized through pattern formation, development and pattern transfer processes. The preferred BCP pattern inspection techniques (to date) are principally atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary electron microscopy (SEM) but suffer disadvantages in poor lateral resolution (AFM) and the ability to discriminate individual polymer domains (SEM). SEM suffers from reduced resolution when a more surface sensitive low accelerating voltage is used and low surface signal when a high accelerating voltage is used. In addition to these drawbacks, SEM can require the use of a conductive coating on these insulating materials and this reduces surface detail as well as increasing the dimensions of coated features. AFM is limited by the dimensions of the probe tip and a skewing of lateral dimension results. This can be eliminated through basic geometry for large sparse features, but when dense small features need to be characterized AFM lacks reliability. With this in mind, BCP inspection by HIM can offer greater insight into block ordering, critical dimensions and, critically, line edge roughness (LER) a critical parameter whose measurement is well suited to HIM because of its' enhanced edge contrast. In this work we demonstrate the resolution capabilities of HIM using various BCP systems (lamellar and cylinder structures). Imaging of BCP patterns of low molecular weight (MW)/low feature size which challenges the resolution of HIM technique. Further, studies of BCP patterns with domains of similar chemistry will be presented demonstrating the superior chemical contrast compared to SEM. From the data, HIM excels as a BCP inspection tool in four distinct areas. Firstly, HIM offers higher resolution at standard imaging conditions than SEM. Secondly, the signal generated from He+ is more surface sensitive and enables visualization of features that cannot be resolved using SEM. Thirdly; superior chemical contrast enables the imaging of un etched samples with almost identical chemical composition. Finally, dimensional measurement accuracy is high and consistent with requirements for advanced lithographic masks.

  11. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

  14. 40 CFR 303.32 - Pre-payment offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-payment offers. 303.32 Section 303.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... SUPERFUND Criteria for Payment of Award § 303.32 Pre-payment offers. Prior to the actual payment of an...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  16. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  17. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1410.31 Section 1410.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.31 Acceptability of offers. (a) Except as provided...

  18. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The... provide veterinary services under the VMLRP. As part of the offer, successful VMLRP applicants will...

  19. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to

  20. NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

  1. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  2. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  7. Current Offerings in Automated Authority Control: A Survey of Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sarah Hager

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of library systems and software vendors that examined the sources, management, and use of authority records in their systems and the functions of an authority control module within an integrated system. Several tables and graphs offer summaries and comparisons of vendors' offerings and capabilities. The questionnaire used is…

  8. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  9. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  10. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  11. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  12. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  13. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  14. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  15. 77 FR 18707 - USPS Package Intercept-New Product Offerings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... 111 USPS Package Intercept--New Product Offerings AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule with... Offerings''. Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Key at 202-268-7492 or.... The Postal Service proposes to implement the second phase of the program on June 24, 2012, by...

  16. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  17. 31 CFR 346.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 346.0 Section 346... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended, and pursuant to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974,...

  18. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  19. 7 CFR 58.5 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 58.5 Section 58.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Grading Service § 58.5 Where service is offered. Subject to the provisions of this part, inspection...

  20. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner...

  1. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner...

  2. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner...

  3. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner...

  4. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  5. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  6. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  7. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  8. Assuring Quality in Online Offerings: Insights from a University's Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Heather L.; Hall, Michelle; Longman, Debbie G.

    2015-01-01

    As the growth of online education offered by universities accelerates and spreads, universities are increasingly grappling with concerns related to widespread availability and the maintenance of academic quality. The "Quality Matters at Southeastern" Program fosters quality through a peer review process and offers a certification process…

  9. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transportation Adjudications § 406.155 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling...

  10. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended, offers to borrowers from the...

  11. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended, offers to borrowers from the...

  12. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  13. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  14. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  15. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  16. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  17. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  18. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  19. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is offered. Products will be... be provided in any other area which is not covered by a cooperative agreement if the...

  1. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Simplified Lease Acquisition Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a)...

  2. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 563g.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  3. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  4. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Simplified Lease Acquisition Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a)...

  5. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  6. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-71 Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in...

  7. 12 CFR 197.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 197.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  8. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Simplified Lease Acquisition Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a)...

  9. 12 CFR 390.411 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No State savings association shall offer or sell, directly or... of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  10. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obligation under § 655.105(g), an employer must offer a wage rate that is the highest of the AEWR in effect..., except where specifically exempted from this requirement by these regulations. (c) Validity of wage rate.... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer....

  11. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  12. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 563g.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  13. 12 CFR 390.411 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No State savings association shall offer or sell, directly or... of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  14. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obligation under § 655.105(g), an employer must offer a wage rate that is the highest of the AEWR in effect..., except where specifically exempted from this requirement by these regulations. (c) Validity of wage rate.... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer....

  15. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-71 Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in...

  16. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note: Compliance...

  17. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 563g.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  18. 12 CFR 197.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 197.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  19. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  20. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  1. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  2. 12 CFR 390.411 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No State savings association shall offer or sell, directly or... of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  3. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  4. 12 CFR 197.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 197.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  5. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  6. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 563g.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly... requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135) under the Securities Act; (2) Subsequent to filing an... transmitted to any person which satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 134 (17 CFR 230.134) under...

  7. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Simplified Lease Acquisition Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a)...

  8. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  9. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-71 Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in...

  10. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-71 Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in...

  11. 45 CFR 30.25 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Further review of compromise offers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.25 Further review of compromise offers. If the Secretary is uncertain whether...

  12. 45 CFR 30.25 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Further review of compromise offers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.25 Further review of compromise offers. If the Secretary is uncertain whether...

  13. 45 CFR 30.25 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Further review of compromise offers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.25 Further review of compromise offers. If the Secretary is uncertain whether...

  14. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  15. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offer its securities for sale through that notice if: (1) Legend. The notice includes a statement to the effect that it does not constitute an offer of any securities for sale; and (2) Limited notice content... subscribe; (2) The subscription ratio and expected subscription price; (3) The proposed record date; (4)...

  16. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offer its securities for sale through that notice if: (1) Legend. The notice includes a statement to the effect that it does not constitute an offer of any securities for sale; and (2) Limited notice content... subscribe; (2) The subscription ratio and expected subscription price; (3) The proposed record date; (4)...

  17. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a "good-enough" processing strategy in which a "shallow" representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a "deep" (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep-grammatical-operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow-extra-grammatical-operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow-deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  18. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital. PMID:22184876

  19. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  20. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.