Sample records for offer additional advantages

  1. Tetherless ROV offers major advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Tethers supply the current generation of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) with power, navigational commands and data links. The power required by ROVs to carry long tethers increases rapidly in proportion to depth, and additionally, snagging on subsea obstacles is very common. A technical advancement could come with the development of autonomous subsea vehicles with onboard power and an acoustic, rather than hard wire, data link to the surface. Important research in this area presently is being conducted at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University. The feasibility of the system is discussed.

  2. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages By C.L. MAX NIKIAS Prestigious intellectual and physical community, a place where core academic values such as intellectual freedom.5-trillion. The predictions for Japan and Germany's GDP's were reasonably accurate, but America's grew to $13

  3. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D. [Engelhard Corp., Warwick, RI (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  4. [Does 5-methyltetrahydrofolate offer any advantage over folic acid?].

    PubMed

    Leemans, L

    2012-12-01

    Almost half of the women do not follow the guidelines around folate suppletion before and during pregnancy, despite the proven benefit in the prevention of neural tube defects, miscarriages and premature births. The Belgian Superior Health Council recommends a minimum of 400 micrograms of folic acid or folate suppletion per day from 4 weeks before conception to 8 weeks thereafter. Many studies point to the importance of a wider intake period, more particularly at least 3 months before conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. In high-risk women 4 mg is recommended until after the first 3 months of pregnancy. Afterwards the usual dose of 400 micrograms is sufficient. About half of the European population appears to have a gene mutation on the gene coding for the production of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the enzyme that is involved in the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is, in his turn, responsible for the conversion of the toxic homocysteine in methionine. Women with such a gene polymorphism have a significantly higher risk to have a miscarriage or a baby with neural tube defects. For this reason, a search for an alternative form of synthetic folic acid supplement "pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PMG)" was conducted, particularly the calcium salt of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (Metafolin). This offers the possibility to deliver the reduced folate immediately, which no longer needs to be converted by the reductase enzyme. Furthermore, this avoids free PMG in the circulation, lowers the risk for drug interactions and a vitamin B2 deficiency will not be masked. Despite clear guidelines regarding dietary supplements before and during pregnancy, their implementation is poor. Not only gynecologists but also GPs and pharmacists, should make more efforts to provide women of childbearing age with personal information. Especially risk groups such as adolescents, low-skilled or less well-off women and immigrants deserve special attention. PMID:23350208

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Prepayment Audits of Transportation Services...

  6. Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional teaching

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional, mail sent to students should be addressed to Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, PO Box 5389 to Coos Bay. For More Information Oregon Institute of Marine Biology PO Box 5389, Charleston OR 97420

  7. Abstract--In this paper, we quantitatively assess the advantages offered by thick liquid wall (LW) concepts over

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    .) and is compared to a thick liquid lithium with peak neutron wall load of 10 MW/m2 (7 MW/m2 ave.). "Fixed Radii), the same thick liquid lithium FW is placed in a compact machine with plasma and FW radii reducedAbstract--In this paper, we quantitatively assess the advantages offered by thick liquid wall (LW

  8. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering, management. and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboratioi is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of cLul+sent programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example. major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities. produce highly visible achievements. and appeal to a11 additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  9. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering. management, and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboration is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of current programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example, major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities, produce highly visible achievements, and appeal to an additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  10. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  11. Increased flexibility in the delivery of ultrapure water The Milli-Q Advantage system offers flexibility in the quality and delivery of various ultrapure

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Increased flexibility in the delivery of ultrapure water The Milli-Q® Advantage system offers purification system that responds to all these needs.This system includes a main water purifica- tion unit and allow the automatic delivery of a selected water volume. Main purification unit The main purification

  12. 50-Plus Ways to Be Water Smart 1. If your local water utility offers water-saving incentives or in-home water audits, take advantage

    E-print Network

    50-Plus Ways to Be Water Smart BEHAVIORS 1. If your local water utility offers water-saving incentives or in-home water audits, take advantage of these programs. 2. Don't let water run while brushing your teeth, washing your face, or shaving. 3. Never pour water down the drain when there may be another

  13. Hope versus hype: what can additive manufacturing realistically offer trauma and orthopedic surgery?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, David M R; Vaezi, Mohammad; Yang, Shoufeng; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a broad term encompassing 3D printing and several other varieties of material processing, which involve computer-directed layer-by-layer synthesis of materials. As the popularity of AM increases, so to do expectations of the medical therapies this process may offer. Clinical requirements and limitations of current treatment strategies in bone grafting, spinal arthrodesis, osteochondral injury and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection are discussed. The various approaches to AM are described, and the current state of clinical translation of AM across these orthopedic clinical scenarios is assessed. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between what AM may offer orthopedic surgery from the hype of what has been promised by AM. PMID:25159068

  14. DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

  15. Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

  16. Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses are offered through the department, serving close a physically active lifestyle is paramount to your health and we strongly encourage all students to adopt

  17. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432...be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions...securities to be offered in connection with a tender offer for, or a request or...

  18. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ?2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output. PMID:21777052

  19. Multilingualism and the Year Abroad: Additional factors to be considered when investigating the 'Bilingual Advantage' in young adults. 

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Laurie

    and had not been on a Year Abroad, with the addition of a second monolingual group. Many of the bilingual students used also had fluency in more than 2 languages, and so finally, those with two, three and four languages were compared on cognitive function...

  20. The University of Kentucky Libraries offers students many services all around campus. In addition to the William T. Young Library (which

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    38 C Libraries The University of Kentucky Libraries offers students many services all around campus. In addition to the William T. Young Library (which is open 24 hours during the school year), the library has operations in many of the colleges. Once your student ID is validated by the library, you can use it at any

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Second-order advantage obtained from standard addition first-order instrumental data and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Calculation of the feasible bands of results.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Naimeh; Bahram, Morteza; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2014-03-25

    In order to achieve the second-order advantage, second-order data per sample is usually required, e.g., kinetic-spectrophotometric data. In this study, instead of monitoring the time evolution of spectra (and collecting the kinetic-spectrophotometric data) replicate spectra are used to build a virtual second order data. This data matrix (replicate mode×?) is rank deficient. Augmentation of these data with standard addition data [or standard sample(s)] will break the rank deficiency, making the quantification of the analyte of interest possible. The MCR-ALS algorithm was applied for the resolution and quantitation of the analyte in both simulated and experimental data sets. In order to evaluate the rotational ambiguity in the retrieved solutions, the MCR-BANDS algorithm was employed. It has been shown that the reliability of the quantitative results significantly depends on the amount of spectral overlap in the spectral region of occurrence of the compound of interest and the remaining constituent(s). PMID:24370937

  3. Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hoffmann

    2011-08-09

    We will practice adding! Practice with Fribbit! Fribbit Addition Help the pirate add his marbles. Pirate Marble Addition Help the whale get to freedom! Save the Whale Catch the correct sum! Fish Addish Balance the sides of the equal sign. Balance Equations ...

  4. Providing patients with pharmacogenetic test results affects adherence to statin therapy: results of the Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins (AKROBATS) trial.

    PubMed

    Charland, S L; Agatep, B C; Herrera, V; Schrader, B; Frueh, F W; Ryvkin, M; Shabbeer, J; Devlin, J J; Superko, H R; Stanek, E J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of statin therapy and the numerous strategies used to improve adherence, no strategy has used direct communication of genetic test results to the patient as an adherence and persistence motivator. We investigated in a real-world setting the effect of a process of providing KIF6 test results and risk information directly to 647 tested patients on 6-month statin adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)) and persistence compared with concurrent non-tested matched controls. Adjusted 6-month statin PDC was significantly greater in tested patients: 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.82) vs controls 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), P<0.0001. Significantly more tested patients were adherent (PDC?0.80) (63.4% (59.6-67.1%) vs 45.0% (41.1-48.8%), P<0.0001) and persisted on therapy (69.1% (65.4-72.5%) vs 53.3% (49.4-57.1%), P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in a secondary comparison with 779 unmatched patients who declined testing. The Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins trial provides the first evidence that pharmacogenetic testing may modify patient adherence. PMID:23979174

  5. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

  6. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  7. The Power of Mechanical Advantage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students learn about the mechanical advantage offered by pulleys in an interactive and game-like manner. By virtue of the activity's mechatronic presentation, they learn to study a mechanical system not as a static image, but rather as a dynamic system that is under their control. Using a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® robotics platform and common hardware items, students build a mechanized elevator system. The ability to control different parameters (such as motor power, testing load and pulley arrangement) enables the teacher, as well as the students, to emphasize and reinforce particular aspects/effects of mechanical advantage.

  8. The advantages of biodegradation of cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Jim

    1989-12-01

    The biodegradation of cyanides and the biosorption of toxic metals from mining process effluents are proven technologies which offer many advantages over chemical treatment methods. These advantages include cost effectiveness, treatment performance, resistance to upset, low sludge production, metals removal and recovery, flexible design characteristics, compatibility with effluent-receiving streams and the capability for self-regulation with changing process conditions.

  9. Vertical Comparative Advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard C. Beaudreau

    2011-01-01

    Despite being the cornerstone of trade theory, the concept of comparative advantage remains an empirically and operationally weak concept. Typically invoked as the rationale for and of trade proper, comparative advantage is rarely ever described in any detail, let alone measured and tested. This article examines the “problem” of comparative advantage and explores alternatives. Specifically, in light of recent findings

  10. Deciding Advantageously Before Knowing the Advantageous Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bechara; Hanna Damasio; Daniel Tranel; Antonio R. Damasio

    1997-01-01

    Deciding advantageously in a complex situation is thought to require overt reasoning on declarative knowledge, namely, on facts pertaining to premises, options for action, and outcomes of actions that embody the pertinent previous experience. An alternative pos- sibility was investigated: that overt reasoning is preceded by a nonconscious biasing step that uses neural systems other than those that support declarative

  11. Simple Machines - Mechanical Advantage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This video uses working simple machines to demonstrate how to calculate mechanical advantage. Suitable for any school program involving simple machines. Demonstrates pulley systems including a chain block.

  12. Government offers sterilization incentive.

    PubMed

    The government has decided to offer an additional incentive to its employes who volunteer for sterilization, it was reported on December 23 (pop, 5955). Volunteers, who have to be below 50 years in the case of men and below 45 in the case of women, will pay .5% less interest on housebuilding loans, besides receiving the usual bonus of Rs. 75 for every sterilization. PMID:12261548

  13. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description to fill current Trooper positions, with potential additional opportunities during ones' career job postingsDescription of positions vary www.nh.gov Law Enforcement Company Overview: Degree: Unpaid

  14. Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schnepp, Katie

    This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  15. Competitive Product Advantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Eliza Micu; Adrian Micu

    2006-01-01

    Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical inte¬gration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a

  16. Community College Advantages: The Roles of Accreditation with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges offer many advantages over other types of institutions, financially and educationally. This article will explore some of those advantages, including comparisons to other types of institutions. A brief introduction to accreditation will contextualize how community colleges have advantages of certain institutions. Lastly,…

  17. Vegetarian Diets: What Are the Advantages?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Leitzmann

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since

  18. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  19. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  20. Investigating Home Court Advantage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nettleton, Dan

    This article, created by Dan Nettleton of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, presents data from 1997 Big Ten Conference men's basketball games involving the University of Iowa Hawkeyes. These games are analyzed in a series of scatterplots which are accompanied by bivariate statistical inference. Additionally, the data can be used to represent inference techniques such as confidence regions, paired comparisons, and simultaneous confidence intervals. This is a great activity for a sports fan wanting to learn more about the statistics attached to his or her favorite sport.

  1. The Advantages and Disadvantages of

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Health Records Electronic health records. Research has shown that the potential benefits of EHRs are tremendous. With electronic health records picked 6 articles that included recommendations, advantages, and disadvantages of electronic health

  2. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  3. Technology Offer Oxidized Phospholipids -

    E-print Network

    Technology Offer Oxidized Phospholipids - The new Promise in Skin Cancer Keywords Skin cancer Lipid apoptosis in cultured skin cancer cells but affect "healthy" melanocytes and keratinocytes to a much lesser for the treatment of various types of skin cancer and skin cancer precursors as well as other malignant tumors. 3

  4. Sport Management Academic Offerings

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    and hospitality management; organizational theory; sport law and legal operations management; technology and Hospitality Management 3 Y Theoretical and practical principles and procedures for designing, planningSport Management Academic Offerings M.S. In Sport Venue And Event Management GRADUATE John Wolohan

  5. RACE'' TO PROBE WHITE ADVANTAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camara Phyllis Jones; Benedict I. Truman; Laurie D. Elam-Evans; Camille A. Jones; Clara Y. Jones; Ruth Jiles; Susan F. Rumisha; Geraldine S. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: We explore the relationships be­ tween socially assigned race (''How do other people usually classify you in this country?''), self- identified race\\/ethnicity, and excellent or very good general health status. We then take advantage of subgroups which are discordant on self-identified race\\/ethnicity and socially assigned race to examine whether being classified by others as White conveys an advantage in

  6. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  7. Undergraduate offer guide

    E-print Network

    Kourtzi, Zoe

    COnGrATUlATIOnS On rECEIvInG An OffEr frOm THE UnIvErSITY Of BIrmInGHAm! I Am DElIGHTED THAT YOUS Of YOUr lIfE THAT lITTlE BIT EASIEr. WE ArE DElIGHTED THAT YOU ArE COnSIDErInG BIrmInGHAm, AnD HOpE TO GIv­14. An outstanding performance in this year's rankings has led to the University of Birmingham claiming

  8. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Center Liberty Mutual Insurance Bachelors Liberty Mutual offers entry level positions into 9 different functions. Each position differents depending on the specific function Liberty Mutual offers entry level

  9. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as ?seek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  10. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as ?seek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  11. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia Sparavigna

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and

  12. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  13. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  14. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  15. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  16. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden.

  17. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    E-print Network

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

  18. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description.gza.com, to view a listing of current open positions. Resumes may also be sent to humanresources@gza.com GZA

  19. Selective advantage for conservative viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Yisroel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2005-03-01

    In this article we study the full semiconservative treatment of a model for the coevolution of a virus and an adaptive immune system. Regions of viability are calculated for both conservatively and semiconservatively replicating viruses interacting with a realistic semiconservatively replicating immune system. The conservative virus is found to have a selective advantage in the form of an ability to survive in regions with a wider range of mutation rates than its semiconservative counterpart, as well as an increased replication rate where both species can survive. This may help explain the existence of a rich range of viruses with conservatively replicating genomes, a trait that is found nowhere else in nature.

  20. Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

  1. Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects. PMID:24049878

  2. [Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

  3. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  4. Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees

    E-print Network

    Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees Make the Most of a Beneficial Facility Visual *$10.00/sample non-Jefferson County resident Identification of plants: o $2.00 per species o $5.00 per species non-Jefferson County resident o Maximum of 10 plants per person * Additional $3.00 surcharge per

  5. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    E-print Network

    Harry Buhrman; Lukasz Czekaj; Andrzej Grudka; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Marcin Markiewicz; Florian Speelman; Sergii Strelchuk

    2015-02-03

    We obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  6. Advantages of holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reicherter, Marcus; Liesener, Jan; Haist, Tobias; Tiziani, Hans J.

    2003-10-01

    In the last decade optical tweezers became an important tool in microbiology. However, the setup becomes very complex if more than one trap needs to be moved. Holographic tweezers offer a very simple and cost efficient way of manipulating several traps independently in all three dimensions with an accuracy of less 100 nm. No mechanically moving parts are used therefore making them less vulnerable to vibration. They use computer-generated holograms (CGHs) written into a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the position of each trap in space and to manipulate their shape. The ability to change the shape of the optical trap makes it possible to adapt the light field to a specific particle shape or in the case of force measurements to adjust the trapping potential. Furthermore the SLM can be used to correct for aberrations within the optical setup.

  7. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  8. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  9. Addition Fun!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Bingham

    2007-11-27

    Students will have the opportunity to practice their additions skills through a variety of addition games. To practice addition, click Memory Addition! Race the clock while learning your addition facts. Click on Flashcard Races. For this last game, come and get me so I can watch and check you addition skills! Click Last Game! ...

  10. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    : Software Engineer (embedded systems), Java Developer, SAP techno/functional analyst, Web Developer, Systems -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Software Engineer, Web Developer, Network Administrator, Systems Engineer, SoftwareCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description

  11. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description's easy to see you'll be a manager at this multibillion dollar industry leader some day. At Enterprise you't be a glorified gopher getting coffee or filing all day. Our interns go at the same energized pace and take

  12. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    decision-making skills -Assertiveness and initiative -Team-oriented thinking -Ability to communicateCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Target Bachelors, Masters Use your business, leadership and people skills to inspire exceptional

  13. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:24504481

  14. Addition Facts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Felsted

    2010-04-12

    Play these addition games to review your addition facts. 1. First, to review of your addition facts you will practice them by using these flashcards. Flashcards After you review your addition facts by using the flashcards, you get to play some addition games! Try your hardest and have fun! 2. Play this addition fishing game Addition Fishing Game 3. Next you get to practice your ...

  15. ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

  16. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Revised April 2014 Medicare offers prescription drug ... Medicare, and can be added to a Medicare Cost Plan, a Medical Savings Account (MSA) Plan, and ...

  17. Amazing Addition!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Staggs

    2008-04-01

    Math can be fun! Practice your addtion facts in one of these amazing games! Go on a mission with math! -- Addition Mission Count your apples! -- Apple Addition Be a math teacher! -- Chalkboard Addition ...

  18. Identification of flame retarding organic alkali metal salt additives in polycarbonate by flow injection electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wold; Robert van de Grampel

    2009-01-01

    Three commonly used flame retarding organic alkali metal salt additives in polycarbonate, potassium diphenylsulfone sulfonate, potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate and p-toluenesulfonic acid sodium salt could be simultaneously, quickly and conveniently identified in a polycarbonate sample by utilizing electrospray ion trap mass spectroscopy detection in flow injection mode after dissolution and precipitation of the polymer. The resulting method offered advantages of speed,

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Email Alerts for Family Physicians: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hani; Grad, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. Objective The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants’ suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the “Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior” model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. Results All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. Conclusions The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts. PMID:25803184

  20. Comparing Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency of Pulleys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shelly Leatham

    This lab activity is designed to allow students to experience what an increase in mechanical advantage means. Students determine the mechanical advantage of three pulley set-ups. Students also measure the work input and output, then calculate the efficiency. Finally, students determine the relationship between the mechanical advantage and the efficiency of the pulleys.

  1. Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Barney

    1991-01-01

    Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed acrossfirms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link betweenfirm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value,

  2. Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.

    PubMed

    Pointer, D D

    1990-01-01

    One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

  3. Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst

    E-print Network

    Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst For further information please contact 316 873 5432, bereuter@tugraz.at, www.ipr.tugraz.at Advantages No metal leaching into the product-coupling reactions Overview The present invention relates to non-leaching Pd-catalysts for C-C, C-O or C-N couplings

  4. Effectiveness studies: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, so-called “effectiveness studies,” also called “real-world studies” or “pragmatic trials, ” have gained increasing importance in the context of evidencebased medicine. These studies follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedication, and other design issues, and their results should therefore be better generalizable than those of phase III trials. Effectiveness studies, like other types of phase IV studies, can therefore contribute to knowledge about medications and supply relevant information in addition to that gained from phase III trials. However, the less restrictive design and inherent methodological problems of phase IV studies have to be carefully considered. For example, the greater variance caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues, such as insensitive primary outcome criteria, unblinded treatment conditions, inclusion of chronic refractory patients, etc, can lead to wrong conclusions. Due to these methodological problems, effectiveness studies are on a principally lower level of evidence, adding only a complementary view to the results of phase III trials without falsifying their results. PMID:21842617

  5. Amazing Addition!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bolton

    2009-04-22

    I want you to practice your awesome addition skills on the websites below. I know you will do beautifully! Start by going to this website first: Addition Fun!!! Once you finish that website you may continue onto this website: Alien Addition If you have extra time play Around the World Addition: Once you have clicked on the link, click on the button for addition.After that you can choose to play on easy or ...

  6. bulletin 2012 1 DEGREES OFFERED

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    and Cybersecurity, Forensic Mental Health Counseling, Forensic Psychology, Forensic Science, International Crime COUNSELING (MA) FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY (MA) FORENSIC SCIENCE (MS) INTERNATIONAL CRIME AND JUSTICE (MA of our graduate class offerings. Our master's degree programs in Criminal Justice, Digital Forensics

  7. Mice Offer Lessons on Aging

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Krotz, Dan.

    2003-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Science Beat offers interesting feature articles about research from Berkeley lab and partner organizations. This article offers a fascinating look at aging research utilizing transgenic mice -- an inquiry into "the genetic roots of aging in everyone." The article includes Web links to related material from the institutions participating in these research projects, as well as links to academic articles from the journal Science (not available without paid subscription).

  8. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  9. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  10. High Speed Decimal Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Schmookler; A. Weinberger

    1971-01-01

    Parallel decimal arithmetic capability is becoming increasingly attractive with new applications of computers in a multi-programming environment. The direct production of decimal sums offers a significant improvement in addition over methods requiring decimal correction. These techniques are illustrated in the eight-digit adder which appears in the System\\/360 Model 195.

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePLUS

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and groundwood papers for publishers, catalogers, advertisers and commercial print producers. Verso Paper Corp. offers a wide array of products which allows us to creatively address any challenge our customers are facing in their business and help them remain competitive. Verso's customer service team is located

  14. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  15. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  16. Water Pollution Control courses offered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

  17. Wellness Offerings September 17, 2009

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    .S. Preventive Medicine !" !" ! ! ! ! ! ! !" ! Kaiser ! Uses Health Media to run HRA and online health coachingWellness Offerings September 17, 2009 Vendor Health Risk Assessment Online Content and Decision Tools Telephonic Health Coaching On-site Health Coaching Biometric Screening On-site Health Promotion

  18. Naval Science Degrees Offered: none

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    (ROTC) program as scholarship or nonscholarship students. Sophomores may apply for the optional two offered by Rice,with a minor in Naval Science.Financial aid may be available to a Navy ROTC student pertaining to that degree.For further details on ROTC programs at Rice,see page 27.Program requirements

  19. Naval Science Degrees Offered: none

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    (ROTC) program as scholarship or nonscholarship students. Sophomores may apply for the optional two offered by Rice,with a minor in Naval Science.Financial aid may be available to a Navy ROTC student Navy ROTC students are appointed midshipmen,U.S.Naval Reserve,on a nationwide competitive basis

  20. Naval Science Degrees Offered: none

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    233 Naval Science Degrees Offered: none StudentsenrollintheNavyReserveOfficers'TrainingCorps(ROTC (junior year for 5- year Rice students), students may apply for the 2-year Navy ROTC pro- gram, competing of the regular Navy ROTC program. Successful completion of NSI qualifies students for enrollmentintheadvanced

  1. Cooperative pulses Technologieangebot /Technology offer

    E-print Network

    Cooperative pulses Technologieangebot /Technology offer Referenz /Reference 2010-04E04 Branche can be designed to compensate each other's imperfections. In multi-scan experiments, COOP pulses can spectroscopy. COOP pulses can also be applied at different times in a single scan. There, the performance

  2. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  3. Will Medicare Advantage Benchmark Reforms Impact Plan Rebates and Enrollment?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act payment reforms. Study Design and Methods First difference regressions of county-level Medicare Advantage payment and enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2006 – 2010. Results A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to Medicare Advantage plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point decrease in MA penetration (p < 0.001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (p < 0.001). Changes were markedly larger in counties with low levels of Traditional Medicare spending, a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. Affordable Care Act reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in low spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 2.7 percentage points in the lowest spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. Conclusions Medicare Advantage enrollment responds to the generosity of supplemental benefits available. MA plans in low-cost counties may have difficulty offering the supplemental benefits that attract enrollees even when benchmarks are set at levels well above Traditional Medicare spending if plans do not find ways to deliver standard Medicare benefits at lower cost. PMID:25495112

  4. Hierarchical molecular self-assemblies: construction and advantages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andong; Huang, Jianbin; Yan, Yun

    2014-05-21

    Hierarchical molecular self-assembly offers many exotic and complicated nanostructures which are of interest in nanotechnology and material science. In the past decade, various strategies leading to hierarchical molecular self-assemblies have been developed. In this review we summarize the recent advances in the creation and application of solution-based self-assembled nanostructures that involve more than one level of arrangement of building blocks. The strategies for construction hierarchical self-assembled structures and the advantages brought up by these assemblies are focused on. The following contents are included: (1) general approaches to fabricate hierarchical self-assembly, including self-assemblies based on supramolecules and specially designed block copolymers; (2) the advantages brought about by the hierarchical self-assembly, including the fabrication of special self-assembled structures, rich responsiveness to external stimuli, and the materials' performance. PMID:24806718

  5. SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION SARAH P. OTTO Department of Integrative Biology Abstract: Theory for the evolutionary properties of recombination is reviewed, both in terms of modi er mutant chromosome is advantageous, it will appear for the rst time faster with recombination than without

  6. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  7. THE SELECTIVE ADVANTAGE OF CRYPSIS IN MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha N. Vignieri; Joanna G. Larson; Hopi E. Hoekstra

    2010-01-01

    The light color of mice that inhabit the sandy dunes of Florida's coast have served as a textbook example of adaptation for nearly a century, despite the fact that the selective advantage of crypsis has never been directly tested or quantified in nature. Using plasticine mouse models of light and dark color, we demonstrate a strong selective advantage for mice

  8. Robustness of the sequential lineup advantage.

    PubMed

    Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A; Dailey, Sarah B; Goodsell, Charles A

    2009-06-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup advantages and 3 significant simultaneous advantages. Both sequential advantages occurred when the good photograph of the guilty suspect or either innocent suspect was in the fifth position in the sequential lineup; all 3 simultaneous advantages occurred when the poorer quality photograph of the guilty suspect or either innocent suspect was in the second position. Adjusting the statistical criterion to control for the multiple tests (.05/24) revealed no significant sequential advantages. Moreover, despite finding more conservative overall choosing for the sequential lineup, no support was found for the proposal that a sequential advantage was due to that conservative criterion shift. Unless lineups with particular characteristics predominate in the real world, there appears to be no strong preference for conducting lineups in either a sequential or a simultaneous manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19586253

  9. Cryptic Fitness Advantage: Diploids Invade Haploid Populations Despite Lacking Any Apparent Advantage as

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Cryptic Fitness Advantage: Diploids Invade Haploid Populations Despite Lacking Any Apparent Advantage as Measured by Standard Fitness Assays Aleeza C. Gerstein*, Sarah P. Otto Zoology Department. Surprisingly, none of our fitness component measures (lag phase, growth rate, biomass production) indicated

  10. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  11. Principles of Economics: understanding opportunity cost, comparative advantage, and absolute advantage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marcelo Clerici-Arias

    In principles of economics students many times have trouble understanding the concept of opportunity cost, connecting opportunity cost to comparative advantage, and differentiating between absolute advantage and comparative advantage. This activity allows the instructor to detect whether a large number of students exhibit any of these misconceptions, and then focus on the most problematic concepts in class.

  12. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R. [Oil Heat Management Services, Pawlet, VT (United States); Bately, J.E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  13. Color Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

  14. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  15. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Absolutely Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Korth

    2005-03-23

    Here are some fun games and activities to help with understanding and using addition. NUMBER LINE PRACTICE Begin with this fun game Line Jumper. Click on the medium level and complete all ten number line problems. When finished close the window and return to complete the next assignment. MR. BEAR\\'S CLOSET In this exciting activiy, Mr. Bear can\\'t decide what to wear. Can you help him? ...

  20. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    processes and procedures, and providing technical expertise/support to manufacturing. Additional tasks may with engineering tasks including participating in new product/process development, establishing manufacturing involvement, and product studies. www.tbvc.com Manufacturing Company Overview: Degree: Paid Fall, Spring

  1. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    of renewable, domestic energy resources Additionally, over the next year and a half, as directed by Senate Bill -- 12:00-4:00pm No The Office of Energy and Planning (OEP) is part of the Executive Department within assistance, and low-income home weatherization ?Promoting energy efficiency and reducing energy costs

  2. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    of the 15 largest commercial banks in the United States, and provides Customers with a full range registration with State Life & Health Insurance licensing. FSRs act in a dual role as FSR and Customer Service Representative (FSR) acts as an Insurance licensed employee, providing Customers with additional products

  3. On quantum advantage in dense coding

    E-print Network

    M. Horodecki; M. Piani

    2009-09-11

    The quantum advantage of dense coding is studied, considering general encoding quantum operations. Particular attention is devoted to the case of many senders, and it is shown that restrictions on the possible operations on the senders' side may make some quantum state useless for dense-coding. It is shown, e.g., that some states are useful for dense coding if the senders can communicate classically (but not quantumly), yet they cannot be used for dense coding, if classical communication is not allowed. These no-go results are actually independent of the particular quantification of the quantum advantage, being valid for any reasonable choice. It is further shown that the quantum advantage of dense coding satisfies a monogamy relation with the so-called entanglement of purification.

  4. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  5. Advantage 24 nonoxynol-9 product discussed at meeting. Contraception (spermicides).

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Columbia Laboratories, Inc., Miami, Florida, reported safety data on the spermicidal product Advantage 24 that show it is safe even when administered four times a day, according to data from the UN Global Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). The data were reported at a meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs, Reproductive Health Drugs, Anti-Infective Drugs, and Antiviral Drugs advisory committees of the US Food and Drug Administration. Because of its favorable safety profile, Advantage 24 was the only product that UNAIDS selected for testing to determine its effectiveness against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, in May 1996, Columbia Laboratories and UNAIDS announced the initiation of an international Phase III clinical study of Advantage 24 for the prevention of the heterosexual transmission of HIV and STDs in approximately 2000 women. Additionally, the NIH is performing similar testing in Africa. Advantage 24, which uses Columbia Laboratories' patented bioadhesive delivery system to deliver nonoxynol-9, currently is marketed in the US by Lake Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and in Canada by Roberts Pharmaceuticals, as a long-lasting, vaginally delivered spermicide, pursuant to strategic alliance agreements with Columbia Laboratories. PMID:12320493

  6. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  7. O11.2AG-221 offers a survival advantage in a primary human IDH2 mutant AML xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Yen, K; Wang, F; Travins, J; Chen, Y; Yang, H; Straley, K; Choe, S; Dorsch, M; Agresta, S; Schenkein, D; Biller, S; Su, M

    2015-03-01

    Somatic point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells resulting in the accumulation and secretion of an onco-metabolite, R (-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). High levels of 2HG have been shown to inhibit ?KG dependent dioxygenases including histone and DNA demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Recently, ex vivo treatment with AGI-6780, a potent IDH2 R140Q inhibitor induced cellular differentiation of leukemic blast cells isolated from primary human AML patient samples harboring an IDH2 R140Q mutation. These data provided the first evidence that inhibition of mutant IDH2 can reverse the block in cellular differentiation conferred by high levels of 2HG and could provide a therapeutic benefit to patients. AG-221 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the IDH2 mutant enzyme and is currently being evaluated in a first-in-human study entitled: A Phase 1, Multicenter, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation, Safety, Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Clinical Activity Study of Orally Administered AG-221 in Subjects with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies with an IDH2 Mutation. The compound has been demonstrated to reduce 2-HG levels by >90% and reverse histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hypermethylation in vitro, and to induce differentiation in leukemia cell models. We evaluated the efficacy of AG-221 in a primary human AML xenograft model carrying the IDH2 R140Q mutation. This is an aggressive model with mortality from AML consistently occurring by day 80, following tail vein engraftment. Results show that AG-221 is able to potently reduce 2HG found in the bone marrow, plasma and urine of engrafted mice. Treatment also induced a dose dependent, statistically significant, survival benefit where all mice in the high dose treatment group survived to the end of study. We also saw a dose dependent proliferative burst of the human specific CD45+ blast cells followed by cellular differentiation as measured by the expression of CD11b, CD14 and CD15 and cell morphology. Furthermore, the onset of differentiation correlated with survival, whereas mice that died in the low dose groups failed to show signs of cellular differentiation. These data provide strong preclinical in vivo evidence that AG-221 may have clinical benefit for IDH2 mutant patients through the reduction of 2HG and the induction of blast differentiation. PMID:25795817

  8. Operating agricultural equipment accurately can be difficult, tedious, or even hazardous. Automatic control offers many potential advantages over human

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    , a CDGPS-based steering control system was designed, simulated, and tested on a large farm tractor due to sensor limitations. Some control systems require cumbersome auxiliary guidance mechanisms-level code-differential techniques have been used for geographic information systems [5-7], driver

  9. Abstract--Space simulators offer engineers great advantages on studying space-related dynamic behavior without actually

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Evangelos

    of a reaction wheel further minimizes fuel consumption, increasing the useful life of a space robot. I space simulators, since the cost of a potential space mission is remarkable. On the other hand, safety obtained by the simulator cannot be directly applied to real- life space missions, since perturbations

  10. Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zipse

    1993-01-01

    The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

  11. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  12. Advantages of the color octet gluon picture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fritzsch; M. Gell-Mann; H. Leutwyler

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are several advantages in abstracting properties of hadrons and their currents from a Yang-Mills gauge model based on colored quarks and color octet gluons. On leave from Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern, Switzerland.

  13. Ace Cash Express Advantage Sales and Marketing

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    and Reynolds Company TopSpot Internet Marketing Trintech U.S. Air Force University of North Texas System USAAAce Cash Express Advantage Sales and Marketing AppFolio AT&T Atmos Energy, MDTX Div Automatic Data. CF Accountants & Consultants Chacon Autos ChildCare Careers Cisco Systems Con-way Multimodal Crowe

  14. Predicting the Future: Advantages of Semilocal Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hartman; James D. Keeler

    1991-01-01

    In investigating gaussian radial basis function (RBF) networks for their ability to model nonlinear time series, we have found that while RBF networks are much faster than standard sigmoid unit backpropagation for low-dimensional problems, their advantages diminish in high-dimensional input spaces. This is particularly troublesome if the input space contains irrelevant variables. We suggest that this limitation is due to

  15. Japan's Competitive Advantages in the Global Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Riew

    The paper analyzes Japan's competitive advantages in trade, comparing the nation with other industrialized countries. Paucity in resources, often mentioned in reference to Japan, we note, is overstated. Favorable climate and certain other aspects of the geography, for example, are unacclaimed but important bounties of nature. Relevant also in the context are such other factors as population, culture, and events

  16. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  17. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  18. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  19. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  20. THE RELATIONAL VIEW: COOPERATIVE STRATEGY AND SOURCES OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY H. DYER; HARBIR SINGH

    1998-01-01

    In this article we offer a view that suggests that a firm's critical resources may span firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis for understanding competitive advan- tage is the relationship between firms and identify four potential sources of interor- ganizational competitive advantage: (1) relation-specific assets, (2)

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of using artificial neural networks versus logistic regression for predicting medical outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack V. Tu

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are algorithms that can be used to perform nonlinear statistical modeling and provide a new alternative to logistic regression, the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for dichotomous outcomes in medicine. Neural networks offer a number of advantages, including requiring less formal statistical training, ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent

  2. Silicon carbide benefits and advantages for power electronics circuits and systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AHMED ELASSER; T. PAUL CHOW

    2002-01-01

    Silicon offers multiple advantages to power circuit designers, but at the same time suffers from limitations that are inherent to silicon material properties, such as low bandgap energy, low thermal conductivity, and switching frequency limitations. Wide bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN), provide larger bandgaps, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity. Power semiconductor

  3. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. H. De Vrind

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This offers new opportunities to compete at tenders. Therefore the applicability of insights from three theories has been researched

  4. Connecting in Megaclasses: The Netnographic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Norman J.; Rahinel, Ryan; Foster, Mary K.; Patterson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large universities are increasingly offering marketing courses in classes of 300 or more students. Without access to the usual verbal and nonverbal cues, instructors in these megaclasses are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to respond to learners' needs. As a result, marketing instructors have supplemented course infrastructure with…

  5. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

  6. The selective advantage of crypsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vignieri, Sacha N; Larson, Joanna G; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-07-01

    The light color of mice that inhabit the sandy dunes of Florida's coast have served as a textbook example of adaptation for nearly a century, despite the fact that the selective advantage of crypsis has never been directly tested or quantified in nature. Using plasticine mouse models of light and dark color, we demonstrate a strong selective advantage for mice that match their local background substrate. Further our data suggest that stabilizing selection maintains color matching within a single habitat, as models that are both lighter and darker than their local environment are selected against. These results provide empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that visual hunting predators shape color patterning in Peromyscus mice and suggest a mechanism by which selection drives the pronounced color variation among populations. PMID:20163447

  7. Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Zipse

    1994-01-01

    The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

  8. The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Alpert

    2006-01-01

    Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

  9. Medicare Advantage: Deja Vu All Over Again?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Biles; G. Dallek; Lh Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 expands,the role of private health plans in Medicare through,prescription drug plans and a revised Medicare+Choice (M+C), renamed Medicare Advantage, program. This paper discusses,the factors responsible for the failure of M+C to develop as intended in 1997 and analyzes the challenges for MMA implementation,in light of these factors. They

  10. Additive Manufacturing for Mass Customization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Reeves; Chris Tuck; Richard Hague

    \\u000a Additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive manufacturing technology that requires no tooling for production. AM requires\\u000a three dimensional computer aided design (3DCAD) data in order to additively build parts from numerous materials, including polymers, metals and ceramics. Within this chapter the advantages realized\\u000a by taking an AM approach are considered as well as their application in mass customization MC). Particular

  11. Variability in the clear speech intelligibility advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Kenneth; Smiljanic, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann

    2005-09-01

    The overall intelligibility advantage for sentences produced in clear versus conversational speech is well-documented. This study looked at recognition accuracy across words in early and late positions in semantically anomalous and meaningful sentences spoken in clear versus conversational speaking styles. For both sentence types, the results showed the expected overall intelligibility advantage for clear speech over conversational speech. For the semantically anomalous sentences, in both speaking styles, a decline in keyword identification rate was observed with words earlier in the sentence being more accurately recognized than words later in the sentence. Furthermore, the intelligibility advantage for clear over conversational speech remained relatively constant across word positions. For the meaningful sentences, the decline in keyword identification rate across word positions was observed for conversational speech only. Meaningful sentences spoken in clear speech yielded a high, relatively stable word identification rate across position-in-sentence, resulting in a larger clear speech intelligibility benefit for words late in the sentence than for words early in the sentence. These results suggest that for typical meaningful sentences, the acoustic-phonetic enhancements of clear speech and the availability of semantic-contextual information combine to ``boost'' the intelligibility of words in late sentence positions.

  12. Explaining Asian Americans' academic advantage over whites.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-06-10

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  13. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  14. Medicare advantage plans at a crossroads--yet again.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert A; Dowd, Bryan E

    2009-01-01

    Since risk-taking, private health insurance plans were introduced into Medicare twenty-five years ago, policymakers have disagreed on these plans' fundamental purposes. Articulated objectives, which include improving quality, reducing government spending, providing additional benefits (without expanding the entitlement), increasing choices for beneficiaries, and providing benchmark competition for traditional Medicare, are plausible but sometimes conflicting. The program's history demonstrates continuous shifts in emphasis on these objectives. We enumerate the differing advantages of public and private plans in Medicare and argue that policymakers should focus their efforts on leveling the public-private playing field, thereby dealing forthrightly with the reality of growing fiscal problems. PMID:19029151

  15. FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

  16. Outside Offers And The Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence From the UK Academic Labour Market &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Blackaby; Alison L Booth; Jeff Frank

    2005-01-01

    Using a unique data source on academic economist labour market experiences, we explore gender, pay and promotions. In addition to earnings and productivity measures, we have information on outside offers and perceptions of discrimination. We find both a gender promotions gap and a within-rank gender pay gap. A driving factor may be outside offers: men receive more outside offers than

  17. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  18. Is Structural Equation Modeling Advantageous for the Genetic Improvement of Multiple Traits?

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Bruno D.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Gianola, Daniel; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Weigel, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) are multivariate specifications capable of conveying causal relationships among traits. Although these models offer insights into how phenotypic traits relate to each other, it is unclear whether and how they can improve multiple-trait selection. Here, we explored concepts involved in SEMs, seeking for benefits that could be brought to breeding programs, relative to the standard multitrait model (MTM) commonly used. Genetic effects pertaining to SEMs and MTMs have distinct meanings. In SEMs, they represent genetic effects acting directly on each trait, without mediation by other traits in the model; in MTMs they express overall genetic effects on each trait, equivalent to lumping together direct and indirect genetic effects discriminated by SEMs. However, in breeding programs the goal is selecting candidates that produce offspring with best phenotypes, regardless of how traits are causally associated, so overall additive genetic effects are the matter. Thus, no information is lost in standard settings by using MTM-based predictions, even if traits are indeed causally associated. Nonetheless, causal information allows predicting effects of external interventions. One may be interested in predictions for scenarios where interventions are performed, e.g., artificially defining the value of a trait, blocking causal associations, or modifying their magnitudes. We demonstrate that with information provided by SEMs, predictions for these scenarios are possible from data recorded under no interventions. Contrariwise, MTMs do not provide information for such predictions. As livestock and crop production involves interventions such as management practices, SEMs may be advantageous in many settings. PMID:23608193

  19. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

  20. Is structural equation modeling advantageous for the genetic improvement of multiple traits?

    PubMed

    Valente, Bruno D; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Gianola, Daniel; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Weigel, Kent

    2013-07-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) are multivariate specifications capable of conveying causal relationships among traits. Although these models offer insights into how phenotypic traits relate to each other, it is unclear whether and how they can improve multiple-trait selection. Here, we explored concepts involved in SEMs, seeking for benefits that could be brought to breeding programs, relative to the standard multitrait model (MTM) commonly used. Genetic effects pertaining to SEMs and MTMs have distinct meanings. In SEMs, they represent genetic effects acting directly on each trait, without mediation by other traits in the model; in MTMs they express overall genetic effects on each trait, equivalent to lumping together direct and indirect genetic effects discriminated by SEMs. However, in breeding programs the goal is selecting candidates that produce offspring with best phenotypes, regardless of how traits are causally associated, so overall additive genetic effects are the matter. Thus, no information is lost in standard settings by using MTM-based predictions, even if traits are indeed causally associated. Nonetheless, causal information allows predicting effects of external interventions. One may be interested in predictions for scenarios where interventions are performed, e.g., artificially defining the value of a trait, blocking causal associations, or modifying their magnitudes. We demonstrate that with information provided by SEMs, predictions for these scenarios are possible from data recorded under no interventions. Contrariwise, MTMs do not provide information for such predictions. As livestock and crop production involves interventions such as management practices, SEMs may be advantageous in many settings. PMID:23608193

  1. Advantage of microscope integrated for both indocyanine green and fluorescein videoangiography on aneurysmal surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Yagi, Takashi; Hanihara, Mitsuto; Horikoshi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Neck clipping of a large middle cerebral artery aneurysm was performed using a newly developed surgical microscope integrated with modules for both indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein videoangiography. During surgery, ICG and fluorescein videoangiography by intra-arterial or intravenous injection were safely carried out without interrupting the surgical procedure. Based on the findings obtained from the case, we evaluated the differences between the dyes and the injection routes. With intra-arterial injection, fluorescein offered sharper contrast images and was better at depicting fine arteries than ICG. Patchy staining of vessel walls was observed in intravenous fluorescein videoangiography, while it was not evident in ICG. Intra-arterial injection method had a great advantage in the rapid clearance of the dyes, which allowed us to perform repeated videoangiography within a short period, and was useful in detecting incomplete clipping in this case; however, catheter insertion requires additional work and carries a potential risk. Use of a microscope integrated for both ICG and fluorescein videoangiography would be another method for repeated evaluation. Namely, alternate use of the dyes enables us to perform videoangiography in a short time even via intravenous injection. PMID:24097092

  2. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  3. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  4. Accounting for the “Down Syndrome Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2010-01-01

    We examined factors that might explain the higher levels of psychosocial well-being observed in past research on mothers of individuals with Down syndrome (DS), as compared to mothers of individuals with other types of intellectual disabilities. We studied 155 mothers of adults with DS, contrasting factors that might validly account for the “DS advantage” (behavioral phenotype) with those that have been portrayed in past research as artifactual (maternal age, social supports). The behavioral phenotype predicted less pessimism, more life satisfaction and a better quality of the mother-child relationship. However, younger maternal age and fewer social supports, as well as the behavioral phenotype, predicted higher levels of caregiving burden. Implications for future research on families of individuals with DS are discussed. PMID:21291307

  5. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  6. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...additional training related to secondary market activities and requirements before...are allowed to initiate secondary market sales. Finally, in response to...reaching SBA targeted underserved market segments and other relevant information...

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

  8. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  9. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks and Banking...POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and currently...

  10. Solutions offerings: a critical review and reconceptualisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Nordin; Christian Kowalkowski

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical analysis of the literature of solutions offerings; to provide a new conceptual framework, incorporating dimensions that can distinguish between different kinds of solutions and connect their different characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper takes a critical review of the relevant literature, 28 contributions being identified in a search of

  11. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  12. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (?GB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm?2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle ?c of ?9°, which is substantially larger than the ?c of ?5° for YBa2Cu3O7–?. Even at ?GB>?c, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–?. PMID:21811238

  13. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  14. Inferring causal structure: a quantum advantage

    E-print Network

    Katja Ried; Megan Agnew; Lydia Vermeyden; Dominik Janzing; Robert W. Spekkens; Kevin J. Resch

    2014-06-19

    The problem of using observed correlations to infer causal relations is relevant to a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Yet given correlations between just two classical variables, it is impossible to determine whether they arose from a causal influence of one on the other or a common cause influencing both, unless one can implement a randomized intervention. We here consider the problem of causal inference for quantum variables. We introduce causal tomography, which unifies and generalizes conventional quantum tomography schemes to provide a complete solution to the causal inference problem using a quantum analogue of a randomized trial. We furthermore show that, in contrast to the classical case, observed quantum correlations alone can sometimes provide a solution. We implement a quantum-optical experiment that allows us to control the causal relation between two optical modes, and two measurement schemes -- one with and one without randomization -- that extract this relation from the observed correlations. Our results show that entanglement and coherence, known to be central to quantum information processing, also provide a quantum advantage for causal inference.

  15. The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

  16. The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

  17. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  18. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  19. ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

  20. The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The high voltage solar array offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. Conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT 2 experience are discussed and the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT 2 thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are reported. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

  1. Technology Offer Cell factory for R-mandelate biosynthesis from feed-stock

    E-print Network

    Technology Offer Cell factory for R-mandelate biosynthesis from feed-stock Keywords R-mandelic acid Enzymatic synthesis Whole cell biocatalyst Chiral oxygenation Biopharma Advantages Product: R-mandelate and substituted R-mandelate derivatives are building blocks in a range of pharmaceuticals. R-mandelate

  2. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). [60 FR 48241, Sept. 18, 1995, as amended...

  3. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  4. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...offering circular shall be presented in a clear, concise and understandable manner and in a type size that is easily readable. Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is permitted. (2)...

  5. Summary of Curricula Offered Course Information

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    and aerospace engineering), engineering sciences (structural engineering), evolutionary biology, geography Engineering) Engineering Sciences (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) Engineering Sciences (Structural in seven fields; the College of Engineering offers the Bachelor of Science degree in engineering

  6. Solutions 2012 14 local projects offering

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    _______________________ Solutions 2012 14 local projects offering knowledge, skills& hope for our,funneling$4 billiondollarsoutof province every yearto buy whatwe burn. 50x30 proposestodevelopaprovince-wide commitmentandstrategytoincrease renewable energyuse inManitoba to 50% by2030. Thiswouldgenerate local economiesandreduce

  7. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...any advertisement which creates a false impression of the grade, quality, make, value, currency of model, size, color, usability, or origin of the product offered, or which may otherwise misrepresent the product in such a manner that later, on...

  8. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any advertisement which creates a false impression of the grade, quality, make, value, currency of model, size, color, usability, or origin of the product offered, or which may otherwise misrepresent the product in such a manner that later, on...

  9. Electricity Producer Offering Strategies in Day-Ahead Energy Market With Step-Wise Offers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasios G. Bakirtzis; Nikolaos P. Ziogos; Athina C. Tellidou; Gregory A. Bakirtzis

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the development of optimal offering strategies by electricity producers in day-ahead energy auctions with step-wise energy offer format. The producer energy offer optimization is formulated as a bi-level optimization problem, which is converted to a offer optimization is formulated as a bi-level optimization problem, which is converted to a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints

  10. SPECIAL ACADEMIC OPPORTUNITIES The programs described here are in addition to those offered

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    making a final choice. Almost one-third of entering freshmen choose General Studies as their initial-Health Professions Advising Office in General Studies. The pre-health adviser can help students select a health profession or, for those who already have a profession in mind, guide students through the undergradu- ate

  11. Additional possibilities offered by using porous metallic materials for cooling laser diode bars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Apollonov; S. I. Derzhavin; V. N. Timoshkin

    2002-01-01

    A new scheme of using porous metallic materials (PMs) for cooling laser diode bars is proposed, which provides for a two-dimensional\\u000a regime of heat removal and reduces the effective filtration length of a cooling agent. The values of characteristic limiting\\u000a thermal fluxes are calculated for the heat sink made of a permeable PM, operating under conditions of a maximum permissible

  12. Adverse Selection and Advantageous Selection in Insurance Markets

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xi

    2014-08-08

    This dissertation consists of three essays about adverse selection and advantageous selection in life insurance and health insurance markets. Firstly, I confirm the advantageous selection in voluntary private health insurance markets in Europe...

  13. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.

    PubMed

    Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-04-01

    Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging. PMID:24815585

  14. Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore

    2013-01-01

    Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss. PMID:23658546

  15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening

    PubMed Central

    Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

  16. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  17. Fast, automatically darkening welding filter offering an improved level of safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen

    1996-03-01

    A mode of operation is introduced for the standard 90 degrees twisted nematic (TN) liquid-crystal cell when placed together with an interference filter and positioned between crossed polarizers such that a small stimulating voltage of between 2.0 and 3.0 V is required in order to attain the light state. Further incrementation of the driving electronics reverts the system back to a darker phase. Such cells offer advantages over those of the standard 90 degrees TN device operating in the normally white mode, in that the unit maintains the fast response time from the light to the dark state associated with the employment of TN cells placed between crossed polarizers. In addition, a low transmittance state is achieved when the unit is in the inactivated phase; this is an effect usually correlated with the normally black mode of operation. These cells are therefore ideal candidates for incorporation into fast, automatically darkening, welding filters that are designed to change rapidly from the light to the dark protective state, while offering an improved level of safety by not holding in a potentially hazardous light state should the controlling electronics malfunction. The requirement for this phenomenon to be observed is that the cell displays a low optical transmittance over the green wavelengths of the visible spectrum when in the inactivated phase and placed between crossed polarizers. The presence of an interference filter that possesses a peak transmittance over the central part of the visible spectrum is also necessary. It is shown that there are only two possible cell types that satisfy this criteria, and the optical properties of such cells are analyzed in some detail.

  18. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  19. Zebrafish models of human motor neuron diseases: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Babin, Patrick J; Goizet, Cyril; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2014-07-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are an etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders of neurodegenerative origin, which result in degeneration of lower (LMNs) and/or upper motor neurons (UMNs). Neurodegenerative MNDs include pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which involves specific degeneration of UMNs, leading to progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. In contrast, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) involves the specific degeneration of LMNs, with symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset MND, is characterized by the degeneration of both UMNs and LMNs, leading to progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and spasticity. A review of the comparative neuroanatomy of the human and zebrafish motor systems showed that, while the zebrafish was a homologous model for LMN disorders, such as SMA, it was only partially relevant in the case of UMN disorders, due to the absence of corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts in its central nervous system. Even considering the limitation of this model to fully reproduce the human UMN disorders, zebrafish offer an excellent alternative vertebrate model for the molecular and genetic dissection of MND mechanisms. Its advantages include the conservation of genome and physiological processes and applicable in vivo tools, including easy imaging, loss or gain of function methods, behavioral tests to examine changes in motor activity, and the ease of simultaneous chemical/drug testing on large numbers of animals. This facilitates the assessment of the environmental origin of MNDs, alone or in combination with genetic traits and putative modifier genes. Positive hits obtained by phenotype-based small-molecule screening using zebrafish may potentially be effective drugs for treatment of human MNDs. PMID:24705136

  20. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  1. Guess your neighbour's input: no quantum advantage but an advantage for quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Antonio Acín; Mafalda L. Almeida; Remigiusz Augusiak; Nicolas Brunner

    2012-05-14

    Quantum mechanics dramatically differs from classical physics, allowing for a wide range of genuinely quantum phenomena. The goal of quantum information is to understand information processing from a quantum perspective. In this mindset, it is thus natural to focus on tasks where quantum resources provide an advantage over classical ones, and to overlook tasks where quantum mechanics provides no advantage. But are the latter tasks really useless from a more general perspective? Here we discuss a simple information-theoretic game called 'guess your neighbour's input', for which classical and quantum players perform equally well. We will see that this seemingly innocuous game turns out to be useful in various contexts. From a fundamental point of view, the game provides a sharp separation between quantum mechanics and other more general physical theories, hence bringing a deeper understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. The game also finds unexpected applications in quantum foundations and quantum information theory, related to Gleason's theorem, and to bound entanglement and unextendible product bases.

  2. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  3. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  4. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ra?iu, M; Purc?rea, T

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  5. Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Welch

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a signaling model in which high-quality firms underprice at the initial public offering in order to obtain a higher price at a seasoned offering. The main assumption is that low-quality firms must invest in imitation expenses to appear to be high-quality firms, and that with some probability this imitation is discovered between offerings. Underpricing by high-quality firms

  6. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  7. `Competition' among employers offering health insurance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Dranove; Kathryn E. Spier; Laurence Baker

    2000-01-01

    Most employees contribute towards the cost of employer-sponsored insurance, despite tax laws that favor zero contributions. Contribution levels vary markedly across firms, and the average contribution (as a percentage of the premium) has increased over time. We offer a novel explanation for these facts: employers raise contribution levels to encourage their employees to obtain coverage from their spouses' employer. We

  8. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  9. Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada!

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada! November 18, 19, 25, 26 Vancouver, British Columbia The Appreciative Leadership Development Program is an innovative strengths-based learning process during which you discover and build upon your Leadership Positive Core -- your unique strengths, skills

  10. Special Report on Cocurricular Offerings and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Robert L.; Humm, William L., Ed.

    This report describes results of a study of secondary school student participation in extracurricular activities. The activity offerings were identified and classified into eleven groups: 1) class-related, 2) athletics, 3) music, 4) school services, 5) drama, 6) school publications, 7) personal interests, 8) honor, 9) student government, 10)…

  11. BIOENGINEERING at a Glance Degrees Offered

    E-print Network

    Mills, Allen P.

    BIOENGINEERING at a Glance Degrees Offered BS, MS, BS/MS, PhD Faculty Total Faculty: 12, 1 Adjunct of Health National Science Foundation The Department of Bioengineering, at the University of California's mission is to forge future leaders in bioengineering while focusing on solutions to critical themes

  12. Precision Dentistry Offers Exciting New Options

    E-print Network

    Derisi, Joseph

    Precision Dentistry Offers Exciting New Options UCSF Launches Center for Children's Oral Health / 2014 University of California, San Francisco magazine School of Dentistry #12;dentistry.ucsf.edu VOLUME 9 / 2014 Update > Featherstone Renewed as Dean for Five Years / PAGE 2 > UCSF Dentistry Joins All

  13. Criminal Justice Studies Fall 2013 Course Offerings

    E-print Network

    Intervention Policies in Juvenile Justice S 9:10 11:55 HSS 259 Macallair 31277 CJ 501 01 Criminal Law TTh 8Criminal Justice Studies Fall 2013 Course Offerings Criminal Justice Studies | Spring 2014 Courses Course # Sec Course Title Days Start End Location Instructor Sch # CJ 300 01 Criminal Justice: A Cross

  14. Summary of Curricula Offered Course Information

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    the Bachelor of Science degree in engineering with majors in six fields; and the Col- lege of Education offers), chemistry, clinical psychology, com- putational science, ecology, education, engineering sciences (bioen, geophysics, language and communica- tive disorders, mathematics and science education, and public health

  15. On the Advantages of Serial Architectures for Low-Power Reliable Computations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeriu Beiu; Snorre Aunet; Jabulani Nyathi; Ray Robert Rydberg III; Asbjørn Djupdal

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores low-power reliable micro- architectures for addition. Power, speed, and reliability (both defect- and fault-tolerance) are important metrics of system design, spanning device, gate, block, and architectural levels. The analysis considers the low power needs of future systems at supply voltages comparable to threshold voltages (Vth). Theoretical analysis and simulations show a decline of the speed advantages of

  16. Advantage of Being a Dimer for Serratia marcescens Endonuclease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanying; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2009-01-01

    The monomer and dimer of the bacterium Serratia marcescens endonuclease (SMnase) are each catalytically active and the two subunits of the dimer function independently of each other. Nature however chooses the dimer form instead of the monomer. In order to explain this, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both model built complexes of a subunit of SMnase and the dimer with DNA in aqueous solution. We estimated the electrostatic binding energy, analyzed the distribution and dynamics of water around the complexes, identified water clusters in the protein, and related dynamics of water to the protein's function. We find that the dimer form has an electrostatic advantage over the monomer to associate with DNA. Although Mg2+ remains hexa-coordinated during the simulation, the binding pathway of DNA to Mg2+ changes from inner-sphere binding in the monomer to outer-sphere in the dimer, which may be more energetically favorable. In addition, two water clusters in the active site of each monomer and in the dimer complex were identified and localized in two regions, named ‘stabilizing’ and ‘working’ region. Water in the ‘working’ region in the dimer complex has larger fluctuations than that in the monomer. PMID:19053714

  17. Epistasis and the selective advantage of sex and recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Viviane M.; da Silva, Juliana K.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of the central mechanisms favoring sex and recombination in real populations is one of the fundamental issues in evolutionary biology. Based on a previous stochastic formulation for the study of sex, here we aim to investigate the conditions under which epistasis favors the fixation of the sexual mode of reproduction in a given population. In addition, we try to identify the evolutionary forces which contribute to this process. One considers a finite population model which assumes the existence of a recombination modifier allele that can activate the recombination mechanism. We have found that sex is very little favored in a scenario of antagonistic epistasis, and this advantage only occurs in a narrow range of values of the selection coefficient sd . On the other hand, synergistic epistasis favors recombination in a very broad domain. However, the major mechanism contributing to the spreading of the modifier allele depends on the range of values of sd . At large sd , background selection favors recombination since it increases the efficacy of selection, while at low sd Muller’s ratchet is the leading mechanism.

  18. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. PMID:23275406

  19. Multi-core advantages for mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Johnny; Nogatch, John

    2009-04-01

    Smaller design pattern feature sizes continue to increase mask data file sizes, which increases mask data processing (MDP) times. To satisfy the need for faster turn-around-time, MDP has progressively migrated from single-computer computation, to multi-threading, and then to distributed processing on multiple computers. The availability of low cost multi-core processors can be used advantageously to reduce Mask Data Preparation runtime. Compared to single core processors, multi-core processor have higher performance, however, total available memory and I/O bandwidth need to be increased proportionally with the additional cores. Memory per core and available I/O bandwidth limit the maximum number of cores that can be effective with distributed processing. When a single job is broken down to 2 or more tasks, the granularity of the tasks influences the efficiency of the processing. Smaller tasks allow for smaller memory footprint, better distribution of tasks and increased scalability, but increase input file access time and reduce output data compaction. By choosing a combination of multi-threading and distributed processing, faster run-time and better scalability can be achieved, as compared to either technique alone. The optimal configuration depends on the number of cores per processor, number of processors and memory per core.

  20. Advantage of Upregulation of Succinate Dehydrogenase in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms ?

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Schlag, Steffen; Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael; Götz, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that various tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle genes, particularly the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB), are upregulated in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. To better study the role of this enzyme complex, an sdhCAB deletion mutant (?sdh) was constructed. Compared to the wild type (wt) the mutant was impaired in planktonic growth under aerobic conditions, excreted acetic acid could not be reused and accumulated continuously, succinate was excreted and found in the culture supernatant, and metabolome analysis with cells grown in chemically defined medium revealed reduced uptake/metabolism of some amino acids from the growth medium. Moreover, the mutant was able to counteract the steadily decreasing extracellular pH by increased urease activity. The addition of fumarate to the growth medium restored the wt phenotype. The mutant showed a small-colony variant (SCV)-like phenotype, a slight increase in resistance to various aminoglycoside antibiotics, and decreased pigmentation. The decreased growth under aerobic conditions is due to the interruption of the TCA cycle (indicated by the accumulation of succinate and acetic acid) with the consequence that many fewer reduction equivalents (NADH and FADH2) can fuel the respiratory chain. The results indicate that the TCA cycle is required for acetate and amino acid catabolism; its upregulation under biofilm conditions is advantageous under such nutrient- and oxygen-limited conditions. PMID:20207757

  1. Advantages of SCD detectors for missile warning system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, Ofer; Elkind, Shimon; Markovitz, Tuvy

    2004-12-01

    For the past few years SCD has been developing a series of Infra Red (IR) detectors based on the well established technologies of InSb diodes and the most advanced analogue and digital signal processors. These detectors exhibit special modes of operation combined with a high level of performance, which enables the detectors to be optimized within a large variety of applications. Among these applications the most demanding are considered to be those related to Missile Warnings Systems (MWS) and firing identification. For these high-end applications, a combination of suitable operation modes and high performance is required, including: large dynamic range, high frame rate, high sensitivity at low signal and a smooth transition of operation mode from frame to frame. The first detector developed for MWS is the "Blue Fairy" detector which has 320x256 elements with a 30?m pitch. After the "Blue Fairy" a family of new generation digital detectors was developed, starting with "Sebastian". Sebastian is based on a novel digital Focal Plane Processor (FPP) with a 20?m pitch and a format of 640×512. Next, for the mid format, a digital detector with 480×384 elements was developed, based on the same concept as the large format Sebastian detector but with some additional functionality. In this paper the special features and performance of these detectors are presented showing their advantages for MWS applications.

  2. University Archives offers Orange Bowl Exhibit

    E-print Network

    2007-12-11

    & Databases Catalog: books & more E-journals Research by Subject Course Reserves Library Pages A-Z Images KU ScholarWorks KU Digital Collections Hours My Account Request Articles, Books,… Friends & Benefactors Suggestions University Archives offers Orange Bowl... Exhibit KU's University Archives, located in Spencer Research Library, has brought together items from its collections relating to the 1948 and 1969 Orange Bowl games. Included in the small exhibit are a souvenir KU '68 Orange Bowl gym bag, photographs...

  3. Research on the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Tender Offer for Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minli, Zhang; Shanshan, Qiao

    The BP model in artificial neural network is used in this paper. Various factors that affect the tender offer is identified and these factors as the input nodes of network to conduct iterated operation in the network is applied in this paper. Through taking advantage of the self-learning function of network, this paper constantly modifies the weight matrix to achieve the objective error of the network error to achieve the function of predicting offer. As a software support tool, MATLAB is used in artificial neural network, the neural network toolbox helps to reduce the workload of writing code greatly and make the application of neural network more widely.

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  5. On the advantages of word frequency and contextual diversity measures extracted from subtitles: The case of Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; Simões, Alberto; de Almeida, José João; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    We examined the potential advantage of the lexical databases using subtitles and present SUBTLEX-PT, a new lexical database for 132,710 Portuguese words obtained from a 78 million corpus based on film and television series subtitles, offering word frequency and contextual diversity measures. Additionally we validated SUBTLEX-PT with a lexical decision study involving 1920 Portuguese words (and 1920 nonwords) with different lengths in letters (M?=?6.89, SD?=?2.10) and syllables (M?=?2.99, SD?=?0.94). Multiple regression analyses on latency and accuracy data were conducted to compare the proportion of variance explained by the Portuguese subtitle word frequency measures with that accounted by the recent written-word frequency database (Procura-PALavras; P-PAL; Soares, Iriarte, et al., 2014 ). As its international counterparts, SUBTLEX-PT explains approximately 15% more of the variance in the lexical decision performance of young adults than the P-PAL database. Moreover, in line with recent studies, contextual diversity accounted for approximately 2% more of the variance in participants' reading performance than the raw frequency counts obtained from subtitles. SUBTLEX-PT is freely available for research purposes (at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases ). PMID:25263599

  6. Innovation timing advantages: From economic theory to strategic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Gilbert; Philip H. Birnbaum-More

    1996-01-01

    First and second mover theory, as developed in industrial organization economics, maintains that firms can gain competitive advantage by using optimal timing in the introduction of innovations. Because the industry is the unit of analysis, the theory does not provide specific guidance for individual firms. We analyze the underlying sources of first and second mover timing advantages and clarify several

  7. The Advantages of Using Planned Comparisons over Post Hoc Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehne, Carolyn C.

    There are advantages to using a priori or planned comparisons rather than omnibus multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) tests followed by post hoc or a posteriori testing. A small heuristic data set is used to illustrate these advantages. An omnibus MANOVA test was performed on the data followed by a post hoc test (discriminant analysis). A…

  8. Advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Remick; C. F. Blazek

    1992-01-01

    The advantages of natural gas vehicles can be broken down into four major categories: social\\/political, technical, economic, and environmental. The social\\/political advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel lie predominantly in its ability to substitute for petroleum fuels. This frees petroleum reserves for other uses or, in areas with dwindling reserves, it reduces the dependence on imported oil and

  9. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  10. The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Peteraf

    1993-01-01

    This paper elucidates the underlying economics of the resource-based view of competitive advantage and integrates existing perspectives into a parsimonious model of resources and firm performance. The essence of this model is that four conditions underlie sustained competitive advantage, all of which must be met. These include superior resources (heterogeneity within an industry), ex post limits to competition, imperfect resource

  11. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  12. Aging and Text Comprehension: Interpretation and Domain Knowledge Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Kim, Hyo Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adults read two different history texts. In the "knowledge advantage" condition, readers read a history text about an event that was well-known to readers of all ages but most familiar to elderly adults. In the "no advantage" condition, readers read a history text about a political situation of a…

  13. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  14. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  15. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  16. Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits. PMID:22049623

  17. Alternative Addition Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judith Scapecchi

    2012-07-31

    This lesson explores recall of multiple alternative addition strategies of two-digit numbers. The lesson focus is to encourage students to use more than one strategy to solve addition problems. By reinforcing the multiple alternative addition strategies students will develop a strong understanding of addition structures and mechanics before moving on to three-digit addition. The lesson includes making an Addition Strategies Mini Booklet, which students can keep and use as a reference tool.

  18. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...offered. Each employing entity must offer the option of enrollment in a qualified HMO to each eligible employee and his or her eligible dependents who reside in the HMO's service area. (c) Manner of offering the HMO option. (1) For...

  19. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  20. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peši?, J.; Gaji?, R.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an acceleration of several times compared to standard CPU calculations.

  1. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  2. Financially advantageous products for nonprofit sector in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavlina Haltofova; Sven Köhler

    2007-01-01

    In the Czech Republic (CR) there are about 60 100 nonprofit nongovernmental organisations (NPO). They present quite big amount of potential customers, making use of various services which are needed for their function. In this paper offers of various kinds of services for NPO in the Czech Republic were analysed. Special offers of banks, insurance companies, post, phone and others

  3. Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

  4. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  5. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Gas Permeable Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahn, C.; Bechmann, F.; Hofmann, S.; Dinkel, M.; Emmelmann, C.

    Laser additive manufacturing offers a variety of new design possibilities. In mold making laser additive manufactured inserts with conformal cooling channels are already state of the art. Pneumatic ejectors for injection molds are a new application for laser additive manufacturing. The pneumatic ejectors require a durable gas permeable material. This material is produced by placing the scan vectors for the laser additive manufacturing process in a defined pattern. Trials with different plastics proofed the function and reliability of the pneumatic ejector concept in the injection molding cycle.

  6. IFP offers three new process technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Institut Francais du Petrole is offering three new processing technologies for license, including one for isomerizing normal C[sub 4] olefins to isobutylene. The latter process, called ISO-4, provides an economically attractive way for refiners and ethylene manufacturers to convert fluid cat cracker and steam cracker C[sub 4] cuts to methyl tertiary butyl ether, says IFP. In ISO-4 units, the catalyst moves continuously down the reactor bed. When it reaches the bottom, it is removed from the reactor, regenerated, and returned to the top of the bed, all continuously. With a constant flow of fresh catalyst, operations can run several years without shutdown for catalyst regeneration, IFP claims. The ISO-4 catalyst is the same type as that used in IFP's octanizing process. The low attrition rate and thorough, continuous regeneration cycle of the Octanizing catalyst result in long service.

  7. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  8. Comparing models of the combined-stimulation advantage for speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The “combined-stimulation advantage” refers to an improvement in speech recognition when cochlear-implant or vocoded stimulation is supplemented by low-frequency acoustic information. Previous studies have been interpreted as evidence for “super-additive” or “synergistic” effects in the combination of low-frequency and electric or vocoded speech information by human listeners. However, this conclusion was based on predictions of performance obtained using a suboptimal high-threshold model of information combination. The present study shows that a different model, based on Gaussian signal detection theory, can predict surprisingly large combined-stimulation advantages, even when performance with either information source alone is close to chance, without involving any synergistic interaction. A reanalysis of published data using this model reveals that previous results, which have been interpreted as evidence for super-additive effects in perception of combined speech stimuli, are actually consistent with a more parsimonious explanation, according to which the combined-stimulation advantage reflects an optimal combination of two independent sources of information. The present results do not rule out the possible existence of synergistic effects in combined stimulation; however, they emphasize the possibility that the combined-stimulation advantages observed in some studies can be explained simply by non-interactive combination of two information sources. PMID:22559370

  9. Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-01-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or Average Revenue/Average Cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans’ margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan’s margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC’s in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high margin HCC’s in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

  10. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  11. Back to basics: a bilingual advantage in infant visual habituation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Rahman, Aishah A; Hameed, Waseem B; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study, 114 monolingual and bilingual infants were compared in a very basic task of information processing-visual habituation-at 6 months of age. Bilingual infants demonstrated greater efficiency in stimulus encoding as well as in improved recognition memory for familiar stimuli as compared to monolinguals. Findings reveal a generalized cognitive advantage in bilingual infants that is broad in scope, early to emerge, and not specific to language. PMID:25074016

  12. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  13. America's secret competitive advantage is a dirty secret

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjan Sreedharan

    2009-01-01

    The noted management guru Michael E Porter identifies seven unique competitive advantages for the U.S. economy to explain the country’s pre-eminence; they range from (among others) its environment for entrepreneurship, its institutions of higher learning, its technology and innovation machine, to its commitment to competition and free markets. In this article, I argue that there is another critical competitive advantage

  14. Strategies for Competitive Advantage and Supply Chain Management: Synergy Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Abdulla, Saeed A.

    2010-10-12

    STRATEGIES FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: SYNERGY OPPORTUNITIES A Dissertation by SAEED ABDULLA ABDULWAHID ABDULLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2009 Major Subject: Information and Operations Management STRATEGIES FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: SYNERGY OPPORTUNITIES A Dissertation by SAEED...

  15. Our qualified personal training staff offers clients a unique and satisfying experience through their motivational, individualized fitness programs. We offer personal and small-group training as well as fitness and nutritional

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    their motivational, individualized fitness programs. We offer personal and small-group training as well as fitness and nutritional assessments to help you reach your health and fitness goals. Take advantage of our convenientHy HiRe a PeRsonal tRaineR? · Toreceiveinformationregardingcurrentrecommendationsfor cardiovascular

  16. For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology Montana State University 325.montana.edu/wwwpy psydept@montana.edu PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE FOR FUTURE CAREERS Our department offers a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in psychology. This degree prepares undergraduate students for employment in applied settings

  17. For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology Montana State University 310 Lewis Hall P.O. Box 173460 Bozeman, MT 59717-3460 Tel: 406-994-4548 Fax: 406-994-3190 www.montana.edu/ecology/ ecology@montana.edu The Department of Ecology at Montana State University offers undergraduate majors

  18. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  19. GRADUATE PROGRAM IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers the master of engineering (M.E.) degree through

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    GRADUATE PROGRAM IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers.S) and doctoral (Ph.D.) degrees through the Graduate School. The mechanical engineer- ing department is recognized with a mechanical engineering focus that will provide a competitive advantage in obtaining

  20. MANUFACTURABILITY ANALYSIS TO COMBINE ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MANUFACTURABILITY ANALYSIS TO COMBINE ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE PROCESSES Authors: Olivier Kerbrat of the tool may advantageously be machined or manufactured by an additive process. Originality/value: Nowadays is proposed to combine additive and subtractive processes, for tooling design and manufacturing

  1. The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Loughran; Jay R Ritter

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have documented that firms conducting seasoned equity offerings have inordinately low stock returns during the five years after the offering, following a sharp run-up in the year prior to the offering. This article documents that the operating performance of issuing firms shows substantial improvement prior to the offering but then deteriorates. The multiples at the time of the

  2. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

  3. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

  4. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

  5. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    E-print Network

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-12-13

    Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices Kostas Kokkinakisa) and Natalie Pak Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 kokkinak... noise for individuals with normal-hearing (NH) abilities (Bronkhorst and Plomp, 1989; Schleich et al., 2004). Recent studies have investigated whether cochlear implant (CI) users may also benefit from binaural listening advan- tages through the addition...

  6. Going Loopy for Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracey DeCloedt

    2012-07-30

    The students will partner up and use Fruit Loops to represent addition equations up to a sum of 10. They will draw, act out, use verbal explanations and write equations to show their addition equations.

  7. The power distribution advantage of fiber-optic coupled ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy for bioanalytical and biomedical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Barbosa; Fr ´ ed ´; H. Vaillancourt; Lindsay D. Eltis; Michael W. Blades

    2002-01-01

    Fiber-optic coupled ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (FO-UVRRS) of photosensitive biological samples is discussed in the context of both clinical and basic medical research applications. The fiber- optic probes are designed specifically for resonance Raman spectroscopy and offer a power distribution advantage over conventional focusing UVRR spectrometers that allows the use of higher power levels without increasing the risk of photo-damage.

  8. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  9. Fall/Spring/Summer Only Offerings Course# CourseTitle Offering

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    : Dance Fall onlyES454 Applied Movement Analysis: Gymnastics Spring onlyES455 Advanced Exercise Physiology Spring onlyES501 Advanced Exercise Physiology Spring onlyES501G Advanced Sport Management Spring onlyTitle Offering Exercise Physiology Seminar Spring onlyES545 Exercise Physiology Seminar Spring onlyES545G

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Continuing with letrozole offers greater benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Jänicke

    2007-01-01

    Objective  Tamoxifen has been at the foundation of adjuvant treatment to prevent disease recurrence in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive\\u000a early breast cancer. After 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, however, options for further treatment are limited. Additional\\u000a tamoxifen is not indicated, as no further benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) has been observed. The aromatase inhibitor\\u000a letrozole significantly improves DFS over placebo in

  12. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

  13. Analysis of small RNAs with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer offers advantages of sensitivity and accuracy for performing RNA

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    )-PCR, preparations of targets for microarrays, ribonuclease protection assays, preparations of cDNA libraries and human brain tumor (U118), using the MirVanaTM miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion) according to manufacturer

  14. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  15. Addition and Subtraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Roberts

    2011-04-20

    Welcome students, Using this website, you can play fun and interactive games and print out fun worksheets that will help you practice addition and subtraction. Please explore the website and print out as many worksheets as you would like. Print out and answer the problems on this worksheet. Addition and Subtraction Worksheet This game is for more advanced students in addition and subtraction. Figure out what sign to put in between the numbers to make the combination on the right. Advanced Add and Subtract Game This fun animal game will help you practice your addition and subtraction. Farm Animal Game Print ...

  16. Yet another additivity conjecture

    E-print Network

    Keiji Matsumoto

    2005-09-15

    It is known that the additivity conjecture of Holevo capacity, output minimum entoropy, and the entanglement of formation (EoF), are equivalent with each other. Among them, the output minimum entropy is simplest, and hence many researchers are focusing on this quantity. Here, we suggest yet another entanglement measure, whose strong superadditivity and additivity are equivalent to the additivity of the quantities mentioned above. This quantity is as simple as the output minimum entropy, and in existing proofs of additivity conjecture of the output minimum entropy for the specific examples, they are essentially proving the strong superadditivity of this quantity.

  17. Additive-pulse modelocking in fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Haus; E. P. Ippen; K. Tamura

    1994-01-01

    A self-starting additive-pulse modelocked (APM) all-fiber ring cavity laser operating in the negative group velocity regime is analyzed. The advantages of using a ring cavity with an isolator are discussed. The “figure eight” and the Sagnac loop reflector fiber laser are investigated in a novel way, and one form of their operation is related to the master equation of APM.

  18. Take Advantage of New Opportunities to Expand Medicaid

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    Take Advantage of New Opportunities to Expand Medicaid Under the Affordable Care Act A guide ruling on the Affordable Care Act. July 2012 #12;1 Introduction The Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents a watershed in health care policy that could result in 97 percent of Americans having health care coverage

  19. The advantages of elliptic curve cryptography for wireless security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTEN LAUTER

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of elliptic curves and their use in cryptography. The focus is on the performance advantages to be obtained in the wireless environment by using elliptic curve cryptography instead of a traditional cryptosystem like RSA. Specific applications to secure messaging and identity-based encryption are discussed.

  20. TAKING SCIENTIFIC ADVANTAGE OF A DISASTROUS OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 19 January 1996, the North Cape barge ran aground on Moonstone Beach in southern Rhode Island, releasing 828,000 gallons of refined oil. This opportunistic study was designed to take scientific advantage of the most severely affected seabird, the common loon (Gavia immer) . As...

  1. Comparative Advantages in Banking and Strategic Specialization and Diversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indrajit Mallick

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows how banks specialize in different activities when they start with different comparative advantages. The possibility of wrong specialization is shown in a Cournot game with convexities. Different resolution mechanisms are discussed. With risk averse financial intermediaries, excessive diversification is shown to be a problem. Financial innovation like credit derivatives and securitization can mitigate the problem and result

  2. On the Advantage of WellBalanced Schemes for

    E-print Network

    On the Advantage of Well­Balanced Schemes for Moving­Water Equilibria of the Shallow Water Equations Yulong Xing1 , Chi­Wang Shu2 , and Sebastian Noelle3 Bericht Nr. 315 Dezember 2010 Key words: Shallow water equation, still water, moving water equilibrium, high order accuracy, well balanced scheme

  3. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  4. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Mark

    Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in evolving yeast populations Clifford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex is a general feature of the life cycle of eukaryotes. It is not universal, however, as many organisms seem to lack sex entirely1 . The widespread occurrence of sex is puzzling, both because meiotic

  5. The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage

    E-print Network

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    Plus The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS The DELTA V isotope ratio mass spectrometers isotope ratio MS applications in the mass range up to m/z 96. Its versatility puts virtuallyThe Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage DELTA V Plus Analyze · Detect · Measure

  6. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  7. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  8. Biocatalysis in ionic liquids – advantages beyond green technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romas J Kazlauskas

    2003-01-01

    In recent years researchers have started to explore a particular class of organic solvents called room temperature ionic liquids — or simply ionic liquids – to identify their unique advantages for biocatalysis. Because they lack vapour pressure, ionic liquids hold potential as green solvents. Furthermore, unlike organic solvents of comparable polarity, they often do not inactivate enzymes, which simplifies reactions

  9. Temperament and coping: Advantages of an individual differences perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS DERRYBERRY; MARJORIE A. REED

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages that arise from an individual differences approach to children's coping and vulnerabilities. It suggests that the basic motivational and attentional systems involved in temperament constitute relatively primitive coping mechanisms. With development, these primitive coping skills are aided by representational and other cortical functions, allowing the coping process to begin before a stressful event and thereby

  10. Strategic information systems planning: deriving comparative advantage from EDI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Galliers; P. M. C. Swatman; P. A. Swatman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we argue that EDI should not be viewed simply as a technological infrastructure, but as a technology which may enable an organisation taking a strategic view to derive comparative advantage from utilising it as part of a process of business reengineering - in other words, as a socio-technical entity. We suggest that Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP)

  11. [Whole brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: Advantages and controversies].

    PubMed

    Noël, G; Tallet, A; Truc, G; Bernier, V; Feuvret, L; Assouline, A; Antoni, D; Verrelle, P; Mazeron, J-J; Mornex, F; Dhermain, F

    2015-02-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy is the angular stone of the brain metastasis radiation therapy. This treatment allows reaching two goals, potentially curative for in place metastasis and prophylactic in the rest of brain tissue. However, these two advantages can be disputed and in light of the same data opposite conclusions could be drawn. PMID:25662599

  12. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  13. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  14. Standardized phenotyping: advantages to horticulture, introduction to the workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces a workshop on standardized phenotyping and the advantages it provides for horticultural crops. The workshop was held at the 2009 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference in St. Louis, MO, and was organized by the Genetics and Germplasm Working Group. The o...

  15. Understanding the Diminishing Academic Advantage of Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Randall S.; Cress, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Most people agree that young children benefit academically from attending kindergarten; however, some research suggests that any academic advantage attributed to attending full day kindergarten compared to half-day programs will disappear as early as third grade. Based on the results of this study which looked at students in typical classroom…

  16. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romanato

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility

  17. Hatching order explains an extrapair chick advantage in western bluebirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise D. Ferree; Janis Dickinson; Wallace Rendell; Caitlin Stern; Stephanie Porter

    2010-01-01

    Within-family comparisons of offspring growth rates have provided important tests of genetic benefits of extrapair mating for females. Here, we demonstrate that hatching order explains the growth advantage for extrapair young in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana); extrapair nestlings are larger than within-pair nestlings in the same nest, but they also hatch earlier in the clutch, thus benefiting from hatching asynchrony.

  18. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage. PMID:25265557

  19. Multidimensional Epistasis and the Transitory Advantage of Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Stefan; Neidhart, Johannes; Szendro, Ivan G.; Krug, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the benefits of sex and recombination is a long-standing problem in evolutionary theory. In particular, contradictory claims have been made about the existence of a benefit of recombination on high dimensional fitness landscapes in the presence of sign epistasis. Here we present a comparative numerical study of sexual and asexual evolutionary dynamics of haploids on tunably rugged model landscapes under strong selection, paying special attention to the temporal development of the evolutionary advantage of recombination and the link between population diversity and the rate of adaptation. We show that the adaptive advantage of recombination on static rugged landscapes is strictly transitory. At early times, an advantage of recombination arises through the possibility to combine individually occurring beneficial mutations, but this effect is reversed at longer times by the much more efficient trapping of recombining populations at local fitness peaks. These findings are explained by means of well-established results for a setup with only two loci. In accordance with the Red Queen hypothesis the transitory advantage can be prolonged indefinitely in fluctuating environments, and it is maximal when the environment fluctuates on the same time scale on which trapping at local optima typically occurs. PMID:25232825

  20. Multidimensional Epistasis and the Advantage of Sex Richard A. Watson

    E-print Network

    Multidimensional Epistasis and the Advantage of Sex Richard A. Watson Electronics and Computer "unidimensional epistasis," are a limited subset of possible epistatic landscapes. They claim that more general "multidimensional epistasis" usually confers a disadvantage for sex. However, the evolutionary computation (EC

  1. Upward Wealth Mobility: Exploring the Roman Catholic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Wealth inequality is among the most extreme forms of stratification in the United States, and upward wealth mobility is not common. Yet mobility is possible, and this paper takes advantage of trends among a unique group to explore the processes that generate mobility. I show that non-Hispanic whites raised in Roman Catholic families have been…

  2. SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE IN DROSOPHILA: CONCEPTUAL AND TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    REVIEW SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE IN DROSOPHILA: CONCEPTUAL AND TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES H. KAZAMA * RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan Abstract--The fruit fly Drosophila abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms

  3. Mobile IT Matters: The Business Advantage of Going Mobile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Conover; Brian Driesenga; Jim Glanzman

    2004-01-01

    Cellular, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), satellite and wireless networks are some of the newer mobile technologies businesses are implementing today. Some of the advantages businesses are gaining from going to these mobile technologies are increased employee productivity, greater customer satisfaction, improved business processes and better business management. This paper investigates how mobile technologies may be used within software and hardware

  4. Differentiation for competitive advantage in a small family business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Douglas; Jacqueline Douglas; John Davies

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report how a small, family-owned children's play centre can achieve competitive advantage by developing a differentiated service. The aim is to show how this differentiation strategy is operationalized in a small family business using safety critical and work critical regulatory practices, and to examine their impact on operations and customers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

  5. The UNIX/XENIX Advantage: Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of the UNIX/XENIX operating system to support administrative office automation functions--word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic mail, and communications--at the Central Michigan University Libraries. Advantages and disadvantages of the XENIX operating system and system configuration are…

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E Klinck5 , François A Auger4 and Jacques Huot1* Abstract Background: Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells

  7. forest ecology Competitive Advantage of Black Spruce Over

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    forest ecology Competitive Advantage of Black Spruce Over Balsam Fir in Coniferous Boreal Forests by balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) in the south and by coniferous forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.) in the north. Site index values of balsam fir and black spruce were

  8. What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bruce Morton; Sarah N. Harper

    2007-01-01

    Bilingual children often outperform monolingual children in tasks of cognitive control. This advantage may be a consequence of the fact that bilinguals have more practice controlling attention due to an ongoing need to manage two languages. However, existing evidence is limited because possible differences in ethnicity and socioeconomic status have not been properly controlled. To address this issue, we administered

  9. The Roots of Competitive Advantage in California and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Ettlinger

    1991-01-01

    This article examines from a comparative and historical perspective the roots of competitive advantage in two known regions of techno-economic advance, California and Japan. A comparison of processes in these two regions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reveals that indigenous factors, antecedent to later development, largely conditioned the rapid pace and progressive direction of techno-economic advances that

  10. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  11. Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

  12. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

  13. A Working Memory, Not Bilingual Advantage, in Controlled Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazi, Mahchid; Thordardottir, Elin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relationship between working memory (WM) and visually controlled attention (CA) in young bilingual and monolingual children. Previous research has shown that balanced bilingual children outperform monolinguals in CA. However, it is unclear whether this advantage is truly associated with bilingualism or whether potential WM and/or…

  14. Additive similarity trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shmuel Sattath; Amos Tversky

    1977-01-01

    Similarity data can be represented by additive trees. In this model, objects are represented by the external nodes of a tree, and the dissimilarity between objects is the length of the path joining them. The additive tree is less restrictive than the ultrametric tree, commonly known as the hierarchical clustering scheme. The two representations are characterized and compared. A computer

  15. Well servicing fluid additive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moity

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a fluid, pourable well servicing fluid additive comprising a water-soluble polymer, an alkaline earth metal base, and a fibrous material suspended in an oleaginous liquid with a gellant and, optionally, a dispersant therefor. The additive is useful in preparing spud muds, lost circulation pills, and spacer fluids during well servicing operations.

  16. Quantum game players can have advantage without discord

    E-print Network

    Zhaohui Wei; Shengyu Zhang

    2015-02-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a rapid development of quantum information processing, a new paradigm which studies the power and limit of "quantum advantages" in various information processing tasks. Problems such as when quantum advantage exists, and if existing, how much it could be, are at a central position of these studies. In a broad class of scenarios, there are, implicitly or explicitly, at least two parties involved, who share a state, and the correlation in this shared state is the key factor to the efficiency under concern. In these scenarios, the shared \\emph{entanglement} or \\emph{discord} is usually what accounts for quantum advantage. In this paper, we examine a fundamental problem of this nature from the perspective of game theory, a branch of applied mathematics studying selfish behaviors of two or more players. We exhibit a natural zero-sum game, in which the chance for any player to win the game depends only on the ending correlation. We show that in a certain classical equilibrium, a situation in which no player can further increase her payoff by any local classical operation, whoever first uses a quantum computer has a big advantage over its classical opponent. The equilibrium is fair to both players and, as a shared correlation, it does not contain any discord, yet a quantum advantage still exists. This indicates that at least in game theory, the previous notion of discord as a measure of non-classical correlation needs to be reexamined, when there are two players with different objectives.

  17. ZnO-supported Pd nanoparticle-catalyzed ligand- and additive-free cyanation of unactivated aryl halides using K4[Fe(CN)6].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Dey, Raju; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2014-06-20

    The use of a new ZnO-supported palladium(0) nanoparticle catalyst for the cyanation of aryl halides using a relatively benign cyanide source, K4[Fe(CN)6], is described. This catalyst has been applied for the efficient cyanation of a variety of functionalized aryl bromides and activated aryl chlorides. This process circumvents the need for an additive and a ligand for the reaction and offers the advantages of high product yields, low catalyst loading (0.2 mol % Pd), and recyclability of the catalyst. PMID:24856411

  18. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...229.1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements...the following information: (1...tender offer, including the name and...Instruction to Item 1011(a...Other material information. Furnish...

  19. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 12.602 Section...ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When...

  20. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 12.602 Section...ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When...

  1. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 12.602 Section...ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When...

  2. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 12.602 Section...ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When...

  3. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 12.602 Section...ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When...

  4. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...120 Offered wage rate. (a...offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a wage that is the highest of the AEWR...Federal or State minimum wage,...

  5. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...120 Offered wage rate. (a...offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a wage that is the highest of the AEWR...Federal or State minimum wage,...

  6. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...120 Offered wage rate. (a...offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a wage that is the highest of the AEWR...Federal or State minimum wage,...

  7. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...120 Offered wage rate. (a...offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a wage that is the highest of the AEWR...Federal or State minimum wage,...

  8. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...120 Offered wage rate. (a...offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a wage that is the highest of the AEWR...Federal or State minimum wage,...

  9. Unique Energy Management Training Offers Certification and Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Ebbage, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Northwest Energy Education Institute1 (NEEI) has developed and presents a very unique energy efficiency training and certification program. Modeled after a similar course once offered in New Zealand, NEEI offers a two-week energy management...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and proxy statements. See Policy Statement,...

  11. Glycerol mud additive provides shale stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA))

    1989-07-17

    The addition of glycerol to water-base muds greatly reduces the swelling and dispersion tendencies of a shale. Glycerol does not adversely affect the rheology characteristics of the mud, is environmentally acceptable, and has the added advantage of reducing the mud's hydrate-forming tendencies. A new type of water-base inhibitive fluid, which is very different from the previously mentioned muds, contains large amounts of the hydroxy alcohol, glycerol. Results to date show that exceptional inhibition can be obtained through the use of this fluid. In addition, the fluid has good mud properties, suppresses the formation of hydrates, and is environmentally safe.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Awesome Addition Games

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Smith

    2010-10-14

    These games are fun to play and will test your addition skills! Click on the links to play the games! Play in the Kitten Match and test your math skills!! Pick the grade level you want to play on. Then pick numbers that add up to equal the number that they give you. Hurry, you're being timed! Use your addition skills to win a Diaper Derby!! First decide what you want your baby to look like! Then perform the addition problem that ...

  15. Color Chips - Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah State University

    2011-06-28

    This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Pharmacy Continuing Education Offerings in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Michael C.; Kenny, W. Robert

    1986-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of American Council on Pharmaceutical Education-approved provider continuing education offerings during 1985. The study was designed to identify frequently presented topics, characterize types of programs offered, describe the providers offering programs, and detail continuing education…

  17. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial...EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended or renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after...

  18. Our English Language Centre offers programs for international students

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, David

    Our English Language Centre offers programs for international students and visitors seeking high quality English language training. Through a close association with Monash University, our programs We offer two types of English language programs: bridging programs (for conditional offers to Monash

  19. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the PO, during a hearing in which the respondent had an opportunity to respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the...

  20. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the PO, during a hearing in which the respondent had an opportunity to respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the...

  1. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the PO, during a hearing in which the respondent had an opportunity to respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the...

  2. Do independent directors enhance target shareholder wealth during tender offers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Cotter; Anil Shivdasani; Marc Zenner

    1997-01-01

    We examine the role of the target firm's independent outside directors during takeover attempts by tender offer. We find that when the target's board is independent, the initial tender offer premium, the bid premium revision, and the target shareholder gains over the entire tender offer period are higher, and that the presence of a poison pill and takeover resistance lead

  3. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...section, producers may submit offers for the amounts they are willing to accept as rental payments to enroll their acreage in the CRP. The offers may, to the extent practicable, be evaluated on a competitive basis in which the offers selected will...

  4. AdditionalBooks

    Cancer.gov

    While we tried to include potentially useful resources, this website is not exhaustive. New and additional resources may be available. Please let us know if there is a resource you would like to be included.

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Additions to LAP

    E-print Network

    White, John L.

    1967-07-01

    In addition to the description on page 13 of AI Memo 116A LAP has the following features: Current Assembly Location Reference, Assembly Time Arithmetic, Constants, Multiple Entry Routines, and Defined Machine Operations ...

  8. The School of Theatre & Dance has the advantages a large university provides with the one-on-one attention that only a

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    #12;The School of Theatre & Dance has the advantages a large university provides with the one-on a deep understanding of traditional theatrical techniques and craft, with expertise in state-of-the as you need us to be with the one-on-one attention only a close-knit artistic home can offer. We have

  9. The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zande, Robin Vande

    2006-01-01

    Design education is an aesthetic and humanistic approach for teaching how to contribute to the improvement of the conditions that affect everyone's lives. This article offers an overview of some important concepts to teach young people about regeneration design and the future of our changing environment. It is becoming increasingly evident that we…

  10. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  11. Paedomorphic Facial Expressions Give Dogs a Selective Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Bridget M.; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C.; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M.; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

  12. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry: advantages and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemz, Markolf H.

    1998-05-01

    Several laser systems are currently under investigation for the purpose of removing hard dental tissues. However, either undesired thermal side effects or the lack of efficiency have already been demonstrated in most cases. In this paper, advantages and limitations of using ultrashort laser pulses with either picosecond or femtosecond durations are discussed. The major advantages associated with these pulse durations is the ability to produce very precise cavities without significant thermal side effects. Even disruptive effects due to shock wave generation seem to be negligible at moderate pulse energies close to the ablation threshold. The quality of these cavities is found to be superior to the quality achievable with other laser systems. Moreover, a spectroscopical analysis of the laser-induced plasma sparks enables an on-line health diagnosis of the irradiated volume. Limitations arise from the development of a suitable delivery system and from the cost of generating ultrashort laser pulses.

  13. [The applications and advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research].

    PubMed

    Huo, Guitao; Lu, Jianjun; Qu, Zhe; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Di; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to study human disease as a model organism for many years. Many basic biological, physiological, and neurological properties are conserved between mammals and fly. Moreover, Drosophila melanogaster has its unique advantage as a model organism. Recent studies showed that the high level of signaling pathway conservation in tumorigenesis between fly and human and its feasible genetic operation make fly an effective model for oncology research. Numerous research findings showed Drosophila melanogaster was an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis. This review mainly focuses on the advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research, established models used for the research of specific cancers and prospective research direction of oncology. It is hoped that this paper can provide insight for cancer research and development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24846916

  14. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  15. Development of the deontic advantage in reasoning: reply to Cummins.

    PubMed

    Astington, Janet Wilde; Dack, Lisa Ain

    2013-11-01

    In response to Cummins's report that comments on our article (Dack & Astington, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2011, Vol. 110, pp. 94-114), this article clarifies our perspective on what constitutes the deontic advantage, and notes similarities and differences between Cummins's perspective and our own. Like Cummins, we believe that young children are capable of deontic reasoning and that methodological factors alone cannot explain this ability. However, we maintain that it is important to be precise about methodology in order to facilitate investigation of how the deontic advantage changes over developmental time, and this question is our main interest, although as yet incompletely answered. Contrary to Cummins, we do not think that existing data can speak to the issue of the potential innateness of deontic reasoning. We also disagree with Cummins's perspective on norm versus normative proposition and with some of her comparisons between deontic and epistemic phenomena. PMID:23660177

  16. Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

    2014-07-01

    Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

  17. A bilingual advantage in visual language discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Albareda-Castellot, Bàrbara; Weikum, Whitney M; Werker, Janet F

    2012-09-01

    The origins of the bilingual advantage in various cognitive tasks are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that bilinguals' early capacities to track their native languages separately and learn about the properties of each may be at the origin of such differences. Spanish-Catalan bilingual and Spanish or Catalan monolingual infants watched silent video recordings of French-English bilingual speakers and were tested on their ability to discern when the language changed from French to English or vice versa. The infants' performance was compared with that of previously tested French-English bilingual and English monolingual infants. Although all groups of monolingual infants failed to detect the change between English and French, both groups of bilingual infants succeeded. These findings reveal that bilingual experience can modulate the attentional system even without explicit training or feedback. They provide a basis for explaining the ontogeny of the general cognitive advantages of bilinguals. PMID:22810164

  18. Cluster theory and competitive advantage: the Torquay surfing experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Stewart; James Skinner; Allan Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to explain the global expansion,of the Rip Curl and Quiksilver surfing brands through the lens of Michael Porter’s cluster theory of comparative advantage (Porter, 1998). According to Porter, a cluster of linked businesses,can generate commercial,synergies and strengths that enable it to achieve a global presence,even when,it is geographically,distant from,the major world markets. Porter’s cluster th eory

  19. Commitment, first-mover-, and second-mover advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kopel; Clemens Löffler

    2008-01-01

    We identify circumstances under which a firm with a first-mover advantage may get leapfrogged by a follower. At the market\\u000a stage we assume a Stackelberg structure, i.e. the leader commits to a quantity and the follower reacts to it. We allow the\\u000a owners of both firms to select the internal organization and the production technology before quantities are set. That

  20. The capabilities and performance advantages of market-driven firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Vorhies; Michael Harker; C. P. Rao

    1999-01-01

    Although progress has been made in understanding market-driven businesses from a theoretical perspective, relatively few empirical studies have addressed the capabilities needed to become market-driven and the performance advantages accruing to firms possessing these capabilities. One of the barriers faced has been in defining what is meant by the term “market-driven”. Develops a multi-dimensional measure useful for assessing the degree

  1. Advantages of utilizing DMD based rapid manufacturing systems in mass customization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Siblani, A.

    2010-02-01

    The Use of DMD based Rapid Manufacturing Systems has proven to be very advantageous in the production of highly accurate plastic based components for use in mass customization market such as hearing aids, and dental markets. The voxelization process currently afforded with the DLP technology eliminates any layering effect associated with all existing additive Rapid Manufacturing technologies. The smooth accurate surfaces produced in an additive process utilizing DLP technology, through the voxelization approach, allow for the production of custom finished products. The implementation of DLP technology in rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing systems allow for the usage of highly viscous photopolymer based liquid and paste composites for rapid manufacturing that could not be used in any other additive process prior to implementation of DLP technology in RP and RM systems. It also allowed for the greater throughput in production without sacrificing quality and accuracy.

  2. Advantages of list-mode acquisition of high resolution dynamic cardiac data

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, J.E.; Kirch, D.L.; Little, E.P. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Frame-mode acquisition of MUGA studies is an imprecise means to study cardiac dynamics. List-mode acquisition offers significant advantages in temporal and spatial resolution as well as allowing flexibility in selecting those beats included in the final image sequence. Using list-mode, spatial coordinates (x and y), energy value (e), and an encoded physiologic/timing signal (p/t) are stored on an event-by-event basis as byte integer values. The four integers associated with each detected event (x,y,e, and p/t) are streamed onto a hard disk storage device allowing even stress gated blood pool studies to be recorded. Among the advantages we have been able to demonstrate are: Using the stored multispectral energy information to perform scatter correction on the dynamic images; measuring and correcting respirational displacement of the ventricle to minimize motion blurring; applying a variable zoom window after the fact to keep the ventricles centered for analysis; allowing formation of gated sequences representing only a specific aberrancy for detection of ectopic ventricular foci; and improving temporal precision necessary to analyze complex ventricular dynamics associated with aberrant neural conduction affecting the synchrony of muscle contraction. To demonstrate the improved resolution of the list-mode methodology, a dynamic phantom was used to simulate blurring due to respiration and segmental wall motion defects.

  3. Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikk{beta} confers growth advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Katherine S. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States); Maeda, Shin [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); He, Guobin; Karin, Michael [Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0723, La Jolla, CA 92093-0723 (United States); Leffert, Hyam L. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States)], E-mail: hleffert@ucsd.edu

    2009-03-06

    Mice lacking hepatocyte IKK{beta} (Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep}) are defective in TNF{alpha}-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G{sub 0} {yields} G{sub 1} transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikk{beta} also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGF{alpha} and TNF{alpha}, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, {beta}-actin and integrin {beta}1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikk{beta}-deleted hepatocytes.

  4. Technology Survey Assistance Tool Focusing on Their Advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Takeuchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Hideo; Nasukawa, Tetsuya

    It is important for R&D managers, consultants, and other people seeking broad knowledge in technology fields to survey technical literature such as research papers, white papers, and technology news articles. One of the important kinds of information for those people regards the effectiveness of new technologies in their own businesses. General search engines are good at selecting documents revealing the details of a specific technology or a technology field, but it is hard to obtain useful information about how a technology will apply to individual business cases from such search results. There is a need for a technology survey assistance tool that helps users find technologies with suitable capabilities. In this paper, two technical tasks were tackled to develop the prototype of this assistance tool: Extraction of advantage phrases and scoring for the advantage phrases to find novel applications in the target technology field. We describe a new method to identify advantage phrases in technical documents and our scoring function that gives higher scores to novel applications of the technology. The results of evaluations showed our phrase identification method with only a few phrasal patterns performs almost as well as human annotators, and the proposed scoring conforms better to the decisions made by professionals than random sort.

  5. The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Brennan-Craddock; D Brackett; R Wildman; R Hague

    2012-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. Freshman Composition Guidelines In order to develop consistency in freshman composition instruction, we offer the following

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    instruction, we offer the following guidelines for course content and classroom policies for Composition 1. Students should learn the principles of grammar and mechanics. Classroom policies: 1. Students should. In addition to writing a graded in-class essay during the scheduled final exam time, students should write

  8. Fuel oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.P.; West, M.W.J.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a fuel oil composition comprising fuel oil and an additive wherein the additive comprises an AB or ABA block copolymer. It comprises: the A block(s) consist essentially of polymerized monomers selected from the group consisting of acrylate and methacrylate monomers without amine groups wherein the ester is made from an alcohol having 4-60 carbon atoms, and the B block consists essentially of polymerized monomers selected from the group consisting of acrylate and methacrylate monomers containing primary, secondary or tertiary amine groups, with other acrylate and methacrylate monomers, wherein the copolymer contains at least 2 monomer units in each A block and from 2 to 500 amine monomers units in the B block with a concentration in the additive of 10-70% by weight copolymer in solvent, and a concentration of at least 0.5-500 mg/liter of the copolymer in the fuel oil.

  9. What are additives?

    PubMed

    Zivkovi?, R

    2001-01-01

    Historical development of the concern exercised by the public institutions of a country for the food taken by their citizens, through care for its safety and proper testing by authorized governmental institutions, is presented. In the USA, FDA was established for this purpose, whereas European Union agencies are in charge in Europe. Additives are listed and classified according to E-number groups introduced in the European Union in 1990. Difference between the additives and supplements is explained. Special reference is given to an anonymous leaflet that appeared in Zagreb in the autumn 2000, in which some additives were described as harmful, detrimental, carcinogenic and highly hazardous, providing no valid arguments for such a statement. The author considers it merely an unargumented propaganda attack on particular European food manufactures. PMID:12398024

  10. Fluid loss additive

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, L.F.

    1984-09-04

    A fluid loss additive and method are shown for use in cementing oil and gas well bores which comprises the reaction product of a polyamine compound and a high molecular weight sulfonated polymer. The polyamine and high molecular weight sulfonated polymer are prereacted in solution and dried to form a dry product which can be added to the dry cement blend on the shelf or added to the mixing water during the formation of the cement slurry at the well site. The prereacted additive is effective to control fluid loss in cement slurries at 350/sup 0/ F. and higher.

  11. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  12. c-DNA vaccination against parasitic infections: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Kofta, W; Wedrychowicz, H

    2001-09-12

    Recently developed technology for DNA vaccination appears to offer the good prospect for the development of a multivalent vaccines that will effectively activate both the humoral and cell mediated mechanisms of the immune system. Currently, DNA vaccination against such important parasitic diseases like malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, schistosomosis, fasciolosis offers several new opportunities. However, the outcome of vaccination depends very much on vaccine formulations, dose and route of vaccine delivery, and the species and even strain of the vaccinated host. To overcome these problems much research is still needed, specifically focused on cloning and testing of new c-DNA sequences in the following: genome projects: different ways of delivery: design of vectors containing appropriate immunostimulatory sequences and very detailed studies on safety. PMID:11522401

  13. Additional information: Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    Additional information: Anthropology: Dr. De Ann Pendry dpendry@utk.edu 865.974.4408 Department of Anthropology 250 South Stadium Hall Spanish: Dr. Óscar Rivera-Rodas oriverar@utk.edu 865.974.7005 Department academic tracks: Latin American Anthropology (taught in English), and Language and Latin American

  14. Diesel fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.; Filowitz, M.S.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a diesel fuel additive composition. It comprises about 6.0 weight percent di-tertiary butyl peroxide, about 1.0 weight percent tall oil fatty imidazoline, about 0.5 weight percent neo decanoic acid, the balance being a hydrocarbon solvent carrier.

  15. Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

  16. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition

  17. Additional Sources of Information

    Cancer.gov

    Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

  18. The temporal advantage for individuating objects of expertise: perceptual expertise is an early riser.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The identification of faces has a temporal advantage over that of other object categories. The orientation-specific nature of this advantage suggests that it stems from our extensive experience and resulting expertise with upright faces. While experts can identify objects faster than novices, it is unclear exactly how the temporal dynamics of identification are changed by expertise and whether the nature of this temporal advantage is similar for face and non-face objects of expertise. Here, we titrated encoding time using a backward-masking paradigm with variable stimulus-mask onset-asynchronies and mapped the resulting effect on recognition for upright and inverted faces (Experiment 1) and for cars among car experts and car novices (Experiment 2). Performance for upright faces and cars among car experts rose above chance between 33 and 70 ms before that for inverted faces or cars among car novices. A shifted exponential function fitted to these data suggested that performance started to rise earlier for experts than for novices, but that additional encoding time increased performance at a similar rate. Experience influences the availability of information early in processing, possibly through the recruitment of more category-selective neurons, while the rate of perceptual processing may be less flexible and limited by inherent physiological constraints. PMID:19761298

  19. The temporal advantage for individuating objects of expertise: Perceptual expertise is an early riser

    PubMed Central

    Curby, Kim M.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The identification of faces has a temporal advantage over that of other object categories. The orientation-specific nature of this advantage suggests that it stems from our extensive experience and resulting expertise with upright faces. While experts can identify objects faster than novices, it is unclear exactly how the temporal dynamics of identification are changed by expertise and whether the nature of this temporal advantage is similar for face and non-face objects of expertise. Here, we titrated encoding time using a backward-masking paradigm with variable stimulus-mask onset-asynchronies and mapped the resulting effect on recognition for upright and inverted faces (Experiment 1) and for cars among car experts and car novices (Experiment 2). Performance for upright faces and cars among car experts rose above chance between 30 and 70 ms before that for inverted faces or cars among car novices. A shifted exponential function fitted to these data suggested that performance started to rise earlier for experts than for novices, but that additional encoding time increased performance at a similar rate. Experience influences the availability of information early in processing, possibly through the recruitment of more category-selective neurons, while the rate of perceptual processing may be less flexible and limited by inherent physiological constraints. PMID:19761298

  20. A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant ({Lambda}) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ({sub PST}{Lambda}) was then compared to those determined by TLD ({sub TLD}{Lambda}) and Monte Carlo ({sub MC}{Lambda}) techniques. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average {Lambda} values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average {sub PST}{Lambda} value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Intersource variation in {sub PST}{Lambda} was less than 0.01%. The {sub PST}{Lambda} was within 2% of the reported {sub MC}{Lambda} values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported {sub TLD}{Lambda}. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated to be (0.688{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} {sup 103}Pd sources. Conclusions: An independent {Lambda} determination has been performed for the Advantage Pd-103 source. The {sub PST}{Lambda} obtained in this work provides additional information needed for establishing a more accurate consensus {Lambda} value for the Advantage Pd-103 source.

  1. Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and mechanical advantage in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jaime B; Zelditch, Miriam L; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2010-03-01

    Weaning represents a challenging transition for young mammals, one particularly difficult for species coping with extreme conditions during feeding. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) experience such extreme conditions imposed by intense feeding competition during which the ability to consume large quantities of food quickly is highly advantageous. As adult spotted hyenas have massive skulls specialized for durophagy and can feed very rapidly, young individuals are likely at a competitive disadvantage until that specialized morphology is completely developed. Here we document developmental changes in skull size, shape, and mechanical advantage of the jaws. Sampling an ontogenetic series of Crocuta skulls from individuals ranging in age from 2 months to 18 years, we use linear measurements and geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses suggesting that size, limited mechanical advantage of the jaws, and/or limited attachment sites for jaw muscles might constrain the feeding performance of juveniles. We also examine skull development in relation to key life history events, including weaning and reproductive maturity, to inquire whether ontogeny of the feeding apparatus is slower or more protracted in this species than in carnivores not specialized for durophagy. We find that, although mechanical advantage reaches maturity in hyenas at 22 months, adult skull size is not achieved until 29 months of age, and skull shape does not reach maturity until 35 months. The latter is nearly 2 years after mean weaning age, and more than 1 year after reproductive maturity. Thus, skull development in Crocuta is indeed protracted relative to that in most other carnivores. Based on the skull features that continue to change and to provide additional muscle attachment area, protracted development may be largely due to development of the massive musculature required by durophagy. These findings may ultimately shed light on the adaptive significance of the unusual "role-reversed" pattern of female dominance over males in this species. PMID:19862838

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (inventor); Delvigs, Peter (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. Generalized Additive Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

    1986-01-01

    Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\\\\sum \\\\beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\\\\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\\\\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are

  4. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  5. Functional Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Mathew W.; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  6. Advantages to Indigo mechanical thrombectomy for ALI: device and technique.

    PubMed

    Yamada, R; Adams, J; Guimaraes, M; Schönholz, C

    2015-06-01

    Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has been used as the first therapeutic option for acute limb ischemia (ALI) due to its less invasive nature; however, recent systematic review showed higher incidence of major complications related to lytic infusion, including hemorrhagic stroke. In this setting, aspiration thrombectomy with Indigo has the greatest advantage of not increasing systemic risk of bleeding. The Indigo™ system from Penumbra® (Alameda, CA, USA) promotes active thrombectomy using a vacuum pump that generates substantial suction, enabling aspiration of clots of varying sizes and lengths. The device has three components: aspiration catheter, separator and pump. There are 2 aspiration catheter sizes: CAT 3 and CAT 5. The separators are intended to mobilize the clot and clean the catheter lumen, and therefore restoring flow for continuous aspiration. The pump is small-sized equipment capable of applying near pure vacuum aspiration pressure of -29 mmHg. Aspiration thrombectomy with Indigo has two key advantages: it does not require the use of lytics, and it provides immediate flow reestablishment. Its use when thrombolysis is contraindicated or has failed is already well established and, in the future, it may likely become the first line endovascular option in patients with acute limb ischemia. PMID:25644826

  7. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  8. Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids

    PubMed Central

    Sellis, Diamantis; Callahan, Benjamin J.; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Messer, Philipp W.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular adaptation is typically assumed to proceed by sequential fixation of beneficial mutations. In diploids, this picture presupposes that for most adaptive mutations, the homozygotes have a higher fitness than the heterozygotes. Here, we show that contrary to this expectation, a substantial proportion of adaptive mutations should display heterozygote advantage. This feature of adaptation in diploids emerges naturally from the primary importance of the fitness of heterozygotes for the invasion of new adaptive mutations. We formalize this result in the framework of Fisher's influential geometric model of adaptation. We find that in diploids, adaptation should often proceed through a succession of short-lived balanced states that maintain substantially higher levels of phenotypic and fitness variation in the population compared with classic adaptive walks. In fast-changing environments, this variation produces a diversity advantage that allows diploids to remain better adapted compared with haploids despite the disadvantage associated with the presence of unfit homozygotes. The short-lived balanced states arising during adaptive walks should be mostly invisible to current scans for long-term balancing selection. Instead, they should leave signatures of incomplete selective sweeps, which do appear to be common in many species. Our results also raise the possibility that balancing selection, as a natural consequence of frequent adaptation, might play a more prominent role among the forces maintaining genetic variation than is commonly recognized. PMID:22143780

  9. Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: springxwang@yahoo.com; Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

  10. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  11. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at e">http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89.

  12. Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Advantages and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Hun

    2015-03-16

    One of the most prominent characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is their unpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs are not classified as "benign" or "malignant" but are rather stratified by their associated clinical risk of malignancy as determined by tumor size, location, and number of mitoses identified during surgical histology. The difficulty in assessing the malignant potential and prognoses of GISTs as well as the increasing incidence of "incidental GISTs" presents challenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopic enucleation has been actively performed as both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs. Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages, including keeping the stomach intact after the removal of GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscious sedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewer human resources required compared with surgery. However, a low complete resection rate and the risk of perforation could reduce the overall advantages of this procedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appears to achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, this technique absolutely requires a very skilled operator. Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding due to large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopy collaborations have been applied for more stable and pathologically acceptable management. These collaborative procedures have produced excellent outcomes. Many procedures have been developed and attempted because they were technically possible. However, we should first consider the theoretical basis for each technique. Until the efficacy and safety of sole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopy endoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be an appropriate method for minimally destructive GIST surgery. PMID:25789089

  13. Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Advantages and hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Hun

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is their unpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs are not classified as “benign” or “malignant” but are rather stratified by their associated clinical risk of malignancy as determined by tumor size, location, and number of mitoses identified during surgical histology. The difficulty in assessing the malignant potential and prognoses of GISTs as well as the increasing incidence of “incidental GISTs” presents challenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopic enucleation has been actively performed as both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs. Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages, including keeping the stomach intact after the removal of GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscious sedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewer human resources required compared with surgery. However, a low complete resection rate and the risk of perforation could reduce the overall advantages of this procedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appears to achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, this technique absolutely requires a very skilled operator. Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding due to large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopy collaborations have been applied for more stable and pathologically acceptable management. These collaborative procedures have produced excellent outcomes. Many procedures have been developed and attempted because they were technically possible. However, we should first consider the theoretical basis for each technique. Until the efficacy and safety of sole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopy endoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be an appropriate method for minimally destructive GIST surgery. PMID:25789089

  14. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    PubMed

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  15. The Bionic Handling Assistant: a success story of additive manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Grzesiak; Ralf Becker; Alexander Verl

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This review will describe the development of the Bionic Handling Assistant as well as the additive manufacturing (AM) process of robot grippers and its possibilities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – AM offers the chance to use the additive processes to produce highly flexible automation parts and systems as the Bionic Handling Assistant in small and medium quantities that can utilize a

  16. 3.OA Addition Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-15

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below is a table showing addition of numbers from $1$ through $5$. In each column and each row of the table, even and odd numbers alternate. Explain wh...

  17. Color Chips-Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This interactive Java applet helps the learner conceptualize the addition of signed numbers. The user clicks and drags red and black colored chips to a circle to represent a problem and then simplifies by placing a red negative chip on top of a positive black chip. The student actually sees the opposite pair disappear. Users may practice problems generated by the computer, themselves or free play with the chips. There are separate tabs to access information for the learner, the instructor and to seek help.

  18. ENGINEERING PHYSICS An Interdisciplinary Program Jointly Offered by the

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS An Interdisciplinary Program Jointly Offered by the School of Engineering in engineering fundamentals, but also an understanding of the physical principles of the underlying mechanisms is required. The goal of the Engineering Physics Program is to offer students a solid background

  19. Course Outlines for Secondary School Offerings. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry Creek School District 5, Englewood, CO.

    "Secondary School Offerings" provides a brief annotated outline of the general education courses offered in two middle units and one senior unit in the Cherry Creek Schools during 1971-72. The purpose of this summary is to supply a guide for new staff members, interested students, and parents. An overall instructional goal is to individualize…

  20. Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free,

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Wind energy offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean. One of these sources, wind energy, offers considerable promise; the wind itself is free, wind power is clean, and it is virtually inexhaustible. In recent years, research on wind energy has accelerated

  1. http://forensicscience.ucdavis.edu Offered by the UC Davis

    E-print Network

    Peisert, Sean

    http://forensicscience.ucdavis.edu Offered by the UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Group in collaboration with UC Davis Extension Master of Science in Forensic Science Take part in this unique master of Science in Forensic Science offers a unique opportunity to obtain a research-based, forensic science

  2. 33 CFR 20.804 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...false Objections and offers of proof. 20.804 Section 20.804 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...804 Objections and offers of proof. (a) Any party...

  3. 33 CFR 20.804 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...false Objections and offers of proof. 20.804 Section 20.804 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...804 Objections and offers of proof. (a) Any party...

  4. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of...general circulation within the State of Idaho a notice that the lands will be offered...file with the proper office at Boise, Idaho, a notice of their intention to apply...

  5. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of...general circulation within the State of Idaho a notice that the lands will be offered...file with the proper office at Boise, Idaho, a notice of their intention to apply...

  6. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of...general circulation within the State of Idaho a notice that the lands will be offered...file with the proper office at Boise, Idaho, a notice of their intention to apply...

  7. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of...general circulation within the State of Idaho a notice that the lands will be offered...file with the proper office at Boise, Idaho, a notice of their intention to apply...

  8. NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

  9. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155...ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary...provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration of private and registered...

  10. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155...ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary...provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration of private and registered...

  11. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  12. EGen: Automatic Job Offer Processing System for Human Resources

    E-print Network

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    EGen: Automatic Job Offer Processing System for Human Resources Rémy Kessler , Juan Manuel Torres at presenting the E-Gen system (Automatic Job Offer Processing system for Human Resources). E-Gen will implement-Bèze. interesting problems to resolve related to Natural Language Processing (NLP), for example, that job postings

  13. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  14. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  15. Summer at the University of Colorado at Boulder offers

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    - tion (NOAA), among others. YEAR-ROUND PROGRAM The summer session is an in- tegral part of the year-round sites in the nation for alpine research; the School of Education offers many graduate courses designed colleges and profes- sional schools offer more than 4,000 courses in over 140 fields of study: College

  16. www.geology.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered

    E-print Network

    GEOLOGY www.geology.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Geology Bachelor of Science in Geology Secondary Education Program Minor in Geology Minor in Computer Applications Minor in Environmental Geology Minor in Space and Planetary Science Graduate Degrees Offered: M.A., M.S., M.A.T. and M

  17. Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages

    E-print Network

    Wei, Qingyang

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176Lu (IRL) continues to be exploited. In this paper, research literatures about IRL in PET detectors are reviewed. Details about the adverse effects of IRL to PET and their solutions, as well as the useful applications are presented and discussed.

  18. Angiotensin receptor blockers - advantages of the new sartans.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Zia Al; Mansoor, Aijaz; Kaul, Upendra

    2013-07-01

    Advantages of the new angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) include once daily dosing, an absence of significant adverse reactions, well tolerated side effect profile and cost effectiveness. A growing realization is their beneficial pleotropic effects. Antihypertensive agents are widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events partly beyond that of blood pressure-lowering. The RAAS, and its primary mediator Ang II, also have a direct influence on the progression of the atherosclerotic process via effects on endothelial function, inflammation, fibrinolytic balance, and plaque stability. For patients at high cardiovascular risk based on the results of the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies, telmisartan is indicated for cardiovascular prevention. Studies have shown that olmesartan medoxomil treatment may slow the progression of atherosclerosis and postpone albuminuria thereby potentially improving CV outcomes. PMID:24772750

  19. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25492891

  20. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  1. Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid methane, which can be manufactured from any of the hydrocarbon sources such as coal, shale biomass, and organic waste considered as a petroleum replacement for aircraft fuels. A simple cycle analysis is carried out for a turboprop engine flying a Mach 0.8 and 10, 688 meters (35,000 ft.) altitude. Cycle performance comparisions are rendered for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is cooled or not cooled by the methane fuel. The advantages and disadvantages of involving the fuel in the turbine cooling system are discussed. Methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from Jet A and will require different combustor designs. Although a number of similar difficult technical problems exist, a highly fuel efficient turboprop engine burning methane appear to be feasible.

  2. Total hip arthroplasty: areview of advances, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of Osteoarthritis (OA) has been unsatisfactory and often surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) is required. THA is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage arthritic hip conditions. Cemented THA has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with OA. An improvement in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) before surgery might contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of DVT after THA, though post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a chronic condition in the lower extremity does not appear to be a major complication after DVT in patients undergoing THA. For OA, four domains to be evaluated: pain, physical function, joint imaging, and patient global assessment. Thus, THA can be cost saving or, at least cost- effective in improving quality-adjusted life expectancy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances as well as advantages and limitations of THA. PMID:25784971

  3. The value of coverage in the medicare advantage insurance market.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the impact of coverage on demand for health insurance in the Medicare Advantage (MA) insurance market. Estimating the effects of coverage on demand poses a challenge for researchers who must consider both the hundreds of benefits that affect out-of-pocket costs (OOPC) to consumers, but also the endogeneity of coverage. These problems are addressed in a discrete choice demand model by employing a unique measure of OOPC that considers a consumer's expected payments for a fixed bundle of health services and applying instrumental variable techniques to address potential endogeneity bias. The results of the demand model show that OOPC have a significant effect on consumer surplus and that not instrumenting for OOPC results in a significant underestimate of the value of coverage. PMID:20851485

  4. Experimentally Quantifying the Advantages of Weak-Values-Based Metrology

    E-print Network

    Gerardo I. Viza; Julián Martínez-Rincón; Gabriel B. Alves; Andrew N. Jordan; John C. Howell

    2014-10-31

    We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-values-based metrology versus standard methods. To accomplish this we, measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-values-based technique), or by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external modulations of the detector, and transverse beam-jitter, we quantify the mitigation of these sources in the weak values-based experiment versus the standard focusing experiment. The experiments are compared using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. In all cases, the weak-values technique performs the same or better than the standard technique by up to two orders of magnitude in precision for our parameters. We further measure the statistical efficiency of the weak-values-based technique. By post-selecting on $1\\%$ of the photons, we obtain $99\\%$ of the available Fisher information of the beam deflection parameter.

  5. Changing appetites: the adaptive advantages of fuel choice.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Illana A; Ribeiro, Sofia M; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Norberg, Erik; Danial, Nika N

    2014-02-01

    Cells are capable of metabolizing a variety of carbon substrates, including glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids. Cellular fuel choice not only fulfills specific biosynthetic needs, but also enables programmatic adaptations to stress conditions beyond compensating for changes in nutrient availability. Emerging evidence indicates that specific switches from utilization of one substrate to another can have protective or permissive roles in disease pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular determinants of cellular fuel preference may provide insights into the homeostatic control of stress responses, and unveil therapeutic targets. Here, we highlight overarching themes encompassing cellular fuel choice; its link to cell fate and function; its advantages in stress protection; and its contribution to metabolic dependencies and maladaptations in pathological conditions. PMID:24018218

  6. Changing appetites: The adaptive advantages of fuel choice

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Illana A.; Ribeiro, Sofia M.; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Norberg, Erik; Danial, Nika N.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are capable of metabolizing a variety of carbon substrates, including glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids. Cellular fuel choice not only fulfills specific biosynthetic needs, but also enables programmatic adaptations to stress conditions beyond compensating for changes in nutrient availability. Emerging evidence indicates that specific switches from utilization of one substrate to another can have protective or permissive roles in disease pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular determinants of cellular fuel preference may provide insights into the homeostatic control of stress responses, and unveil therapeutic targets. Here, we highlight overarching themes encompassing cellular fuel choice, its link to cell fate and function, its advantages in stress protection, and its contribution to metabolic dependencies and maladaptations in pathologic conditions. PMID:24018218

  7. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  8. Advantages of Digital Subtraction Angiography During Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun kyung; Choi, Yun Suk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Most pain physicians know that fluoroscopy might improve the safety, accuracy, and efficacy of nerve block; however, it is difficult to distinguish the previously administered contrast medium from the injecting contrast medium, and to identify accurate contrast medium diffusion flow in a case of existing radiodensities such as cement and screw. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can improve accuracy of nerve blocks. Case Presentation: We described our experiences with two successful transforaminal epidural injections and nerve block of two patients with 73 and 68 years of age who were diagnosed as failed back surgery syndrome. Conclusions: The advantages of DSA in fluoroscopy-guided transforaminal epidural block and nerve block are identification of the degree of appropriate contrast flow (epidural and nerve root sleeve) and the intravascular administration without overlapping radiodense structures.

  9. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more-traditional credit vehicle, to recover both system and administrative costs. This approach has a number of features that should appeal to PV owners, including long-term, fixed-cost, attractive financing; loans that are tied to the tax capacity of the property rather than to the owner's credit standing; a repayment obligation that transfers along with the sale of the property; and a potential ability to deduct the repayment obligation from federal taxable income as part of the local property tax deduction. For these reasons, Berkeley's program, which was first announced on October 23, 2007, has received considerable nationwide attention in both the trade and general press. Since the announcement, cities from throughout California and the broader U.S. have expressed keen interest in the possibility of replicating this type of program. In California alone, the cities of Santa Cruz, Santa Monica and Palm Desert are all reportedly considering similar programs, while the city of San Francisco has recently announced its own program, portions of which closely parallel Berkeley's approach. In addition, a bill (AB 811) that would authorize all cities in California, not just charter cities like Berkeley, to create this type of program was approved by the California General Assembly on January 29 and is currently under consideration in the State Senate. A similar bill in Colorado (HB 1350) was signed into law on May 28. Elsewhere, the city of Tucson, Arizona has also considered this financing approach.

  10. Reinforcement with fluoroplastic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Stahl, W.M.

    1991-05-01

    The use of high molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a reinforcing additive to improve the tear strength of elastomers was studied in silicone rubber by the mid-1950s and in fluoroelastomers by the late-1960s. Although the PTFE is added as a powder, the shear developed during compounding into an elastomer fibrillates the power into a continuous network of nodes and fibers. This network structure effectively reinforces elastomers but it also leads to distortion of finished parts and unacceptably high hardness and modulus of vulcanizates. A new high molecular weight TFE/HFP fluoroplastic micropowder has recently been developed (Teflon MP1500, Du Pont) which forms short fibers, ribbons or platelets when compounded with sufficient shear into elastomers. The controlled structure developed during compounding allows high levels of incorporation of the micropowder into elastomers with uniform dispersion and results in significant improvements in tear strength and abrasion resistance, as well as reduced coefficients of friction.

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  13. RGB Additive Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Engelman

    2010-12-05

    Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

  14. UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    UConn Extension offers Bedding Plant Program for Greenhouse Growers The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension is offering Bedding Plants - Spring 2015! This educational program will feature, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT · Diseases of Spring Crops and Their Management, Yonghao Li, Plant

  15. Who Is Offering and How Often? Gender Differences in Drug Offers Among American Indian Adolescents of the Southwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Dixon Rayle; Stephen Kulis; Scott K. Okamoto; Sheila S. Tann; Craig Winston LeCroy; Patricia Dustman; Aimee M. Burke

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants responded to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They were asked to consider the frequency of drug offers from specific groups in their social networks and the

  16. DEPARTMENT NEW HIRE CHECKLIST Job offer was extended and accepted and employee returned a signed letter of offer.

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Mike

    . The employee has been registered for relevant training classes or workshops. (e.g. university business systemsDEPARTMENT NEW HIRE CHECKLIST Job offer was extended and accepted and employee returned a signed letter of offer. Candidates not selected were contacted by phone or letter. If appointed, employee

  17. Bi-center bit/reamer tool demonstrates its advantages

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A downhole drill bit and reamer combination that features a unique eccentric fixed-blade design has been developed by Hughes Christensen. The new system is called RWD, Ream While Drilling. The concept was thoroughly tested by Amoco in its Catoosa Test Facility (CTF) in Oklahoma, and it was successfully applied offshore Trinidad, and in at least two US Gulf of Mexico wells. For specific features, the RWD tool`s design offers a patented hole opening blade, Carbide Supported Edge (CSE) PDC cutters, a blade relief gauge pad, and other blade features, plus interchangeable nozzles that maximize cleaning and minimize hole erosion. The stabilization pad`s size is determined by pilot hole size and amount of imbalance force generated. The two-piece design allows different style pilot bits to be used with the RWD. Tricone or PDC bits can be selected based on lithology and operating parameters.

  18. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  19. DNR offers 284 tracts in lease Sale 40

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The State of Alaska's Department of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals and Energy Management, offered 284 tracts of submerged lands in Cook Inlet and uplands on Kalgin Island, the Kenai Peninsula, the west side of Cook Inlet and in the lower Susitna Valley. State geologists classify the area as low in its potential for commercial discoveries of oil, but many companies feel that Cook Inlet has some promise. Major oil companies offered the highest cash bonus bids, but independents and speculators managed to pick up the bulk of the 284 tracts offered.

  20. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-02-08

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89 million facility under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This paper describes the operating experiences and results obtained during the first year of full operations at WRAP. Interested audiences include personnel involved in TRU waste characterization activities, TRU waste treatment and disposal facilities and TRU waste certification. The conclusions of this paper are that WRAP has proven itself to be a valuable asset for low-level and TRU waste management.

  1. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Tania S

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one example of this kind of technology. AM offers geometric flexibility in its products and therefore allows customisation to suit individual needs. Clinical success has been shown with models for surgical planning, implants, assistive devices and scaffold-based tissue engineering. The use of AM to print tissues and organs that mimic nature in structure and function remains an elusive goal, but has the potential to transform personalised medicine, drug development and scientific understanding of the mechanisms of disease.  PMID:25214247

  2. Favorable Selection, Risk Adjustment, and the Medicare Advantage Program

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Becker, David J; Smith, Wilson; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of changes in payment and risk adjustment on (1) the annual enrollment and switching behavior of Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries, and (2) the relative costliness of MA enrollees and disenrollees. Data From 1999 through 2008 national Medicare claims data from the 5 percent longitudinal sample of Parts A and B expenditures. Study Design Retrospective, fixed effects regression analysis of July enrollment and year-long switching into and out of MA. Similar regression analysis of the costliness of those switching into (out of) MA in the 6 months prior to enrollment (after disenrollment) relative to nonswitchers in the same county over the same period. Findings Payment generosity and more sophisticated risk adjustment were associated with substantial increases in MA enrollment and decreases in disenrollment. Claims experience of those newly switching into MA was not affected by any of the policy reforms, but disenrollment became increasingly concentrated among high-cost beneficiaries. Conclusions Enrollment is very sensitive to payment levels. The use of more sophisticated risk adjustment did not alter favorable selection into MA, but it did affect the costliness of disenrollees. PMID:23088500

  3. Making Medicare Advantage a Middle-Class Program

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare Advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the “middle class.” Current Medicare policy of a “single premium” for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare. PMID:23454916

  4. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  5. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

    2011-01-01

    Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

  6. Stars advantages vs parallel coordinates: shape perception as visualization reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Vladimir; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2013-12-01

    Although shape perception is the main information channel for brain, it has been poor used by recent visualization techniques. The difficulties of its modeling are key obstacles for visualization theory and application. Known experimental estimates of shape perception capabilities have been made for low data dimension, and they were usually not connected with data structures. More applied approach for certain data structures detection by means of shape displays are considered by the example of analytical and experimental comparison of popular now Parallel Coordinates (PCs), i.e. 2D Cartesian displays of data vectors, with polar displays known as stars. Advantages of stars vs. PCs by Gestalt Laws are shown. About twice faster feature selection and classification with stars than PCs are showed by psychological experiments for hyper-tubes structures detection in data space with dimension up to 100-200 and its subspaces. This demonstrates great reserves of visualization enhancement in comparison with many recent techniques usually focused on few data attributes analysis.

  7. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05423.001 PMID:25789512

  8. Advantages of unocculted optical systems in lucky imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Gy. M.

    2014-03-01

    Lucky imaging is a competitive alternative for high-resolution imaging with a possibility of applications on small telescopes. The advantage of this technique is that small telescopes are not time expensive, therefore long observing runs, lasting for several hours or nights can be planned, enabling for time-resolved observation of sources in crowded fields. In the ideal case, a lucky image is diffraction-limited, while the actual resolution (in the order of several 0.1 arc seconds) is still close to the diffraction-limit of small telescopes. However, occulted optical systems, such as Cassegrain or RCC (Ritchey-Chretien-Coude) perform a poor imaging near the diffraction limit, because the secondary mirror significantly decreases the contrast. By basic optical calculations one can conclude that a typical Cassegrain-system has similar PSF to that of an unocculted telescope with a 40% less aperture, while the Strehl ratio is decreased to about 30% simply due to the secondary mirror. Since the profile is widened and the precious signal decreases significantly, a well-constructed unocculted telescope can perform at least as well as a Cassegrain system which is twice as large. My conclusion is therefore that "dropping out the secondary mirror makes the aperture double" — at least in Lucky Imaging applications.

  9. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  10. Advantages of High vs. Low Earth Orbit for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    While the subject of this workshop, which we will refer to as ET (for Enlightenment Telescope), is a dazzling successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, its location is unlikely to be the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) used by HST. Locations suggested for ET include High Earth Orbit (HEO) and the moon. The first space telescope to occupy HEO will be the liquid helium cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The selection of HEO for SIRTF was the outcome of a recent study led by the Ames Research Center which showed significant advantages for SIRTF in HEO vs. LEO. This article summarizes the main results of that study. We begin with a review of SIRTF's rationale and requirements, in part because the IR capabilities and low temperature proposed for ET make it something of a successor to SIRTF as well as to HST. We conclude with some comments about another possible location for both SIRTF and ET, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point.

  11. In-situ propellant advantages for fast transfer to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galecki, Diane L.

    1988-01-01

    The advantages of in situ propellant for a fast transfer to Mars were studied as compared to all earth-based propellants and other options for reduction of total masss in low earth orbit. For a 10-year, 10-mission model and a baseline vehicle taken from the literature, the total reduction in number of earth launches was calculated. The scenario in which the return propellants are transferred to Mars on a slow cargo vehicle provides a 29-percent reduction in ALS launches over the baseline scenario in which all propellants are brought directly from earth. The scenarios in which in situ propellants are used for a successively greater portion of the total mission continue to reduce the number of launches required. With Mars propellant used for the Mars ascent vehicle and the return leg of the mission, a 59-percent reduction in launches is obtained. Finally, if the oxygen, or oxygen and fuel, for the outbound leg of the mission is also obtained by in situ production, from the moon for example, then the total reduction in number of earth launches is more than 80 percent.

  12. Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

  13. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  14. Advantages and challenges of microfluidic cell culture in polydimethylsiloxane devices.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Lucumi, Edinson; Gómez-Sjöberg, Rafael; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-01-15

    Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture. PMID:25105943

  15. Narrow-band imaging optical chromocolonoscopy: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Emura, Fabian; Saito, Yutaka; Ikematsu, Hiroaki

    2008-08-21

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an innovative optical technology that modifies the center wavelength and bandwidth of an endoscope's light into narrow-band illumination of 415 +/- 30 nm. NBI markedly improves capillary pattern contrast and is an in vivo method for visualizing microvessel morphological changes in superficial neoplastic lesions. The scientific basis for NBI is that short wavelength light falls within the hemoglobin absorption band, thereby facilitating clearer visualization of vascular structures. Several studies have reported advantages and limitations of NBI colonoscopy in the colorectum. One difficulty in evaluating results, however, has been non-standardization of NBI systems (Sequential and non-sequential). Utilization of NBI technology has been increasing worldwide, but accurate pit pattern analysis and sufficient skill in magnifying colonoscopy are basic fundamentals required for proficiency in NBI diagnosis of colorectal lesions. Modern optical technology without proper image interpretation wastes resources, confuses untrained endoscopists and delays inter-institutional validation studies. Training in the principles of "optical image-enhanced endoscopy" is needed to close the gap between technological advancements and their clinical usefulness. Currently available evidence indicates that NBI constitutes an effective and reliable alternative to chromocolonoscopy for in vivo visualization of vascular structures, but further study assessing reproducibility and effectiveness in the colorectum is ongoing at various medical centers. PMID:18756593

  16. Stepping to phase-perturbed metronome cues: multisensory advantage in movement synchrony but not correction

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.; Elliott, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Humans can synchronize movements with auditory beats or rhythms without apparent effort. This ability to entrain to the beat is considered automatic, such that any perturbations are corrected for, even if the perturbation was not consciously noted. Temporal correction of upper limb (e.g., finger tapping) and lower limb (e.g., stepping) movements to a phase perturbed auditory beat usually results in individuals being back in phase after just a few beats. When a metronome is presented in more than one sensory modality, a multisensory advantage is observed, with reduced temporal variability in finger tapping movements compared to unimodal conditions. Here, we investigate synchronization of lower limb movements (stepping in place) to auditory, visual and combined auditory-visual (AV) metronome cues. In addition, we compare movement corrections to phase advance and phase delay perturbations in the metronome for the three sensory modality conditions. We hypothesized that, as with upper limb movements, there would be a multisensory advantage, with stepping variability being lowest in the bimodal condition. As such, we further expected correction to the phase perturbation to be quickest in the bimodal condition. Our results revealed lower variability in the asynchronies between foot strikes and the metronome beats in the bimodal condition, compared to unimodal conditions. However, while participants corrected substantially quicker to perturbations in auditory compared to visual metronomes, there was no multisensory advantage in the phase correction task—correction under the bimodal condition was almost identical to the auditory-only (AO) condition. On the whole, we noted that corrections in the stepping task were smaller than those previously reported for finger tapping studies. We conclude that temporal corrections are not only affected by the reliability of the sensory information, but also the complexity of the movement itself. PMID:25309397

  17. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge over their opponents. PMID:23672331

  18. Information enrichment: designing the supply chain for competitive advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mason-Jones; D. R. Towill

    1997-01-01

    Speed of response to customer demand has long been recognized as a key attribute to business success since customer loyalty can be won or lost on product availability. With everyone implementing lean manufacturing philosophies, companies additionally need to become smart chain managers and ensure continuous improvement to stay competitive. Exploits further the concept of the “seamless supply chain”, by encouraging

  19. Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Sarah; Turley, R. Steven

    2006-10-01

    One of the main goals of the BYU Thin Films group is to find optical constants for materials in the Extreme Ultraviolet. This is accomplished by taking reflection and transmission measurements. The addition of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator to our current system allows us to take reflectance measurements at wavelengths currently unavailable on the Normal Incidence Monochromator (Monarch).

  20. Interdisciplinary Graduate Education at UNH Advantages, Opportunities, and Obstacles

    E-print Network

    as well. Current interdisciplinary programs are prospering, and the judicious introduction of several additional programs might give the University a portfolio of interdisciplinary programs that highlights our concrete actions can be taken to enhance graduate interdisciplinary graduate programs; a general commitment

  1. Global Safeguards and Security Educational Center Course Offerings

    E-print Network

    #12;Global Safeguards and Security Educational Center Course Offerings Basic NonDestructive Assay)­Workshop (3­5 days) POC: Mark Hawk, 865.946.1275, hawkmb@ornl.gov Nuclear Engineering NE550 Nuclear

  2. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system operators that use scrambling, encryption or similar technologies in conjunction with cable system terminal devices, as defined in § 15.3(e) of...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system operators that use scrambling, encryption or similar technologies in conjunction with cable system terminal devices, as defined in § 15.3(e) of...

  4. neuroscience 30% Discount Offer (See details on order form)

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    , Patterson offers a short history of immune manipulation in treating mental illness (recounting some and their involvement in mental illness. Patterson focuses on this brain-immune crosstalk, exploring the possibility

  5. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...aliens prohibited. The employer's job...same benefits, wages, and working conditions...qualification listed in the job offer must...crops. (c) Minimum benefits,...

  6. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...aliens prohibited. The employer's job...same benefits, wages, and working conditions...qualification listed in the job offer must...crops. (c) Minimum benefits,...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...aliens prohibited. The employer's job...same benefits, wages, and working conditions...qualification listed in the job offer must...crops. (c) Minimum benefits,...

  8. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers...aliens prohibited. The employer's job...same benefits, wages, and working conditions...qualification listed in the job offer must...crops. (c) Minimum benefits,...

  9. High Energy Astrophysics: What do Statistical Methods Have to Offer?

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    High Energy Astrophysics: What do Statistical Methods Have to Offer? David van Dyk Department provides a forum for discussion of outstanding statistical problems in Astrophysics. Goals include. Highly Structured Models in High-Energy Astrophysics · Astrostatistics: Complex Sources, Complex

  10. Offered by the Manning School of Business March, 2013

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Offered by the Manning School of Business March, 2013 Program Description The Master of Science with an appropriate undergraduate degree in business, science, technology or engineering. Contact Persons Manning

  11. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  12. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  13. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  14. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  15. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...compatibility offer. Cable system operators that use scrambling, encryption or similar technologies in conjunction with cable...signals that do not need to be processed through descrambling or decryption circuitry (this capability can generally be provided...

  16. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS...percentage. (15) The sales contract unit price, delivery terms (e.g., FOB...amount of the CCC bonus; (B) The intention to submit an offer; or (C) The...

  17. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...reasons a change in duty status, assignment, working conditions, or any other benefit or special treatment (including reasonable...An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR...

  18. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...reasons a change in duty status, assignment, working conditions, or any other benefit or special treatment (including reasonable...An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR...

  19. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...reasons a change in duty status, assignment, working conditions, or any other benefit or special treatment (including reasonable...An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR...

  20. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...reasons a change in duty status, assignment, working conditions, or any other benefit or special treatment (including reasonable...An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR...

  1. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...reasons a change in duty status, assignment, working conditions, or any other benefit or special treatment (including reasonable...An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR...

  2. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...or others receiving securities as compensation in connection... (b) Deposit of securities and proceeds in escrow...by other applicable law, all securities issued in connection...offering by a blank check company and the gross...

  3. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  4. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  5. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  6. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  7. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  8. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...including the name of the insurance carrier, the insurance policy number...economical and reasonable common carrier transportation charges for...worker's Sabbath and Federal holidays. The employer must offer...economical and reasonable common carrier transportation charges...

  9. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the name of the insurance carrier, the insurance policy number...economical and reasonable common carrier transportation charges for...worker's Sabbath and Federal holidays. The employer must offer...economical and reasonable common carrier transportation charges...

  10. Early Study Offers Hope for an Ebola Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Early Study Offers Hope for an Ebola Vaccine Precursor of vaccine now being tested in ... 2015) Tuesday, December 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Immunization TUESDAY, Dec. 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- There's ...

  11. Music Technology Stetson University offers two degrees combining music with

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Music Technology Stetson University offers two degrees combining music with emerging technologies for artistic expression. The bachelor of music in music technology integrates music performance (voice, orchestral instruments, piano, organ, guitar) with studies in digital music and audio production

  12. The Advantages of FTD Drug Development (Part 2 of FTD: The Next Therapeutic Frontier)

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Gold, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hu, William T.; Rosen, Howard; Kramer, Joel; Gao, Fen-Biao; Burton, Edward A.; Chow, Tiffany; Kao, Aimee; Leavitt, Blair; Lamb, Bruce; Grether, Megan; Knopman, David; Cairns, Nigel J.; Mackenzie, Ian; Mitic, Laura; Roberson, Erik D.; Van Kammen, Daniel; Cantillon, Marc; Zahs, Kathleen; Jackson, George; Salloway, Stephen; Morris, John; Tong, Gary; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Dickinson, Susan; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sutherland, Margaret; Abushakra, Susan; Lewcock, Joseph; Farese, Robert; Kenet, Robert O.; LaFerla, Frank; Perrin, Steve; Whitaker, Steve; Honig, Lawrence; Mesulam, Marsel; Boeve, Brad; Grossman, Murray; Miller, Bruce; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD) encompasses a spectrum of related neurodegenerative disorders with behavioral, language and motor phenotypes for which there are currently no effective therapies. This manuscript is the second of two articles that summarize the presentations and discussions that occurred at two symposia in 2011 sponsored by the Frontotemporal Dementia Treatment Study Group (FTSG), a collaborative group of academic and industry researchers that is devoted to developing treatments for FTD. This manuscript discusses the current status of FTD clinical research that is relevant to the conduct of clinical trials and why FTD research may be an attractive pathway for developing therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. The clinical and molecular features of FTD, including rapid disease progression and relatively pure molecular pathology, suggest that there are advantages to developing drugs for FTD as compared to other dementias. FTD qualifies as orphan indication, providing additional advantages for drug development. Two recent sets of consensus diagnostic criteria will facilitate the identification of patients with FTD, and a variety of neuropsychological, functional and behavioral scales have been shown to be sensitive to disease progression. Moreover, quantitative neuroimaging measurements demonstrate progressive brain atrophy in FTD at rates that may surpass Alzheimer's disease (AD). Finally, the similarities between FTD and other neurodegenerative diseases with drug development efforts already underway suggest that FTD researchers will be able to draw upon this experience to create a roadmap for FTD drug development. We conclude that FTD research has reached sufficient maturity to pursue clinical development of specific FTD therapies. PMID:23062850

  13. Adolescent drivers' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of abstention from in-vehicle cell phone use.

    PubMed

    Hafetz, Jessica S; Jacobsohn, Lela S; García-España, J Felipe; Curry, Allison E; Winston, Flaura K

    2010-11-01

    Driver in-vehicle cell phone use presents a dangerous distraction for adolescent drivers for whom motor vehicle crashes represents the leading cause of death. We used the National Young Driver Survey (NYDS), a nationally representative (N=5665) cross-sectional study of adolescent driving behavior, to examine potential psychosocial correlates of cell phone use while driving (CPWD). Results indicated that stronger beliefs about the advantages of abstention from CPWD were associated with less frequent CPWD, adjusted OR: 0.46 95% [CI: 0.40-0.53]), while stronger beliefs about the disadvantages of abstention were associated with more frequent CPWD, adjusted OR: 1.41 95% CI: [1.21-1.64]. In the absence of strong advantage beliefs, disadvantage beliefs did not have a meaningful association with less frequent CPWD. Almost 30% of adolescents held weaker advantage beliefs coupled with stronger disadvantage beliefs, placing them most at risk. These findings offer guidance for a wide range of intervention and health promotion efforts. PMID:20728605

  14. [Examples of preimplantation genetic diagnosis versus prenatal diagnosis in carriers of genetic abnormalities: advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Snel, B J; Ypma, T D

    2008-03-29

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a method for identifying genetic abnormalities in embryos obtained via in-vitro fertilisation before their implantation. There are many indications for PGD, which offers an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, although each modality has its advantages and drawbacks. In three female patients there were clear indications for PGD: carriage of the gene for myotubular myopathy, a balanced complex chromosomal translocation, and a Robertsonian translocation in the male partner, respectively. The first patient eventually abandoned PGD and chose prenatal diagnosis. She had a total of three abortions. A twin pregnancy with a so-called foetal reduction resulted in the birth of a genetically normal child. The second patient had one spontaneous abortion and subsequently underwent two PGD cycles, resulting in an uncomplicated pregnancy and the delivery of a genetically normal child. The third patient had one genetically normal child and six spontaneous abortions. She then underwent the PGD procedure successfully and is expecting twins; the pregnancy has been uncomplicated. During preconception counselling of couples at high genetic risk, physicians should be aware of PGD as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. PMID:18461896

  15. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  16. Advantages of externally powered prosthesis with feedback system using pseudo-cineplasty.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Seiji; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Taniguchi, Masashi; Park, Choong Sik; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Nakajima, Shigeyoshi; Koike, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Externally powered upper-limb prostheses are difficult to use because of the lack of sensory feedback. Neuroprostheses have recently been developed for people with upper-limb amputation but are complicated, expensive, and still developing. We therefore designed a simple system by combining pseudo-cineplasty with extended physiological proprioception to provide sensory feedback to the body. We penetrated the palmaris longus tendon percutaneously with a metal ring, similar to that used in body piercing, in a nondisabled subject as a pseudo-cineplasty. The tendon and ring were connected to the system, and a sensory feedback experiment was performed. We investigated the ability of the user to determine the size of an object grasped by the prosthetic hand without visual information. The subject could distinguish between large and small objects with 100% accuracy and between small, medium, and large objects with 80% accuracy. In pseudo-cineplasty, control and sensory feedback are natural because the prosthetic hand is controlled by muscle contraction. Tension transmitted from the prosthetic hand is sensed via muscle spindles and skin sensors. This technique allows only partial sensory feedback but appears to offer several advantages over other human-machine interfaces. PMID:25436660

  17. Feeding kinematics of freshwater turtles: what advantage do invasive species possess?

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Tabata, Runa; Hori, Tomoya; Mitamura, Hiromich; Arai, Nobuaki

    2014-10-01

    The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) is an invasive turtle species that is displacing the populations of native freshwater turtles in many countries. However, the mechanism that makes red-eared sliders superior competitors has been less well studied. In this study, we compare the feeding kinematics of the red-eared slider with those of Reeves' pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii), a turtle native to East Asia, and offer an explanation as to why red-eared sliders are superior in food competition. Reeves' pond turtles sympatric to red-eared sliders have been reported to have a mainly durophagous diet in contrast to the preference for a soft diet in areas of allopatry to red-eared sliders, indicating the dietary shift resulted from food competition. Maximum neck extension and retraction speed are considered to be indicators of striking ability, but were not found to be superior in red-eared sliders. In fact, maximum neck extension speed was significantly higher in Reeves' pond turtles, though this advantage may be counteracted by the longer neck of Reeves' pond turtles, resulting in similar neck extension times. On the other hand, red-eared sliders had a significantly shorter gape cycle time and neck retraction time, indicating that they can complete feeding in a short time. Therefore, red-eared sliders are suggested to be superior in food competition not due to their striking ability, but due to exploiting preferable food in a shorter time. PMID:25156933

  18. Nonlinear directed acyclic structure learning with weakly additive noise models

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA rtillman@cmu.edu Arthur Gretton Carnegie Mellon University, MPI for Biological Cybernetics Pittsburgh, PA arthur.gretton@gmail.com Peter Spirtes Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA ps7z@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract The recently proposed additive noise model has advantages over

  19. Telemedicine in Tinnitus: Feasibility, Advantages, Limitations, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Matthieu J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the important patient needs for support and treatment, telemedicine—defined by medical approaches supported by the new technologies of information—could provide interesting alternative in tinnitus treatment. By analyzing the published tools and approaches which could be used in the context of telemedicine for tinnitus by health professionals or self-administrated by patients, this review summarizes, presents, and describes the principal telemedicine approaches available presently or in the near future to help assess or treat tinnitus or to offer support to tinnitus sufferers. Several pieces of evidence strongly support the feasibility of telemedicine approaches for tinnitus. Telemedicine can be used to help tinnitus sufferers at several points in the therapeutic process: for early screening, initial evaluation, and diagnosis; for optimizing therapeutic tools, particularly behavioural therapies and virtual reality-enhanced behavioral therapies; for long-term monitoring of patients and provision of online support. Several limitations are, however, discussed in order to optimize the safe development of such approaches. Cost effective and easy to implement, telemedicine is likely to represent an important part of the future of tinnitus therapies and should be progressively integrated by otolaryngologists. PMID:23762623

  20. [Advantages and disadvantages of the femtosecond laser microkeratome].

    PubMed

    Touboul, D; Salin, F; Mortemousque, B; Chabassier, P; Mottay, E; Léger, F; Colin, J

    2005-05-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) complications are mainly attributable to imperfect cutting with the mechanical microkeratome. The femtosecond laser is an important challenger because it can provide extremely precise cutting beginning at any corneal point. We analyze the potential of this new tool from the results reported in the literature. The optomechanical control of the impact position provides freer and more effective intrastromal cutting than the blade. The best cutting matrix is obtained with the postage stamp method. If the plasma quality is not perfectly under control, side effects such as tissue streaks and secondary ultraviolet radiations can be observed. For LASIK surgery, femtolaser cutting can offer greater safety, reproducibility, predictability and flexibility. The risk of incomplete or irregular cutting and the free cap risk are reduced. Striae, epithelial defects and interface deposits should be minimized. A better flap congruence can limit the risk of secondary displacement and epithelial ingrowth. The results of making thinner flaps should be more predictable. Other than the high cost of the procedure, laser cutting has very few disadvantages. In 1999, Intralase Corporation introduced the first femtolaser microkeratome on the American market. Approximately 120,000 intra-LASIK procedures have been carried out with fewer cutting complications than with the mechanic blade. PMID:15976724