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1

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

2

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

Rupert, W.D. [Engelhard Corp., Warwick, RI (United States)

1996-05-01

3

Will the next generation of basal insulins offer clinical advantages?  

PubMed

The 21st century has seen the arrival of several insulin analogue products and the refinement of insulin regimens, with widespread advocacy of continuous titration algorithms and earlier initiation of supplementary insulin therapy (predominantly using basal insulins) in type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, many insulin-treated diabetes patients remain in poor glycaemic control. This might reflect insufficient titration effort or lax adherence, but these issues could in some cases result from concerns about hypoglycaemia. Certainly there is scope for improving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of basal insulin, and three new products offer this prospect. Insulin degludec, now in clinical use, and PEGylated insulin lispro, in development, have greatly extended action profiles that result from two very different, but unique, mechanisms. With once-daily dosing, these insulins produce stable PK/PD profiles at steady state, associated with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. The feasibility of varied daily dose timing has also been confirmed with insulin degludec. High strength formulations of insulin glargine and insulin degludec offer the prospect of a reduced injection number/volume in high dose users, and in the case of glargine, the PK/PD profile might also be favourably modified. This review considers critically the clinical evidence and expectations we should have for these new basal insulins. PMID:24118819

Garber, A J

2014-06-01

4

The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used, recent results, and future plans.

Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

5

Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering, management. and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboratioi is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of cLul+sent programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example. major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities. produce highly visible achievements. and appeal to a11 additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

2008-01-01

6

DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

7

[Health Technology Assessment to evaluate the economic advantage of offering of low-protein diet to pre-dialysis patients in Campania (Italy)].  

PubMed

A low-protein diet is well known to slow the progression of chronic renal failure, delay initiation of dialysis, while achieving significant economic benefits. In the context of a Health Technology Assessment (HTA), a budget impact analysis model was implemented to evaluate the economic advantage of offering of low-protein diet to nephropathic patients in Campania (Italy). The implemented model takes into account only the direct costs to the national healthcare system. In particular, costs related to supplying low-protein foods are compared to dialysis costs avoided, in a scenario that evaluates different indices of Numbers Needed to Treat and compliance to treatment. Results indicate that when compliance to treatment is at least 50% and NNT is £ 50, supplying a low-protein diet to all kidney disease patients in the pre-dialysis phase, namely with an estimated Glomerular filtration rate > 45, in Campania (which in the year 2009 were equal to 25,000 subjects), is economically advantageous. In this perspective, the authors argue that distribution of low-protein foods by local pharmacies could be an appropriate choice as it would allow the products to be offered at a discounted price and create a favorable setting for increasing adherence to treatment. PMID:23369993

Liguori, Giorgio; Belfiore, Patrizia; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Cirillo, Massimo; Creazzola, Simona; D'Ausilio, Anna; De Santo, Natale Gaspare; La Bella, Gaetana; Parlato, Antonino; Scaletti, Alessandro; Zamparelli, Bruno

2012-01-01

8

Invited commentary: Some advantages of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI)--towards better estimators of additive interaction.  

PubMed

In the accompanying commentary, Rose and van der Laan (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(6):663-669) criticize the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) measure, the use of additive interaction, and the weighting approach we developed to assess RERI with case-control data. In this commentary, we note some of the advantages of using additive measures of interaction, such as RERI, in making decisions about targeting interventions toward certain subgroups and in assessing mechanistic interaction. We discuss the relationship between Rose and van der Laan's estimator for case-control data and the one we had previously proposed. We also develop a new doubly robust estimator for determining the RERI with case-control data when the prevalence or incidence of the outcome is known. PMID:24488514

VanderWeele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

2014-03-15

9

Wellness Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain counseling experience, community nutrition students participated in an extensive nutrition counseling program. Wellness Advantage, the university sponsored worksite wellness program, and twenty senior dietetic students enrolled in community nutrition offered a nutrition counseling program. The nutrition counseling service was designed for healthy individuals who wanted to improve their dietary intake and overall level of health. Each

G. A. Syler

1998-01-01

10

Providing patients with pharmacogenetic test results affects adherence to statin therapy: results of the Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins (AKROBATS) trial.  

PubMed

Despite the clinical benefit of statin therapy and the numerous strategies used to improve adherence, no strategy has used direct communication of genetic test results to the patient as an adherence and persistence motivator. We investigated in a real-world setting the effect of a process of providing KIF6 test results and risk information directly to 647 tested patients on 6-month statin adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)) and persistence compared with concurrent non-tested matched controls. Adjusted 6-month statin PDC was significantly greater in tested patients: 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.82) vs controls 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), P<0.0001. Significantly more tested patients were adherent (PDC?0.80) (63.4% (59.6-67.1%) vs 45.0% (41.1-48.8%), P<0.0001) and persisted on therapy (69.1% (65.4-72.5%) vs 53.3% (49.4-57.1%), P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in a secondary comparison with 779 unmatched patients who declined testing. The Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins trial provides the first evidence that pharmacogenetic testing may modify patient adherence. PMID:23979174

Charland, S L; Agatep, B C; Herrera, V; Schrader, B; Frueh, F W; Ryvkin, M; Shabbeer, J; Devlin, J J; Superko, H R; Stanek, E J

2014-06-01

11

Thermal-Energy Storage Systems for Solar Plants: A conceptual design of a thermal-energy storage system for a 100-MWe solar plant offers cost/performance advantages over the oil/rock thermocline concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Three conceptual thermal-energy storage systems have been analyzed for cost/performance advantages over the oil/rock thermocline energy-storage system that is curren...

1983-01-01

12

ADDITION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Addition can be so much fun, especially with these games. Tweet, Tweet, Addition is not a game for the birds. Keep the game Math Popper away from all sharp pins! Watch out! Addition facts are attacking the spaceships in Addition Attack In Cannon Math you can shoot people out of a cannon! It is great fun!! Dr. Brain s Robot needs help with his math facts. Can you help ...

Games, Aidan'S M.

2010-12-20

13

Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

Smalheer, C. V.

1973-01-01

14

Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will practice adding! Practice with Fribbit! Fribbit Addition Help the pirate add his marbles. Pirate Marble Addition Help the whale get to freedom! Save the Whale Catch the correct sum! Fish Addish Balance the sides of the equal sign. Balance Equations ...

Hoffmann, Mrs.

2011-08-09

15

Advantageous Liaisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are various cooperative ventures between both domestic and foreign academia and industry. The advantages of cooperative ventures are highlighted. Suggestions for practical approaches to get industry involved in these alliances are provided. (CW)

Gray, Paul E.

1990-01-01

16

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state.

1996-01-01

17

The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.  

PubMed

Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages. PMID:24835870

Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

2014-06-01

18

Negotiating a Job Offer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests some operating principles for job candidates for academic appointments. Notes that candidates should receive offers in writing. Lists compensation, perquisites, fringe benefits, and other conditions that candidates should negotiate. (RS)

Smith, Philip E.

1997-01-01

19

Advantages of Magnification Radiography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geometric arrangements and exposure conditions used in different magnification techniques are described and the following advantages of radiographic magnification technique are discussed: sharpness effect; noise effect; air gap effect; and visual effect. ...

K. Doi

1976-01-01

20

Quantum advantage without entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the advantage of pure-state quantum computation without entanglement over classical computation. For the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm we present the maximal subproblem that can be solved without entanglement, and show that the algorithm still has an advantage over the classical ones. We further show that this subproblem is of greater significance, by proving that it contains all the Boolean functions whose quantum phase-oracle is non-entangling. For Simon's and Grover's algorithms we provide simple proofs that no non-trivial subproblems can be solved by these algorithms without entanglement.

Kenigsberg, Dan; Mor, Tal; Ratsaby, Gil

2005-08-01

21

Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Schnepp, Katie

2012-06-29

22

EFEITO DA PELETIZAÇÃO E ADIÇÃO DE ENZIMAS E VITAMINAS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E APROVEIT AMENTO DA ENERGIA E NUTRIENTES EM FRANGOS DE COR TE DE 1 A 21 DIAS DE IDADE Effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was carried out an experiment to evaluate the effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old. A total of 350 broiler chickens, COBB, males, were used ( (47g ± 2.5g) in a completely randomized design, with the treatments in a

José Laureano Barbosa Leite; Paulo Borges Rodrigues; Elias Tadeu Fialho; Rilke Tadeu; Fonseca de Freitas; Adriano Kaneo Nagata; Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

23

Binocular advantages in reading.  

PubMed

Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

2014-03-01

24

When the asymptotic limit offers no advantage in the local-operations-and-classical-communication paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider bipartite LOCC, the class of operations implementable by local quantum operations and classical communication between two parties. Surprisingly, there are operations that can be approximated to arbitrary precision but are impossible to implement exactly if only a finite number of messages are exchanged. This significantly complicates the analysis of what can or cannot be approximated with LOCC. Toward alleviating this problem, we exhibit two scenarios in which allowing vanishing error does not help. The first scenario is implementation of projective measurements with product measurement operators. The second scenario is the discrimination of unextendable product bases on two three-dimensional systems.

Fu, Honghao; Leung, Debbie; Man?inska, Laura

2014-05-01

25

In-line blending and on-line analysis offer advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refiners can improve the economics of their gasoline-blending operations and octane and volatility analyses by using in-line blending procedures and on-line specification analysis. The Environmental Protection agency's current lead content rules have decreased refiners' blend options to meet octane specifications, and tighter vapor pressure controls that may be imposed nationwide and in force in some areas, will restrict refiners' use

1986-01-01

26

Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

2013-01-01

27

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

28

Investigating Home Court Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Dan Nettleton of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, presents data from 1997 Big Ten Conference men's basketball games involving the University of Iowa Hawkeyes. These games are analyzed in a series of scatterplots which are accompanied by bivariate statistical inference. Additionally, the data can be used to represent inference techniques such as confidence regions, paired comparisons, and simultaneous confidence intervals. This is a great activity for a sports fan wanting to learn more about the statistics attached to his or her favorite sport.

Nettleton, Dan

2009-02-06

29

Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.  

PubMed

One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

Pointer, D D

1990-01-01

30

Offering an Array of Improvements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

2001-01-01

31

Earnings management around UK open offers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the long run operating and stock price performance of UK open offer firms in the context of the earnings management hypothesis. We find that in the pre-offer period offer firms report significant improvements in their operating performance unrelated to cash flow performance. Results on return performance show that offer firms outperform various benchmarks in the pre-offer year but

Abdullah Iqbal; Susanne Espenlaub; Norman Strong

2009-01-01

32

Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

2008-01-01

33

Revealed Competitive Advantage for Wheat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new indicator of trade performance, called 'revealed competitive advantage' (RCA), is used to examine the changing nature of wheat competitiveness and noncompetitiveness. Time series RCA measures for 5 wheat-exporting countries and 20 wheat-importing co...

T. Vollrath

1987-01-01

34

Good things come to those who wait: late first offers facilitate creative agreements in negotiation.  

PubMed

Although previous research has shown that making the first offer leads to a distributive advantage in negotiations, the current research explored how the timing of first offers affects the creativity of negotiation agreements. We hypothesized that making the first offer later rather than earlier in the negotiation would facilitate the discovery of creative agreements that better meet the parties' underlying interests. Experiment 1 demonstrated that compared with early first offers, late first offers facilitated creative agreements that better met the parties' underlying interests. Experiments 2a and 2b controlled for the duration of the negotiation and conceptually replicated this effect. The last two studies also demonstrated that the beneficial effect of late first offers was mediated by greater information exchange. Thus, negotiators need to consider the timing of first offers to fully capitalize on the first offer advantage. Implications for our understanding of creativity, motivated information exchange, and timing in negotiations are discussed. PMID:23696126

Sinaceur, Marwan; Maddux, William W; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Perez Nückel, Ricardo; Galinsky, Adam D

2013-06-01

35

48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Offers. (a) Where technical information is necessary for evaluation of offers, agencies should, as part of market research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its adequacy for...

2013-10-01

36

Valuation effects of corporate debt offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effect of corporate debt offerings on stock prices. Straight debt offerings have non-positive price effects, while convertible debt offerings have significantly negative effects. Public utility mortgage (non-convertible) bond offerings have marginally negative effects, and the effect is significantly negative when the proceeds are used to finance the utility's investment program. Cross-sectional regressions reveal no relation between

B. Espen Eckbo

1986-01-01

37

An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

Haupert, Michael J.

1996-01-01

38

Energy Advantages for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

Griffin, J. Tim

2012-01-01

39

The Advantages of Contract Sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of utilizing contract sterilization of medical devices. The advantages and disadvantages of utilizing contractors for the sterilization of disposable medical devices are presented, including the use of cobalt-60 gamma, electron beam, and ethylene oxide. A general update on the scope, activities, and capabilities of the contract sterilizer is included.

George R. Dietz

1995-01-01

40

Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the returns earned by subscribing to initial public offerings of equity. K. Rock (1986) suggests that initial public offerings of equity returns are required by uninformed investors as compensation for the risk of trading against superior information. The authors show that initial public offerings of equity with more informed investor capital require higher returns. The marketing underwriter's

Richard B Carter; Steven Manaster

1990-01-01

41

Accounting I (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accounting I, a multimedia course, was the first course produced by the University of Mid-America, and was offered publicly for the first time by the State University of Nebraska in October 1974. A brief overview of this first offering includes: (1) a description of its development; (2) details of its initial offering, such as registration…

Brown, Lawrence A.

42

High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school.1 This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at ``worse off'' schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at ``worse off'' schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at ``better off'' schools take these courses. At ``worse off'' schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

2011-12-01

43

Selective advantage of diffusing faster.  

PubMed

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability. PMID:24856726

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

44

Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

45

Capital Structure Theory and REIT Security Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors examine the stock price reactions to announcements of new security offerings b y real estate investment trusts. Real estate investment trusts offer a unique setting in which to study these events because they do not p ay taxes at the firm level. Theory suggests that the net tax gain to corporate borrowing is unambiguously negative

John S Howe; James D Shilling

1988-01-01

46

Introductory Psychology (Second Offering). Course Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second phase of field testing for an Introductory Psychology course offered in the regional open learning program of the University of Mid-America is reported. Learner characteristics and learner evaluations of the instructional units are compared with findings from the first course offering. Throughout the paper, learner comments are inserted…

Sell, G. Roger

47

Analyst Following of Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine data on analyst following for a sample of initial public offerings completed between 1975 and 1987 to see how they related to three well-documented initial public offering (IPO) anomalies. They find that higher underpricing leads to increased analyst following. Analysts are overoptimistic about the earnings potential and long-term growth prospects of recent IPOs. More firms complete IPOs

Raghuram Rajan; Henri Servaes

1997-01-01

48

Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.  

PubMed

This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised. PMID:19999684

Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

2009-09-01

49

What One Physicist Has to Offer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

Ross, Marc

2004-05-01

50

CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

1995-01-01

51

Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends  

MedlinePLUS

... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

52

48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the agency official authorized to make determination that using a particular domestic construction material would...

2009-10-01

53

16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

2010-01-01

54

16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

2009-01-01

55

DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?  

PubMed Central

Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development.

Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F.

2011-01-01

56

DHA supplemented in peptamen diet offers no advantage in pathways to amyloidosis: is it time to evaluate composite lipid diet?  

PubMed

Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development. PMID:21931647

Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F

2011-01-01

57

Economic Aspects of Electronic Commerce in Financial Services and Advantageous Steps to Extended Offers in Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the results of two projects our research group is presently conducting. We start our with sketching preliminary results of a long-term government project geared to reveal efficiency conditions for successful electronic commerce particularly in the financial services field. We address questions relating to the innovative use of new channels for distributing financial services focusing

Hans Ulrich Buhl; Andreas Will

1998-01-01

58

Distributed resource electric power systems offer significant advantages over central station generation and T&D power systems. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parts I and II of these papers, for the first time, describe the attributes of both the: (1) existing central station generation and T & D power systems; and (2) distributed resource (DR) power systems; and summarizes the results of a comparison of ten different performance characteristics for each system. The performance characteristics for the central station and T &

M. W. Davis

2002-01-01

59

Distributed resource electric power systems offer significant advantages over central station generation and T & D power systems. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a continuation of Part I which describes the attributes of both the: (1) existing central station generation and T & D power systems; and (2) distributed resource (DR) power systems; and summarizes the results of a comparison of ten different performance characteristics for each system. The performance characteristics for the central station and T & D; and

M. W. Davis

2002-01-01

60

The potential advantages of digital PCR for clinical virology diagnostics.  

PubMed

Digital PCR (dPCR), a new nucleic acid amplification technology, offers several potential advantages over real-time or quantitative PCR (qPCR), the current workhorse of clinical molecular virology diagnostics. Several studies have demonstrated dPCR assays for human cytomegalovirus or HIV, which give more precise and reproducible results than qPCR assays without sacrificing sensitivity. Here we review the literature comparing dPCR and qPCR performance in viral molecular diagnostic assays and offer perspective on the future of dPCR in clinical virology diagnostics. PMID:24724628

Hall Sedlak, Ruth; Jerome, Keith R

2014-05-01

61

Physical activity programs offered in substance abuse treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Responses from 50 practicing therapeutic recreation specialists indicate that physical activity programs are an important part of substance abuse treatment. Walking, games, sports, weight training, and aerobics were offered most frequently. Respondents expressed concern about their academic preparation in physical activities and offered suggestions for curricular revision. Recreation or activity therapists responding to this survey indicated that additional coursework would have prepared them more thoroughly to facilitate physical activity programs. Coursework suggested included: physical education, exercise programming, aerobics, aquatics, and physical assessment. Data indicated that over half the respondents received specialized training in physical activities after graduation through continuing education. PMID:8583515

Kremer, D; Malkin, M J; Benshoff, J J

1995-01-01

62

Amazing Addition!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math can be fun! Practice your addtion facts in one of these amazing games! Go on a mission with math! -- Addition Mission Count your apples! -- Apple Addition Be a math teacher! -- Chalkboard Addition ...

Staggs, Ms.

2008-04-01

63

Warrants in Initial Public Offerings: Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate why firms include warrants in their initial public offerings (IPOs). We use a data set of Australian IPOs to examine two hypotheses about the inclusion of warrants in an IPO. The agency-cost hypothesis emphasizes the need for sequential financing for relatively young firms, because sequential financing reduces the opportunities for managers to squander money on unprofitable projects. The

Janice C. Y. How; John S. Howe

2001-01-01

64

Innovative technology offers virtual visitation for families.  

PubMed

Parents of preterm infants and infants with congenital anomalies requiring treatment must begin their relationship with their infant in the unfamiliar and often stressful neonatal intensive care unit, full of strange sights and sounds. Innovative technology such as webcams offers virtual visitation, which holds potential to improve parent-infant bonding and reduce parents' self-perceived stress. PMID:23051777

Thibeau, Shelley; Ricouard, Dawn; Gilcrease, Carolyn

2012-10-01

65

ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

66

Amazing Addition!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I want you to practice your awesome addition skills on the websites below. I know you will do beautifully! Start by going to this website first: Addition Fun!!! Once you finish that website you may continue onto this website: Alien Addition If you have extra time play Around the World Addition: Once you have clicked on the link, click on the button for addition.After that you can choose to play on easy or ...

Bolton, Ms.

2009-04-22

67

76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program...focused on economic development in underserved markets...During the pilot, Community Advantage will only be open to: (1) Community Development Financial...

2011-02-18

68

Effectiveness studies: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

In recent years, so-called "effectiveness studies," also called "real-world studies" or "pragmatic trials," have gained increasing importance in the context of evidence-based medicine. These studies follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedication, and other design issues, and their results should therefore be better generalizable than those of phase III trials. Effectiveness studies, like other types of phase IV studies, can therefore contribute to knowledge about medications and supply relevant information in addition to that gained from phase III trials. However, the less restrictive design and inherent methodological problems of phase IV studies have to be carefully considered. For example, the greater variance caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues, such as insensitive primary outcome criteria, unblinded treatment conditions, inclusion of chronic refractory patients, etc, can lead to wrong conclusions. Due to these methodological problems, effectiveness studies are on a principally lower level of evidence, adding only a complementary view to the results of phase III trials without falsifying their results. PMID:21842617

Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2011-01-01

69

17 CFR 230.506 - Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering. 230.506 Section 230.506 Commodity...506 Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering. (a) Exemption. Offers and...

2013-04-01

70

Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings

Erik Sandberg; Mats Abrahamsson

2011-01-01

71

Time Compression Diseconomies and Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central issue in competitive strategy is the ability of firms to sustain competitive advantages, a topic that is usually treated taking existence of the competitive advantage as given. We endogenize both the existence and sustainability of competitive advantage using a duopoly model in which each firm can develop a resource that improves its competitive position. We as- sume time

Gonçalo Pacheco-de-Almeida; Peter Zemsky

72

Electric utilities offer discounts for new load  

SciTech Connect

Utilities and public utility commissions defend new discounts of up to 25% offered to new and expanding users to compensate for lower demand during the recession on the grounds that employment and economic development will benefit. Critics argue that these utilities generally have excess capacity to sell and that the discounts are unfair to older customers. A poll of users found them to be pleased with the rates, but uncomfortable with the discrimination inherent in vintage pricing. (DCK)

Slaff, J.

1983-10-31

73

Privatisation Initial Public Offerings: the Polish Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Polish government has preferred gradual direct sales to privatisation initial public offerings (PIPOs) by a 2.8 to 1 margin. Evidence suggests that the government has attempted to manage the timing of PIPOs. We, however, find no evidence of underpricing of PIPOs to a greater degree than that found for issues in the private sector. Both domestic and international investors

Ranko Jelic; Richard Briston

2003-01-01

74

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods ... appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, bring out the taste ...

75

High School Football Dynasties: Investigating the Sources of Their Sustained Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource-based view of the firm (RBV) as well as the sustained competitive advantage model developed by Barney (1991) offer an approach to examining available resources and how those resources affect an organization’s success and or effectiveness. Previous studies in sport management literature examined secondary data in an attempt to better understand sustained competitive advantage. This study takes the next

Ivey Frank Lloyd III

2004-01-01

76

Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.  

PubMed

Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging. PMID:24815585

Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

2014-01-01

77

Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

Not Available

1992-04-20

78

Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.  

PubMed

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

Purc?rea, Victor Lorín; Ra?íu, Monica; Purc?rea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

2008-01-01

79

Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy  

PubMed Central

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill.

Ratiu, M; Purcarea, T

2008-01-01

80

75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: You can request additional information about this proposed information collection from Gary Jeffers (202) 906- 6457, Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552. SUPPLEMENTARY...

2010-04-05

81

Cross-border utility investment: Translating investment risk into global advantage  

SciTech Connect

Investment in the rapidly expanding utility sector in many emerging markets offers real growth prospects for utility companies. But one must execute a global strategy that addresses the many additional risk factors, political obstacles, management challenges, tax complications and long-term funding requirements to succeed in this demanding environment. There is skepticism in some quarters that investments in foreign assets will prove fruitful for utilities and their shareholders. US utilities must realiza higher returns on foreign investment in order to compensate shareholders adequately for the added political and currency risk associated with these investments. This article describes the environment leading to cross-border power investment, several key strategic considerations related to the international power sector, and how these considerations can be used to create strategic advantage.

Cody, A. [Coopers & Lybrand`s Financial Advisory Group, Boston, MA (United States)] [Coopers & Lybrand`s Financial Advisory Group, Boston, MA (United States); Graham, E.

1995-06-01

82

Advantages and disadvantages of pinless external fixation.  

PubMed

The AO pinless external fixator (PEF) uses trocar tipped clamps to grip the outer tibial cortex rather than pins to transfix it. Its main advantage is to avoid further contamination of the medullary canal in open tibial fractures where a nail may subsequently be used. We tested the anatomical safety of this device and its effect on plastic surgical procedures compared with a standard unilateral external fixator (UEF).The PEF and UEF were placed on two amputated limbs which were then dissected. Structures at risk were traced on ten cadaver limbs. We found that important anatomical structures were endangered by the PEF and that safe zones could not always be defined. The UEF avoided these structures. Plastic surgical approaches were made more difficult by the PEF which imposed limitations on local flap design and endangered the arterial perforators which supply them. We conclude that safety is compromised by the PEF because margins for error are small. It poses additional problems in soft tissue reconstruction and highlights the need for co-operation between plastic surgical and orthopaedic teams in choice of fixation device. PMID:11154752

Thomas, S R; Giele, H; Simpson, A H

2000-12-01

83

Sustainable competitive advantage or temporary competitive advantage : Improving understanding of an important strategy construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Competitive advantage is an important construct in the strategy discipline. The purpose of this paper is to explore an appropriate definition of competitive advantage, seek to identify sources of competitive advantage for firms and improve understanding of why in many industries for many firms competitive advantage is only a temporary outcome due to the influence of environmental uncertainty.

Tim OShannassy

2008-01-01

84

Hierarchical molecular self-assemblies: construction and advantages.  

PubMed

Hierarchical molecular self-assembly offers many exotic and complicated nanostructures which are of interest in nanotechnology and material science. In the past decade, various strategies leading to hierarchical molecular self-assemblies have been developed. In this review we summarize the recent advances in the creation and application of solution-based self-assembled nanostructures that involve more than one level of arrangement of building blocks. The strategies for construction hierarchical self-assembled structures and the advantages brought up by these assemblies are focused on. The following contents are included: (1) general approaches to fabricate hierarchical self-assembly, including self-assemblies based on supramolecules and specially designed block copolymers; (2) the advantages brought about by the hierarchical self-assembly, including the fabrication of special self-assembled structures, rich responsiveness to external stimuli, and the materials' performance. PMID:24806718

Wang, Andong; Huang, Jianbin; Yan, Yun

2014-05-21

85

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as compared to alternative irrigation systems are conceptually discussed. Each category (advantages and disadvantages) is subdivided into three groups: 1) Water and soil issues; 2) Cropping and cultural practices, and 3) System infrastructure issues. The adaptation and adoption of SDI systems into diverse cropping systems, geographical regions, soils and climate depends,

Freddie R. Lamm

86

Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.  

PubMed

Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments. PMID:11862646

Smith, J

2001-01-01

87

Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival  

PubMed Central

The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jorg

2014-01-01

88

Cycad mutualist offers more than pollen transport.  

PubMed

Specialist insects share obligate mutualisms with some contemporary cycad species whereby the insect's pollination services are rewarded with a nursery in which the insect's larvae consume the postdispersal male cone. I prevented visits of the pollinator moth Anatrachyntis sp. to male Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) cones to show that consumption of the cone tissue by the mutualist hastened initiation of the plant's subsequent reproductive event. This is the first documented case where removal of a postdispersal cycad pollination organ speeds up subsequent reproductive events, and the current paradigm that the offering of cone tissue as a nursery is a sacrifice by the plant in return for the pollination services is therefore inaccurate. In C. micronesica, the herbivory stage of pollination mutualism confers a cryptic benefit of cone tissue disposal, which translates into an increase in ultimate lifetime reproductive effort. The plant population relies on the pollinator for moving gametes, as well as for increasing the number of male coning events. The dual benefits afforded to the plant by associating with this pollinator shows that mutualism can operate simultaneously on very different traits. PMID:21622449

Marler, Thomas E

2010-05-01

89

Will sublingual immunotherapy offer benefit for asthma?  

PubMed

Evidence shows that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is indicated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). In this article we discuss whether SLIT could offer benefit for children and adults with asthma.We reviewed individual trials on SLIT in asthmatic patients, but also asthma data reported in some SLIT trials conducted in AR patients. Findings were complemented with data from systematic reviews and metaanalysis on the subject since 2000 and some guidelines that mention immunotherapy for asthma treatment. In AR patients with concomitant persistent asthma, SLIT reduces medication needs while maintaining symptom control. This holds especially true for house dust mite SLIT. Data on pollen SLIT and lung symptom improvement with SLIT, however, are less convincing. Therefore, we suggest SLIT should be added as an optional add-on therapy for patients with asthma whenever a causative allergen has been demonstrated and AR is associated with asthma. For the future, SLIT should be studied in specifically designed asthma studies in allergic asthmatics without AR. PMID:24022465

Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Teijeiro, Alvaro; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni

2013-12-01

90

Evolutionary advantages of polyploidy in halophilic archaea.  

PubMed

Several species of haloarchaea have been shown to be polyploid and thus this trait might be typical for and widespread in haloarchaea. In the present paper, nine different possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea are discussed, including low mutation rate, radiation/desiccation resistance, gene redundancy and survival over geological times and at extraterrestrial sites. Experimental indications exist for all but one of these evolutionary advantages. Several of the advantages require gene conversion, which has been shown to be present and active in haloarchaea. PMID:23356308

Soppa, Jörg

2013-02-01

91

Potlining Additives  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

Rudolf Keller

2004-08-10

92

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private...Offerings, Exchange Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption for offerings...connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign...

2010-04-01

93

Principles of Economics: understanding opportunity cost, comparative advantage, and absolute advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In principles of economics students many times have trouble understanding the concept of opportunity cost, connecting opportunity cost to comparative advantage, and differentiating between absolute advantage and comparative advantage. This activity allows the instructor to detect whether a large number of students exhibit any of these misconceptions, and then focus on the most problematic concepts in class.

Clerici-Arias, Marcelo

94

Fraction Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following sites will provide some review and practice adding fractions. These links will help with finding common denominators. Equivalent Fractions Fraction Addition-Common Denominators Do some practice with visuals. Add Fractions with Like Denominators Add Fractions with Unlike Denominators See how fast you can get through these problems! Race the Clock-Add with Like Denominators Race the Clock-Add with Unlike Denominators Race the Clock-Add with Mixed Numbers Do you need a \\"How to...\\" refresher? Look here! How Do You Do That? Add with Like Demoninators How Do You Do That? Add with Unlike Demoninators How Do You Do That? Add with Mixed Numbers ...

Romney, Mrs.

2005-06-18

95

Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

96

Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

97

Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

2014-05-01

98

High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

2012-01-01

99

The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have documented that firms conducting seasoned equity offerings have inordinately low stock returns during the five years after the offering, following a sharp run-up in the year prior to the offering. This article documents that the operating performance of issuing firms shows substantial improvement prior to the offering but then deteriorates. The multiples at the time of the

Tim Loughran; Jay R Ritter

1997-01-01

100

A series of Advantage suburethral slings.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of original tension-free vaginal tape in 1995, a number of different suburethral slings have been marketed. Much of the published literature on midurethral sling procedures relates to the original TVT. Although there has been a considerable number of publications comparing different routes of tape insertion, there is relatively little published identifying the efficacy of different retropubic slings. This study was designed to identify the success rate and complications in a case series of Advantage slings. A total of 70 women were assessed 6 months after insertion of an Advantage midurethral sling by questionnaire. The absence of stress incontinence was reported in 94% of women. There were no intraoperative complications. Only 3% had short-term voiding dysfunction (<6 weeks). De novo overactive bladder symptoms developed in 3% of women. The Advantage sling has a good success rate, with low complications. PMID:21823855

Renganathan, A; Basu, M; Duckett, J

2011-08-01

101

Toward creating competitive advantage with logistics information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Successfully implementing and exploiting the right information technologies is critical to maintaining competitiveness in today's supply chain. However, simply adopting off-the-shelf technologies may not necessarily induce this competitiveness unless the organization combines these technologies with additional complimentary resources. This study draws on the logistics innovation literature, resource-advantage theory, and the resource-based view of the firm with the purpose

Benjamin T. Hazen; Terry Anthony Byrd

2012-01-01

102

VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the

2004-11-01

103

The Advantage of Same-Sex Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are advantages of summer science programs limited to young high school women. Same sex courses are seen to eliminate unconscious gender bias in instruction and counter tendencies for female students to be less involved in science, mathematics, and computer activities. Four specific programs are briefly described. (DB)

Wollam, Jean

1990-01-01

104

Classical Ricardian Theory of Comparative Advantage Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the classical Ricardian theory of comparative advantage, relative labor productivities determine trade patterns. The Ricardian model plays an important pedagogical role in international economics, but has received scant empirical attention since the 1960s. This paper assesses the contemporary relevance of the Ricardian model for US trade. Cross-section seemingly unrelated regressions of sectoral trade flows on relative labor productivity

Stephen S. Golub; Chang-Tai Hsieh

2000-01-01

105

Predicting the Future: Advantages of Semilocal Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating gaussian radial basis function (RBF) networks for their ability to model nonlinear time series, we have found that while RBF networks are much faster than standard sigmoid unit backpropagation for low-dimensional problems, their advantages diminish in high-dimensional input spaces. This is particularly troublesome if the input space contains irrelevant variables. We suggest that this limitation is due to

Eric Hartman; James D. Keeler

1991-01-01

106

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

107

Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

2009-01-01

108

Frozen pronuclear oocytes: advantages for the patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first reported pregnancy in a human being after a frozen\\/thawed eight cell stage preembryo, cryopreservation of preembryos has been integrated as an important element of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The cryopreservation technique has brought several advantages to ART. It allows the transfer of a limited number of embryos in the collection cycle, thereby reducing the risk of multiple

N. Nikolettos; S. Al-Hasani

2000-01-01

109

Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

2002-01-01

110

The SSRIs: advantages, disadvantages and differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly specific mechanism of action of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) confers advantages on this group, relative to other classes of antidepressant, and thus represents a significant advance in the pharmacotherapy of depression. Whilst their clinical efficacy is equivalent to that of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), the SSRIs have a greatly reduced risk of toxicity in overdose and

David Baldwin; Sheldon Preskorn

1995-01-01

111

Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.  

PubMed

In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

2007-04-01

112

Regular versus Online versus Blended: A Qualitative Description of the Advantages of the Electronic Modes and a Quantitative Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this article discusses the advantages of offering courses online or in a blended format from an instructor's and manager's perspective. These advantages include: (a) improved distance support of faculty in the delivery of courses; (b) effective delivery of tutoring for students; (c) increased facility in the sharing of digital…

Tang, Michael; Byrne, Roxanne

2007-01-01

113

Comparative Advantage and Long-run Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors construct a dynamic, two country model of trade and growth in which endogenous technological progress results from the profit-maximizing behavior of entrepreneurs. They study the role that the external trading environment and that trade and industrial policies play in the determination of long-run growth rates. Cross-country differences in efficiency at R&D versus manufacturing (i.e., comparative advantage) bear importantly

Gene M Grossman; Elhanan Helpman

1990-01-01

114

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

115

The Human Body: The Advantages of Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Being multicellular has definite advantages. The form and size of the human body, our ability to run and swim, the levels\\u000a of thought and sensation that we experience…all are a consequence of having a body that is composed of many cells. Because\\u000a we are composed of trillions of individual cells, our cells have the freedom to specialize on their own

David S. Goodsell

116

Sinus pericranii: advantages of MR imaging.  

PubMed

Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations. A 3-year-old girl presented with a 2 x 2-cm, midline soft-tissue mass at the vertex. Plain skull films and CT using bone windows showed erosion of the parietal bones. MRI confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying communication of the vascular mass with the intracranial dural venous sinus. The advantages of MRI are discussed. PMID:11075608

Bigot, J L; Iacona, C; Lepreux, A; Dhellemmes, P; Motte, J; Gomes, H

2000-10-01

117

Competencies: Alternative frameworks for competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competencies in organizations can be broadly classified as employee-level and organizational-level. Since organizational-level competencies are embedded in employee-level competencies, the identification of the latter is important for organizations interested in using competencies to achieve competitive advantage. In this paper, we present a model of employee competencies as a means to organizational competitiveness and discuss various frameworks for identifying employee competencies.

Robert L. Cardy; T. T. Selvarajan

2006-01-01

118

43 CFR 41.415 - Access to course offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to course offerings. 41.415 ...Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... § 41.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

2010-10-01

119

2 Drugs Offer Hope for Fatal Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. 2 Drugs Offer Hope for Fatal Lung Disease Doctors have had little to offer patients ... disease that robs their breath by scarring the lungs, according to clinical trial results. Both drugs, pirfenidone ...

120

43 CFR 3110.3-3 - Lease offer size.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and there are no contiguous lands available for lease. Such public domain lease...and there are no contiguous lands available for lease. Where an offer exceeds...directions. An offer to lease acquired lands may exceed the 6 mile...

2013-10-01

121

Explaining Asian Americans' academic advantage over whites.  

PubMed

The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

2014-06-10

122

Do investors reinvest dividends and tender offer proceeds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents how much investors reinvest dividends and tender offer proceeds. I find that households reinvest only a small proportion of funds within two weeks, less than 1% of cash dividends and around 10% of tender offer proceeds. Tender offer proceeds are more likely to be reinvested, even when the investor's identity and size of the cash flow are

Elias Rantapuska

2006-01-01

123

48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22.1203-4 Section 22.1203-4 Federal...Workers Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor must be a bona...

2013-10-01

124

Size Matters: Problems and Advantages Associated with Highly Miniaturized Sensors  

PubMed Central

There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity.

Dahlin, Andreas B.

2012-01-01

125

On the many advantages of local-electrode atom probes.  

PubMed

Local extraction electrodes offer several crucial advantages for operation of atom probes. Because of the proximity of the local extraction electrode to the specimen, the electric field produced at the specimen apex by a given voltage is enhanced and the voltage required for field evaporation is reduced. In a voltage-pulsed atom probe, the absolute magnitude of the energy uncertainty is correspondingly reduced. High mass resolution (m/deltam > 1000) may therefore be obtained by accelerating the evaporated ions to a greater total potential after the local extraction electrode. The low extraction voltage may also be pulsed rapidly (100 ps rise time) and at high repetition rates (up to 10(5) pulses per second) using currently available solid-state pulsers. Furthermore, a local electrode and intermediate electrodes may be used as optical elements to control the image magnification. All of these benefits may be applied to any type of atom probe. Local-electrode atom probes (LEAP) should be especially advantageous for developing three-dimensional atom probes with high mass resolution and a large field of view. A sample has been developed that consists of many microtips formed on a planar sample using ion beam mask etching. Microtip samples are especially suited to LEAP. Analysis of electrically insulating samples may also be possible with microtip samples in a LEAP. This combination of features suggests flexible, high speed, high mass resolution atom probes that can work with either conventional needle-shaped specimens or the new style of planar microtip specimens. PMID:22666915

Kelly, T F; Camus, P P; Larson, D J; Holzman, L M; Bajikar, S S

1996-01-01

126

Advantages of Extensible Self-described Data Formats: Lessons Learned from NDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of current discussions about the future of data formats, we present an overview of key features of the NDF format. In our experience, these features offer advantages for archive-side reprocessing and publication of data products, and provide valuable lessons learned for future data format designers.

Economou, F.; Jenness, T.; Currie, M. J.; Berry, D. S.

2014-05-01

127

THE RELATIONAL VIEW: COOPERATIVE STRATEGY AND SOURCES OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we offer a view that suggests that a firm's critical resources may span firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis for understanding competitive advan- tage is the relationship between firms and identify four potential sources of interor- ganizational competitive advantage: (1) relation-specific assets, (2)

JEFFREY H. DYER; HARBIR SINGH

1998-01-01

128

The resource-based view and sustainable competitive advantage: the case of a financial services firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is a theory that has been explored in academic literature as a means of explaining competitive advantage and, in turn, superior performance amongst firms. In this paper it is argued that the model developed by Fahy offers a concise picture of the nature and role of key resources in strategic management but this

Val Clulow; Julie Gerstman; Carol Barry

2003-01-01

129

Silicon carbide benefits and advantages for power electronics circuits and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon offers multiple advantages to power circuit designers, but at the same time suffers from limitations that are inherent to silicon material properties, such as low bandgap energy, low thermal conductivity, and switching frequency limitations. Wide bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN), provide larger bandgaps, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity. Power semiconductor

AHMED ELASSER; T. PAUL CHOW

2002-01-01

130

Advantages and disadvantages of using artificial neural networks versus logistic regression for predicting medical outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks are algorithms that can be used to perform nonlinear statistical modeling and provide a new alternative to logistic regression, the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for dichotomous outcomes in medicine. Neural networks offer a number of advantages, including requiring less formal statistical training, ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent

Jack V. Tu

1996-01-01

131

Customer information systems and competitive advantage: a case study of a top ten building society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harsh market environment has led to fierce levels of competition within the personal financial services sector, where banks, building societies and other providers of financial services have been criticized for offering sophisticated consumers undifferentiated products. With customer retention becoming increasingly significant for institutions within the sector, strategies which provide them with competitive advantage are becoming of paramount importance. Examines

Jillian Dawes; Steve Worthington

1996-01-01

132

Transnational nursing programs: models, advantages and challenges.  

PubMed

Conducting transnational programs can be a very rewarding activity for a School, Faculty or University. Apart from increasing the profile of the university, the conduct of transnational programs can also provide the university with openings for business opportunities, consultative activities, and collaborative research. It can also be a costly exercise placing an enormous strain on limited resources with little reward for the provider. Transnational ventures can become nonviable entities in a very short period of time due to unanticipated global economic trends. Transnational courses offered by Faculties of Business and Computing are commonplace, however, there is a growing number of health science programs, particularly nursing that are being offered transnational. This paper plans an overview of several models employed for the delivery of transnational nursing courses and discusses several key issues pertaining to conducting courses outside the host university's country. PMID:12383742

Wilson, Michael

2002-07-01

133

Taking advantage of real-time pricing  

SciTech Connect

Linking RTP with automatic energy management and control systems can create win-win scenarios for utilities and their commercial/industrial customers. Widely offered by utilities in the United States and abroad, real-time pricing (RTP) is a proven method of reducing energy costs for a broad range of commercial and industrial customers. Utilities in turn benefit directly by retaining key customers. Now EPRI is leading efforts to make RTP even more attractive to power suppliers and consumers alike. Linking automated energy management systems in customers` commercial buildings and industrial facilities to hourly price signals from the utility can be beneficial to both parties, as shown in several recent EPRI-sponsored demonstrations. With industry deregulation, as new entities like energy service companies change the way electricity is offered to customers, RTP is likely to become part of the vocabulary of more power providers, service providers, regulators, and end users.

Hoffman, S.; Renner, R.; Drenker, S.; Carmicheal, L.; Flood, J.

1997-09-01

134

[Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].  

PubMed

This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for each organ, together with external and cut-surface features. A third section allows the examiner to report other observations not requested previously, while a final section is also provided for the epicrisis and for the formulation of the final diagnosis, the same as that reported in the first form. The database is coupled with an interactive system for collecting voice comments, thereby replacing the need for tape-recorders in the autopsy room. The user can recall a dictation window, dictate a text, check spelling and insert additional text. The database is also coupled to an image acquisition system, on the assumption that moving images allow a more faithful documentation of reality. Therefore, all rooms in which autopsies are carried out on fetuses or neonates have been equipped with a fixed camera linked to a monitor and a video-recorder. A PCB, used for image digitalization, recognizes up to 16,000,000 different colors. Guided by dedicated software, image files are transferred to a computer and then saved with the autoptic report. The database can be consulted and queried in two principle ways: by key words in the contents or main disease descriptions, or by individual words or phrases contained within the complete text of the reports. The present database system for autopsy reporting has proved itself useful in a pathological anatomy service. The combined presence of images and texts renders the system useful also as a research tool. By linking to a Web site dedicated to pathologic anatomy, it will be possible to display online rare cases involving diagnostic difficulties. The system offers great advantages for present and retrospective diagnostics, as well as for research and education purposes. PMID:11725353

Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

2001-10-01

135

Competitive advantage in public-sector organizations: explaining the public good\\/sustainable competitive advantage paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource-based views of the firm and in particular Kay's (Why Firms Succeed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995) model of sustainable competitive advantage have been used to advance an understanding of differences in the competitive advantage of private-sector firms. We extend the analysis to a public-sector firm where its major purpose includes engaging in public good by giving away its knowledge

Judy Matthews; Arthur D. Shulman

2005-01-01

136

Testing a model of signals in the IPO offer process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines agency and market signals related to a sample of high-technology firms seeking an initial public offering\\u000a (IPO). We test a model of the IPO offer process in high-technology firms. Results indicate that certain pre-market and primary\\u000a market factors affect the offer price received by entrepreneurs and investors, while the secondary market factor did not.\\u000a Our model may

David R. Williams; W. Jack Duncan; Peter M. Ginter

2010-01-01

137

Longitudinal research strategies: advantages, problems, and prospects.  

PubMed

The single-cohort, long-term longitudinal survey has many advantages in comparison with a cross-sectional survey in advancing knowledge about offending and other types of psychopathology, notably in providing information about onset and desistance, about continuity and prediction, and about within-individual change. However, the longitudinal survey also has significant problems, notably in confounding aging and period effects, delayed results, achieving continuity in funding and research direction, and cumulative attrition. This paper suggests the use of a multiple-cohort sequential strategy (the "accelerated longitudinal design") as a way of achieving the benefits of the longitudinal method while minimizing the problems in advancing knowledge about the natural history, causes, prevention, and treatment of psychopathological disorders. PMID:2055872

Farrington, D P

1991-05-01

138

The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker  

PubMed Central

The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals.

Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

2010-01-01

139

15 CFR 8a.415 - Access to course offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to course offerings. 8a.415 ...Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... § 8a.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

2010-01-01

140

7 CFR 15a.34 - Access to course offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to course offerings. 15a.34 Section 15a.34 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...Prohibited § 15a.34 Access to course offerings. A...

2010-01-01

141

Technology Integration for the Services Offered by the Public Administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents two examples of network and technology integrations useful for the Public Administrations for deploying and offering services to the citizens. In the first example, the access to the neutral network is the service provided and the solutions conceived for the Public Administrations. in order to offer WiFi connectivity to their citizens are presented. In the second example,

Chiara Taddia; Stefania Nanni; Gianluca Mazzini

2009-01-01

142

20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202 Employees...Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of...

2010-04-01

143

20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655.122 Employees...H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential...

2010-04-01

144

Especially for Women. Programs and Services Offered by School Boards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes programs and services school boards offer to women employees or women in the community. A special focus is innovative, nontraditional courses and services. The first section discusses offerings for school board staff. An overview of affirmative action/employment equity programs addresses their objectives and describes…

Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

145

Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial public offerings of common stocks are typically underpriced . In this paper, the author develops and tests the hypothesis that underpricing serves as a form of insurance against legal liabili ty and the associated damages to the reputations of investment banker s. The empirical results, based on samples of initial public offering s of common stocks that were brought

Seha M Tinic

1988-01-01

146

Quantifying the Magnetic Advantage in Magnetotaxis  

PubMed Central

Magnetotactic bacteria are characterized by the production of magnetosomes, nanoscale particles of lipid bilayer encapsulated magnetite, that act to orient the bacteria in magnetic fields. These magnetosomes allow magneto-aerotaxis, which is the motion of the bacteria along a magnetic field and toward preferred concentrations of oxygen. Magneto-aerotaxis has been shown to direct the motion of these bacteria downward toward sediments and microaerobic environments favorable for growth. Herein, we compare the magneto-aerotaxis of wild-type, magnetic Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 with a nonmagnetic mutant we have engineered. Using an applied magnetic field and an advancing oxygen gradient, we have quantified the magnetic advantage in magneto-aerotaxis as a more rapid migration to preferred oxygen levels. Magnetic, wild-type cells swimming in an applied magnetic field more quickly migrate away from the advancing oxygen than either wild-type cells in a zero field or the nonmagnetic cells in any field. We find that the responses of the magnetic and mutant strains are well described by a relatively simple analytical model, an analysis of which indicates that the key benefit of magnetotaxis is an enhancement of a bacterium's ability to detect oxygen, not an increase in its average speed moving away from high oxygen concentrations.

Smith, M. J.; Sheehan, P. E.; Perry, L. L.; O'Connor, K.; Csonka, L. N.; Applegate, B. M.; Whitman, L. J.

2006-01-01

147

Advantage of Hole Stimulus in Rivalry Competition  

PubMed Central

Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry.

Meng, Qianli; Cui, Ding; Zhou, Ke; Chen, Lin; Ma, Yuanye

2012-01-01

148

Advantage of hole stimulus in rivalry competition.  

PubMed

Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry. PMID:22457733

Meng, Qianli; Cui, Ding; Zhou, Ke; Chen, Lin; Ma, Yuanye

2012-01-01

149

Tapered implants: from indications to advantages.  

PubMed

Tapered implants have become routine for immediate implant placement after tooth extraction. It seemed extremely advantageous to use tapered implants in type 4 bone, where primary stability is difficult to achieve. The authors established a surgical implant placement protocol to be followed in areas where type 4 bone and a wide bone ridge (> or = 8 mm) are present. First, preparation of the implant alveolus is done exclusively with cylindric osteotomes, rather than with conic osteotomes or drills. The final cylindric osteotome is the same diameter as the final twist drill that is typically used in conventional preparation of the implant alveolus (a technique that can be adapted for use with other tapered implants). Because of the self-tapping property of the tapered implant used and its anatomic design, this surgical technique was developed to optimize the bone compaction effect in the coronal third of the implant, improving bone density and providing better primary stability values (> or = 70 ISO, via the Osstell Mentor device). With the strong bond that is created between the implant surface and the surrounding bone using this technique, immediate loading can be predictable, even in the type 4 bone that is commonly found in the maxillary tuberosity. PMID:19408478

Alves, Célia Coutinho; Neves, Manuel

2009-04-01

150

Newer antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required. PMID:11504596

Wallace, S J

2001-08-01

151

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities for the securities of a foreign private issuer in any business combination, are exempt from the provisions of section 5 of the Act (15...

2009-04-01

152

A 10% ready-to-use intravenous human immunoglobulin offers potential economic advantages over a lyophilized product in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy is the standard of care for patients with primary humoral immunodeficiencies. This study evaluated differences in infusion time between a 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution and a 6% IVIg lyophilized product and addressed potential cost implications. After receiving in-hospital treatment with 6% IVIg lyophilized solution for at least 6 months, 14 patients with humoral immunodeficiency without anti-IgA antibodies received five successive infusions with 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution. Data on infusion times were collected during the last two infusions of each IVIg product when maximum infusion rates had been reached. The median infusion time was reduced from 104·4 min with the 6% IVIg lyophilized solution to 51·0 min with the 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution (51% reduction), with corresponding median maximum infusion rates of 4·1 ml/kg/h and 5·9 ml/kg/h, respectively. Median gammaglobulin (IgG) trough levels were 7·1 g/l for the 6% IVIg lyophilized solution and 7·9 g/l for the 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution. Fewer adverse events were observed after infusing with 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution compared with 6% IVIg lyophilized preparation. We conclude that the 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution was well tolerated by most patients and reduced the median infusion time by 51% compared with a 6% lyophilized preparation of IVIg. The reduced bed occupancy and nursing time associated with a reduced infusion time, together with the elimination of a reconstitution step, were estimated to provide a cost-saving of €59·42 per patient per infusion. Thus, this product has the potential to reduce overall costs of IVIg treatment. Reduced infusion time is also likely to improve patients' quality of life.

Kallenberg, C G M

2007-01-01

153

IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

154

Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control  

PubMed Central

We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

2013-01-01

155

Immediate-loading post extractive implants: indications, advantages and limits  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The possibility of rehabilitating immediately an edentulous patient offers today remarkable advantages because it satisfies the patient’s demands for comfort, aesthetics, and functionality and reduces the surgical stages for the professional. In the last years clinicians and companies have been concentrating their efforts in the development of new surgical techniques and biomaterials in order to speed up the osteointegration process, which fosters the functionality, that is the immediate-loading. This clinical report, based on the analysis of the literature and on the presentation of a case report, shows how satisfying results in functionality and aesthetic can be obtained by a careful diagnosis and an accurate therapeutic planning, reducing at the same time the stress for the patient and the surgical stages for the professional. In any case, it is necessary to have the rehabilitations with immediate-loaded implants directed by workers with a good knowledge and experience in surgery, periodontology, and prosthesis or by a work team able to face all the complications such advanced rehabilitations may cause.

MAMPIERI, G.; OTTRIA, L.; BARLATTANI, A.

2009-01-01

156

Less Toxic Transplant Treatment Offers Hope for Sickle Cell Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Less Toxic Transplant Treatment Offers Hope for Sickle Cell Patients Technique ... 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new bone marrow transplant technique for adults with sickle cell disease may " ...

157

45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.16...testimony shall consist of a brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for excluded...

2013-10-01

158

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2013-04-01

159

The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.  

PubMed

The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

2012-01-01

160

The strategic imperative and sustainable competitive advantage: Public policy implications of resource-advantage theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy theorists share (1) the view that the strategic imperative of a firm should be sustained, superior financial performance\\u000a and (2) the belief that this goal can be achieved through a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. Neoclassical\\u000a perfect competition and traditional industrial organization economics, however, imply that the sustained performance goal\\u000a advocated by strategy theorists is anticompetitive and its

Shelby D. Hunt

1999-01-01

161

A lower visual field advantage for endpoint stability but no advantage for online movement precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that visually guided reaching movements performed in the lower visual field (LVF) of peripersonal space\\u000a are more effective and efficient than their upper visual field (UVF) counterparts (Danckert and Goodale 2001). In the present investigation we sought to determine whether this purported visual field asymmetry reflects advantaged processing\\u000a of online visual feedback. To accomplish that objective,

Olav Krigolson; Matthew Heath

2006-01-01

162

A new silicon retina model and its advantages.  

PubMed

A new model of silicon retina based on the receptive field structure of retinal ganglion cells has been proposed. Unlike previous neuromorphic models, the proposed model directly incorporates into the receptive field model, contribution from both the inner and outer plexiform layer of the retina, as a linear combination of the two. It has been shown that such a system is capable of aiding in the computation of zero-crossing maps, in higher regions of the brain, using a fourth or higher order derivative. This model is likely to have a neuromorphic implication in generating and implementing a simplistic derivative analyzer mimetic of the Human Visual system (HVS) and is also endowed with additional advantages from the perspective of image retrieval. PMID:17281013

Ghosh, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhaumik, Kamales

2005-01-01

163

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

2013-04-01

164

Offer patterns of nationally placed livers by donation service area.  

PubMed

We previously reported that national liver distribution is highly concentrated in 6 US centers, and this raises the possibility of expedited placement. Therefore, we evaluated all national offers of nationally placed livers (n=1625) to adult wait-list candidates from February 2005 to January 2010. We developed a model to predict national utilization pathways; pathways exceeding the best-fit linear unbiased predictions by ?3 standard errors were defined as preferred. All 51 donation service areas (DSAs) placed 1 or more livers nationally, but the percentage per DSA ranged from 1% to 36%. Of 2830 possible national DSA-center pathways, 87% were used. Five hundred eighty livers (36%) were accepted on the first national offer. Four DSAs accounted for 47% of first-national-offer livers, and 44% of these were accepted by a single center. In comparison with first-offer livers using nonpreferred pathways, first offers along a preferred pathway were offered to fewer status 1 candidates (19% versus 61%) and had lower median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores (22 versus 36, P<0.001). In conclusion, DSA placement patterns of national livers vary widely, with 4 DSAs exporting a high proportion of national livers on the first national offer to non-status 1 candidates with MELD scores less than their local transplant MELD scores. Although this practice may facilitate liver placement, it raises the possibility of expedience trumping patient need. Here we propose changes to the national liver distribution system that will help to balance equity, efficiency, and transparency. PMID:23447450

Lai, Jennifer C; Feng, Sandy; Vittinghoff, Eric; Roberts, John P

2013-04-01

165

A greener, efficient approach to Michael addition of barbituric acid to nitroalkene in aqueous diethylamine medium.  

PubMed

An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a-t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a-k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. PMID:24445342

Al-Najjar, Hany J; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Weber, Manuel; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

2014-01-01

166

Apixaban and atrial fibrillation: no clear advantage.  

PubMed

For the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and a high thrombotic risk, the standard treatment is warfarin, an anticoagulant. Dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor, is the alternative when warfarin fails to maintain the INR within the therapeutic range. Patients with a moderate thrombotic risk may receive either warfarin or low-dose aspirin. Apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant, has been authorised in the European Union for use in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate or high risk of thrombosis. In a double-blind, randomised non-inferiority trial versus warfarin in 18 201 patients, the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism was lower in the apixaban group (average 1.3 versus 1.6 events per 100 patient-years; p = 0.01). This difference was mainly due to a lower incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and did not result in a clear decline in mortality. In addition, these results are undermined by multiple methodological flaws. Clinical evaluation included no trials comparing apixaban with dabigatran; any indirect comparison would be risky given the poor quality of the clinical assessment of both drugs in atrial fibrillation. A double-blind, randomised trial including 5598 patients compared apixaban with aspirin but provided little information on these options in patients with a moderate risk of thrombosis, as most patients were at high risk. In clinical trials, major bleeding events were less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin (average 2.1 versus 3.1 events per 100 patient-years), but they were more frequent with apixaban than with aspirin (1.4 versus 0.9 events per 100 patient-years). In 2013, there is no way of monitoring the anticoagulant activity of apixaban in routine clinical practice, and there is no antidote in case of overdose; the same is true for dabigatran. Apixaban is a substrate for various cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and for P-glycoprotein, creating a risk of multiple drug-drug interactions. In addition, the anticoagulant action of apixaban is increased by renal failure, meaning that renal function must be regularly monitored. In practice, the antithrombotic treatment of choice for patients with atrial fibrillation is warfarin when the risk of thrombosis is high, and warfarin or aspirin when the thrombotic risk is moderate. When the INR cannot be maintained within the desired therapeutic range, it is best to stick with dabigatran. PMID:24669381

2014-02-01

167

[Brief research on Nectar Offering in Tibetan medicine].  

PubMed

As a part of the culture of Tibetan medicine, the Nectar Offering has a long history of a thousand year. There are some contents of Esoteric Sect in its ritual procedure. It was improved and established a special theory in the development. On the basic of literature research and investigating the senior inheritors, the contents of ritual procedure, including instrument, participants and procedure, its characteristics and significance were introduced. Nowadays, the culture of Nectar Offering is diluted gradually, and facing the danger of disappearing. PMID:22335844

Wa, Da

2011-11-01

168

First tribal college or university to offer hydrology degree program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Indian tribes and tribal confederations exert sovereignty over about 27% of freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 20-30 Native American students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosciences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of Native American hydrologists, the Salish Kootenai College (SKC) in Pablo, Mont., now has associate and bachelor of science degree programs in hydrology, the first hydrology and geoscience degree programs offered by any of the Tribal Colleges and Universities in North America. SKC received approval to offer the degree programs from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities in 2010.

Dalbotten, Diana

2012-07-01

169

Flt23k Nanoparticles Offer Additive Benefit in Graft Survival and Anti-Angiogenic Effects When Combined with Triamcinolone  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine if nanoparticles delivering plasmids expressing Flt23k (an anti-VEGF intraceptor) can enhance murine cornea transplant survival and whether their effect is synergistic with steroid therapy. Methods. Biodegradable PLGA Flt23k loaded or blank nanoparticles were prepared using the emulsion solvent evaporation method. Graft survival, corneal neovascularization, and corneal lymphangiogenesis were compared among the Flt23k nanoparticles, blank nanoparticles, triamcinolone acetonide, and PBS groups following subconjunctival injection in mice that underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Graft survival, corneal neovascularization, and corneal lymphangiogenesis in a group treated with both nanoparticles and steroid therapy were also analyzed. Results. The Flt23k nanoparticle group showed less neovascularization, lymphangiogenesis, and graft failure compared with the PBS control group (P < 0.01). The 2-month graft survival rate was 20% in the Flt23k nanoparticle group with no grafts surviving in the PBS group. When the Flt23k nanoparticle was combined with steroid therapy, a significant increase in graft survival was seen compared with both steroid treatment alone (P < 0.05) and steroid combined with blank nanoparticle treatment (P < 0.05). The 2-month graft survival rate was 91.6% in the combination group compared with 47.6% in the triamcinolone-only group and 42.4% in the triamcinolone plus blank nanoparticle group. Conclusions. Anti-VEGF nanoparticles (Flt23k) have a significant effect on decreasing neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis, resulting in increased graft survival in penetrating keratoplasty. This beneficial effect is synergistically enhanced with steroid treatment.

Cho, Yang Kyung; Uehara, Hironori; Young, Jason R.; Tyagi, Puneet; Kompella, Uday B.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Luo, Ling; Singh, Nirbhai; Archer, Bonnie; Ambati, Balamurali K.

2012-01-01

170

36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing...before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing...the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new...

2009-07-01

171

36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing...before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing...the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new...

2010-07-01

172

Offering a ‘therapeutic presence’ in schools and education settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a framework for conceptualizing the contributions that psychoanalytically-informed therapeutic professionals working within education settings can make to school staff and systems as well as to children and families.The paper combines theoretical concepts with case examples of work undertaken in different education settings, to illustrate the opportunities provided by offering a ‘therapeutic presence’ within schools. Examples include direct

Mike Solomon; Sadegh Nashat

2010-01-01

173

Economics Courses Offered and Required in Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting the results of a nation-wide survey of economics courses in junior colleges. Lists courses given and what is required to take them. A breakdown by type of college (public, independent, church-related) is presented, and suggestions for improvement are offered. (DB)

Dawson, George G.

1970-01-01

174

Exploring Mobile User Acceptance Based on UTAUT and Contextual Offering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precondition for mobile commerce success is user acceptance. Based on UTAUT that explains user acceptance of information technology, and combined with a special characteristic of mobile technology: contextual offering, we examined the factors significantly affecting mobile commerce user acceptance. We employed questionnaire survey to collect 250 valid papers and analyzed data with SEM software: LISERL. The results show that

Tao Zhou

2008-01-01

175

The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30-40%, compared with 60-70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior. PMID:19564602

Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S

2009-07-14

176

20 CFR 655.104 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the place of recruitment, which...stated in the job order and...thereof are in effect. Therefore...specified in the job offer, the...the AEWR in effect at the time recruitment for the position...condition of job...

2009-04-01

177

20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the place of recruitment, which...stated in the job order and...thereof are in effect. Therefore...specified in the job offer, the...the AEWR in effect at the time recruitment for the position...condition of job...

2010-04-01

178

The Performance of Internet Firms Following Their Initial Public Offering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that initial returns were more favorable for Internet initial public offerings (IPOs) than non-Internet firm IPOs. Since the demise of the Internet sector, the underpricing of Internet-firm IPOs is not significantly different from other IPOs. Copyright 2002 by the Eastern Finance Association.

Jarrod Johnston; Jeff Madura

2002-01-01

179

Creative State Pre-K Policies Offer Smart Federal Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act offers an opportunity to invest in programs with the greatest educational and economic benefits. Members of Congress should look to states for flexible, innovative, bipartisan strategies to gradually grow pre-k programs. This brief highlights some of the most promising state efforts to…

Pew Center on the States, 2011

2011-01-01

180

Investment banking, reputation, and the underpricing of initial public offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and tests two propositions. We demonstrate that there is a monotone relation between the (expected) underpricing of an initial public offering and the uncertainty of investors regarding its value. We also argue that the resulting underpricing equilibrium is enforced by investment bankers, who have reputation capital at stake. An investment banker who \\

Randolph P. Beatty; Jay R. Ritter

1986-01-01

181

Unique Refresher Course Offered in U.K.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Diploma in Chemical Sciences is a new course being offered at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England. It is billed as a refresher course in modern organic chemistry for senior industrial scientists and is aimed at Ph.D.'s out of school for at least ten years. (Author/BB)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

182

Arbitrator Decision Making: When Are Final Offers Important?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to understanding the effect of arbitration schemes on the process of collective bargaining is understanding the process by which arbitrators make decisions. A model of arbitrator behavior inconventional arbitration is developed that allows the arbitration award to be a function of both the offers of the parties and the(exogenous) facts of the case. The weight that the arbitrator puts

Max H. Bazerman; Henry S. Farber

1983-01-01

183

Valuating risk from sales contract offer maturity in electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electricity retail business has always been exposed to a significant risk due to a very volatile nature of the wholesale electricity market. Recently, this trend has been accelerating, as electricity-forward price can rise or fall during one day by an amount comparable to the retailer’s margin. As a result, the risk that arises from sales contract offer maturity can

Ludvik Bartelj; Dejan Paravan; Andrej F. Gubina; Robert Golob

2010-01-01

184

INNOVATION, APPROPRIABILITY, AND THE UNDERPRICING OF INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the information asymmetries theory of underpricing, we investigate the role of innovation in the underpricing of initial public offerings (IPOs). We develop and test a model in which patents reduce information asymmetries in industries where the link between patents and inventive returns is transparent, thereby reducing underpricing. Conversely, patents reflect increased information asymmetries and underpricing in industries where the

MICHAEL B. HEELEY; SHARON F. MATUSIK

2007-01-01

185

Initial Public Offerings: An Analysis of Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey 336 chief financial officers (CFOs) to compare practice to theory in the areas of initial public offering (IPO) motivation, timing, underwriter selection, underpricing, signaling, and the decision to remain private. We find the primary motivation for going public is to facilitate acquisitions. CFOs base IPO timing on overall market conditions, are well informed regarding expected underpricing, and feel

JAMES C. BRAU; STANLEY E. FAWCETT

2006-01-01

186

Museum Showcase: Museums Offer Classrooms the Treasures of Many Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes resources that museums make available to classrooms nationwide, particularly multicultural exhibits and educational programs. Describes specific offerings at 14 museums that include inservice teacher training, educational tours, and curriculum materials in Chicano culture, African diversity, Western stereotypes, art, the Holocaust,…

Punske, Lori

1992-01-01

187

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2013-10-01

188

Contrastive Pragmatics of English and Japanese Offers and Requests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes a study by Fukushima (1990) of the English offers and responses of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and reports on an experiment designed to address the perceived weaknesses of Fukushima's work. Fukushima's study found that many Japanese EFL learners could not use appropriate levels of politeness in…

Christianson, Kiel

189

Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

Fukushima, Saeko

1990-01-01

190

Media exposure and earnings quality in initial public offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We examine the relation between the media exposure of initial public offerings (IPOs) and their earnings quality. We find that IPOs that attract greater media attention have more negative abnormal discretionary accruals compared,to IPOs that attract less media attention. This evidence suggests that IPOs thatbring attention to themselvesthrough,aggressive promotion adopt more conservative accounting, consistent with a litigation avoidance hypothesis.

Robert Kieschnick; Suresh Radhakrishnan; Albert Tsang

191

26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...same taxable year or years (as calculated...taxpayer may, however, still qualify as a prevailing...raised by either party after the making of...or the 90th day after the date the offer...tax and the taxable year or years at issue...if adjustments in different tax years arise...

2013-04-01

192

Learning during developing and implementing new bank offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Knowledge of the management issues for developing new bank offerings efficiently is limited. Furthermore, recent research suggests that organisational learning can contribute greatly to the success of innovation projects. The aims of this paper are to provide a detailed description of the development process of a new financial product and to identify learning actions that may contribute to

Eric Stevens; Sergios Dimitriadis

2005-01-01

193

Lowering nursing injuries using post offer pre-employment testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Nursing injuries are alarmingly high in the healthcare system. The rate of injuries adds to the shortage of nurses that are already employed. Preventing nursing injuries has focused on utilizing patient handling equipment. This project used post offer pre employment testing to attempt to control the injuries of nurses in a healthcare facility. Outcomes: Injuries were significantly

Jason Faris

2008-01-01

194

A Support Group Offers Help for Parents of Hyperactive Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a parents' support group in Augusta, Georgia which offers parents of hyperactive and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) children an opportunity to share experiences and explore problem-solving strategies for coping with and managing their children. (Author/BB)

Pond, Elizabeth F.; Gilbert, Charlotte M.

1987-01-01

195

Dietary protein requirements and adaptive advantages in athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary guidelines from a variety of sources are generally congruent that an adequate dietary protein intake for persons over the age of 19 is between 0·8-0·9 g protein/kg body weight/d. According to the US/Canadian Dietary Reference Intakes, the RDA for protein of 0·8 g protein/kg/d is "...the average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all [~98 %]… healthy individuals..." The panel also states that "...no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." These recommendations are in contrast to recommendations from the US and Canadian Dietetic Association: "Protein recommendations for endurance and strength trained athletes range from 1·2 to 1·7 g/kg/d." The disparity between those setting dietary protein requirements and those who might be considered to be making practical recommendations for athletes is substantial. This may reflect a situation where an adaptive advantage of protein intakes higher than recommended protein requirements exists. That population protein requirements are still based on nitrogen balance may also be a point of contention since achieving balanced nitrogen intake and excretion likely means little to an athlete who has the primary goal of exercise performance. The goal of the present review is to critically analyse evidence from both acute and chronic dietary protein-based studies in which athletic performance, or correlates thereof, have been measured. An attempt will be made to distinguish between protein requirements set by data from nitrogen balance studies, and a potential adaptive 'advantage' for athletes of dietary protein in excess of the RDA. PMID:23107527

Phillips, Stuart M

2012-08-01

196

Health Benefits Offer Rates: Is There a Nonresponse Bias?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a nonresponse bias exists in the offer rate for health benefits in firms with fewer than 50 workers and to present a simple adjustment to correct for observed bias. Data Sources The 2003 Employer Health Benefits Survey (EHBS) conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, and a follow-up survey of nonrespondents to the 2003 EHBS. Study Design We conducted a follow-up survey to the 2003 EHBS to collect health benefits offering data from firms with fewer than 50 workers. We used McNemar's test to verify that the follow-up survey provided results comparable to the EHBS, and t-tests were used to determine nonresponse bias. We applied a simple weighting adjustment to the EHBS. Data Collection The data for both the EHBS and the follow-up survey were collected by the same survey research firm. The EHBS interviews the person most knowledgeable about the firm's health benefits, while the follow-up survey interviews the first person who answers the telephone whether they are the most knowledgeable or not. Principal Findings Firms with 3–9 workers were more likely to exhibit a bias than were firms with 10–24 workers and 25–49 workers. Although the calculated bias for each size category was not significant, there is sufficient evidence to warrant caution when reporting offer rates. Conclusions Survey nonresponse in the EHBS produces an upward bias on estimates for the offer rates of small firms. Although not significant, this upward bias is because of nonresponse by small firms that do not offer health benefits. Our research is limited in that we only control for differences in the size of the firm.

Pickreign, Jeremy D; Gabel, Jon R

2005-01-01

197

Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data  

PubMed Central

Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss.

Thaler, Lore

2013-01-01

198

Imaging the paediatric lung: what does nanotechnology have to offer?  

PubMed

This review will provide an overview of current research into lung imaging with nanoparticles, with a focus on the use of nanoparticles as molecular imaging agents to observe pathological processes and to monitor the effectiveness of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. Various imaging modalities together with their advantages and limitations for lung imaging will be discussed. We will also explore the range of nanoparticles used, as well as active or passive targeting of nanoparticles. PMID:22475253

Ordidge, K L; Duffy, B A; Wells, J A; Kalber, T L; Janes, S M; Lythgoe, M F

2012-06-01

199

Miniaturized controls offer improved power plant operability, reliability  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of miniaturized power plant controls to improve plant operation and reliability include backlighted pushbuttons, solid-state logic cards, and multiplexer systems. A description of these and other miniaturization techniques covers their advantages and disadvantages under different operating conditions. The experience at Illinois Power Co.'s Clinton Power Station and at two Commonwealth Edison plants indicate a range of evaluations from enthusiasm about the flexibility to noncommital. 8 figures. (DCK)

Givan, R.L.; Faber, J.P.

1981-01-01

200

Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.

Cooley, Victor M.

2013-01-01

201

Firm diversification and earnings management: evidence from seasoned equity offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular press suggests that diversified firms are more aggressive in managing earnings than non-diversified firms. We examine\\u000a this claim in the seasoned equity offering (SEO) setting, where firms have been shown to have the incentive to manage earnings\\u000a upwards. Using the cross-sectional modified Jones [(1991) J Accounting Res 29:193–228] model to measure discretionary current accruals, we find that discretionary current

Chee Yeow Lim; Tiong Yang Thong; David K. Ding

2008-01-01

202

The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underpricing of initial public offerings that has been widely documented appears to be a short-run phenomenon. Issuing firms during 1975-84 substantially underperformed a sample of matching firms from the closing price on the first day of public trading to their three-year anniversaries. There is substantial variation in the under performance year-to-year and across industries, with companies that went public

Jay R Ritter

1991-01-01

203

Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.  

PubMed

Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method. PMID:10142191

Sen, S; Lawler, J P

1995-05-01

204

How complex are the contracts offered by health plans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When health plans compete under adverse selection, the competitive equilibrium set of contracts is unique. However, the allocation\\u000a of these contracts among health plans is undetermined. We show that three health plans suffice to sustain an equilibrium where\\u000a each health plan offers a single contract and attracts a single type of agent (full specialization). We also show that this\\u000a equilibrium

Pau Olivella; Marcos Vera-Hernandez

2010-01-01

205

Drug offers as a context for violence perpetration and victimization.  

PubMed

Drug use has been linked empirically with and aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai'i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this article explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier for them than for their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N = 64). Students discussed what they think they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Although aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated that aggression and violence were thought to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

2014-01-01

206

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

Frazier, William E.

2014-06-01

207

Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit.

Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

2013-01-01

208

Advantage of Being a Dimer for Serratia marcescens Endonuclease?  

PubMed Central

The monomer and dimer of the bacterium Serratia marcescens endonuclease (SMnase) are each catalytically active and the two subunits of the dimer function independently of each other. Nature however chooses the dimer form instead of the monomer. In order to explain this, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both model built complexes of a subunit of SMnase and the dimer with DNA in aqueous solution. We estimated the electrostatic binding energy, analyzed the distribution and dynamics of water around the complexes, identified water clusters in the protein, and related dynamics of water to the protein's function. We find that the dimer form has an electrostatic advantage over the monomer to associate with DNA. Although Mg2+ remains hexa-coordinated during the simulation, the binding pathway of DNA to Mg2+ changes from inner-sphere binding in the monomer to outer-sphere in the dimer, which may be more energetically favorable. In addition, two water clusters in the active site of each monomer and in the dimer complex were identified and localized in two regions, named ‘stabilizing’ and ‘working’ region. Water in the ‘working’ region in the dimer complex has larger fluctuations than that in the monomer.

Chen, Chuanying; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

2009-01-01

209

Gene Networks and Metacommunities: Dispersal Differences Can Override Adaptive Advantage  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is an important mechanism contributing to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In metapopulation and metacommunity ecology, dispersal enables new patches to be colonized; in evolution, dispersal counter-acts local selection, leading to regional homogenization. Here, I consider a three-patch metacommunity in which two species, each with a limiting quantitative trait underlain by gene networks of 16 to 256 genes, compete with one another and disperse among patches. Incorporating dispersal among heterogeneous patches introduces a tradeoff not observed in single-patch simulations: if the difference between gene network size of the two species is greater than the difference in dispersal ability (e.g., if the ratio of network sizes is larger than the ratio of dispersal abilities), then genetic architecture drives community outcome. However, if the difference in dispersal abilities is greater than gene network differences, then any adaptive advantages afforded by genetic architecture are over-ridden by dispersal. Thus, in addition to the selective pressures imposed by competition that shape the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, dispersal among patches creates an escape that may further alter the effects of different genetic architectures. These results provide a theoretical expectation for what we may observe as the field of ecological genomics develops.

Malcom, Jacob W.

2011-01-01

210

Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

Obenschain, Stephen

2010-11-01

211

Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.  

PubMed

Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination. PMID:23346066

Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

2012-01-01

212

Rehabilitative management offered Nigerian localized and generalized aggressive periodontitis patients.  

PubMed

This paper highlights the typical clinical features of aggressive periodontitis (formerly known as juvenile periodontitis in the South Western region of Nigeria), the attending psychological effect following tooth loss, and the rehabilitative management offered which included periodontal therapy, psychotherapy, and prosthetic replacement of the missing teeth. The psychotherapy is the main distinguishing treatment in this study from previously reported modes of management of this disease entity. Subjects were from a part of the South Western region of Nigeria, and ages ranged from 15 to 22 years. They all presented very late with subsequent gross periodontal breakdown and subsequent psychological depression. The mean values of the probing depth (mm), degree of mobility, and the amount of bone fill (mm) from the periapical radiographs were recorded pre and post-operatively. The missing teeth were replaced with acrylic dentures, and psychotherapy was offered at three levels (individual, group, and conjoint-family psychotherapy). There was significant improvement of these clinical parameters six months after treatment, and the partial denture replacement of the missing teeth improved their appearance as expected but did not totally improve the initial depressive state. The psychotherapy offered gave the patients positive psychological effects that further restored their ability to socialize in their environment, which added to their positive experience of life. In conclusion the typical clinical features of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) patients in our environment are late presentation with gross periodontal tissue breakdown. Psychotherapy is an important aspect in the management of this group of patients in conjunction with the periodontal and prosthetic management, which gives total rehabilitation. PMID:16127471

Dosumu, Oyekunle Oluwole; Dosumu, Elizabeth Bosede; Arowojolu, Modupeola Olayinka; Babalola, Sunday Samson

2005-08-15

213

An approach to evaluate the energy advantage of two axes solar tracking systems in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work shows an alterative method for determining the tracking energy advantage, defined as the additional electrical energy produced by two axes tracking systems respect to fixed devices, in order to analyze the economical profitability in Spain. For this purpose, 52 main cities of this country have been analyzed. The proposed methodology starts from irradiation data, combining diffuse models

Fernando Cruz-Peragón; Pedro J. Casanova-Peláez; Francisco A. Díaz; Rafael López-García; José M. Palomar

2011-01-01

214

Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.  

PubMed

Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists. PMID:22245856

DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

2012-03-01

215

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

2012-03-01

216

Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

Hansen, I. G.

1983-01-01

217

Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

2012-01-01

218

Exploring future competitive advantage through sustainable supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper's purpose is to outline the potential competitive advantage firms can create through the creation of a sustainable supply chain, and to describe potential measures for managers to use. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Arguing that firms can increase their competitive advantage as a result of a stronger triple bottom line, propositions are created from a natural-resource-based view of the

Melissa J. Markley; Lenita Davis

2007-01-01

219

Competitive advantage through sponsorship : A conceptual model and research propositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly important role played by sponsorship in the marketing mix has given rise to the view that it should be considered a strategic activity with the potential to generate a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. This paper extends that line of argument through the development of a conceptual model of the sponsorship – competitive advantage relationship. In particular,

John Fahy; Francis Farrelly; Pascale Quester

2004-01-01

220

Competitive advantage in interfirm cooperation: old and new explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how different strategy theories complement each other with respect to understanding competitive advantage of a single firm that utilizes interfirm cooperation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides an analytical review of three schools of strategy research in order to highlight their contributions, shortcomings, and interrelations with respect to sustainable competitive advantage

Paavo Ritala; Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen

2010-01-01

221

A comprehensive study on profits and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate which strategic resources or industry structural conditions help firms build up a competitive advantage and sustain it over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Our approach is based on one main variable. Firm-specific profits (proxy for competitive advantage) were estimated as the difference between a firm's profits and the average profitability of its

Pablo Gonzalo Ramirez; Toyohiko Hachiya

2008-01-01

222

Sustained competitive advantage in small firm virtual organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper examines the factors that affect the sustained competitive advantage of small firm virtual organisations. Virtual organisations are separate firms that for certain activities (transactions) behave as if they were a single firm. A sustained competitive advantage occurs when a strategy is implemented that increases firm value but is not capable of duplication by other firms. The extent

Grant Castner

223

CORPORATE REAL ESTATE MANAGEMENT AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisational competitive advantage is a recent general management literature theme. Corporate Real Estate (CRE) as an organisational resource capable of improving organisational competitiveness is under- recognised. For CRE and its management to fully support a competitive organisation it is thought to be essential that CRE practices align with the organisational competitive positioning and its sources of competitive advantage. This paper

Russell Kenley; Christopher Heywood; Mudrajad Kuncoro; Nicola Brackertz; Nguyen Thi Pham

224

Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

Teulings, Coen N.

2005-01-01

225

Establishing bounds on the tax advantage to debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial dismantling of the imputation tax system that commenced in July 1997 once more opens the discussion on the relative tax advantage to debt and its impact on the cost of capital. In this paper we examine the implications of these recent changes for the value of the tax advantage to debt. We analyse the value of debt-related tax

David Ashton; Daniella Acker

2003-01-01

226

Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

Byrd, Terry Anthony

2001-01-01

227

Crossing the arms confuses the clocks: sensory feedback and the bimanual advantage.  

PubMed

The bimanual advantage refers to the finding that tapping with two fingers on opposite hands exhibits reduced timing variability, as compared with tapping with only one finger. Two leading theories propose that the bimanual advantage results from the addition of either sensory (i.e., enhanced feedback) or cognitive (i.e., multiple timekeeper) processes involved in timing. Given that crossing the arms impairs perception of tactile stimuli and modulates cortical activation following tactile stimulation, we investigated the role of crossing the arms in the bimanual advantage. Participants tapped unimanually or bimanually with their arms crossed or uncrossed on a tabletop or in the air. With arms crossed, we expected increased interval timing variance. Similarly, for air tapping, we expected reduced bimanual advantage, due to reduced sensory feedback. A significant bimanual advantage was observed for the uncrossed, but not the crossed posture in tabletop tapping. Furthermore, removing tactile feedback from taps eliminated the bimanual advantage for both postures. Together, these findings suggest that crossing the arms likely impairs integration of internal (i.e., effector-specific) and external (i.e., environment-specific) information and that this multisensory integration is crucial to reducing timing variability during repetitive coordinated bimanual tasks. PMID:23943555

Studenka, Breanna E; Eliasz, Kinga L; Shore, David I; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

2014-04-01

228

Invisalign, an innovative invisible orthodontic appliance to correct malocclusions: advantages and limitations.  

PubMed

Tooth movement may be achieved by the use of sequential positioners made by altering tooth positions on set-up models to simulate progress of treatment. The principle is based upon Kesling's positioner concept of 1945, though its subsequent application to splint therapy was labour intensive and did not result in precise tooth movement. Invisalign was developed by Align Technology, Inc (Santa Clara, CA, USA) in 1997 by applying 3-D imaging technology to overcome these problems, and permitting customization on a large scale. Their system offers significant advantages, but still suffers from limitations which are discussed in this article. PMID:22774688

Ali, Shaymaa Abdulreda A H; Miethke, Henno Rainer

2012-05-01

229

The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high voltage solar array (HVSA) offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. The basic HVSA technology involves designing the solar array to deliver power in the form required by the ion thruster. This paper delves into conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT II experience for examples. In this light, the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT II thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are discussed. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

Sater, B. L.

1973-01-01

230

7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.  

...Washington, DC 20250-0270. (7) Statistics Branch Office. The Statistics Branch office of Science and Technology Programs...agencies within the USDA. In addition, the Statistics Branch office generates sample plans and...

2014-01-01

231

7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Washington, DC 20250-0270. (7) Statistics Branch Office. The Statistics Branch office of Science and Technology Programs...agencies within the USDA. In addition, the Statistics Branch office generates sample plans and...

2011-01-01

232

Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

233

Asphalt enhancing additive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An asphalt enhancing additive, an asphalt cement and an asphalt mixture containing the additive, wherein the additive causes the mixture to be more easily workable so that the asphalt mixture can be manufactured at a temperature lower than the conventional ones, wherein the additive comprises the mixture of an aminic compound, a lubricant and a flux.

2011-09-13

234

Recommendations from Friends Anytime and Anywhere: Toward a Model of Contextual Offer and Consumption Values  

PubMed Central

Abstract The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice.

Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Nan

2013-01-01

235

Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

Al-Asfour, Ahmed

2012-01-01

236

Advantageous use of slush and gelled slush in space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages of combining both slush and gel have been recognized. These advantages are: (1) a reduction in the gelling agent necessary; (2) the achievement of active positioning; and (3) a potential increase in impulse density. The need for extended mission capability as indicated by present mission planning is outlined and the expected schedules are presented. A condensed version of analytical and testing conclusions as related to storage systems and slush is given. The significant results of slush flow testing and its possible influence on vehicle propulsion systems are presented, and the characterization and preparation of gels are discussed in relation to future applications, advantages, and disadvantages.

Adamson, J. Z.

1971-01-01

237

Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion  

PubMed Central

The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change.

Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

238

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

239

Visual neuroscience: a binocular advantage for word processing during reading.  

PubMed

A recent study using a novel saccade-contingent display-change technique to control the presentation of text to each eye shows a binocular advantage for both foveal and parafoveal processing of words during natural reading. PMID:24602888

Paterson, Kevin

2014-03-01

240

Advantages and Disadvantages of Greek Universities: Implications for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the present situation in Greek universities, their goals and characteristics, and the conditions under which these goals can be accomplished. The advantages and disadvantages and legislative framework and internal regulations of Greek universities are discussed. (Author/VWL)

Spyrou, Nicholas K.

1997-01-01

241

Analysis of Comparative Advantage and Agricultural Trade in Mozambique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Executive Summary; Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations; Introduction; Agricultural Production and Trade; Analytical Framework; Empirical Framework and Data Analysis; Results of Research and Analysis of Comparative Advantage and Agri...

F. G. Mucavele

2000-01-01

242

Vascularized bone graft for oncological reconstruction of the extremities: review of the biological advantages.  

PubMed

Vascularized bone graft (VBG) is a form of vascularized bone marrow transplant in which the bone marrow is surgically grafted with its microenvironment intact. Due to the preservation of cellular viability, VBG have significant advantages over non-vascularized bone grafts. Free vascularized fibula grafts have superior material properties and tolerate infection. Bone healing can be accomplished in a shorter period, even in an irradiated bed. In addition to these properties, VBG has other biological advantages that are not always familiar to oncological surgeons. Hypertrophic change can be divided into reactive and adaptive hypertrophy. Early hypertrophy is associated with donor-derived cells, whereas later remodeling is associated with recipient-derived cells. VBG has significant advantages in enhancing neo-revascularization of necrotic bone. We reviewed VBG from a novel viewpoint that stems from our basic research. PMID:24922630

Muramatsu, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

2014-06-01

243

Novel opportunities and challenges offered by nanobiomaterials in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades, tissue engineering has demonstrated an unquestionable potential to regenerate damaged tissues and organs. Some tissue-engineered solutions recently entered the clinics (eg, artificial bladder, corneal epithelium, engineered skin), but most of the pathologies of interest are still far from being solved. The advent of stem cells opened the door to large-scale production of “raw living matter” for cell replacement and boosted the overall sector in the last decade. Still reliable synthetic scaffolds fairly resembling the nanostructure of extracellular matrices, showing mechanical properties comparable to those of the tissues to be regenerated and capable of being modularly functionalized with biological active motifs, became feasible only in the last years thanks to newly introduced nanotechnology techniques of material design, synthesis, and characterization. Nanostructured synthetic matrices look to be the next generation scaffolds, opening new powerful pathways for tissue regeneration and introducing new challenges at the same time. We here present a detailed overview of the advantages, applications, and limitations of nanostructured matrices with a focus on both electrospun and self-assembling scaffolds.

Gelain, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

244

Emissions trading -- Market-based approaches offer pollution control incentives  

SciTech Connect

In the last several years, market-based'' strategies for achieving air quality goals have joined the traditional command-and-control'' approach to air pollution management. The premise behind market approaches is that the right'' to emit air pollutants provided by a permit has monetary value. A market-based approach provides facility operators with incentives to take advantage of the monetary value associated with reducing emissions below permitted levels. It has been recognized for some time that applying such a mechanism can be a cost-effective regional air quality management strategy. To date, economic incentives have been exploited somewhat in emissions reduction credit programs operating in non-attainment areas, but transactions have been tightly controlled by regulatory agencies. Two recently implemented programs have taken to the marketplace the management of emissions from specific sources. One is incorporated in the acid rain mitigation provisions of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments; the other is the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), a program based on reducing ozone. Both Title 4 and RECLAIM are intended to achieve substantial reductions during the next decade in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogens (NO[sub x]) from selected larger sources.

Tombach, I.

1994-06-01

245

Time Zones as a Source of Comparative Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis note proposes a three-country model of monopolistic competition that captures the role of time zones in the division of labor. The connectivity of business service sectors via communications networks (e.g. the Internet, satellite communications systems) is found to determine the structure of comparative advantage. That is, two countries with connected service sectors have a comparative advantage in the good

Toru Kikuchi

2009-01-01

246

The advantages of web service orchestration in perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments from all over the world are looking for technologies to facilitate the coordination of their inter-agency processes in order to improve the service-delivery to their customers. Web Service Orchestration (WSO) technology supports the coordination of cross-departmental processes. The advantages of WSO for governments, however, are not very clear. As a result, governments hesitate to adopt orchestration technology.Advantages of WSO,

Jeffrey Gortmaker; Marijn Janssen; René W. Wagenaar

2004-01-01

247

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural substrates that mediate tracking and visual working memory (WM), the present work examined whether or not a bilateral advantage also arises during storage in visual WM. Using a recall procedure to assess working memory for orientation information, we found a reliable bilateral advantage; recall error was smaller with bilateral sample displays than with unilateral displays. To demonstrate that the bilateral advantage influenced storage per se rather than just encoding efficiency, we replicated the observed bilateral advantage using sequentially presented stimuli. Finally, to further characterize how bilateral presentations enhanced storage in working memory, we measured both the number and the resolution of the stored items and found that bilateral presentations lead to an increased probability of storage, rather than enhanced mnemonic resolution. Thus, the bilateral advantage extends beyond the initial selection and encoding of visual information to influence online maintenance in visual working memory.

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

248

Clubs and societies offer connection, collaboration and career support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clubs and societies at The University of Notre Dame Australia's Sydney Campus are more active than ever before, with a rise in the activities arranged by organisations on Campus. This month, clubs and societies have hosted the Minister for School Education and Minister for Early Childhood and Youth, the Honorable Peter Garrett MP. Additionally, the Rural Health Organisation of

Elizabeth Fenech

2012-01-01

249

Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

Štefunková, S.

2012-03-01

250

The kindest cut? Surgical castration, sex offenders and coercive offers.  

PubMed

The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) have conducted visits and written reports criticising the surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany. They claim that surgical castration is degrading treatment and have called for an immediate end to this practice. The Czech and German governments have published rebuttals of these criticisms. The rebuttals cite evidence about clinical effectiveness and point out this is an intervention that must be requested by the sex offender and cannot occur without informed consent. This article considers a number of relevant arguments that are not discussed in these reports but which are central to how we might assess this practice. First, the article discusses the possible ways in which sex offenders could be coerced into castration and whether this is a decisive moral problem. Then, it considers a number of issues relevant to determining whether sex offenders are harmed by physical castration. The article concludes by arguing that sex offenders should not be coerced into castration, be that via threats or offers, but that there is no reason to think that this is occurring in the Czech Republic or Germany. In some cases, castration might be useful for reconfiguring a life that has gone badly awry and where there is no coercion, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are mistaken about this being degrading treatment. PMID:23665998

McMillan, John

2013-05-11

251

Utilities offer photovoltaic systems to remote residential customers  

SciTech Connect

From Idaho to Arizona and Nevada to Colorado, utilities across the U.S. are beginning to offer remote homeowners an option that may seem unusual today, but might be commonplace in the future. Would-be customers who do not live close to the electric grid may choose the option of photovoltaic (PV) systems to supply their electricity as an alternative to expensive line extension. These customers typically live and/or farm in rural sections of the country. Others own vacation homes far from towns or cities. Solar-powered energy systems have already proven successful for powering pumps to water livestock, and for lights and communications devices in locations far from established sources of electricity. Rather than receiving the customary electric bill for metered service, customers will pay a set rate to use the PV system, which the utility will own and maintain. The initial cost of purchasing the system can be much lower than extending the utility line (which can cost $20,000 a mile). From the utility's standpoint, it saves on investing in lines that stand to generate small profits because of the small load and resultant energy sales.

Van Arsdall, A.

1993-01-01

252

Advantages of dual-lumen umbilical vessel catheters versus single-lumen umbilical vessel catheters and additional peripheral intravenous catheters.  

PubMed

Once the decision to place an umbilical venous catheter has been made, the opportunity to provide some relief to the patient clinically as well as fiscally is possible with the use of a dual-lumen umbilical vessel catheter (UVC). Although the necessity of catheterization of the umbilical vein remains controversial, successful completion of this procedure provides the practitioner immediate access to the venous circulation of a newborn and allows administration of various solutions and blood products. The cost of a dual-lumen UVC was compared with a single-lumen UVC used in conjunction with peripheral intravenous catheters. By limiting the number of peripheral intravenous catheterization attempts, these patients are spared the pain and possible sequelae associated with wide fluctuations in blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation. Once a patient requires more than two peripheral intravenous catheterization attempts, the cost savings of a dual-lumen UVC becomes evident and is amplified with each successive peripheral catheterization attempt. PMID:9210078

Ginsberg, H G

1997-01-01

253

Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?  

PubMed

The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or average revenue/average cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans' margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan's margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC's in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high margin HCC's in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

2013-12-01

254

[Food additives and healthiness].  

PubMed

Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

Heinonen, Marina

2014-01-01

255

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

1987-01-01

256

Early offers to Notre Dame for nominated high school graduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

“The students here today have been singled out by their schools and selected by Notre Dame because they have demonstrated academic excellence throughout their school years, in addition to demonstrating leadership and service to their communities, church or school,” Vice Chancellor Professor Celia Hammond.\\u000aYear 12 students from across the State, recognised for their academic ability, leadership and commitment to

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

257

Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

Zaridis, Apostolos D.

2009-08-01

258

Places and faces: Geographic environment influences the ingroup memory advantage.  

PubMed

The preferential allocation of attention and memory to the ingroup (the ingroup memory advantage) is one of the most replicated effects in the psychological literature. But little is known about what factors may influence such effects. Here the authors investigated a potential influence: category salience as determined by the perceiver's geographic environment. They did so by studying the ingroup memory advantage in perceptually ambiguous groups for whom perceptual cues do not make group membership immediately salient. Individuals in an environment in which a particular group membership was salient (Mormon and non-Mormon men and women living in Salt Lake City, Utah) showed better memory for faces belonging to their ingroup in an incidental encoding paradigm. Majority group participants in an environment where this group membership was not salient (non-Mormon men and women in the northeastern United States), however, showed no ingroup memory advantage whereas minority group participants (Mormons) in the same environment did. But in the same environment, when differences in group membership were made accessible via an unobtrusive priming task, non-Mormons did show an ingroup memory advantage and Mormons' memory for ingroup members increased. Environmental context cues therefore influence the ingroup memory advantage for categories that are not intrinsically salient. PMID:20175617

Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

2010-03-01

259

Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening), healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed “right ear advantage”. Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables). The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli. Methods Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task. Results A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale. Conclusion The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.

Smucny, Jason; Wylie, Korey; Tregellas, Jason

2012-01-01

260

The Risk™ strategic game of rural tourism: how sensory analysis can help in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  This paper examines how sensory analysis can be effectively implemented to achieve competitive advantage in rural tourism.\\u000a Starting from the theoretical framework of experience economy outlined by Pine and Gilmore (1998), the authors describe how\\u000a firms can differentiate their offer by using sensory analysis. In the first section, the authors provide a description of\\u000a the rural tourism phenomenon and a

Cristina Santini; Alessio Cavicchi; Maurizio Canavari

261

17 CFR 249.480 - Form CB, tender offer statement in connection with a tender offer for a foreign private issuer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Form CB, tender offer statement in connection with a tender offer for a foreign private issuer. 249...for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.480 Form CB, tender...

2009-04-01

262

17 CFR 249.480 - Form CB, tender offer statement in connection with a tender offer for a foreign private issuer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form CB, tender offer statement in connection with a tender offer for a foreign private issuer. 249...for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.480 Form CB, tender...

2010-04-01

263

48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 3052.216-70...offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed in...Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (JUN 2006)...

2013-10-01

264

48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70...offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed in...Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT 1994)...

2013-10-01

265

48 CFR 52.225-17 - Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers. 52.225-17 Section...52.225-17 Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers. As prescribed in...provision: Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers (FEB 2000) If...

2013-10-01

266

Vector Addition Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition model allows the user to practice vector addition of two vectors in two dimensions. You are given the magnitude and direction of the two vectors, and your goal is to fill in the nine values in the table (showing the x-component, y-component, and length) of the two vectors, and the resultant vector that is the sum of the first two vectors. The Vector Addition was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

267

Tolerancing Forbes aspheres: advantages of an orthogonal basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axisymmetric aspheric optical surfaces deviating from conicoids are becoming more common due to their significant optical design advantages. Their practical use is being further enabled by ever-improving manufacturing and metrology methods. In order to effectively utilize such surfaces, tolerances must be applied that tie the manufacturability of the aspheric component to the optical design. In this paper tolerancing of aspheric surfaces in orthogonal bases, specifically Forbes aspheres, is covered. The significant advantages of such an orthogonal representation are highlighted and reinforced with an example.

Youngworth, Richard N.

2009-08-01

268

Romanowsky staining in cytopathology: history, advantages and limitations.  

PubMed

If the entire discipline of diagnostic cytopathology could be distilled into a single theme, it would be the Papanicolaou stain. Yet it was the Romanowsky stain upon which the discipline of cytopathology was founded. Both stains are used today in the cytopathology laboratory, each for a different and complementary purpose. We trace the history of cytopathological stains and discuss the advantages and limitations of Romanowsky-type stains for cytological evaluation. We also provide suggestions for the advantageous use of Romanowsky-type stains in cytopathology. PMID:21395493

Krafts, K P; Pambuccian, S E

2011-04-01

269

Advantages of a low-oxygen environment in space cabins.  

PubMed

The advantages of having a low-oxygen environment in space cabins are discussed. The major advantage is a sharply reduced fire hazard, which is a major threat in manned space flights. At 1 atm, for example, 15% O2 (9,000 ft altitude equivalent) would not support most fires and could accommodate the crew with respect to hypoxia, decompression sickness (DCS), and other requirements. Chronic exposure to such a hypoxic environment (altitude acclimatization) could improve major areas of crew health and safety including alleviating deconditioning effects, decreasing susceptibility to DCS, and improving tolerance to severe hypoxia. PMID:1969265

Shvartz, E

1990-03-01

270

Additive similarity trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity data can be represented by additive trees. In this model, objects are represented by the external nodes of a tree, and the dissimilarity between objects is the length of the path joining them. The additive tree is less restrictive than the ultrametric tree, commonly known as the hierarchical clustering scheme. The two representations are characterized and compared. A computer

Shmuel Sattath; Amos Tversky

1977-01-01

271

Chloro-sulphur additive  

SciTech Connect

Compounds suitable as extreme pressure additives for lubricating oils are of the general formula CX3-S-S-R where X is a halogen and R is a hydrocarbyl. The performance of the compounds is improved by the addition of a stabilizer.

Lenack, A.L.

1980-10-14

272

Carbamate deposit control additives  

SciTech Connect

Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

1980-11-25

273

The Neurological Ecology of Fear: Insights Neuroscientists and Ecologists Have to Offer one Another  

PubMed Central

That the fear and stress of life-threatening experiences can leave an indelible trace on the brain is most clearly exemplified by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many researchers studying the animal model of PTSD have adopted utilizing exposure to a predator as a life-threatening psychological stressor, to emulate the experience in humans, and the resulting body of literature has demonstrated numerous long-lasting neurological effects paralleling those in PTSD patients. Even though much more extreme, predator-induced fear and stress in animals in the wild was, until the 1990s, not thought to have any lasting effects, whereas recent experiments have demonstrated that the effects on free-living animals are sufficiently long-lasting to even affect reproduction, though the lasting neurological effects remain unexplored. We suggest neuroscientists and ecologists both have much to gain from collaborating in studying the neurological effects of predator-induced fear and stress in animals in the wild. We outline the approaches taken in the lab that appear most readily translatable to the field, and detail the advantages that studying animals in the wild can offer researchers investigating the “predator model of PTSD.”

Clinchy, Michael; Schulkin, Jay; Zanette, Liana Y.; Sheriff, Michael J.; McGowan, Patrick O.; Boonstra, Rudy

2011-01-01

274

Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

2011-01-01

275

Visual Selection Contributes to Artists' Advantages in Realistic Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test a venerable explanation for artists' drawing ability, superior skill at visual selection, artists and nonartists traced a photograph of a face using 70 pieces of tape—not enough to depict everything. Artists and nonartists judged the drawings on accuracy. A mixed-model analysis of variance yielded a reliable advantage for artist drawers, no main effect of judge group, and a

Aaron Kozbelt; Angelika Seidel; Amanda ElBassiouny; Yelena Mark; David R. Owen

2010-01-01

276

Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

Rengan, K.

1983-01-01

277

On the advantage of network coding for improving network throughput  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a data network with link capacities, we consider the throughput of the network for a multicast session involving a source node and a given set of terminals. It is known that network coding can improve the throughput of the network. We study the coding advantage, i.e. the ratio of the throughput using network coding to that without using network

Amit Agarwal; Moses Charikar

2004-01-01

278

Developmental Skills of Advantaged and Disadvantaged Children of Perceptual Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of perceptual and motor tests were administered to 155 advantaged and disadvantaged student. The results are discussed in terms of differential perceptual-motor and motor growth and need to structure educational experience that will contribute to growth. (Author)

Richmond, Bert O.; Aliotti, Nicholas C.

1977-01-01

279

Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

2009-01-01

280

An Examination of Geographic Variation in Medicare Advantage Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: While Dartmouth Atlas researchers have made a compelling case for geographic variation in Medicare expenditures that are not driven by differences in the quality of care or patient severity, it is unclear whether the patterns identified by the researchers hold in the non-FFS, Medicare populations. This is a significant gap in our knowledge. We hypothesize that Medicare Advantage (MA)

Eric Barrette; Robert Town; Nancy Barker Walczak

2010-01-01

281

Online Data Collection in Academic Research: Advantages and Limitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online data collection in academic research might be replacing paper-and-pencil surveys or questionnaires in the near future. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of online data collection, with particular reference to the conduct of two qualitative studies involving upper secondary school teachers and students in Iceland in 2002.…

Lefever, Samuel; Dal, Michael; Matthiasdottir, Asrun

2007-01-01

282

Advantages of Inverted Operators in Rayleigh-Ritz Approximations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generalized eigenvalue problems are often solved by a combination of inverse iteration and the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure. It is shown that significant advantages can be obtained in this context by applying the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure to an inverted operator...

D. S. Scott

1980-01-01

283

Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

2008-01-01

284

Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

Walker, Karen

2004-01-01

285

No Room for Loners: The Catholic School Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the unique nature of Catholic schools--their small student-to-teacher ratio, autonomy over their buildings and grounds, the dress code, and parent involvement--helps prevent such events as the Columbine High School slayings from occurring. Urges Catholic schools not to become complacent, however, and continue to use these advantages

McGrath, Richard J.

1999-01-01

286

The advantages of elliptic curve cryptography for wireless security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of elliptic curves and their use in cryptography. The focus is on the performance advantages to be obtained in the wireless environment by using elliptic curve cryptography instead of a traditional cryptosystem like RSA. Specific applications to secure messaging and identity-based encryption are discussed.

KRISTEN LAUTER

2004-01-01

287

Revisiting an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those of us who contributed to the Journal of Management’s 1991 special issue on a resourcebased view of the firm began with the assumption that it is possible for a firm to gain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Based on that general premise, we presented various arguments suggesting that a firm’s resources represent a major source of that potential

C. Marlene Fiol

2001-01-01

288

Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique

Apostolos D. Zaridis

2009-01-01

289

Systemic knowledge processes, innovation and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Turbulence and complexity in the business environment is growing along with the need for external information in creating innovation, as innovation is seen as the primary source of sustainable competitive advantages in the knowledge economy. Consequently, the underlying information processes were external information are gathered and put into use, are crucial for companies in their development of innovation,

Jon-Arild Johannessen; Bjørn Olsen

2009-01-01

290

THE ROLE OF BRICOLAGE IN SUSTAINED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE (SUMMARY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the resource based view (RBV) of the firm has often examined the role of human capital in building sustainable competitive advantage; and work in entrepreneurial bricolage has investigated the process of combining human capital assets to create value under conditions of time and resource constraints, the properties of human capital that enable successful combination have been largely unexamined. This

Preeta M. Banerjee; Benjamin Campbell; Brian M. Saxton

2011-01-01

291

Knowledge management systems and developing sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature in the strategic management field suggests that firms must learn to re-bundle internal competencies and resources in order to maintain competitive advantages over time. Utilizing the resource-based view of the firm and dynamic capabilities perspectives, this paper examines the roles that absorptive and transformative capacity play in organizational innovation, with specific emphasis placed on the role and effectiveness

Garry L. Adams; Bruce T. Lamont

2003-01-01

292

Searching for Competitive Advantage in the Black Box  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the sources of potential competitive advantage. It builds upon previous work by Flamholtz (1995) to develop a model of the determinants of organizational success and failure as well as subsequent empirical studies of the link between the model and financial performance (Flamholtz and Aksehirli, 2000,;Flamholtz and Hua, 2002). The paper discusses the extension of the model

Eric Flamholtz; Wei Hua

2003-01-01

293

Product Differentiation, Turbulence and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the new theory of industrial concentration, we analyze the relation between market size and product differentiation, and show precisely how product differentiation impacts the sustainability of competitive advantage. Our basic theoretical results highlight that in markets where vertical product differentiation dominates, firms will have an incentive to escalate investment in advertising and\\/or R&D as market size increases, and

Catherine Matraves; Laura Rondi

2005-01-01

294

A Working Memory, Not Bilingual Advantage, in Controlled Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the relationship between working memory (WM) and visually controlled attention (CA) in young bilingual and monolingual children. Previous research has shown that balanced bilingual children outperform monolinguals in CA. However, it is unclear whether this advantage is truly associated with bilingualism or whether potential WM and/or…

Namazi, Mahchid; Thordardottir, Elin

2010-01-01

295

Advantage from adversity: Learning from disappointment in internal corporate ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ventures represent opportunities to create or renew competitive advantages for established firms by expanding their pools of competences. In undertakings as uncertain as new ventures, however, disappointment is virtually inevitable. The implications of this conclusion are explored at both the strategic and the operational levels of the organization, utilizing cross-case comparisons of 23 ventures initiated by a single financial

Rita Gunther McGrath

1995-01-01

296

Personalizing Online Trading Without Spoiling Its Intrinsic Advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although access to the Internet has become more efficient than before, investors seem still shy away from taking advantage of online trading. Early research indicates that one main reason for the setback is the impersonality of online trading. Brokerage firms and researchers have investigated various kinds of decision support that mimic offline brokerage services, but the lack of timeliness and

Myron Sheu; Dominguez Hills; Stewart Shen

2005-01-01

297

Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

2002-03-01

298

Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

2008-01-01

299

Hatching order explains an extrapair chick advantage in western bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within-family comparisons of offspring growth rates have provided important tests of genetic benefits of extrapair mating for females. Here, we demonstrate that hatching order explains the growth advantage for extrapair young in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana); extrapair nestlings are larger than within-pair nestlings in the same nest, but they also hatch earlier in the clutch, thus benefiting from hatching asynchrony.

Elise D. Ferree; Janis Dickinson; Wallace Rendell; Caitlin Stern; Stephanie Porter

2010-01-01

300

A new Mixed Stacked Multicell converter with Interesting Advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel converters are very interesting alternatives for medium and high power applications. This paper presents a new configuration of multicell converters. The main advantages of the proposed converter, in comparison with conventional Flying Capacitor Multicell (FCM) and Stacked Multicell (SM) converters, are doubling the number of output voltage levels and the RMS, improving the output voltage frequency spectrum and lowering

Meisam Sadeghi; Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Mohammad Nilkar

2011-01-01

301

Advantages of estimating settling rates of fine particles with nomographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable calculation and estimation of the settling rates of particles from theoretical or empirical equations is highly sensitive to the accurate description of their morphology and other relevant bulk properties. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ‘systematization’ and link-up of concepts which are frequently unclear in the literature, showing the advantages of estimating settling rates

J. L. Bueno; A. G. Lavín; J. Dizy

1996-01-01

302

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

303

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details extensively the advantages and disadvantages of the individualized approach to reading instruction, suggests combination programs as a means of phasing in the individualized approach and indicates the need for highly competent teachers to handle the complexities. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography. (WB)

Sartain, Harry W.

1968-01-01

304

Do the Advantages of Ungraded Schools Outweigh the Disadvantages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that at present it is not possible to state whether the advantages of the nongraded school outweigh the disadvantages because lack of operational meaning has resulted in a wide variety of organizational programs labeled nongraded, and non conclusive data are available which favor either the nongraded or graded organizations. Includes a…

Kingston, Albert J.

1968-01-01

305

Babies Boost Skills by Taking Advantage of Rhythm and Ryhme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a way to boost babies' skills by taking advantage of rhythm and rhyme. Becoming aware of rhyming sounds boosts brain activity and a child's early literacy ability. Adding singsong rhyming words to requests for attention is an effective way for teachers to get toddlers to listen to what they say. Rhymes and rhythms add zest…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2006-01-01

306

Biocatalysis in ionic liquids – advantages beyond green technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years researchers have started to explore a particular class of organic solvents called room temperature ionic liquids — or simply ionic liquids – to identify their unique advantages for biocatalysis. Because they lack vapour pressure, ionic liquids hold potential as green solvents. Furthermore, unlike organic solvents of comparable polarity, they often do not inactivate enzymes, which simplifies reactions

Romas J Kazlauskas

2003-01-01

307

Awesome Addition Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are fun to play and will test your addition skills! Click on the links to play the games! Play in the Kitten Match and test your math skills!! Pick the grade level you want to play on. Then pick numbers that add up to equal the number that they give you. Hurry, you're being timed! Use your addition skills to win a Diaper Derby!! First decide what you want your baby to look like! Then perform the addition problem that ...

Smith, Ms.

2010-10-14

308

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1993-01-01

309

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

310

Color Chips - Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.

University, Utah S.

2011-06-28

311

Vector Addition Patterns Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition Patterns model illustrates the tail-to-tip method of adding vectors. The table at the bottom shows the components and lengths of the vectors. You can also rotate the vectors and trace out some interesting patterns. The Vector Addition Patterns model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition_patterns.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-05-02

312

Improving fruit and wine: what does genomics have to offer?  

PubMed

Will we still be drinking wines made from Pinot Noir and eating McIntosh apples in the 23rd century? Elite grape and apple cultivars, vegetatively propagated for centuries, are highly susceptible to evolving pathogens. In response, growers continually expand their agrochemical weaponry at enormous environmental costs. By contrast, breeders are seeking disease-resistant, tastier alternatives to the handful of dominant cultivars by exploring genetic diversity in these fruits. However, this is a formidable task because consumers cling to ancient cultivars, and breeding long-lived woody perennials is laborious and expensive. Although genomics tools may not solve the former sociocultural dilemma, they can help overcome the latter practical obstacles. Screening seedlings for desirable genetic profiles using molecular techniques reduces the time and high costs associated with growing plants to maturity and evaluating fruit. Such screening is currently in its infancy in apples and grapes, but the adoption of modern DNA sequencing technologies and statistical approaches promises to accelerate cultivar improvement significantly. Here, I describe standard approaches for molecular breeding in apples and grapes, and some of the challenges associated with the collection and analysis of next-generation DNA sequence data. In addition, I urge breeders to establish populations specifically designed for a future of inexpensive genome sequencing. PMID:23428114

Myles, Sean

2013-04-01

313

Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?  

PubMed Central

Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and some Black African male students and female Indian students.

Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

2012-01-01

314

Food Additives and Hyperkinesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

Wender, Ester H.

1977-01-01

315

AdditionalBooks  

Cancer.gov

While we tried to include potentially useful resources, this website is not exhaustive. New and additional resources may be available. Please let us know if there is a resource you would like to be included.

316

Smog control fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

Lundby, W.

1993-06-29

317

Palmer boathouse addition <  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : January 31, 1991 File : opp93021 OFFICE OF SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT AND ... Palmer Station Boathouse Addition) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) On January 16, 1991, the civilian ...

318

48 CFR 52.214-34 - Submission of Offers in the English Language.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Submission of Offers in the English Language. 52.214-34 Section 52.214-34... Submission of Offers in the English Language. As prescribed in 14.201-6... Submission of Offers in the English Language (APR 1991) Offers submitted in...

2013-10-01

319

48 CFR 52.214-34 - Submission of Offers in the English Language.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Submission of Offers in the English Language. 52.214-34 Section 52...214-34 Submission of Offers in the English Language. As prescribed in 14.201-6...provision: Submission of Offers in the English Language (APR 1991) Offers...

2009-10-01

320

The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design education is an aesthetic and humanistic approach for teaching how to contribute to the improvement of the conditions that affect everyone's lives. This article offers an overview of some important concepts to teach young people about regeneration design and the future of our changing environment. It is becoming increasingly evident that we…

Zande, Robin Vande

2006-01-01

321

Restructuring and Reform in Higher Education: Fundraising and the Urban Advantage. Fundraising at Urban Universities: Exploiting the Local Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that without the usual advantages of donor loyalty and institutional prestige, urban universities can make a case for support based on their regional and statewide impact and on the quality, cost effectiveness, and value of academic programs and research. Discusses why people give to urban universities; describes how Portland State…

Ramaley, Judith A.; Withers, Gary

1997-01-01

322

[Mali: the offer of education disturbed by demographic variables].  

PubMed

Although educational reforms in 1962 have played a positive role in the socioeconomic and cultural development of Mali, the most recent analyses of the educational system have shown it to be in crisis for reasons both endogenous and exogenous. Huge class sizes, lack of teaching materials, and insufficient training of teachers have affected the quality of education. 80% of Mali's population is illiterate but the rate of school attendance is under 30%. Financial resources devoted to education have not grown as fast as population. The situation is made worse by structural adjustment programs of the past few years that have encouraged the government share of educational expenses to decline and the role of parents and the private sector to increase. The 1987 Demographic and Health Survey showed that Mali's rate of population growth is 2.7%/year. 45% of the population is under 15, amounting to some 3.5 million children. Great efforts are needed just to provide schools and teachers and to maintain the rate of school attendance at its current level of 27%, 1 of the lowest in the world. To attain the goal of 50% school attendance by the year 2000, the number of students beginning primary school should increase by 11.3% per year. But currently the number of students aged 6-11 is actually shrinking by almost 1% per year. At the level of the family, the expenses of school attendance are an important factor in nonattendance. The high annual costs constitute an insurmountable barrier for parents of large families. The loss of children's labor in rural areas is an added cost of schooling. School attendance in Mali is becoming a source and means of social inequality. The seasonal or permanent migration of a large part of the population has also been an obstacle to school attendance. the unavailability of mothers who teach during their 3 months of maternity leave and 2 hours daily break for breast feeding, in addition to absenteeism when their children are sick, is another effect of Mali's rapid population growth. Pregnancies among adolescent students have become common and are a significant cause of school abandonment. A program of population and family life education is badly needed to help alleviate problems in the educational system. It should be developed in both the formal and nonformal educational systems. PMID:12283988

Tounkara, B

1990-12-01

323

Tackifier for addition polyimides containing monoethylphthalate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improvement of addition polyimides wherein an essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers is disclosed. The improved process takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer such as monoethylphthalate (MEP) which is used in lieu of an alcohol solvent, and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepreg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepreg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the layup process. This improvement results in both longer life of the polymer prepreg and the processing of low void laminate and appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

St.clair, T. L.; Butler, J. M. (inventors)

1981-01-01

324

LC-MS-based holistic metabolic profiling. Problems, limitations, advantages, and future perspectives.  

PubMed

The present review aims to critically discuss some of the major problems and limitations of LC-MS based metabolomics as experienced from an analytical chemistry standpoint. Metabolomics offers distinct advantages to a variety of life sciences. Continuous development of the field has been realised due to intensive efforts from a great many scientists from widely divergent backgrounds and research interests as demonstrated by the contents of this special issue. The aim of this commentary is to describe current hindrances to field's progress, (some unique to metabolomics, some common with other omics fields or with conventional targeted bioanalysis) to propose some potential solutions to overcome these constraints and to provide a future perspective for likely developments in the field. PMID:24618029

Gika, Helen G; Wilson, Ian D; Theodoridis, Georgios A

2014-09-01

325

The binocular advantage in visuomotor tasks involving tools  

PubMed Central

We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a “buzz-wire” task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing). We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity.

Read, Jenny C. A.; Begum, Shah Farzana; McDonald, Alice; Trowbridge, Jack

2013-01-01

326

Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

2013-10-01

327

Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations  

SciTech Connect

We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

Girard, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Baggio, J. [CEA CESTA, BP 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Meunier, J. P. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France)

2011-07-01

328

Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.  

PubMed

Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

2014-07-01

329

Additives in plastics.  

PubMed Central

The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

Deanin, R D

1975-01-01

330

America's secret competitive advantage is a dirty secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michael E Porter, a leading management thinker, identifies seven uniquely American competitive advantages to explain the country’s pre-eminence. He points to America’s environment for entrepreneurship, its science, technology, and innovation machine, its institutions for higher learning, its strong commitment to competition and free markets, its efficient capital markets (especially for risk capital), and its fundamental dynamism and resilience that embraces

Ranjan Sreedharan

2009-01-01

331

The half-truth of first-mover advantage.  

PubMed

Many executives take for granted that the first company in a new product category gets an unbeatable head start and reaps long-lasting benefits. But that doesn't always happen. The authors of this article discovered that much depends on the pace at which the category's technology is changing and the speed at which the market is evolving. By analyzing these two factors, companies can improve their odds of succeeding as first movers with the resources they possess. Gradual evolution in both the technology and the market provides a first mover with the best conditions for creating a dominant position that is long lasting (Hoover in the vacuum cleaner industry is a good example). In such calm waters, a company can defend its advantages even without exceptional skills or extensive financial resources. When the market is changing rapidly and the product isn't, a first entrant with extensive resources can obtain a long-lasting advantage (as Sony did with its Walkman personal stereo); a company with only limited resources probably must settle for a short-term benefit. When the market is static but the product is changing constantly, first-mover advantages of either kind--durable or short-lived--are unlikely. Only companies with very deep pockets can survive (think of Sony and the digital cameras it pioneered). Rapid churn in both the technology and the market creates the worst conditions. But if companies have an acute sense of when to exit-as Netscape demonstrated when it agreed to be acquired by AOL-a worthwhile short-term gain is possible. Before venturing into a newly forming market, you need to analyze the environment, assess your resources, then determine which type offirst-mover advantage is most achievable. Once you've gone into the water, you have no choice but to swim. PMID:15807045

Suarez, Fernando; Lanzolla, Gianvito

2005-04-01

332

Revisiting an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those of us who contributed to the Journal of Management’s 1991 special issue on a resource-based view of the firm began with the assumption that it is possible for a firm to gain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Based on that general premise, we presented various arguments suggesting that a firm’s resources represent a major source of that potential

C. Marlene Fiol

2001-01-01

333

EXPLAINING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN FAMILY FIRMS: THE EFFECTUATION PARADOX  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Research into human,resource management,(HRM) systems suggests that investments in formal HRM are an important source of competitive advantage. This paper identifies the paradox that while family firms de-emphasize investments in formal HRM systems, they are still able to outperform their non-family counterparts. It is suggested that the root of this paradox lies in family firms preference for effectuation over

James C. Hayton

334

Fundamental geometric advantages of free-space optical interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnection advantages of free-space optics are analyzed in terms of smart pixel I\\/O bandwidth density and the physical limitations of photonic 3-D and electronic planar interconnections. The total circuit substrate area required to implement parallel data interchange networks is the basis for comparison, and is extended to estimate important performance costs such as system volume. It is shown that

Michael W. Haney; Marc P. Christensen

1996-01-01

335

Robotic-assisted surgery in children: advantages and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of surgical robots in minimally invasive surgery was developed to overcome difficulties seen with conventional laparoscopic\\u000a surgery. I report my experience with pediatric robotic-assisted surgery and highlight its feasibility, safety, advantages,\\u000a and limitations. Children and infants included in this study underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures performed\\u000a by the author, using the original da Vinci surgical system, between July 2005 and

Abdulrahman Al-Bassam

2010-01-01

336

Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikk{beta} confers growth advantages  

SciTech Connect

Mice lacking hepatocyte IKK{beta} (Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep}) are defective in TNF{alpha}-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G{sub 0} {yields} G{sub 1} transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikk{beta} also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGF{alpha} and TNF{alpha}, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, {beta}-actin and integrin {beta}1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikk{beta}-deleted hepatocytes.

Koch, Katherine S. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States); Maeda, Shin [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); He, Guobin; Karin, Michael [Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0723, La Jolla, CA 92093-0723 (United States); Leffert, Hyam L. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States)], E-mail: hleffert@ucsd.edu

2009-03-06

337

Selectively advantageous mutations and hitchhikers in neoplasms: p16 lesions are selected in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Neoplastic progression is an evolutionary process characterized by genomic instability and waves of clonal expansions carrying genetic and epigenetic lesions to fixation (100% of the cell population). However, an evolutionarily neutral lesion may also reach fixation if it spreads as a hitchhiker on a selective sweep. We sought to distinguish advantageous lesions from hitchhikers in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus. Patients (211) had biopsies taken at 2-cm intervals in their Barrett's segments. Purified epithelial cells were assayed for loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite shifts on chromosomes 9 and 17, sequence mutations in CDKN2A/MTS1/INK4a (p16) and TP53 (p53), and methylation of the p16 promoter. We measured the expanse of a lesion in a Barrett's segment as the proportion of proliferating cells that carried a lesion in that locus. We then selected the lesion having expanses >90% in the greatest number of patients as our first putative advantageous lesion. We filtered out hitchhikers by removing all expanses of other lesions that did not occur independent of the advantageous lesion. The entire process was repeated on the remaining expanses to identify additional advantageous lesions. p16 loss of heterozygosity, promoter methylation, and sequence mutations have strong, independent, advantageous effects on Barrett's cells early in progression. Second lesions in p16 and p53 are associated with later selective sweeps. Virtually all of the other lesion expansions, including microsatellite shifts, could be explained as hitchhikers on p16 lesion clonal expansions. These techniques can be applied to any neoplasm. PMID:15150093

Maley, Carlo C; Galipeau, Patricia C; Li, Xiaohong; Sanchez, Carissa A; Paulson, Thomas G; Reid, Brian J

2004-05-15

338

Fluency with Basic Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition

Garza-Kling, Gina

2011-01-01

339

Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

2013-07-23

340

Primary Care Physicians' Willingness to Offer a New Genetic Test to Tailor Smoking Treatment, According to Test Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Emerging pharmacogenetics research may improve clinical outcomes for common complex conditions typically treated in primary care settings. Physicians’ willingness to offer genetically-tailored treatments to their patients will be critical to realizing this potential. According to recent research, it is likely that genotypes used to tailor smoking will have pleiotropic associations with other addictions and diseases, and may have different frequencies across populations. These additional features may pose an additional barrier to adoption. To assess physicians’ willingness to offer a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment according to specific test characteristics, we conducted a national mailed survey of 2000 U.S. primary care physicians (response rate: 62.3%). Physicians responded to a baseline scenario describing a new test to tailor smoking treatment, and 3 additional scenarios describing specific test characteristics based on published research; there was random assignment to one of two survey conditions in which the test was described as a genetic or non-genetic test. Our findings indicate physicians’ self-reported likelihood (0–100 scale) that they would offer a new test to tailor smoking cessation treatment ranged from 69–78% across all scenarios. Relative to baseline scenario responses, physicians were significantly less likely to offer the test when informed that the same genotypes assessed for treatment tailoring: (1) may also identify individuals predisposed to become addicted to nicotine (p<.001); (2) differ in frequency by race (p<.004); and (3) may have associations with other conditions (e.g., alcohol and cocaine addiction, ADHD and Tourette’s Syndrome) (p<.01). Describing a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment as a “genetic” versus non-genetic test significantly reduced physicians’ likelihood of offering the test across all scenarios, regardless of specific test characteristics (p<.0007). Effective education of primary care physicians will be critical to successful integration of promising new pharmacogenetic treatment strategies for smoking.

Shields, Alexandra E.; Levy, Douglas E.; Blumenthal, David; Currivan, Douglas; McGinn-Shapiro, Mary; Weiss, Kevin B.; Yucel, Recai; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

341

Primary care physicians' willingness to offer a new genetic test to tailor smoking treatment, according to test characteristics.  

PubMed

Emerging pharmacogenetics research may improve clinical outcomes for common complex conditions typically treated in primary care settings. Physicians' willingness to offer genetically-tailored treatments to their patients will be critical to realizing this potential. According to recent research, it is likely that genotypes used to tailor smoking will have pleiotropic associations with other addictions and diseases, and may have different frequencies across populations. These additional features may pose an additional barrier to adoption. To assess physicians' willingness to offer a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment according to specific test characteristics, we conducted a national mailed survey of 2,000 U.S. primary care physicians (response rate: 62.3%). Physicians responded to a baseline scenario describing a new test to tailor smoking treatment, and three additional scenarios describing specific test characteristics based on published research; there was random assignment to one of two survey conditions in which the test was described as a genetic or non-genetic test. Our findings indicate physicians' self-reported likelihood (0-100 scale) that they would offer a new test to tailor smoking cessation treatment ranged from 69%-78% across all scenarios. Relative to baseline scenario responses, physicians were significantly less likely to offer the test when informed that the same genotypes assessed for treatment tailoring: (1) may also identify individuals predisposed to become addicted to nicotine (p<.001), (2) differ in frequency by race (p<.004), and (3) may have associations with other conditions (e.g., alcohol and cocaine addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) (p<.01). Describing a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment as a "genetic" versus non-genetic test significantly reduced physicians' likelihood of offering the test across all scenarios, regardless of specific test characteristics (p<.0007). Effective education of primary care physicians will be critical to successful integration of promising new pharmacogenetic treatment strategies for smoking. PMID:18584467

Shields, Alexandra E; Levy, Douglas E; Blumenthal, David; Currivan, Douglas; McGinn-Shapiro, Mary; Weiss, Kevin B; Yucel, Recai; Lerman, Caryn

2008-06-01

342

Vinyl capped addition polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

Vannucci, Raymond D. (inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (inventor); Delvigs, Peter (inventor)

1991-01-01

343

Generalized Additive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\\\\sum \\\\beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\\\\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\\\\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are

Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

1986-01-01

344

Additive Processes for Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metals are vital building blocks for MEMS. Pure metals and metal alloys are employed in microsystem design to achieve a wide\\u000a array of functionality. Common examples include electrical conductors, mechanical structures, magnetic elements, thermal conductors,\\u000a optical reflectors, and more. In this chapter, additive processes for metals are discussed in the context of their application\\u000a in MEMS. Particular attention is paid

David P. Arnold; Monika Saumer; Yong-Kyu Yoon

345

New York's Medicare Marketplace: examining new York's Medicare advantage plan landscape in light of payment reform.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided for cost savings in the Medicare program, in part to underwrite coverage expansion to Medicare beneficiaries, to finance new coverage for those not eligible for Medicare, and to strengthen Medicare's financial outlook. One cost-saving measure, a reformulation and reduction in payments to private health insurance plans that provide Medicare benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program, had a sound policy basis but was criticized, particularly by opponents o fthe ACA, as a measure that would lead to increased costs, reductions in benefits, and diminished plan choices to Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in MA plans. Despite dire predictions to this effect, a review of a sample of MA plan offerings in New York State in 2012 shows that Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in such plans did not experience significant benefit reductions or increased costs. While the number of plan offerings decreased, the reduction was mostly caused by the elimination of duplicative plan choices in 2011. Although the MA plan executives we interviewed indicated that further reductions in plan reimbursement in future years-tempered by potential bonus payments for meeting quality and performance metrics-could impact plan costs and benefits, they believed plans will employ a number of strategies to remain in the market and maintain benefciary benefits and cost structures. However, government regulators and consumer advocates will need to examine MA plan offerings in the coming years to determine the efect ofplan reaction to the ACA payments on beneficiaries'costs for coverage and access PMID:24283001

Goggin-Callahaan, Doug; Baker, Joe; Bennett, Rachel; Clerk, Michell; Hersey, Eric; Riccardi, Fred; Torbattejad, May; Xu, Denise

2013-01-01

346

[Advantages and disadvantages of cervical esophageal anastomosis using a stapler].  

PubMed

The authors evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of cervical anastomosis of the oesophagus by means of stapler according to the following criteria: 1. difficulty of implementation, 2. immediate results--fistulae, 3. long-term results--stenoses, 4. costs. The authors operated, using a stapler, 26 patients who developed in four instances /15.4%/ a fistula. By comparison with a retrospective group of 21 patients with eight fistule /38%/ where the anastomosis was sutured manually, they found that by using a stapler the number of complications declined. A disadvantage is the high price of staplers. PMID:8629182

Král, V; Neoral, C; Aujeský, R

1995-12-01

347

Do central venous catheters have advantages over arteriovenous fistulas or grafts?  

PubMed

Central venous accesses have become an integral component of vascular access procedures for hemodialysis. Although the DOQI guidelines recommend that less than 10% of chronic hemodialysis patients should be maintained on catheters, in some countries higher prevalences are reported, as in the United States and the United Kingdom (18% and 24%, respectively, according to the DOPPS). The native arteriovenous fistulas are still the best suited accesses for hemodialysis. However, this option is impractical in many situations, so that several justifiable reasons exist for protracted dialysis catheter use; these include the catheter as a bridge angioaccess device, while the patient is awaiting living-related kidney donor transplantation or maturation of an autologous fistula or graft or, increasingly, as the permanent vascular access for patients with unsuitable vascular anatomy who have exhausted all other options. Moreover, the surgical creation of an AVF is felt to be impossible or at least seems to entail significant risks in situations of high output cardiac failure, myocardial ischaemic events and steal syndrome. In these cases, the dialysis access catheter brings considerable advantages, but it also carries tremendous drawbacks. In addition to the increased risk of luminal thrombosis, infection, unreliable blood flows, central venous stenosis, shorter use life and patient cosmetic concern, tunneled catheters are associated with an increased risk of death. Tunnellization, exit site protection, antibiotic-coated or antiseptic-impregnated hemodialysis catheters, antibiotic lock solutions could be helpful in preventing and treating catheter-related bacteremias. Moreover, the development of a subcutaneous port, that is durable, offers a high blood flow and is fully implantable subcutaneously, may become an alternative for chronic use. In our 10-year experience we implanted in our center over 450 central venous catheters with a satisfactory survival (86% at 1 year and 79% at 2 years for the subcutaneous port). In a matched comparison between Tesio twin catheters and Dialock ports (37 vs. 35, respectively), followed for a 2 year period, no significant differences emerged as regards bacteremia incidence, 0.58/1,000 catheter-days in the Tesio catheter group vs. 0.9/1000 catheter-days in the subcutaneous port group, p=0.12; thrombolytic agents needed, 4.5% vs 4.3% of dialysis sessions; or access failure with removal of the device, 8.1% vs 14.2%, p=0.4. The longer duration of antibiotic therapy in the Tesio group (24.6 vs 14.3 days, p=0.006) was due to the higher incidence of cutaneous infectious episodes (3.8 vs 0.16/1,000 catheter-days). In conclusion, although central venous catheter is the vascular access of last choice, in particular cases it can be a useful alternative, provided that strict protocols for nursing care and proper catheter management are implemented in every center. PMID:16874685

Quarello, Francesco; Forneris, Giacomo; Borca, Marco; Pozzato, Marco

2006-01-01

348

An Improved Method for Teaching Basic Addition in Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author claims the development of an improved method for teaching basic addition in the elementary schools. Two advantages of the method are (1) more effective grouping of basic addition facts, and systematic and consistent use of reasoning in their derivation, and (2) use of a special classroom technique to improve the proficiency of a child…

Aziz, M. A.

349

The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact

J Brennan-Craddock; D Brackett; R Wildman; R Hague

2012-01-01

350

3.OA Addition Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below is a table showing addition of numbers from $1$ through $5$. In each column and each row of the table, even and odd numbers alternate. Explain wh...

351

Oil additive process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

Bishop, H.

1988-10-18

352

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

353

14 CFR 151.123 - Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement. 151.123 Section 151...AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.123...Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement. (a) The procedures...

2010-01-01

354

48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Offers shall be evaluated without an amount for an economic price adjustment being added. Offers will be rejected which: (1) Increase the ceiling stipulated; (2) limit the downward adjustment; or (3) delete the economic price adjustment...

2009-10-01

355

Improving negotiation effectiveness under final offer arbitration: The role of selection and training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that final offer arbitration increases resolution behaviors of labor–management negotiators. Under final offer arbitration, if negotiators do not reach an agreement, each must submit a \\

Max H. Bazerman; Margaret A. Neale

1982-01-01

356

48 CFR 25.605 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 25.605 Section 25...Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.605 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (a) If the...

2013-10-01

357

48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 25.204 Section 25...FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (a) Offerors...

2013-10-01

358

Detection advantages of spatial oversampling in imaging sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyan Systems has recently developed an approach to focal plane assembly (FPA) architecture which represent a significant advancement in information extraction from the data as it is being collected. This approach utilizes sub-pixels which achieve a high degree of oversampling of the sensors Point Spread Function (PSF), well beyond the Nyquist limit for a critically sampled sensor. The data contained in an oversampled image has the obvious advantage of readily discriminating between focal plane and object generated artifacts as the first step in false alarm rejection. This effect is particularly useful at identification of radiation events. However there are further advantages that can be exploited through nearest neighbor subpixel correlation, and pooling that achieves significant noise reduction and therefore improved sensitivity. In Cyan's architecture these processes are accomplished for the first time at the input to the preamp in the ROIC. This approach not only allows improved fidelity in imaging, but further reduces false alarm rates, improves detection ranges, and demonstrates an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. The small pixels that enable this approach also ensure improved radiation hardness reducing the capture cross section. The architecture has been modeled and simulations run which illustrate the dramatic improvements possible.

Wilson, Jerry A.; Caulfield, John T.; Dhar, Nibir K.

2013-09-01

359

Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids  

PubMed Central

Molecular adaptation is typically assumed to proceed by sequential fixation of beneficial mutations. In diploids, this picture presupposes that for most adaptive mutations, the homozygotes have a higher fitness than the heterozygotes. Here, we show that contrary to this expectation, a substantial proportion of adaptive mutations should display heterozygote advantage. This feature of adaptation in diploids emerges naturally from the primary importance of the fitness of heterozygotes for the invasion of new adaptive mutations. We formalize this result in the framework of Fisher's influential geometric model of adaptation. We find that in diploids, adaptation should often proceed through a succession of short-lived balanced states that maintain substantially higher levels of phenotypic and fitness variation in the population compared with classic adaptive walks. In fast-changing environments, this variation produces a diversity advantage that allows diploids to remain better adapted compared with haploids despite the disadvantage associated with the presence of unfit homozygotes. The short-lived balanced states arising during adaptive walks should be mostly invisible to current scans for long-term balancing selection. Instead, they should leave signatures of incomplete selective sweeps, which do appear to be common in many species. Our results also raise the possibility that balancing selection, as a natural consequence of frequent adaptation, might play a more prominent role among the forces maintaining genetic variation than is commonly recognized.

Sellis, Diamantis; Callahan, Benjamin J.; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Messer, Philipp W.

2011-01-01

360

Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at e">http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89.

Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

361

Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?  

PubMed Central

Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.

Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

2013-01-01

362

On the evolutionary advantage of fitness-associated recombination.  

PubMed Central

The adaptive value of recombination remains something of a puzzle. One of the basic problems is that recombination not only creates new and advantageous genetic combinations, but also breaks down existing good ones. A negative correlation between the fitness of an individual and its recombination rate would result in prolonged integrity of fitter genetic combinations while enabling less fit ones to produce new combinations. Such a correlation could be mediated by various factors, including stress responses, age, or direct DNA damage. For haploid population models, we show that an allele for such fitness-associated recombination (FAR) can spread both in asexual populations and in populations reproducing sexually at any uniform recombination rate. FAR also carries an advantage for the population as a whole, resulting in a higher average fitness at mutation-selection balance. These results are demonstrated in populations adapting to new environments as well as in well-adapted populations coping with deleterious mutations. Current experimental results providing evidence for the existence of FAR in nature are discussed.

Hadany, Lilach; Beker, Tuvik

2003-01-01

363

Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.  

PubMed

The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage. PMID:10106917

Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

1990-01-01

364

A sequential bioequivalence design with a potential ethical advantage.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a two-stage approach for evaluation of bioequivalence, where, in contrast to the designs of Diane Potvin and co-workers, two stages are mandatory regardless of the data obtained at stage 1. The approach is derived from Potvin's method C. It is shown that under circumstances with relatively high variability and relatively low initial sample size, this method has an advantage over Potvin's approaches in terms of sample sizes while controlling type I error rates at or below 5% with a minute occasional trade-off in power. Ethically and economically, the method may thus be an attractive alternative to the Potvin designs. It is also shown that when using the method introduced here, average total sample sizes are rather independent of initial sample size. Finally, it is shown that when a futility rule in terms of sample size for stage 2 is incorporated into this method, i.e., when a second stage can be abolished due to sample size considerations, there is often an advantage in terms of power or sample size as compared to the previously published methods. PMID:24871343

Fuglsang, Anders

2014-07-01

365

Foreign Language Offerings and Enrollments in Public Secondary Schools, Fall 1960.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen statistical tables present information on foreign language offerings and enrollments in the United States of America and include: (1) total foreign language enrollments, (2) continuity of study trends, (3) high school offerings (percent offering foreign languages and state rank), (4) enrollments in Latin, French, German, Italian, Russian,…

Childers, J. Wesley

366

30 CFR 585.215 - What areas will BOEM offer in a lease sale?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What areas will BOEM offer in a lease sale? 585.215 Section 585...Competitive Lease Process § 585.215 What areas will BOEM offer in a lease sale? BOEM will offer the areas for leasing determined...

2013-07-01

367

48 CFR 1910.004-73 - Offer evaluation and award, brand name or equal descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Offer evaluation and award, brand name or equal descriptions. 1910.004-73...004-73 Offer evaluation and award, brand name or equal descriptions. An offer may...product to equal a characteristic of a brand name product if it was not specified in...

2013-10-01

368

Performance Boosting Additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

1999-01-01

369

New addition curing polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

1991-01-01

370

Sewage sludge additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

1980-01-01

371

A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant ({Lambda}) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ({sub PST}{Lambda}) was then compared to those determined by TLD ({sub TLD}{Lambda}) and Monte Carlo ({sub MC}{Lambda}) techniques. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average {Lambda} values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average {sub PST}{Lambda} value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Intersource variation in {sub PST}{Lambda} was less than 0.01%. The {sub PST}{Lambda} was within 2% of the reported {sub MC}{Lambda} values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported {sub TLD}{Lambda}. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated to be (0.688{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} {sup 103}Pd sources. Conclusions: An independent {Lambda} determination has been performed for the Advantage Pd-103 source. The {sub PST}{Lambda} obtained in this work provides additional information needed for establishing a more accurate consensus {Lambda} value for the Advantage Pd-103 source.

Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-02-15

372

78 FR 43820 - Medicare Program; Medical Loss Ratio Requirements for the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs; Correction...Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs.'' DATES...Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs final rule...

2013-07-22

373

Gaining information advantage: an integrated approach to airborne mission recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information advantage is the key success factor in all conflicts. In a modern combat aircraft the amount of available information is continuously increasing with new and more sophisticated sensor systems. By incorporating an integrated mission recording system the vast amount of information captured in a modern combat aircraft is recorded. Evaluating this information, whether for aircraft development, pilot training or in combat, will maximize the experience from each flight and enhance the efficiency of the following missions. All Lot 3 of the Swedish fighter JAS39 Gripen as well as the export versions will be equipped with a digital mission recording system. The system is called DiRECT and is used for video, audio and data recording on a direct access, solid- state memory.

Sundgren, Mats; Ljunggren, Lars

1999-08-01

374

Membrane reactor advantages for methanol reforming and similar reactions  

SciTech Connect

Membrane reactors achieve efficiencies by combining in one unit a reactor that generates a product with a semipermeable membrane that extracts it. One well-known benefit of this is greater conversion, as removal of a product drives reactions toward completion, but there are several potentially larger advantages that have been largely ignored. Because a membrane reactor tends to limit the partial pressure of the extracted product, it fundamentally changes the way that total pressure in the reactor affects equilibrium conversion. Thus, many gas-phase reactions that are preferentially performed at low pressures in a conventional reactor are found to have maximum conversion at high pressures in a membrane reactor. These higher pressures and reaction conversions allow greatly enhanced product extraction as well. Further, membrane reactors provide unique opportunities for temperature management which have not been discussed previously. These benefits are illustrated for methanol reforming to hydrogen for use with PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells.

Buxbaum, R.E. [REB Research and Consulting Co., Ferndale, MI (United States)] [REB Research and Consulting Co., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1999-07-01

375

Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid methane, which can be manufactured from any of the hydrocarbon sources such as coal, shale biomass, and organic waste considered as a petroleum replacement for aircraft fuels. A simple cycle analysis is carried out for a turboprop engine flying a Mach 0.8 and 10, 688 meters (35,000 ft.) altitude. Cycle performance comparisions are rendered for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is cooled or not cooled by the methane fuel. The advantages and disadvantages of involving the fuel in the turbine cooling system are discussed. Methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from Jet A and will require different combustor designs. Although a number of similar difficult technical problems exist, a highly fuel efficient turboprop engine burning methane appear to be feasible.

Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

1980-01-01

376

Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because liquid methane may be obtained from existing natural gas sources or produced synthetically from a range of other hydrocarbon sources (coal, biomass, shale, organic waste), it is considered as an aviation fuel in a simplified cycle analysis of the performance of a turboprop engine intended for operation at Mach 0.8 and 10,688 m altitude. Performance comparisons are given for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is either not cooled or cooled to -111, -222, and -333 K, and the advantages and problems that may be expected from direct use of the cryogenic fuel in turbine cooling are discussed. It is shown that while (1) methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from those of Jet A fuel and will require the development of different combustor designs, and (2) the safe integration of methane cryotanks into transport aircraft structures poses a major design problem, a highly fuel-efficient turboprop engine fueled by methane appears to be feasible.

Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

1980-01-01

377

Inhibitory processes in visual perception: A bilingual advantage.  

PubMed

Bilingual inhibitory control advantages are well established. An open question is whether inhibitory superiority also extends to visual perceptual phenomena that involve inhibitory processes. This research used ambiguous figures to assess inhibitory bilingual superiority in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old mono- and bilingual children (N=141). Findings show that bilinguals across all ages are superior in inhibiting a prevalent interpretation of an ambiguous figure to perceive the alternative interpretation. In contrast, mono- and bilinguals revealed no differences in understanding that an ambiguous figure can have two distinct referents. Together, these results suggest that early bilingual inhibitory control superiority is also evident in visual perception. Bilinguals' conceptual understanding of figure ambiguity is comparable to that of their monolingual peers. PMID:24878102

Wimmer, Marina C; Marx, Christina

2014-10-01

378

The Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policies for Part-Time Radiologists: Report of the ACR Commission on Human Resources.  

PubMed

The employment of part-time radiologists (PTRs) has both advantages and disadvantages in various practice settings. The authors examine the pros and cons of PTRs and review the literature regarding PTRs both within and outside the specialty of radiology. The complexity of this issue is manifested in our inability to reach consensus on many policy issues for PTRs. Nevertheless, this article should be helpful in offering an objective, nonbiased background to initiating a discussion on employing PTRs in various radiology practices. PMID:24855984

Harolds, Jay A; Coleman, Beverly G; Recht, Michael P; Bluth, Edward I

2014-07-01

379

The advantages of small-size focus in ultrasound surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-field heating which easily occurs in ultrasound surgery is mainly due to the long axial intensity distribution, -6dB intensity length of which is larger than 10 mm. In this paper, we investigated the advantages of a small-size focus with -6dB intensity dimensions of 1 (transverse)×4.5(axial) mm. First, the near-field safety and treatment efficiency were shown to be improved. A 5×5×5 mm3 target was simulated using this small-size focus with 1 mm focal spacing. The consecutive sonications were applied without cooling intervals, and duration of each spot was 2 s under ultrasonic intensity of 200 W/cm2. The lesion was well conformed to simulated target with 89.6% coverage index and 11.8% external volume index, and peak temperature in the plane (1 cm before focal plane) was 40.5°C, showing it was safe. Meanwhile the treatment time was decreased due to continuous sonication. Another advantage of small-size focus is that it can reduce the possibility of bone burning at the far field. Assumed that the muscle-bone interface located 1 cm after the focal plane, the specific absorption rate at the bone interface were 0.25 and 1.28 times the that of focal plane for the small-size focus and commonsize focus (-6dB intensity axial width of 12.5 mm), respectively. So the small-size focus shows superiority in ultrasound surgery.

Dehui, Li; Guofeng, Shen; Jinfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen

2012-10-01

380

Intensity modulated radiotherapy: advantages, limitations and future developments  

PubMed Central

Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is widely used in clinical applications in developed countries, for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases. This technique uses multiple radiation beams of non-uniform intensities. The beams are modulated to the required intensity maps for delivering highly conformal doses of radiation to the treatment targets, while sparing the adjacent normal tissue structures. This treatment technique has superior dosimetric advantages over 2-dimensional (2D) and conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) treatments. It can potentially benefit the patient in three ways. First, by improving conformity with target dose it can reduce the probability of in-field recurrence. Second, by reducing irradiation of normal tissue it can minimise the degree of morbidity associated with treatment. Third, by facilitating escalation of dose it can improve local control. Early clinical results are promising, particularly in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, as the IMRT is a sophisticated treatment involving high conformity and high precision, it has specific requirements. Therefore, tight tolerance levels for random and systematic errors, compared with conventional 2D and 3D treatments, must be applied in all treatment and pre-treatment procedures. For this reason, a large-scale routine clinical implementation of the treatment modality demands major resources and, in some cases, is impractical. This paper will provide an overview of the potential advantages of the IMRT, methods of treatment delivery, and equipment currently available for facilitating the treatment modality. It will also discuss the limitations of the equipment and the ongoing development work to improve the efficiency of the equipment and the treatment techniques and procedures.

2006-01-01

381

The Bionic Handling Assistant: a success story of additive manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This review will describe the development of the Bionic Handling Assistant as well as the additive manufacturing (AM) process of robot grippers and its possibilities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – AM offers the chance to use the additive processes to produce highly flexible automation parts and systems as the Bionic Handling Assistant in small and medium quantities that can utilize a

Andrzej Grzesiak; Ralf Becker; Alexander Verl

2011-01-01

382

The evolution and loss of oil-offering flowers: new insights from dated phylogenies for angiosperms and bees  

PubMed Central

The interactions between bees that depend on floral oil for their larvae and flowers that offer oil involve an intricate mix of obligate and facultative mutualisms. Using recent phylogenies, new data on oil-offering Cucurbitaceae, and molecular-dating, we ask when and how often oil-offering flowers and oil-foraging bees evolved, and how frequently these traits were lost in the cause of evolution. Local phylogenies and an angiosperm-wide tree show that oil flowers evolved at least 28 times and that floral oil was lost at least 36–40 times. The oldest oil flower systems evolved shortly after the K/T boundary independently in American Malpighiaceae, tropical African Cucurbitaceae and Laurasian Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae); the ages of the South African oil flower/oil bee systems are less clear. Youngest oil flower clades include Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae), Iridaceae, Krameria (Krameriaceae) and numerous Orchidaceae, many just a few million years old. In bees, oil foraging evolved minimally seven times and dates back to at least 56 Ma (Ctenoplectra) and 53 Ma (Macropis). The co-occurrence of older and younger oil-offering clades in three of the four geographical regions (but not the Holarctic) implies that oil-foraging bees acquired additional oil hosts over evolutionary time. Such niche-broadening probably started with exploratory visits to flowers resembling oil hosts in scent or colour, as suggested by several cases of Muellerian or Batesian mimicry involving oil flowers.

Renner, S. S.; Schaefer, H.

2010-01-01

383

The evolution and loss of oil-offering flowers: new insights from dated phylogenies for angiosperms and bees.  

PubMed

The interactions between bees that depend on floral oil for their larvae and flowers that offer oil involve an intricate mix of obligate and facultative mutualisms. Using recent phylogenies, new data on oil-offering Cucurbitaceae, and molecular-dating, we ask when and how often oil-offering flowers and oil-foraging bees evolved, and how frequently these traits were lost in the cause of evolution. Local phylogenies and an angiosperm-wide tree show that oil flowers evolved at least 28 times and that floral oil was lost at least 36-40 times. The oldest oil flower systems evolved shortly after the K/T boundary independently in American Malpighiaceae, tropical African Cucurbitaceae and Laurasian Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae); the ages of the South African oil flower/oil bee systems are less clear. Youngest oil flower clades include Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae), Iridaceae, Krameria (Krameriaceae) and numerous Orchidaceae, many just a few million years old. In bees, oil foraging evolved minimally seven times and dates back to at least 56 Ma (Ctenoplectra) and 53 Ma (Macropis). The co-occurrence of older and younger oil-offering clades in three of the four geographical regions (but not the Holarctic) implies that oil-foraging bees acquired additional oil hosts over evolutionary time. Such niche-broadening probably started with exploratory visits to flowers resembling oil hosts in scent or colour, as suggested by several cases of Muellerian or Batesian mimicry involving oil flowers. PMID:20047869

Renner, S S; Schaefer, H

2010-02-12

384

Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We compare the illumination uniformity and the associated effects of the spiral and Lissajous scanning patterns that are commonly used in an endomicroscope. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations were first performed to quantitatively investigate the area illumination density in the spiral scanning pattern. The results revealed the potential problem of manifest photodamage due to the very high illumination density in the center of the spiral scan. Similar analyses of the Lissajous scanning pattern, which can be conveniently implemented on the same endomicroscope with no hardware modifications, showed a more uniform illumination density with about an 80-fold reduction in the peak illumination density. To underscore the benefit offered by the improved illumination uniformity, we conducted in vitro two-photon fluorescence imaging of cultured cells stained with a LIVE/DEAD viability assay using our home-built, fiber-optic, two-channel endomicroscopy system. Both the spiral and the Lissajous scans were implemented. Our experimental results showed that cells near the spiral scan center experienced obvious photodamage, whereas cells remained alive over the entire region under the Lissajous beam scanning, confirming the predicted advantage offered by the Lissajous scan over this spiral scan in an endomicroscopy setting.

Liang, Wenxuan; Murari, Kartikeya; Zhang, Yuying; Chen, Yongping; Li, Ming-Jun; Li, Xingde

2012-01-01

385

What are the advantages of the endoscopic canine fossa approach in treating maxillary sinus aspergillomas?  

PubMed

Aspergilloma of the maxillary sinus is a non-invasive mycotic infection of the immunocompetent host. Nowadays its treatment remains surgical removal, and endoscopic endonasal middle meatus antrostomy is retained as the most popular approach. In our experience, a complementary endoscopic canine fossa approach is often needed to achieve a complete resection of the fungus ball. This fact led us to ask ourselves if an isolated endoscopic canine fossa approach had any advantages over the endonasal middle meatus antrostomy. In this paper we retrospectively analyse the results of the surgical treatment of 31 patients presenting maxillary sinus aspergillomas. These patients were all operated between January 1997 and January 2003 in our Otolaryngology Department. They were divided in three groups. Group A included 10 patients operated through an endonasal middle meatotomy only, group B included 9 patients who were operated through a combined approach (endonasal middle meatus antrostomy and endoscopic canine fossa approach), and group C included 12 patients who were operated through an endoscopic canine fossa approach alone. No recurrences were noted in any group, but in group B three patients presented mild complications like persistent purulent discharge through the meatotomy and nasal crusting. The endoscopic canine fossa approach offers several advantages over other techniques. These include an optimal visualization of all maxillary sinus walls and recesses, the possibility of performing the procedure under local anaesthesia and on an outpatient basis, the preservation of the anatomy and physiology of the natural maxillary ostium and an easy removal of the eventual foreign bodies of dental origin in the sinusal cavity that could favourite the development of an aspergilloma. PMID:15626257

Chobillon, Marcos Alejandro Jiménez; Jankowski, Roger

2004-12-01

386

The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes  

SciTech Connect

In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89 million facility under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This paper describes the operating experiences and results obtained during the first year of full operations at WRAP. Interested audiences include personnel involved in TRU waste characterization activities, TRU waste treatment and disposal facilities and TRU waste certification. The conclusions of this paper are that WRAP has proven itself to be a valuable asset for low-level and TRU waste management.

FRENCH, M.S.

2000-02-08

387

Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional drilling. It has the advantage that the drill string stays in the drilled hole during the entire drilling process and prevents the drilled hole from collapsing while the inner core barrels comprising the drilled core sections are hooked up inside the drill string using a wire.

Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

2009-04-01

388

Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MHD-kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall ? (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration.

Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.; Liu, Y. Q.

2013-11-01

389

Circulate-and-weight well control method has several advantages  

SciTech Connect

The driller's method and the wait-and-weight method, as described in American Petroleum Institute RP59, are firmly established procedures for well control and kill operations in the oil field. These methods essentially accomplish the same results: the existing well fluid with a gas or liquid influx is replaced with a higher density fluid while the bottom hole pressure is kept relatively constant. Although both methods have similar procedures and follow similar principles, they have sufficiently different advantages and disadvantages to warrant inclusion of both methods in most well control training manuals and classes. The use of hand-held calculators and portable computers on rigs simplifies the calculations required for the wait-and-weight kill mud displacement schedule; thus, many companies have revised the steps in the driller's method to include some of the steps from the wait-and-weight method. In this revised method, the first steps of the second circulation of the driller's method use the wait-and-weight drill pipe pressure schedule while the drillstring is displaced with the kill mud. This substitution results in several significant, practical benefits, but these benefits have not been widely recognized.

Sonnemann, P. (Sonnemann (Paul), Woodlands, TX (United States))

1994-01-31

390

Making Medicare Advantage a Middle-Class Program  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare Advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the “middle class.” Current Medicare policy of a “single premium” for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare.

Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas

2013-01-01

391

[Communication server in the hospital--advantages, expenses and limitations].  

PubMed

The common situation in a hospital with multiple departments is a heterogeneous set of subsystems, one or more for each department. Today, we have a rising number of requests for an information interchange between these independent systems. The exchange of patients data has a technical and a conceptional part. Establishing a connection between more than two subsystems requires links from one system to all the others, each of them with its own code translation, interface and message transfer. A communication server is an important tool for significantly reducing the amount of work for the technical realisation. It reduces the number of interfaces, facilitates the definition, maintenance and documentation of the message structure and translation tables and helps to keep control on the message pipelines. Existing interfaces can be adapted for similar purposes. Anyway, a communication server needs a lot of configuration and it is necessary to know about low-level internetworking on different hard- and software to take advantage of its features. The code for writing files on a remote system and for process communication via TCP/IP sockets or similar techniques has to be written specifically for each communication task. There are first experiences in the university school of medicine in Mainz setting up a communication server to connect different departments. We also made a checklist for the selection of such a product. PMID:9381841

Jendrysiak, U

1997-01-01

392

Advantages of unocculted optical systems in lucky imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lucky imaging is a competitive alternative for high-resolution imaging with a possibility of applications on small telescopes. The advantage of this technique is that small telescopes are not time expensive, therefore long observing runs, lasting for several hours or nights can be planned, enabling for time-resolved observation of sources in crowded fields. In the ideal case, a lucky image is diffraction-limited, while the actual resolution (in the order of several 0.1 arc seconds) is still close to the diffraction-limit of small telescopes. However, occulted optical systems, such as Cassegrain or RCC (Ritchey-Chretien-Coude) perform a poor imaging near the diffraction limit, because the secondary mirror significantly decreases the contrast. By basic optical calculations one can conclude that a typical Cassegrain-system has similar PSF to that of an unocculted telescope with a 40% less aperture, while the Strehl ratio is decreased to about 30% simply due to the secondary mirror. Since the profile is widened and the precious signal decreases significantly, a well-constructed unocculted telescope can perform at least as well as a Cassegrain system which is twice as large. My conclusion is therefore that "dropping out the secondary mirror makes the aperture double" — at least in Lucky Imaging applications.

Szabó, Gy. M.

2014-03-01

393

Advantages of anaerobic digestion of sludge in microaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The paper reviews results and experience of microaerobic experiments at both high and low sulphide concentrations and evaluates advantages and drawbacks of the anaerobic digestion of sludge in microaerobic conditions as regards biogas quality, digested sludge quality, organic pollutants biodegradability and methanogenic activity of biomass. The innovative microaerobic modification of the anaerobic sludge digestion technology was studied in both laboratory and full scale. Microaerobic conditions are obtained by dosing of a limited amount of the air into the liquid phase of the anaerobic digester. It was shown that anaerobic bacteria including methanogens can be active also in such system. In a mixed culture, even strict anaerobes can survive without inhibition, if the facultative microorganisms are able to consume the present oxygen quickly and fully. Until now, the microaerobic conditions were predominantly used for hydrogen sulphide removal from biogas. In the paper the role of the surplus oxygen was studied also at low sulphide concentration, when the oxygen is consumed in high extent for other processes beside sulphide oxidation. PMID:20651449

Jenicek, P; Koubova, J; Bindzar, J; Zabranska, J

2010-01-01

394

Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.  

PubMed

Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs. PMID:23982066

Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Ye?ilo?lu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

2014-01-01

395

Narrow-band imaging optical chromocolonoscopy: Advantages and limitations  

PubMed Central

Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an innovative optical technology that modifies the center wavelength and bandwidth of an endoscope’s light into narrow-band illumination of 415 ± 30 nm. NBI markedly improves capillary pattern contrast and is an in vivo method for visualizing microvessel morphological changes in superficial neoplastic lesions. The scientific basis for NBI is that short wavelength light falls within the hemoglobin absorption band, thereby facilitating clearer visualization of vascular structures. Several studies have reported advantages and limitations of NBI colonoscopy in the colorectum. One difficulty in evaluating results, however, has been non-standardization of NBI systems (Sequential and non-sequential). Utilization of NBI technology has been increasing worldwide, but accurate pit pattern analysis and sufficient skill in magnifying colonoscopy are basic fundamentals required for proficiency in NBI diagnosis of colorectal lesions. Modern optical technology without proper image interpretation wastes resources, confuses untrained endoscopists and delays inter-institutional validation studies. Training in the principles of “optical image-enhanced endoscopy” is needed to close the gap between technological advancements and their clinical usefulness. Currently available evidence indicates that NBI constitutes an effective and reliable alternative to chromocolonoscopy for in vivo visualization of vascular structures, but further study assessing reproducibility and effectiveness in the colorectum is ongoing at various medical centers.

Emura, Fabian; Saito, Yutaka; Ikematsu, Hiroaki

2008-01-01

396

Advantages of international cooperation in space life sciences research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resources and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss four possible types of cooperation: formal data exchange agreements; formal data exchange coupled with standardized data collection; joint strategic and tactical planning and full exchange of standardized data; and joint international team research with full data sharing and standardization. The advantages of these types of cooperation will be described.

McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

397

Flow mediated endothelium function: advantages of an automatic measuring technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to show the advantages of a non invasive automated method for measuring flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the forearm. This dilation takes place in answer to a shear tension generated by the increase of blood flow, sensed by the endothelium, after the liberation of an occlusion sustained in the time. The method consists of three stages: the continuous acquisition of images of the brachial artery using ultrasound techniques, the pulse to pulse measurement of the vessel's diameter by means of a border detection algorithm, and the later analysis of the results. By means of this technique one cannot only obtain the maximum dilation percentage (FMD%), but a continuous diameter curve that allows to evaluate other relevant aspects such as dilation speed, dilation sustain in time and general maneuver performance. The simplicity of this method, robustness of the technique and accessibility of the required elements makes it a viable alternative of great clinical value for diagnosis in the early detection of numerous cardiovascular pathologies.

Maio, Yamila; Casciaro, Mariano E.; José Urcola y, Maria; Craiem, Damian

2007-11-01

398

A search advantage for faces learned in motion.  

PubMed

Recently there has been growing interest in the role that motion might play in the perception and representation of facial identity. Most studies have considered old/new recognition as a task. However, especially for non-rigid motion, these studies have often produced contradictory results. Here, we used a delayed visual search paradigm to explore how learning is affected by non-rigid facial motion. In the current studies we trained observers on two frontal view faces, one moving non-rigidly, the other a static picture. After a delay, observers were asked to identify the targets in static search arrays containing 2, 4 or 6 faces. On a given trial target and distractor faces could be shown in one of five viewpoints, frontal, 22 degrees or 45 degrees to the left or right. We found that familiarizing observers with dynamic faces led to a constant reaction time advantage across all setsizes and viewpoints compared to static familiarization. This suggests that non-rigid motion affects identity decisions even across extended periods of time and changes in viewpoint. Furthermore, it seems as if such effects may be difficult to observe using more traditional old/new recognition tasks. PMID:16331505

Pilz, Karin S; Thornton, Ian M; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

2006-06-01

399

Stars advantages vs parallel coordinates: shape perception as visualization reserve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although shape perception is the main information channel for brain, it has been poor used by recent visualization techniques. The difficulties of its modeling are key obstacles for visualization theory and application. Known experimental estimates of shape perception capabilities have been made for low data dimension, and they were usually not connected with data structures. More applied approach for certain data structures detection by means of shape displays are considered by the example of analytical and experimental comparison of popular now Parallel Coordinates (PCs), i.e. 2D Cartesian displays of data vectors, with polar displays known as stars. Advantages of stars vs. PCs by Gestalt Laws are shown. About twice faster feature selection and classification with stars than PCs are showed by psychological experiments for hyper-tubes structures detection in data space with dimension up to 100-200 and its subspaces. This demonstrates great reserves of visualization enhancement in comparison with many recent techniques usually focused on few data attributes analysis.

Grishin, Vladimir; Kovalerchuk, Boris

2013-12-01

400

Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2008-07-01

401

Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines*  

PubMed Central

Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used.

Melnick, Joseph L.

1978-01-01

402

Comparison of Patients' Expectations and Experiences at Traditional Pharmacies and Pharmacies Offering Enhanced Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. Methods A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. Results While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Conclusion Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

Collins, John B.; Berkowitz, Jonathan

2010-01-01

403

Bereaved Parents and Siblings Offer Advice to Healthcare Providers and Researchers  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine how to improve care for families by obtaining their advice to healthcare providers and researchers after a child’s death from cancer. Design Families with a surviving sibling (ages 8-17) were recruited from cancer registries at three hospitals in the United States and Canada 3-12 months (M = 10.4, SD = 3.5) after the child’s death. Setting Data were collected in the home. Participants Participants (N = 99) included 36 mothers, 24 fathers, and 39 siblings from 40 families. Outcome Measures Each participant completed a qualitative interview that was audio recorded, transcribed, and coded for thematic content. Findings Five major themes included the need for: (a) improved communication with the medical team, (b) more compassionate care, (c) increased access to resources, (d) ongoing research, as well as (e) offering praise. Interwoven within the five themes was a subtheme of continuity of care. Conclusions Many participants were pleased with the care the child with cancer received, but others noted areas in need of improvement, particularly medical communication and continuity of care. Additional research is needed to inform interventions to improve services for families of children with life-limiting conditions.

Steele, Amii Corbisiero; Kaal, Julia; Thompson, Amanda L.; Barrera, Maru; Compas, Bruce E.; Davies, Betty; Fairclough, Diane L.; Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Hogan, Nancy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

404

Possibilities offered by implantable miniaturized cuff-electrodes for insect neurophysiology  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in microsystems technology led to a miniaturization of cuff-electrodes, which suggests these electrodes not just for long-term neuronal recordings in mammalians, but also in medium-sized insects. In this study we investigated the possibilities offered by cuff-electrodes for neuroethology using insects as a model organism. The implantation in the neck of a tropical bushcricket resulted in high quality extracellular nerve recordings of different units responding to various acoustic, vibratory, optical and mechanical stimuli. In addition, multi-unit nerve activity related to leg movements was recorded in insects walking on a trackball. A drawback of bi-polar nerve recordings obtained during tethered flight was overlay of nerve activity with large amplitude muscle potentials. Interestingly, cuff-electrode recordings were robust to withstand walking and flight activity so that good quality nerve recordings were possible even three days after electrode implantation. Recording multi-unit nerve activity in intact insects required an elaborate spike sorting algorithm in order to discriminate neuronal units responding to external stimuli from background activity. In future, a combination of miniaturized cuff-electrodes and light-weight amplifiers equipped with a wireless transmitter will allow the investigation of neuronal processes underlying natural behavior in freely moving insects. By this means cuff-electrodes may contribute to the development of realistic neuronal models simulating neuronal processes underlying natural insect behavior, such like mate choice and predator avoidance.

Hartbauer, Manfred; Kruger, Thilo B.; Stieglitz, Thomas

2012-01-01

405

Underperformance in long-run stock returns following seasoned equity offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document that firms making seasoned equity offerings during 1975–1989 substantially underperformed a sample of matched firms from the same industry and of similar size that did not issue equity. This underperformance persists even after controlling for trading system, offer size, and the issuing firm's age and book-to-market ratio. It is similar to that previously documented for initial public offerings,

D. Katherine Spiess; John Affleck-Graves

1995-01-01

406

Anatomic and Physiologic Advantages of Totally Subfacial Breast Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 4 years, whenever it was possible to choose between the subglandular or the submuscular location for the implant pocket (in cases with no precise indication for the submuscular location), the authors have opted for the totally subfascial plane (subaponeurotic) to avoid the disadvantages of the other locations and to obtain additional benefits. The subfascial plane lies below

O. D. Ventura; G. A. Marcello

2005-01-01

407

Information enrichment: designing the supply chain for competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speed of response to customer demand has long been recognized as a key attribute to business success since customer loyalty can be won or lost on product availability. With everyone implementing lean manufacturing philosophies, companies additionally need to become smart chain managers and ensure continuous improvement to stay competitive. Exploits further the concept of the “seamless supply chain”, by encouraging

R. Mason-Jones; D. R. Towill

1997-01-01

408

Survival models for cost data: the forgotten additive approach.  

PubMed

The usage of the Aalen additive approach is proposed to model cost data. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, in a wide set of scenarios, we showed that the Aalen model is performing well and can be a reasonable alternative to the standard Gamma regression models. In addition, with reference to the COSTAMI trial data, we highlighted the ability of the Aalen model to offer additional information about the relationships between costs and specific covariates, as compared with standard regression techniques. PMID:18338326

Pagano, Eva; Petrinco, Michele; Desideri, Alessandro; Bigi, Riccardo; Merletti, Franco; Gregori, Dario

2008-08-15

409

Telemedicine in Tinnitus: Feasibility, Advantages, Limitations, and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Given the important patient needs for support and treatment, telemedicine—defined by medical approaches supported by the new technologies of information—could provide interesting alternative in tinnitus treatment. By analyzing the published tools and approaches which could be used in the context of telemedicine for tinnitus by health professionals or self-administrated by patients, this review summarizes, presents, and describes the principal telemedicine approaches available presently or in the near future to help assess or treat tinnitus or to offer support to tinnitus sufferers. Several pieces of evidence strongly support the feasibility of telemedicine approaches for tinnitus. Telemedicine can be used to help tinnitus sufferers at several points in the therapeutic process: for early screening, initial evaluation, and diagnosis; for optimizing therapeutic tools, particularly behavioural therapies and virtual reality-enhanced behavioral therapies; for long-term monitoring of patients and provision of online support. Several limitations are, however, discussed in order to optimize the safe development of such approaches. Cost effective and easy to implement, telemedicine is likely to represent an important part of the future of tinnitus therapies and should be progressively integrated by otolaryngologists.

Guitton, Matthieu J.

2013-01-01

410

Advantages of the Retrosigmoid Approach in Auditory Brain Stem Implantation  

PubMed Central

From April 1997 to December 1999, six patients (five men and one woman), ranging in age from 22 to 37 years with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) were operated on via the classic retrosigmoid-transmental (RS-TM) approach for removal of a vestibular schwannoma (VS) (tumor size from 12 to 40 mm) and for auditory brain stem implantation (ABI). After tumor removal, the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and the convolution of the dorsal cochlear nucleos were reached, and the ABI was inserted. More recently, an ABI was implanted via the retrosigmoid approach in a 4-year-old boy with a cochlear malformation (common cavity) associated with cochlear nerve aplasia. Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) and neural response telemetry (NRT) were performed to verify the correct positioning of the inserted electrodes. No major complications related to ABI were observed. ABI has been activated to date in five of the NF2 patients. Auditory sensations with various numbers of electrodes were evoked in all patients. We consider the RS-TM approach the route of choice for ABI insertion in patients with NF2 and good hearing, offering a chance of hearing preservation, and in patients with complete cochlear ossification, severe head trauma and cochlear fracture, or nerve disruption, or a combination of these. A new indication for ABI implantation via the RS approach is presented by patients with bilateral cochlear nerve aplasia. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4

Colletti, Vittorio; Fiorino, Francesco G.; Carner, Marco; Giarbini, Nadia; Sacchetto, Luca; Cumer, Guido

2000-01-01

411

Composite filter aids for cleanup of additives  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the properties of composite filter aids in additive cleanup using two- and three-component filter aid composites based on perlite, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, and wood flour. Filtration tests were run on naphtha solutions of the additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. The laboratory studies indicate that composites of perlite and kieselguhr with fibrous materials (wood flour or asbestos) show great promise for the removal of solid contaminants from the zinc disalkydithiophosphate additive. The advantages of the filter aid composite based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour in comparison with the two-component composites are the higher filtration rate (by 26%) and the smaller losses of additive (by a factor of 2.1) and isobutyl alcohol (by a factor of 1.6). It is demonstrated that the filtration rate with the three components is 50-60% higher than with the composite of perlite with kieselguhr. The filtration of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive using the composite filter aid based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour, has been adopted at the Volgograd Petroleum Refinery. Includes 2 tables.

Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.Y.

1984-03-01

412

Evolutionary advantage via common action of recombination and neutrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate evolution models with recombination and neutrality. We consider the Crow-Kimura (parallel) mutation-selection model with the neutral fitness landscape, in which there is a central peak with high fitness A, and some of 1-point mutants have the same high fitness A, while the fitness of other sequences is 0. We find that the effect of recombination and neutrality depends on the concrete version of both neutrality and recombination. We consider three versions of neutrality: (a) all the nearest neighbor sequences of the peak sequence have the same high fitness A; (b) all the l-point mutations in a piece of genome of length l?1 are neutral; (c) the neutral sequences are randomly distributed among the nearest neighbors of the peak sequences. We also consider three versions of recombination: (I) the simple horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of one nucleotide; (II) the exchange of a piece of genome of length l, HGT-l; (III) two-point crossover recombination (2CR). For the case of (a), the 2CR gives a rather strong contribution to the mean fitness, much stronger than that of HGT for a large genome length L. For the random distribution of neutral sequences there is a critical degree of neutrality ?c, and for ?advantage in the evolutionary dynamics, where recombination distinguishes clearly the mean-field-like evolutionary factors from the fluctuation-like ones. By contrast, mutations affect the mean-field-like and fluctuation-like factors similarly. Consequently, recombination can accelerate the non-mean-field (fluctuation) type dynamics without considerably affecting the mean-field-like factors.

Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

2013-11-01

413

Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program  

PubMed Central

Background In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Data Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004–2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006–2011. Measures Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Results Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006–2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Discussion Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary.

Kronick, Richard; Welch, W. Pete

2014-01-01

414

Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects  

PubMed Central

Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

Myers, Tony D.

2014-01-01

415

Survey of Physical Assessment Course Offerings in American Colleges of Pharmacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 55 pharmacy schools found that of those offering a pharmacy doctoral program, three-fourths had a separate course devoted to physical assessment of patients, most offered in the third professional year. Most require students to demonstrate use of stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmo-otoscope, tuning fork, reflex hammer. Reasons for…

da Camara, Carlos C.; And Others

1996-01-01

416

Price behavior and insider trading around seasoned equity offerings: the case of majority-owned firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small public firms in the US and elsewhere are often managed by majority owners. This paper offers the hypothesis that majority insiders have an incentive to engage in insider trading around seasoned equity offerings (SEOs), primarily for the sake of preserving control. This hypothesis is tested side-by-side with traditional hypotheses regarding insider trading, such as signaling or growth opportunities that

Shmuel Hauser; Elli Kraizberg; Ruth Dahan

2003-01-01

417

All Around the World, U. of Maryland Offers Classes to U.S. Military Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Maryland University College is providing degree and continuing education to 20,000 military personnel with 1,000 faculty at 100 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, Russia, and South America. Distance education is offered in Antarctica and Hong Kong. Almost every subject taught domestically is offered overseas.…

Rubin, Amy Magaro

1997-01-01

418

44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Offers and appeals under the SRL program. 79.7 Section 79.7 Emergency... § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation...property owner's participation in the SRL program is voluntary. (2) The...

2009-10-01

419

44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Offers and appeals under the SRL program. 79.7 Section 79.7 Emergency... § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation...property owner's participation in the SRL program is voluntary. (2) The...

2010-10-01

420

Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

2010-01-01

421

The General Basis of Arbitrator Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Conventional and Final-Offer Arbitration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model of arbitrator behavior in conventional and final-offer arbitration is developed that is based on an underlying notion of an appropriate award in a particular case. This appropriate award is defined as a function of the facts of the case independently of the offers of the parties. In conventional arbitration the arbitration award is argued to be a

Henry S. Farber; Max H. Bazerman

1984-01-01

422

Predictors of High School Academic Course Offerings: The Role of School Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between high school structural characteristics and curricular offerings are examined in this study using survey data from High School and Beyond. Emphasis is placed on the role played by high school size. The study's central thesis is that the effects of school size on the curriculum will vary depending on subject area, the character of the course being offered

David H. Monk; Emil J. Haller

1993-01-01

423

17 CFR 274.221 - Form N-23c-3, Notification of repurchase offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form N-23c-3, Notification of repurchase offer...Forms for Other Statements § 274.221 Form N-23c-3, Notification of repurchase offer. Form N-23c-3 shall be filed with copies of...

2013-04-01

424

Evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling and offering of HIV testing in pregnancy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guide- lines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. Options: Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their

Lindy Samson; Susan King

1998-01-01

425

Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company's standard offer program, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longter...

C. A. Goldman M. S. Kito M. M. Moezzi

1995-01-01

426

12 CFR 1408.8 - Right to offer to repay claim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claim. (a) The debtor may offer to enter into a written agreement with the Corporation...acceptance of such an offer and the decision to enter into such a written agreement is at the...financial condition. The Corporation may enter into a written agreement with...

2012-01-01

427

Attitudes and opinions of pregnant women who are not offered cystic fibrosis carrier screening.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common severe, autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians. A population-based CF carrier screening programme was implemented in Victoria, Australia, in 2006. Carrier screening for CF is currently only offered in the private health system. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and opinions of pregnant women in the public health system, towards screening for CF. Pregnant women were recruited in the antenatal clinics of two public hospitals, and invited to participate in the study. Results of this study were compared with previous studies where screening for CF carrier status was offered. Of the participants (n=158), the majority were aged 25-34 years old (66.1%) and were Caucasian (45.8%). Compared with those who were offered screening (reported in previous studies) participants in the current study were younger, had a lower level of education and a lower income. Knowledge was significantly lower in those who were not offered screening compared with those who were offered screening. The majority of participants believe CF carrier screening should be offered in the public health system (80.5%) and almost half would have liked to receive an offer of screening during their current pregnancy (49.7%). In order for the programme to be equitable, screening for CF carrier status needs to be offered in both the public and private health system and ideally should be at no cost to the user. PMID:24253861

Ioannou, Liane; Massie, John; Lewis, Sharon; Collins, Veronica; McClaren, Belinda; Delatycki, Martin B

2014-07-01

428

34 CFR 650.32 - How does the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...does the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship? 650.32 Section 650.32 Education...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met...the Secretary withdraw an offer of a fellowship? (a) The Secretary withdraws...

2013-07-01

429

The choice between public offering and private placement: New insights from Chinese data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop and test a logistic regression model to examine how companies choose between public offering and private placements in China. Three findings emerge. First, profitability is one of the most important factors that influence on the choices of SEO. Companies that cannot make enough profits without qualifications for public offering are more likely to choose private placement. This evidence

He Li-mei; Yu Wei-xi

2009-01-01

430

Weaving Diversity into LIS: An Examination of Diversity Course Offerings in iSchool Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the current state of diversity course offerings in Library and Information Science (LIS) programs through the analysis of syllabi of diversity-related courses offered in the American Library Association accredited Master of Library and Information Science (MLS) programs at iSchools (a group of information schools that include…

Subramaniam, Mega M.; Jaeger, Paul T.

2011-01-01

431

Chelation control associated with organometallic addition reactions in water. The high stereoselectivity offered by ?- and ?-hydroxyl substituents obviates the need for protecting groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

High stereoselectivities have been observed for indium-promoted allylations of ?- and ?-hydroxy aldehydes in aqueous media, with strong implication that chelate control can continue to operate in water.

Leo A. Paquette; Thomas M. Mitzel

1995-01-01

432

Preconceptional genetic carrier testing and the commercial offer directly-to-consumers.  

PubMed

Recently, a number of commercial companies are offering preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. This offer raises a number of concerns and issues above and beyond those encountered with preconceptional tests offered within the traditional health care setting. In order to bring some of these issues to light and to initiate dialogue on this topic, this article discusses the following issues: the current offer of preconceptional carrier tests (until the end of 2010) through online commercial companies; the implications for the informed consent procedure and the need for good information; the need for medical supervision and follow-up; and the appropriate use of existing resources. The article concludes with some reflections about the potential sustainability of the offer of preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. PMID:21362685

Borry, Pascal; Henneman, Lidewij; Lakeman, Phillis; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Howard, Heidi C

2011-05-01

433

The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

2012-01-01

434

Theory of evolutionary molecular engineering through simultaneous accumulation of advantageous mutations.  

PubMed

We examined the effectiveness of an "adaptive leap" strategy using the "mutation scrambling" method as an efficient optimization technique (Uchiyama, 2000;J. Biochem.128, 441-447) for cases where mutational (rough) additivity holds in fitness. The mutation scrambling method is composed of the following three processes: (1) preliminary selection of several advantageous single-point mutations introduced in a wild-type sequence; (2) preparation of various multiple-point mutants incorporating the advantageous mutant residue or wild-type residue at each of the selected sites, by scrambling the mutant residues and wild-type residues (this process is called mutation scrambling); and (3) selection of the fittest through screening of the mutant pool. The fitness distribution in the mutant pool is controlled by the mixing ratio of the mutant residues to the wild-type residues. We focused on the mutant fitness distribution and obtained the optimal mixing ratio which efficiently generates superior multiple-point mutants with high fitnesses. As a result, we found that the optimal ratio lies between 7/3 and 9/1 in realistic cases. Particularly, this strategy works well in cases where the number of component mutations is large and the size of the population to be screened is small. Analysis of the mutant fitness distributions with various mixing ratios is also useful to explore local fitness landscapes. PMID:11093838

Aita, T; Husimi, Y

2000-12-21

435

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and the treatment of CNS injury: advantages and possible caveats.  

PubMed

One of the main research strategies to improve treatment for spinal cord injury involves the use of cell transplantation. This review looks at the advantages and possible caveats of using glial cells from the olfactory system in transplant-mediated repair. These glial cells, termed olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), ensheath the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons. The primary olfactory system is an unusual tissue in that it can support neurogenesis throughout life. In addition, newly generated olfactory receptor neurons are able to grow into the CNS environment of the olfactory bulb tissue and reform synapses. It is thought that this unique regenerative property depends in part on the presence of OECs. OECs share some of the properties of both astrocytes and Schwann cells but appear to have advantages over these and other glial cells for CNS repair. In particular, OECs are less likely to induce hypertrophy of CNS astrocytes. As well as remyelinating demyelinated axons, OEC grafts appear to promote the restoration of functions lost following a spinal cord lesion. However, much of the evidence for this is based on behavioural tests, and the mechanisms that underlie their potential benefits in transplant-mediated repair remain to be clarified. PMID:14690478

Barnett, Susan C; Riddell, John S

2004-01-01

436

Future home hemodialysis - advantages of the NxStage System One.  

PubMed

To improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with renal failure who are on dialysis, we have been working to promote home hemodialysis (HHD), but it has not come into widespread use at present because of various problems, including limitations of the equipment, the large proportion of elderly patients, and difficulty performing self-care. With regard to problems with the equipment, dialysis equipment for home use has not yet been approved in Japan, so equipment designed for medical facilities has to be used for home dialysis. Such equipment is bulky and occupies living space, as well as involving the cost of home renovation and the need for a caregiver. The NxStage System One (NSO) artificial kidney has served advantages for HHD compared with conventional equipment, since it is compact, portable, and easy to operate (especially for preparation and cleaning), does not require a water supply, occupies less living space, and reduces the need for renovation of the home. Other advantages of the NSO include improvement of QOL by saving time travelling to hospitals and helping patients to participate in social activities. In addition, HHD with the NSO can improve sleep disorders, the restless legs syndrome, and depressive symptoms, resulting in a good outcome. Moreover, HHD with the NSO reduces the need for drugs, such as antihypertensive medications and erythropoietin, possibly leading to saving of healthcare costs. PMID:22613922

Takahashi, Susumu

2012-01-01

437

Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy might actually be achieved at resolutions lower than the maximum available in current exposure cat models and as yet undefined. Further, dominance of a few models, associated consensus results, and preeminence of exposure concepts can lead to the subjective interpretation of inaccuracies in exposure distribution/attribution that can result in biased model results. More extreme solutions have resulted in input exposure data being calibrated with model results in order to achieve pre-determined and self-fulfilling outcomes. These outcomes could be avoided by allowing realistic uncertainty ranges rather than restricting interpretation of risk results to misleading "consensus nutshell" numbers. The paper concludes by considering new concepts in the use of exposure models and describes potential scenarios for the future use of input data in cat models.

Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

2010-05-01

438

40K-40Ca and 87Rb-86Sr Dating by SIMS: The Double-Plus Advantage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay of 40K to 40Ar forms the basis of the potassium-argon dating method, although only one out of every 10 parent atoms decays to daughter 40Ar. The other 90% decay to 40Ca giving, in principle, the 40K-40Ca decay system great potential for dating samples with high K/Ca. This method, however, has not been utilized as an ion-microprobe-based geochronometer, largely because these isotopes require a very high mass resolving power (MRP) of ~25k for full separation. We found that limiting secondary ion transmission in our ims1270 ion microprobe to ~20% permits sufficient separation of 40K from 40Ca (MRP? 20k) to permit isotope ratio analysis, albeit with 40Ca+ on the shoulder of the more intense 40K+ peak. A pegmatitic muscovite from Jack Hills (K-Ca age = 2.54 Ga; Fletcher et al., Chem. Geol. 138, 289) yields ~104 cps of both 40K+ and 40Ca+ with a 15 ?m primary spot size and O- beam current of 10 nA. The 40Ca+ signal is >90% radiogenic and reflects a “common” Ca content of ? 100 ppm. However, application of the relative sensitivity factor (RSF) calculated from the Jack Hills muscovite to unknowns yields relatively high age dispersion, perhaps related to the incompletely separated mass interferences. Theorizing that the noble gas electronic structure of K+ would likely resist further electron loss, we investigated an alternative approach involving analysis of Ca++/K++. The double-plus method provides an important advantage in that K++ species are suppressed by a factor of ~103 relative to K+, thereby effectively removing 40K++ from the spectrum at m/e? 20 and leaving 40Ca++ free from any significant interferences at an MRP? 4k. Measurement of the much more abundant 39K++ then permits 40Ca++/40K++ to be calculated from the known 39K/40K ratio. We applied this approach to Precambrian muscovite samples obtaining ages similar to, but generally younger than, their associated 40Ar/39Ar ages. This could reflect a minor matrix effect or a lower intrinsic retentivity of 40Ca* relative to 40Ar* in white micas. This approach offers the potential to develop a branched-decay thermochronometer (K-Ca-Ar) permitting simultaneous solution of temperature-time history from ?m-scale isotopic variations. A further advantage is that even low resolution SIMS instruments (e.g., ims7f) can utilize the double-plus method. Initial investigations using the same double-plus approach for Rb-Sr dating show promise. While resolving 87Rb+ from 87Sr+ requires an MRP of ~290k, unattainable using any current SIMS instrument, 87Rb++ is so strongly suppressed that determination of 87Sr++ is possible with minor peak stripping. 87Rb/86Sr can be determined either from 85Rb+/88Sr+ at MRP? 8k or by the use of energy filtering. In addition to micas, these approaches may be applicable to any mineral systems enriched in alkali metals relative to alkaline earths, such as alkali feldspars, feldspathoids, and alkaline halides.

Harrison, T. M.; McKeegan, K. D.; Schmitt, A. K.

2009-12-01

439

Irinotecan monotherapy offers advantage over combination therapy with irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line setting for treatment of advanced gastric cancer following failure of fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.  

PubMed

The optimal regimen of chemotherapy for gastric cancer in a second-line setting remains to be clarified. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of second-line irinotecan treatment. A total of 134 patients with gastric cancer who had received prior chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine-based regimens were treated with irinotecan (150 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15) alone every 4 weeks (Arm I) or irinotecan (70 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on day 1) every 4 weeks (Arm IP) between April, 2004 and March, 2009. Patient characteristics, response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety were investigated. Of 134 patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer, 92 were treated in Arm I and 42 patients in Arm IP. Overall response rate in Arm I was 8.1%, compared with 20.0% in Arm IP (P=0.65). Median progression-free survival (Arm I vs. IP; 2.6 vs. 2.7 months, P=0.73) and median overall survival (Arm I vs. IP; 9.8 vs. 8.0 months, P=0.67) did not differ between the two treatment groups. Neutropenia, leukopenia and anorexia were the most common grade 3/4 adverse events, occurring significantly more frequently in Arm IP than in Arm I (P<0.05). Irinotecan may be a key agent, and serial irinotecan monotherapy is more beneficial as compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in second-line settings. Irinotecan monotherapy is beneficial compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line settings for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer refractory to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens. PMID:22866071

Oba, Masaru; Chin, Keisho; Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Takagi, Koichi; Ogura, Mariko; Shinozaki, Eiji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Hatake, Kiyohiko

2011-03-01

440

Irinotecan monotherapy offers advantage over combination therapy with irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line setting for treatment of advanced gastric cancer following failure of fluoropyrimidine-based regimens  

PubMed Central

The optimal regimen of chemotherapy for gastric cancer in a second-line setting remains to be clarified. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of second-line irinotecan treatment. A total of 134 patients with gastric cancer who had received prior chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine-based regimens were treated with irinotecan (150 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15) alone every 4 weeks (Arm I) or irinotecan (70 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m2 on day 1) every 4 weeks (Arm IP) between April, 2004 and March, 2009. Patient characteristics, response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety were investigated. Of 134 patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer, 92 were treated in Arm I and 42 patients in Arm IP. Overall response rate in Arm I was 8.1%, compared with 20.0% in Arm IP (P=0.65). Median progression-free survival (Arm I vs. IP; 2.6 vs. 2.7 months, P=0.73) and median overall survival (Arm I vs. IP; 9.8 vs. 8.0 months, P=0.67) did not differ between the two treatment groups. Neutropenia, leukopenia and anorexia were the most common grade 3/4 adverse events, occurring significantly more frequently in Arm IP than in Arm I (P<0.05). Irinotecan may be a key agent, and serial irinotecan monotherapy is more beneficial as compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in second-line settings. Irinotecan monotherapy is beneficial compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line settings for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer refractory to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.

OBA, MASARU; CHIN, KEISHO; KAWAZOE, YOSHIMASA; TAKAGI, KOICHI; OGURA, MARIKO; SHINOZAKI, EIJI; SUENAGA, MITSUKUNI; MATSUSAKA, SATOSHI; MIZUNUMA, NOBUYUKI; HATAKE, KIYOHIKO

2011-01-01

441

Implementation of Fluidigm's SlingShot™ Absolute Quantitation Product offers the dual advantage of replacing the costly and time-consuming titration step as well as recovery of sub-optimal DNA Samples for Roche 454 Next Generation Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully implemented Fluidigm's SlingShot™ technology into our 454 sequencing process at two key junctions: sub-optimal sample quantitation and replacement of the library titration. This implementation has allowed us to process previously failed samples (Roche recommends samples be between 3ug and 5ug) and replace the costly titration step, saving us processing time (up to 2 days) plus the cost

Joseph F. Boland; Casey A. Matthews; Jennifer A. Bacior; Victor Lonsberry; Zuoming Deng; Laufey Amundadottir; Stephen J. Chanock

442

Food for love: the role of food offering in empathic emotion regulation.  

PubMed

The present article examines the interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents and consequences of food offering. Food offering is one of the earliest biobehavioral regulatory interactions between parent and child. It ensures survival of the child who is fully dependent on food provision by others. The quality of these early interactions influences how people respond to situations later in life, and food offering in particular may be closely related to emotion regulation throughout the lifespan. While research has examined other forms of emotion regulation, and food consumption has been studied from an intrapersonal perspective, we know little about the interpersonal effects of food offering. After reviewing literature from a wide range of disciplines, we propose that one mechanism underlying these effects is empathic emotion regulation (EER). We conceptualize EER as an interpersonal regulation system in which an empathic response to another person's emotional state aims to regulate both emotion within the provider and across interaction partners. We suggest that the offer of food by an empathic provider is motivated by the emotional state of one's interaction partner (recipient). By offering food, the provider not only aims to attenuate the recipient's negative affect but also her own. Food offering thereby becomes a means to increase positive affect for both recipient and - when the offer has the desired effect - provider. We further propose that the sharing of food resources as well as the use of food as a support behavior increases interpersonal closeness. Finally, we frame the process of food offering within a developmental perspective. If the regulatory success of food offering becomes a replacement for other support behaviors, children will learn from an early age to use food as a primary means to soothe self and others, possibly resulting in eating disorders and a restricted range of coping behavior. PMID:24550860

Hamburg, Myrte E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

2014-01-01

443

Food for love: the role of food offering in empathic emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

The present article examines the interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents and consequences of food offering. Food offering is one of the earliest biobehavioral regulatory interactions between parent and child. It ensures survival of the child who is fully dependent on food provision by others. The quality of these early interactions influences how people respond to situations later in life, and food offering in particular may be closely related to emotion regulation throughout the lifespan. While research has examined other forms of emotion regulation, and food consumption has been studied from an intrapersonal perspective, we know little about the interpersonal effects of food offering. After reviewing literature from a wide range of disciplines, we propose that one mechanism underlying these effects is empathic emotion regulation (EER). We conceptualize EER as an interpersonal regulation system in which an empathic response to another person’s emotional state aims to regulate both emotion within the provider and across interaction partners. We suggest that the offer of food by an empathic provider is motivated by the emotional state of one’s interaction partner (recipient). By offering food, the provider not only aims to attenuate the recipient’s negative affect but also her own. Food offering thereby becomes a means to increase positive affect for both recipient and – when the offer has the desired effect – provider. We further propose that the sharing of food resources as well as the use of food as a support behavior increases interpersonal closeness. Finally, we frame the process of food offering within a developmental perspective. If the regulatory success of food offering becomes a replacement for other support behaviors, children will learn from an early age to use food as a primary means to soothe self and others, possibly resulting in eating disorders and a restricted range of coping behavior.

Hamburg, Myrte E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

2014-01-01

444

Oligonucleotides suppress IL-8 in skin keratinocytes in vitro and offer anti-inflammatory properties in vivo.  

PubMed

DNA codes for genetic information. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that DNA offers additional function, particularly in the recognition of microorganisms. In this study, we investigated two classes of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in skin keratinocytes; namely, an ODN comprising two cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs (CpG-1-phosphorothioate (PTO)) and a poly-cytidine (Non-CpG-5-PTO) as control. Both fluorescence-tagged ODN were rapidly taken up by cells and accumulated already after 5 minutes in perinuclear compartments. In order to test whether ODN convey immunological effects in keratinocytes, secretion of IL-8 was measured. Interestingly, both CpG-1-PTO and Non-CpG-5-PTO suppressed basal and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced IL-8 levels measured in cell culture supernatants. Experiments using deletion mutant revealed a critical length of approximately 16 nucleotides conveying IL-8 suppression. Studies regarding the ODN backbone offered that PTO bondings are critical for significant IL-8 suppression. In order to substantiate the anti-inflammatory response, a contact hypersensitivity mouse model was utilized. Topical application of Non-CpG-5-PTO-containing ointments reduced ear thickness in sensitized mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of ODN in epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, indicating that DNA molecules offer distinct biological activities restricted to the physiological compartment applied. This effect seems to be independent from Toll-like receptor 9. PMID:17139269

Dorn, Annette; Ludwig, Ralf Joachim; Bock, Andreas; Thaci, Diamant; Hardt, Katja; Bereiter-Hahn, Jurgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Kippenberger, Stefan

2007-04-01

445

How Safe Are Color Additives?  

MedlinePLUS

... Here are more facts you should know about color additive safety. FDA regulates color additives used in the United ... must comply with regulatory requirements. Both types of color additives are subject to rigorous safety standards. Approval of a color additive for one ...

446

Uniqueness, Advantages, Challenges, Solutions, and Perspectives in Therapeutics Applying RNA Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

The field of RNA nanotechnology is rapidly emerging. RNA can be manipulated with the simplicity characteristic of DNA to produce nanoparticles with a diversity of quaternary structures by self-assembly. Additionally RNA is tremendously versatile in its function and some RNA molecules display catalytic activities much like proteins. Thus, RNA has the advantage of both worlds. However, the instability of RNA has made many scientists flinch away from RNA nanotechnology. Other concerns that have deterred the progress of RNA therapeutics include the induction of interferons, stimulation of cytokines, and activation of other immune systems, as well as short pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. This review will provide some solutions and perspectives on the chemical and thermodynamic stability, in vivo half-life and biodistribution, yield and production cost, in vivo toxicity and side effect, specific delivery and targeting, as well as endosomal trapping and escape.

Haque, Farzin; Hallahan, Brent; Reif, Randall; Li, Hui

2012-01-01

447

The advantages of intraoperative cytology. Analysis of 215 smears and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A two-year experience with intraoperative cytology was evaluated, and the pertinent literature was reviewed. During that period, cytology smears (imprints, scrapings or aspirates, depending on the sample) were prepared from 215 consecutive specimens submitted for diagnosis. A discrepancy between the cytologic, the frozen section and the final diagnoses was noted in only two instances; in both cases, the frozen section interpretation was also difficult. This series and previous studies demonstrate the high accuracy of intraoperative cytology and emphasize its advantages as a rapid and reliable diagnostic method in the frozen section room. The technique may be used to augment or, in some instances, supplant the standard frozen section analysis. In addition to the routine stains used for cytomorphologic evaluation, the smears prepared can be used for special histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. PMID:1851355

Kontozoglou, T E; Cramer, H M

1991-01-01

448

Advantages of digital servo amplifiers for control of a galvanometer based optical scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-standing industry demand for "extended status messages" from galvanometer-based scan heads and ever-increasing dynamical requirements in industrial laser materials processing, e.g. due to advancing laser sources, have lead to the development of digital servo controls for galvanometers. The advanced control algorithms of a digitally controlled scan system lead to highly improved dynamics compared to an analog type where only a very limited number of parameters are used to tune the system to a certain dynamical requirement. Additionally, the abundant data acquired during control with a digital scan system are available for further processing. This paper discusses advantages of having such real-time feedback in laser-based materials processing applications and how e.g. process parameters like scan-speed and velocity can be used for quality control, applications development, or advanced laser control.

Sabo, D. A.; Brunner, D.; Engelmayer, A.

2005-08-01

449

Starch — Value Addition by Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking

Rudrapatnam N. Tharanathan

2005-01-01

450

Disclosure-and-resolution programs that include generous compensation offers may prompt a complex patient response.  

PubMed

Under "disclosure-and-resolution" programs, health systems disclose adverse events to affected patients and their families; apologize; and, where appropriate, offer compensation. Early adopters of this approach have reported reduced liability costs, but the extent to which these results stem from effective disclosure and apology practices, versus compensation offers, is unknown. Using survey vignettes, we examined the effects of different compensation offers on individuals' responses to disclosures of medical errors compared to explanation and apology alone. Our results show that although two-thirds of these individuals desired compensation offers, increasing the offer amount did not improve key outcomes. Full-compensation offers did not decrease the likelihood of seeking legal advice and increased the likelihood that people perceived the disclosure and apology as motivated by providers' desire to avoid litigation. Hospitals, physicians, and malpractice insurers should consider this complex interplay as they implement similar initiatives. They may benefit from separating disclosure conversations and compensation offers and from excluding physicians from compensation discussions. PMID:23213152

Murtagh, Lindsey; Gallagher, Thomas H; Andrew, Penny; Mello, Michelle M

2012-12-01

451

How Much Is Our Fairness Worth? The Effect of Raising Stakes on Offers by Proposers and Minimum Acceptable Offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1–$10,000) and the shares, as well as the subjects’ gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts). Results We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p?=?0.001, p<0.001, p?=?0.0034). The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p?=?0.007). Conclusion Our results suggest that people’s behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders’ sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus.

Novakova, Julie; Flegr, Jaroslav

2013-01-01

452

Cost-effectiveness of primary offer of IVF vs. primary offer of IUI followed by IVF (for IUI failures) in couples with unexplained or mild male factor subfertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In unexplained and mild male factor subfertility, both intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) are indicated as first line treatments. Because the success rate of IUI is low, many couples failing IUI subsequently require IVF treatment. In practice, it is therefore important to examine the comparative outcomes (live birth-producing pregnancy), costs, and cost-effectiveness of primary offer of IVF,

Nora Pashayan; Georgios Lyratzopoulos; Raj Mathur

2006-01-01

453

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20711491

Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-08-01

454

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed.

Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-01-01

455

Efficient classification for additive kernel SVMs.  

PubMed

We show that a class of nonlinear kernel SVMs admits approximate classifiers with runtime and memory complexity that is independent of the number of support vectors. This class of kernels, which we refer to as additive kernels, includes widely used kernels for histogram-based image comparison like intersection and chi-squared kernels. Additive kernel SVMs can offer significant improvements in accuracy over linear SVMs on a wide variety of tasks while having the same runtime, making them practical for large-scale recognition or real-time detection tasks. We present experiments on a variety of datasets, including the INRIA person, Daimler-Chrysler pedestrians, UIUC Cars, Caltech-101, MNIST, and USPS digits, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for efficient evaluation of SVMs with additive kernels. Since its introduction, our method has become integral to various state-of-the-art systems for PASCAL VOC object detection/image classification, ImageNet Challenge, TRECVID, etc. The techniques we propose can also be applied to settings where evaluation of weighted additive kernels is required, which include kernelized versions of PCA, LDA, regression, k-means, as well as speeding up the inner loop of SVM classifier training algorithms. PMID:22392703

Maji, Subhransu; Berg, Alexander C; Malik, Jitendra

2013-01-01

456

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

Perkins, W. D.

1987-01-01

457

Advantages of an electrical control and energy management system  

PubMed

This paper discusses an electrical control and energy management system (ECEMS) that was installed at Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) Nagathone Gas Cracker complex located in Maharashtra, India. This distributed control system (DCS) provided computer assisted control in the areas of: Demand control; Automatic generation control, including MW and MVAR management; Power factor control; Automatic tap changer control; Load shedding; Automatic synchronization of generator and ties; Remote control of breakers. Previously, IPCL, like most other petrochemical companies in India, relied on operator control for power house functions. The process is always automated, but the power house equipment is usually manually controlled. Electrical control and energy management systems are not thought to be necessary. However, in this case the consultants for IPCL and the DCS supplier convinced IPCL that an ECEMS would save them enough money in operating costs to pay for the new control system. The control system discussed in this paper reduced operating costs by satisfying the process steam and power demands in the most cost-effective manner. In addition, the system took action to respond to electrical disturbances, such as loss of tie line and generator tripping, so that stable conditions were restored. PMID:10826290

Pal; Huff

2000-01-01

458

38 CFR 21.346 - Facility temporarily not offering training or rehabilitation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Facility temporarily not offering training or rehabilitation services. 21.346 Section 21...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

459

76 FR 4231 - Issuer Review of Assets in Offerings of Asset-Backed Securities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...loan fraud) \\31\\ and a minimum sample size requirement.\\32\\ Some commentators...has been examined (e.g., a sample size could be computed using a 95...We are not adopting a minimum sample size for offerings where sampling...

2011-01-25

460

42 CFR 137.132 - How does the Indian Tribe submit a final offer?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 137.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.132 How does the...

2012-10-01

461

42 CFR 137.133 - What does a final offer contain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 137.133 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.133 What does a final...

2012-10-01

462

42 CFR 137.131 - When should a final offer be submitted?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 137.131 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.131 When should a...

2012-10-01

463

44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.7 Offers and appeals under... (2) Upon each renewal or modification of the flood insurance coverage, the property owner will be...

2013-10-01

464

43 CFR 3110.1 - Lands available for noncompetitive offer and lease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...relinquishment, or cancellation of the leases containing the lands; and (ii) Those lands...of this title. (b) Lease. Only lands that have been offered competitively...available for noncompetitive lease. Such lands shall become available...

2013-10-01

465

17 CFR 230.415 - Delayed or continuous offering and sale of securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Delayed or continuous offering and sale of securities. 230.415 Section 230.415 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2013-04-01

466

12 CFR 1408.8 - Right to offer to repay claim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Right to offer to repay claim. 1408.8 Section 1408.8 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Collection of Claims §...

2013-01-01

467

17 CFR 240.10b-9 - Prohibited representations in connection with certain offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10b-9 Prohibited representations in connection with certain offerings. (a) It shall constitute a manipulative or deception device or contrivance, as used in section 10(b) of the Act, for any person, directly or indirectly, in...

2013-04-01

468

24 CFR 970.11 - Procedures for the offer of sale to established eligible organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...organizations shall have 30 days to initially express an interest, in writing, in the offer... If a notified eligible organization expresses interest in writing during the 30-day...established eligible organization must express its interest, in writing, in...

2013-04-01

469

48 CFR 215.203-70 - Requests for proposals-tiered evaluation of offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from issuing a solicitation with a tiered evaluation of offers unlessâ (1) The contracting officer conducts market research, in accordance with FAR Part 10 and Part 210, to determineâ (i) Whether the criteria in FAR part 19 are...

2013-10-01

470

75 FR 64182 - Issuer Review of Assets in Offerings of Asset-Backed Securities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...asset-backed security'' in Regulation...and includes securities typically offered...issuer of an equity security from conducting...the issuer's securities during a pension...asset-backed security'' and that this...asset-backed securities typically...

2010-10-19

471

The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an information-theoretic model of initial public offering pricing in which insiders sell stock in both the initial public offering and the secondary market, have private information about their firm's prospects, and outsiders may engage in costly information production about the firm. High-value firms, knowing they are going to pool wit h low-value firms, induce outsiders to engage

Thomas J Chemmanur

1993-01-01

472

Sintering and Hiping with Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of additives on pressureless and pressure assisted sintering are described using examples which cover basic principles of interactions of additives with the host material. Solid state sintering and hot isostatic pressing with a small amount of...

W. A. Kaysser G. Petzow M. Mitkov

1988-01-01

473

Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Novel additives for polymeric coatings have been developed based on modified hyperbranched polymers. The additives are polyfunctional and have been prepared to spontaneously segregate to the surface of the polymer in which they are dispersed. They ave bee...

A. M. Rawlett J. A. Orlicki J. J. La Scala L. T. Piehler N. Zander

2007-01-01

474

Self-assembly in additive manufacturing: opportunities and obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Additive manufacturing (AM) offers substantial flexibility in shape, but much less flexibility in materials and functionality – particularly at small size scales. A system for automatically incorporating microscale components would enable the fabrication of objects with more functionality. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of self-assembly to serve as an automated programmable integration method.

N. B. Crane; J. Tuckerman; G. N. Nielson

2011-01-01

475

Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating

C. Emmelmann; P. Sander; J. Kranz; E. Wycisk

2011-01-01

476

Asymmetric adaptation with functional advantage in human sensorimotor control  

PubMed Central

Human movement control is inherently stochastic, requiring continuous estimation of self-motion based upon noisy sensory inputs. The nervous system must determine which sensory signals are relevant on a time scale that enables successful behavior. In human stance control, failure to effectively adapt to changing sensory contexts could lead to injurious falls. Nonlinear changes in postural sway amplitude in response to changes in sensory environmental motion have indicated a dynamic changing of the weighting of the nervous system’s multiple sensory inputs so that estimates are based upon the most relevant and accurate information available. However, the time scale of these changes is virtually unknown. Results here show systematic changes in postural gain when visual scene motion amplitude is increased or decreased abruptly, consistent with sensory re-weighting. However, this re-weighting displayed a temporal asymmetry. When visual motion increased, gain decreased within 5 s to a value near its asymptotic value. In contrast, when visual motion decreased, it took an additional 5 s for gain to increase by a similar absolute amount. Suddenly increasing visual motion amplitude threatens balance if gain remains high, and rapid down-weighting of the sensory signal is required to avoid falling. By contrast, slow up-weighting suggests a conservative CNS strategy. It may not be functional to rapidly up-weight with transient changes in the sensory environment. Only sustained changes necessitate the slower up-weighting process. Such results add to our understanding of adaptive processing, identifying a temporal asymmetry in sensory re-weighting dynamics that could be a general property of adaptive estimation in the nervous system.

Oie, Kelvin S.; Kiemel, Tim

2009-01-01

477

Compensatory Advantage as a Mechanism of Educational Inequality: A Regression Discontinuity Based on Month of Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compensatory advantage is a mechanism of social stratification that complements cumulative advantage and path dependence. In this article, I first discuss the theoretical foundations of the compensatory advantage and path dependence mechanisms and the methodological challenges that complicate identification of their effects. Next, I present a…

Bernardi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

478

Employee voice and strategic competitive advantage in international modern public corporations – an economic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Achieving competitive advantage through a broader consideration of stakeholders of the firm is examined. The inclusion of other significant organisational actors such as managers and employees as stakeholders capable of creating competitive strategic advantage for the firm is considered. Findings indicate that competitive advantage within an economic perspective may be garnered by establishing a broader conceptualisation of stakeholders of

Susanne Royer; Jennifer Waterhouse; Kerry Brown; Marion Festing

2008-01-01

479

The New MO-MO VARI-SACs Framework: Marketing Strategy and Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) originated in the strategic management literature, in particular, the literature on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm. Barney argued that to gain sustainable competitive advantage, firms must possess resources and capabilities that have four essential characteristics, namely, valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable. Although the focus of marketing is to gain competitive advantage

Venaik Sunil

2002-01-01

480

On Company Core Competence and its Sustainable Competitive Advantage during Industrial Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reobtaining sustainable competitive advantage is the primary goal for company in transition. Beginning by literature review of researches of competitive advantages, this article establishes a core competence model and explains the relationship between environmental changes and company decline based on detailed analysis of competencies dimensions. Finally, the core competence mechanism shows how to reobtain sustainable competitive advantages through rebuilding core

Xiao Zhong-hai; Ning Bo; Yuan Hong

2008-01-01

481

INNOVATION - SOURCE TO OBTAIN THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong motivation to replace the comparative advantage theory with the competitive advantage theory is given by the significant change of the present economic conditions comparing with the old conditions that inspired the competitive advantage issues. The dynamic character of the market competition and the fact that, in the present, the competitiveness is located to enterprise's level and not to

Gabriela Lucia

482

Advantages and challenges in automated apatite fission track counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission track thermochronometer data are often a core element of modern tectonic and denudation studies. Soon after the development of the fission track methods interest emerged for the developed an automated counting procedure to replace the time consuming labor of counting fission tracks under the microscope. Automated track counting became feasible in recent years with increasing improvements in computer software and hardware. One such example used in this study is the commercial automated fission track counting procedure from Autoscan Systems Pty that has been highlighted through several venues. We conducted experiments that are designed to reliably and consistently test the ability of this fully automated counting system to recognize fission tracks in apatite and a muscovite external detector. Fission tracks were analyzed in samples with a step-wise increase in sample complexity. The first set of experiments used a large (mm-size) slice of Durango apatite cut parallel to the prism plane. Second, samples with 80-200 ?m large apatite grains of Fish Canyon Tuff were analyzed. This second sample set is characterized by complexities often found in apatites in different rock types. In addition to the automated counting procedure, the same samples were also analyzed using conventional counting procedures. We found for all samples that the fully automated fission track counting procedure using the Autoscan System yields a larger scatter in the fission track densities measured compared to conventional (manual) track counting. This scatter typically resulted from the false identification of tracks due surface and mineralogical defects, regardless of the image filtering procedure used. Large differences between track densities analyzed with the automated counting persisted between different grains analyzed in one sample as well as between different samples. As a result of these differences a manual correction of the fully automated fission track counts is necessary for each individual surface area and grain counted. This manual correction procedure significantly increases (up to four times) the time required to analyze a sample with the automated counting procedure compared to the conventional approach.

Enkelmann, E.; Ehlers, T. A.

2012-04-01

483

Keggin-type heteropoly compounds supported on montmorillonite clays offering strong option for efficient solid-phase microextraction coating.  

PubMed

Keggin-type heteropoly compounds supported on montmorillonite clays were prepared and used as a highly porous fiber coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The prepared nanomaterial was immobilized onto a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fiber. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A one at-the-time optimization strategy was applied for optimizing the important extraction parameters such as extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, stirring rate, and desorption temperature and time. In optimum conditions, the repeatability for one fiber (n=3), expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%), was between 5.1% and 8.4% for the test compounds. The detection limits for the studied compounds were between 0.02 and 0.05pgmL(-1). The developed method offers the advantage of being simple to use, with shorter analysis time, lower cost of equipment, thermal stability of fiber, and high relative recovery in comparison to conventional methods of analysis. PMID:24411139

Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Yousefi, Vahid; Rafiee, Ezzat

2014-01-31

484

Survival Advantage of Neonatal CNS Gene Transfer for Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), a fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder of childhood, is caused by mutations in the CLN2 gene, resulting in deficiency of the protein tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP-I). We have previously shown that direct CNS administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to adult CLN2 knockout mice, a serotype rh.10 adeno-associated virus expressing the wild type CLN2 cDNA, will partially improve neurological function and survival. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 to the neonatal brain will significantly improve the results of AAVrh.10hCLN2 therapy. To assess this concept, AAVrh.10hCLN2 vector was administered directly to the CNS of CLN2 knockout mice at 2 days, 3 wk and 7 wk of age. While all treatment groups show a marked increase in total TPP-I activity over wild-type mice, neonatally treated mice displayed high levels of TPP-I activity in the CNS 1 yr after administration which was spread throughout the brain. Using behavioral markers, 2 day treated mice demonstrate marked improvement over 3 wk, 7 wk or untreated mice. Finally, neonatal administration of AAVrh.10hCLN2 was associated with markedly enhanced survival, with a median time of death 376 days for neonatal treated mice, 277 days for 3 wk treated mice, 168 days for 7 wk treated mice, and 121 days for untreated mice. These data suggest that neonatal treatment offers many unique advantages, and that early detection an