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Sample records for offer additional advantages

  1. Tetherless ROV offers major advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Tethers supply the current generation of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) with power, navigational commands and data links. The power required by ROVs to carry long tethers increases rapidly in proportion to depth, and additionally, snagging on subsea obstacles is very common. A technical advancement could come with the development of autonomous subsea vehicles with onboard power and an acoustic, rather than hard wire, data link to the surface. Important research in this area presently is being conducted at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University. The feasibility of the system is discussed.

  2. Progestin-only injectables offer many advantages.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1995-06-01

    Progestin-only injectables are among the most effective and safe of all contraceptives, yet they are not widely used in many countries. This limited use is in part due to a lack of accurate information about health concerns, inadequate counseling for users about managing side effects, and their limited availability. Where they are available, progestin-only injectables rapidly become one of the preferred methods. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are the two progestin-only injectables in use worldwide. The former drug is sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, and the latter as Noristerat. DMPA is delivered in a water-based, crystalline suspension and absorbed gradually by the body. The normal injection of 150 mg is intended to be administered every three months, but contraceptive protection continues for an additional two weeks to provide a grace period for women who are late receiving their next injection. NET-EN is an oily solution which requires a larger needle than DMPA for injection. A 200 mg injection of NET-EN is usually administered every two months. Both of these safe, highly effective drugs are injected in either the upper arm or buttocks. DMPA and NET-EN can be distributed easily in nonclinical settings where nonphysicians can provide them to clients. The main disadvantage of the method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, but that is generally not a serious medical problem. Focusing mainly upon DMPA, this article includes discussion of menstrual irregularity, the reduced risk of endometrial cancer among DMPA users, and method availability. PMID:12289828

  3. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  5. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  6. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  7. Rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems offer additional options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, Paul A.

    The propulsion cycles presented at the 1991 IAF Congress in Montreal, and at The World Hydrogen Conference 1992 in Paris were the subject of an IAF paper for the 1992 World Space Conference in Washington DC. RBCC propulsion systems from several nations were analyzed in terms of a SSTO space launcher with a 7-Mg payload. The RBCC concept emerged from the advanced injector ramjet research of the early 1960s. The performance of the current RBCC propulsion systems such that the specific thrust of a rocket is combined with the specific impulse of an airbreather. This performance offers a new perspective to the options available. In a brief review of the present RBCC the reasons for these options are developed. The spectrum of the system options is presented in three examples, a LACE VTOL SSTO, an HTOL SSTO and a HTOL TSTO. Results using the present RBCC are dramatically different from the past concept of the Conventional Combined Cycle propulsion system, i.e., combinations of separate engines. The integration of the engine cycles into a single thermodynamically integrated system significantly changes the propulsion performance.

  8. The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    2012-12-01

    The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used

  9. First-Year Seminar (FYS)--The Advantages That This Course Offers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaijairam, Paul

    2016-01-01

    First-Year Seminar (FYS) is an introductory class offered to first-year students to help them acclimate to the college environment, develop effective strategies for studying, and learn techniques that will allow them to swiftly complete small assignments and sizable research projects. In 2014, approximately 80 percent of universities offered FYS,…

  10. A transition metal oxofluoride offering advantages in electrocatalysis and potential use in applications.

    PubMed

    Svengren, H; Torapava, N; Athanassiadis, I; Ali, S I; Johnsson, M

    2016-07-01

    The recently described solid solution (Co,Ni,Mn)3Sb4O6F6 has proved stable and efficient as a catalyst for electrocatalytic water oxidation. The end component Co3Sb4O6F6 was found to be most efficient, maintaining a current density of j = 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 443 mV with good capability. At this current density, O2 and H2 were produced in the ratio 1 : 2 without loss of faradaic current against a Pt-cathode. A morphological change in the crystallite surface was observed after 0.5 h, however, even after 64.5 h, the overall shape and size of the small crystallites were unaffected and the electrolyte contained only 0.02 at% Co. It was also possible to conclude from in situ EXAFS measurements that the coordination around Co did not change. The oxofluorides express both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface sites, incorporate a flexible metalloid element and offer the possibility of a mechanism that differs from other inorganic catalytic pathways previously described. PMID:27064139

  11. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  12. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  13. REU Programs at Field Research Stations Offer Unique Advantages that may Enhance Retention of Students in STEM Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. Y.; Marinelli, R. L.; Heidelberg, K., IV

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that undergraduate participation in research opportunities strengthens the retention of students in STEM fields. Increasing students' confidence levels in their scientific abilities, aiding in the development of their scientific identity, and strengthening their sense of belonging to a scientific community have been cited as important contributing factors. Research field stations offer unique advantages that amplify these benefits by challenging students to plan and work in the field, enhancing networking opportunities with multi-disciplinary professionals from numerous institutions and hierarchical levels, and creating a stronger sense of belonging and comradery within a science community. The USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies' (WIES) Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program is an 8-week program that begins on the main USC campus in Los Angeles and moves to a marine field station on Catalina Island during weeks 2-7, before returning to the mainland to complete the last week of the program. This unique model provides REU students with an opportunity to become integrated into faculty mentors' labs on the main campus, while exposing them to life as a researcher at a field station, both of which contribute significantly to the students' development as a scientist. Here, we present the WIES REU model and include a discussion of benefits and challenges to this unique infrastructure.

  14. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  15. DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

  16. Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

  17. Mixing weld gases offers advantages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, J. L.; Mendenhall, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    Argon added to helium during gas tungsten arc cover-pass welding in the horizontal position results in a better controlled wider bead width, increased arc stability, and reduction in heat input. Adequate filler material wetness and penetration pass coverage is possible with only one pass.

  18. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. PMID:21789491

  19. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  20. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ∼2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output. PMID:21777052

  1. Computer simulation for the growing probability of additional offspring with an advantageous reversal allele in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2016-01-01

    This study calculated the growing probability of additional offspring with the advantageous reversal allele in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape using the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model. The growing probability was calculated for various population sizes, N, sequence lengths, L, selective advantages, s, fitness parameters, k and measuring parameters, C. The saturated growing probability in the stochastic region was approximately the effective selective advantage, s*, when C≫1/Ns* and s*≪1. The present study suggests that the growing probability in the stochastic region in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model can be described using the theoretical formula for the growing probability in the Moran two-allele model. The selective advantage ratio, which represents the ratio of the effective selective advantage to the selective advantage, does not depend on the population size, selective advantage, measuring parameter and fitness parameter; instead the selective advantage ratio decreases with the increasing sequence length.

  2. Heritability of heterozygosity offers a new way of understanding why dominant gene action contributes to additive genetic variance.

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2015-07-01

    Whenever allele frequencies are unequal, nonadditive gene action contributes to additive genetic variance and therefore the resemblance between parents and offspring. The reason for this has not been easy to understand. Here, we present a new single-locus decomposition of additive genetic variance that may give greater intuition about this important result. We show that the contribution of dominant gene action to parent-offspring resemblance only depends on the degree to which the heterozygosity of parents and offspring covary. Thus, dominant gene action only contributes to additive genetic variance when heterozygosity is heritable. Under most circumstances this is the case because individuals with rare alleles are more likely to be heterozygous, and because they pass rare alleles to their offspring they also tend to have heterozygous offspring. When segregating alleles are at equal frequency there are no rare alleles, the heterozygosities of parents and offspring are uncorrelated and dominant gene action does not contribute to additive genetic variance. PMID:26100570

  3. The advantage of polymer addition to a non-ionic oil in water microemulsion for the dermal delivery of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Biruss, Babette; Valenta, Claudia

    2008-02-12

    The influence of progesterone on the physicochemical behaviour of the o/w microemulsion consisting of the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether, tributyrin and water was investigated. Thereby no significant influence could be detected in terms of droplet size, zeta potential, conductivity and pH by progesterone. However the chemical stability of progesterone was insufficient during the storage of 6 months. Therefore, two different polymeric agents, named silicon dioxide and polymeric emulsifier, were added to the progesterone containing microemulsions. These polymers increased the chemical stability of progesterone significantly. Moreover the polymeric additives improved the skin permeation 1.24- and 1.63-fold and decreased the skin retention in relation to the pure microemulsion. The polymer-stabilized progesterone microemulsions are interesting vehicles for skin application of progesterone. PMID:17869457

  4. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385863

  5. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385873

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  8. Advantage of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil regimen for cytotoxic T cell-mediated defence and its inhibition by additive steroid administration in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, S; Ozawa, K; Kaido, T; Mori, A; Fujimoto, Y

    2016-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that the recipients with the highest pre-existing numbers of CD8(+) effector T cells (TE ) [hyperparathyroidism (HPT)E recipients] occupied approximately 30% of adult transplant recipients performed in our hospital. HPTE recipients demonstrated very poor clinical outcome compared with the remaining 70% of recipients with the lowest pre-existing TE (LPTE recipient). This study aimed to clarify the best combined immunosuppressive regimen related to function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for HPTE recipients. Eighty-one HPTE recipients were classified into three types, according to the immunosuppressive regimens: type 1, tacrolimus (Tac)/glucocorticoid (GC); type 2, Tac/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/GC; and type 3, Tac/MMF. Frequencies of severe infection, rejection and hospital death were the highest in types 1 and 2, whereas the lowest occurred in type 3. The survival rate in type 3 was the highest (100%) during follow-up until post-operative day 2000. Regarding the immunological mechanism, in type 1 TE perforin and interferon (IFN)-γ were generated through the self-renewal of CD8(+) central memory T cells (TCM ), but decreased in the early post-transplant period due to marked down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 of TCM. In type 2, the self-renewal TCM did not develop, and the effector function could not be increased. In type 3, in contrast, the effectors and cytotoxicity were correlated inversely with IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM levels, and increased at the highest level around the pre-transplant levels of IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM . However, the immunological advantage of Tac/MMF therapy was inhibited strongly by additive steroid administration. PMID:26560892

  9. Exendin-4 therapy still offered an additional benefit on reducing transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy-caused myocardial damage in DPP-4 deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-I; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tein-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lung; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Lee, Fan-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) enzyme activity has been revealed to protect myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion through enhancing the endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level. However, whether exogenous supply of exendin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, would still offer benefit for protecting myocardial damage from trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in preexistence of DPP-4 deficiency (DPP-4(D)) remained unclear. Male-adult (DPP-4(D)) rats (n = 32) were randomized into group 1 [sham control (SC)], group 2 (DPP-4(D) + TAC), group 3 [DPP-4(D) + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg/day], and group 4 [DPP-4(D) + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg + exendin-9-39 10 µg/day]. The rats were sacrificed by day 60 after last echocardiographic examination. By day 60 after TAC, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (%) was highest in group 1 and lowest in group 2, and significantly lower in group 4 than that in group 3 (all p < 0.001). The protein expressions of oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NOX-1, NOX-2), inflammatory (MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB), apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP), fibrotic (TGF-β, Smad3), heart failure (BNP, β-MHC), DNA damaged (γ-H2AX) and ischemic stress (p-P38, p-Akt, p53, ATM) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of LVEF among the four groups (all p < 0.03). Fibrotic area (by Masson's trichrome, Sirius red), and cellular expressions of DNA-damaged markers (Ki-67+, γ-H2AX+, CD90+/53BP1+) displayed an identical pattern, whereas cellular expressions of angiogenesis (CD31+, α-SMA+) and sarcomere length exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of oxidative stress among the four groups (all p < 0.001). Take altogether, Exendin-4 effectively suppressed TAC-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy in DPP-4(D) rat. PMID:27158369

  10. Exendin-4 therapy still offered an additional benefit on reducing transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy-caused myocardial damage in DPP-4 deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-I; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tein-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lung; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Lee, Fan-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) enzyme activity has been revealed to protect myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion through enhancing the endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level. However, whether exogenous supply of exendin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, would still offer benefit for protecting myocardial damage from trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in preexistence of DPP-4 deficiency (DPP-4D) remained unclear. Male-adult (DPP-4D) rats (n = 32) were randomized into group 1 [sham control (SC)], group 2 (DPP-4D + TAC), group 3 [DPP-4D + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg/day], and group 4 [DPP-4D + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg + exendin-9-39 10 µg/day]. The rats were sacrificed by day 60 after last echocardiographic examination. By day 60 after TAC, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (%) was highest in group 1 and lowest in group 2, and significantly lower in group 4 than that in group 3 (all p < 0.001). The protein expressions of oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NOX-1, NOX-2), inflammatory (MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB), apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP), fibrotic (TGF-β, Smad3), heart failure (BNP, β-MHC), DNA damaged (γ-H2AX) and ischemic stress (p-P38, p-Akt, p53, ATM) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of LVEF among the four groups (all p < 0.03). Fibrotic area (by Masson’s trichrome, Sirius red), and cellular expressions of DNA-damaged markers (Ki-67+, γ-H2AX+, CD90+/53BP1+) displayed an identical pattern, whereas cellular expressions of angiogenesis (CD31+, α-SMA+) and sarcomere length exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of oxidative stress among the four groups (all p < 0.001). Take altogether, Exendin-4 effectively suppressed TAC-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy in DPP-4D rat. PMID:27158369

  11. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the…

  12. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  13. Hybrid catfish offers performance advantages for US catfish farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the only hybrid among 28 interspecific hybrid crosses and backcrosses evaluated within the family Ictaluridae to exhibit dominant traits desirable for intensive aquaculture. In a 2004 pond trial, hybrid catfish outperformed channel catfish in all the production trai...

  14. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

  15. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  16. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  17. The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages. PMID:24835870

  18. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  19. Negotiating a Job Offer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests some operating principles for job candidates for academic appointments. Notes that candidates should receive offers in writing. Lists compensation, perquisites, fringe benefits, and other conditions that candidates should negotiate. (RS)

  20. JEA Offers Membership Rebates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Announces the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) plan to fully unify membership in state, regional, and the national JEAs by doubling the "rebate" program offered to state and regional Scholastic Press Associations for promoting JEA memberships. (MS)

  1. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  2. Medicare Advantage Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Medicare forms Advance directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicare’s Blue ... health plan offered by a private company that contracts with Medicare to provide you with all your ...

  3. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  4. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  5. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  6. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  7. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.303-3 Late...

  8. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  9. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan

  10. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription drug coverage for everyone ... t offer Medicare prescription drug coverage. • A Medicare Cost Plan if it doesn’t offer Medicare prescription ...

  11. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  12. Quasi-independence, fitness, and advantageousness.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    I argue that the idea of 'quasi-independence' [Lewontin, R. C. (1978). Adaptation. Scientific American, 239(3), 212-230] cannot be understood without attending to the distinction between fitness and advantageousness [Sober, E. (1993). Philosophy of biology. Boulder: Westview Press]. Natural selection increases the frequency of fitter traits, not necessarily of advantageous ones. A positive correlation between an advantageous trait and a disadvantageous one may prevent the advantageous trait from evolving. The quasi-independence criterion is aimed at specifying the conditions under which advantageous traits will evolve by natural selection in this type of situation. Contrary to what others have argued [Sterelny, K. (1992). Evolutionary explanations of human behavior. Australian Journal of Philosophy, 70(2), 156-172, and Sterelny, K., & Griffiths, P. (1999). Sex and death. Chicago: University of Chicago Press], these conditions must involve a precise quantitative measure of (a) the extent to which advantageous traits are beneficial, and (b) the degree to which they are correlated with other traits. Driscoll (2004) [Driscoll, C. (2004). Can behaviors be adaptations? Philosophy of Science, 71, 16-35] recognizes the need for such a measure, but I argue that she does not provide the correct formulation. The account of quasi-independence that I offer clarifies this point. PMID:19720331

  13. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  14. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  15. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  16. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  17. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  18. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden…

  19. Medicare Advantage: options for standardizing benefits and information to improve consumer choice.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ellen; Hoadley, Jack

    2008-04-01

    The Medicare Advantage (MA) program offers beneficiaries a choice of private health plans as alternatives to the traditional fee-for-service Medicare program. MA plans potentially provide additional value, but as plan choices have proliferated, consumers contemplating their options have had difficulty understanding how they differ. Through "standardization" more consistent types of information and a limited number of dimensions along which plans vary--MA plans could reduce complexity and improve beneficiaries' ability to make informed choices. Such standardization steps would offer more meaningful variation in the health coverage options available to beneficiaries, Medicare officials and their community partners would find it far easier to educate beneficiaries about their health plan choices, and beneficiaries would better understand what they were buying. Standardization might also strengthen the ability of the market-based Medicare Advantage program to incorporate beneficiary preferences. PMID:18426037

  20. The offerings from the Hyperboreans.

    PubMed

    Ruck, C A

    1983-08-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a

  1. Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.

    PubMed

    Pointer, D D

    1990-01-01

    One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

  2. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  3. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement. PMID:26072530

  4. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  5. Offering an Array of Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

  6. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  7. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  8. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  9. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  10. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  11. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  12. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  13. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  14. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  15. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  16. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  17. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary...

  18. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  19. Advantage, Absence of Advantage, and Disadvantage Among Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy DiTomaso

    2008-09-23

    DiTomaso talks about survey data on the career experiences of 3,200 scientists and engineers from 24 major companies. Her survey findings indicate that most people who do well in their careers and make significant contributions to their organizations get assistance from others in their workplace in many forms, including offering opportunities such as good projects, providing resources that make good performance more likely, and opening up networking possibilities.

  20. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    PubMed

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816

  1. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line...

  2. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line...

  3. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  4. Good things come to those who wait: late first offers facilitate creative agreements in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Maddux, William W; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Perez Nückel, Ricardo; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-06-01

    Although previous research has shown that making the first offer leads to a distributive advantage in negotiations, the current research explored how the timing of first offers affects the creativity of negotiation agreements. We hypothesized that making the first offer later rather than earlier in the negotiation would facilitate the discovery of creative agreements that better meet the parties' underlying interests. Experiment 1 demonstrated that compared with early first offers, late first offers facilitated creative agreements that better met the parties' underlying interests. Experiments 2a and 2b controlled for the duration of the negotiation and conceptually replicated this effect. The last two studies also demonstrated that the beneficial effect of late first offers was mediated by greater information exchange. Thus, negotiators need to consider the timing of first offers to fully capitalize on the first offer advantage. Implications for our understanding of creativity, motivated information exchange, and timing in negotiations are discussed. PMID:23696126

  5. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  6. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    PubMed

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase. PMID:25399464

  7. Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects. PMID:24049878

  8. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the...

  9. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the...

  10. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons...

  11. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introductory offers. 502.101 Section 502.101... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer”...

  12. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable offer. 536.104 Section 536.104... Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention eligibility or entitlement must be terminated under § 536.207 or 536.208, the offer of a position is a...

  13. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or...

  14. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a) You must evaluate offers solely in accordance with the... solicitation. The file must include the basis for evaluation, an analysis of each offer, and a summary...

  15. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  16. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  17. 12 CFR 563g.21 - Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of copies of offering circulars in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.21 Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings. A copy of the offering circular, or similar document, if any, used in connection...

  18. 12 CFR 563g.21 - Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of copies of offering circulars in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.21 Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings. A copy of the offering circular, or similar document, if any, used in connection...

  19. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-22

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  20. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  2. Advantages of redeployable security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A.

    1993-12-31

    Security systems must be proven dependable, cost effective, easily installed and maintained. Further, these technologies should not require skilled technicians to install, align, maintain and/or repair during the project`s life cycle. These new priorities and financial demands have to be addressed utilizing various existing and proven technologies that have been developed and are currently being applied. One of these technologies directly relates to the development and application of rapid deployment and redeployable sensor systems that permit flexible asset protection and smaller perimeters within a given complex, rather than intrusion detection systems for an entire facility. Both Rapid Deployment Intrusion Detection System (RDIDS), and Redeployable Intrusion Detection System (RIDS) technologies can be designed for operation in any weather conditions, impervious to salt air, chemical and most explosive environments, as well as highly resistant to false alarms. These systems utilize photovoltaic power with 12-hour battery backup as their primary source of energy. Sensor systems can be integrated with Radio Frequency (RF) polling transceivers operating in the VHF or UHF frequencies. This enhancement offers extensive flexibility and substantial cash savings Is compared to hard wired installations. RDIDS and RIDS can be deployed for limited areas and be operational in a fraction of the time required for conventional systems. The result affords a fully warranted long life RIDS, modular in design, flexible in application, false alarm free, self-diagnostic, and impervious to most environmental conditions. Further, RIDS can be engineered to interface with fiber optic technology thereby ensuring quality transmission in rural environments. Fiber optic integration proves even more effective when using CCTV cameras. The fiber optic module can be used for monitoring the tamper and alarm circuits as well as video transmission.

  3. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  4. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  7. Modular and Manufactured Houses Offer Homeowners the Building America and ENERGY STAR(R) Advantage: Genesis Homes -- Auburn Hills, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Genesis Homes is headquartered in Auburn, Michigan, and has 11 factories throughout the nation. They build modular and manufactured homes with quality design, construction practice, and building materials that qualify for the Energy Star label.

  8. DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development. PMID:21931647

  9. Medial frontal negativity reflects advantageous inequality aversion of proposers in the ultimatum game: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangrong; Li, Jianbiao; Li, Zheng; Wei, Mengxing; Li, Shaodong

    2016-05-15

    Inequality aversion is a typical form of fairness preferences, which can explain the behaviors in many social exchange situations such as the ultimatum game (UG). There are two kinds of inequality aversion-disadvantageous inequality aversion of responders and advantageous inequality aversion of proposers in the ultimatum game. Although neuroscience research has reported neural correlates of disadvantageous inequality aversion, there are still debates about advantageous inequality aversion of proposers. In this paper, we developed a variant of ultimatum game in which participants played the UG as proposers. On each trial, first, the offer was randomly presented, then, participants as proposers decided whether to choose this offer; next, responders decided whether to accept or not. Offers that responders got 1-20% of the pie are defined as advantageous unfair offers of proposers, whereas offers that responders got 31-50% are defined as fair offers. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that more negative-going medial frontal negativity (MFN) was elicited by advantageous unfair offers compared to fair offers in the early time window (250-350ms), which suggested that proposers were averse to advantageous inequality. PMID:26930614

  10. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  11. Introductory Psychology (Second Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, G. Roger

    The second phase of field testing for an Introductory Psychology course offered in the regional open learning program of the University of Mid-America is reported. Learner characteristics and learner evaluations of the instructional units are compared with findings from the first course offering. Throughout the paper, learner comments are inserted…

  12. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  13. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  14. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  15. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  16. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  17. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  18. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  19. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  20. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  1. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  2. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  3. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  4. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  5. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  6. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  9. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR 240.14d-1 through 240.14f-1. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  10. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.815 Section 12.815 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  11. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715... Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of the grantee organization or a designee at a level no lower than the grantee's designated awarding official determines otherwise, the...

  12. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  13. ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

  14. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Al; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Atkins, Joshua R.; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Heidari, Moones; Daneshi, Nilofar; Freeman-Acquah, Elvis; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set of genes for known or novel mutations, implementation of whole genome sequencing in clinical practice continues to present challenges. Even very accurate high-throughput methods with small error rates can generate large numbers of false negative or false positive errors due to the high numbers of simultaneous readings. Additional validation is likely to be required for safe use of any such methods in clinical settings. Custom-designed arrays can offer advantages for screening for common, known mutations and, in this context, may currently be better suited for accredited, quality-controlled clinical genetic screening services, as illustrated by their successful application in several large-scale pre-emptive pharmacogenomics programs now underway. Excessive, inappropriate use of next-generation sequencing may waste scarce research funds and other resources. Microarrays presently remain the technology of choice in applications that require fast, cost-effective genome-wide screening of variants of known importance, particularly for large sample sizes. This commentary considers some of the applications where microarrays continue to offer advantages over next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:27600079

  15. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing.

    PubMed

    Shahandeh, Al; Johnstone, Daniel M; Atkins, Joshua R; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Heidari, Moones; Daneshi, Nilofar; Freeman-Acquah, Elvis; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set of genes for known or novel mutations, implementation of whole genome sequencing in clinical practice continues to present challenges. Even very accurate high-throughput methods with small error rates can generate large numbers of false negative or false positive errors due to the high numbers of simultaneous readings. Additional validation is likely to be required for safe use of any such methods in clinical settings. Custom-designed arrays can offer advantages for screening for common, known mutations and, in this context, may currently be better suited for accredited, quality-controlled clinical genetic screening services, as illustrated by their successful application in several large-scale pre-emptive pharmacogenomics programs now underway. Excessive, inappropriate use of next-generation sequencing may waste scarce research funds and other resources. Microarrays presently remain the technology of choice in applications that require fast, cost-effective genome-wide screening of variants of known importance, particularly for large sample sizes. This commentary considers some of the applications where microarrays continue to offer advantages over next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:27600079

  16. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  17. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the agency needs additional medical documentation to make an informed management decision. This may... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... Section 339.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  18. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  19. Competitive Advantage of PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  20. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  1. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  2. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Email Alerts for Family Physicians: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hani; Grad, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. Objective The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants’ suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the “Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior” model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. Results All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. Conclusions The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts. PMID:25803184

  4. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  5. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  6. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  7. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its adequacy... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World...

  8. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  9. Cumulative Advantage in the Skill Development of STEM Graduate Students: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.; Maher, Michelle A.; Roksa, Josipa; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Studies of skill development often describe a process of cumulative advantage, in which small differences in initial skill compound over time, leading to increasing skill gaps between those with an initial advantage and those without. We offer evidence of a similar phenomenon accounting for differential patterns of research skill development in…

  10. Contracting with Medicare Advantage plans: a brief for critical access hospital administrators.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michelle; Fraser-Maginn, Roslyn; Mueller, Keith; King, Jennifer; Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; Lenardson, Jennifer; Silver, Lauren; Mueller, Curt

    2005-12-01

    This document summarizes the experience of CAH administrators with contracts offered by Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Telephone surveys were conducted with CAH administrators across the country to learn about their experiences with MA plans. This brief includes information about the contract terms administrators have been offered, their experiences negotiating with MA plans, and their advice for others dealing with this issue. PMID:16397967

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  14. Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

  15. Advantages of the Papillon protocol in the preoperative treatment of rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Klimberg, V S; Langston, J D; Maners, A; Gocio, J C; Hutchins, L F; Lang, N P; Westbrook, K C; Broadwater, J R

    1992-11-01

    Standard treatment for advanced rectal carcinoma currently includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Although there are theoretic advantages to preoperative irradiation, it is often not performed because of the prolonged delay of surgery and the purported increase in perioperative complications. A pilot study was undertaken at our institution to evaluate a treatment protocol advocated by Dr. Papillon that offers a shorter treatment time and less patient morbidity than conventional preoperative therapy for rectal carcinoma. Twenty patients with rectal cancer underwent the preoperative regimen that consisted of 3,000 cGy delivered in 10 fractions over 12 days with concomitant 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C. Complications were acceptable. Local recurrence was lower than in most reported trials, and survival rates were comparable. Additional benefits of the protocol include lower radiation morbidity to the patient and a decreased delay between diagnosis and surgery. PMID:1443366

  16. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  17. The information-anchoring model of first offers: When moving first helps versus hurts negotiators.

    PubMed

    Loschelder, David D; Trötschel, Roman; Swaab, Roderick I; Friese, Malte; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-07-01

    Does making the first offer increase or impair a negotiator's outcomes? Past research has found evidence supporting both claims. To reconcile these contradictory findings, we developed and tested an integrative model-the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. The model predicts when and why making the first offer helps versus hurts. We suggest that first offers have 2 effects. First, they serve as anchors that pull final settlements toward the initial first-offer value; this anchor function often produces a first-mover advantage. Second, first offers can convey information on the senders' priorities, which makes the sender vulnerable to exploitation and increases the risk of a first-mover disadvantage. To test this model, 3 experiments manipulated the information that senders communicated in their first offer. When senders did not reveal their priorities, the first-mover advantage was replicated. However, when first offers revealed senders' priorities explicitly, implicitly, or both, a first-mover disadvantage emerged. Negotiators' social value orientation moderated this effect: A first-mover disadvantage occurred when senders faced proself recipients who exploited priority information, but not with prosocial recipients. Moderated mediation analyses supported the model assumptions: Proself recipients used their integrative insight to feign priorities in their low-priority issues and thereby claimed more individual value than senders. The final discussion reviews theoretical and applied implications of the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27065345

  18. A possible heterozygous advantage in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Emery, A E H

    2016-01-01

    In certain autosomal recessive disorders there is suggestive evidence that heterozygous carriers may have some selective advantage over normal homozygotes. These include, for example, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease and phenylketonuria. The best example so far, however, is that of significant heterozygous advantage in sickle-cell anaemia with increased resistance to falciparum malaria. PMID:27245530

  19. Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    2001-01-01

    Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments. PMID:11862646

  20. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  1. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  2. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  3. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  4. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  5. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  6. Organizations Offering Literacy Training Courses: Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

    This directory for literacy workers and adult educators lists adult literacy organizations (not including universities and institutes) which offer training courses to literacy personnel in four geographic regions of the world. The directory begins with an overview of the survey which was done to collect the data used to compile the directory and…

  7. Study Offers Ways to Better European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    School systems that track students into certain classes and academic programs based on ability end up worsening disparities between high and low performers, according to a far-ranging report that offers recommendations for improving education across Europe. The study, commissioned by a branch of the European Union (EU), also found that bilingual…

  8. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  9. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  10. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... (either to the trade in the event such commodity is not sold at retail by the packager or labeler, or...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  12. Five Reasons to Offer Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblender, Thomas E.; Glass, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has heard about online courses, and how they are good for students because they offer schedule flexibility or opportunities to take courses that a school would not normally provide. After all, students can take and complete these courses anytime, anywhere. As their popularity grows, several states have added online learning to their…

  13. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  14. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  15. Will Medicare Advantage Benchmark Reforms Impact Plan Rebates and Enrollment?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act payment reforms. Study Design and Methods First difference regressions of county-level Medicare Advantage payment and enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2006 – 2010. Results A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to Medicare Advantage plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point decrease in MA penetration (p < 0.001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (p < 0.001). Changes were markedly larger in counties with low levels of Traditional Medicare spending, a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. Affordable Care Act reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in low spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 2.7 percentage points in the lowest spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. Conclusions Medicare Advantage enrollment responds to the generosity of supplemental benefits available. MA plans in low-cost counties may have difficulty offering the supplemental benefits that attract enrollees even when benchmarks are set at levels well above Traditional Medicare spending if plans do not find ways to deliver standard Medicare benefits at lower cost. PMID:25495112

  16. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  17. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  18. Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

  19. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  20. Offering Individual Genetic Research Results: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Beskow, Laura M.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of individual genetic research results to participants continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, centered primarily on the nature of the results: What are the criteria for the kinds of information that should, could, or should not be offered? There are widely diverging views about how to define these categories, as reasonable people can disagree about the value of various kinds of information. Data concerning participant preferences regarding receipt of results are important, but not determinative of researchers’ fundamental obligations. We suggest that research context is a vital consideration that has not been sufficiently incorporated into the discussion. We adapt an ancillary care framework to explore what different contexts might call for with regard to offering individual genetic research results. Our analysis suggests that, beyond exceptionally rare circumstances that give rise to a duty to rescue, a “one size fits all” threshold cannot be developed for decisions about return of individual results. Instead, researchers and IRBs must consider the scope of entrustment involved in the research, the intensity and duration of interactions with participants, and the vulnerability and dependence of the study population. The strength of this approach is that research context is foreseeable at the time a study is designed. Assessments of the nature and value of the information may still be required to decide whether to offer a particular result, but perhaps will be facilitated by a more grounded understanding of researchers’ obligations in different contexts. PMID:20592417

  1. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this notice to revise...

  2. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  3. Electronic Recruiting: An Alternative with Many Advantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Mary J.; Woo, Tony Chi-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Discusses electronic recruiting, a process which enables employers to directly access computerized college student resume information via modem. Addresses such advantages as providing up-to-date student information and alleviating paperwork. Provides an example of this system. (BHK)

  4. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    PubMed

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. PMID:27150251

  5. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  6. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.; Bately, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  7. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, Victor Lorín; Raţíu, Monica; Purcărea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  8. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Raţiu, M; Purcărea, T

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  9. Petrofina offers to buy up Fina

    SciTech Connect

    Vames, S.

    1997-03-05

    Petrofina has offered to buy all publicly held shares of Fina, its US chemical and oil subsidiary. The shares are worth $266 million and amount to about 15% of the unit, which, combined with Petrofina`s existing 85% stake, would give Petrofina full ownership of Fina. While Petrofina does not give a reason for the buyout, analysts say the company may be planning to sell the entire unit outright or spin off some of its less profitable businesses. Ron Haddock, Fina`s CEO, denies the speculation. {open_quotes}This deal is merely a confirmation of Petrofina`s confidence in a commitment to our company.{close_quotes}

  10. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  11. Editor's Choice Offered as a Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2010-06-01

    Editor's Choice is now being offered as a service rather than on a subscription basis. As in the past, articles will be selected by collection editors with assistance from advisory panels. The selected articles will be listed on the AGU Web site (http://www.agu.org/pubs/journals/virtual/editors_choice/); these lists will be accessible to anyone. Those who are interested in reading the articles can access them through a personal or institutional subscription or can purchase them either individually or as part of a MultiChoice packet.

  12. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  13. Budget boost offers stability to US science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-02-01

    US President Barack Obama has signed into law the COMPETES Re-authorization Act that will provide an additional 43bn for science, technology and education during the next three years and help to commercialize emerging technologies.

  14. Measuring home advantage in Spanish handball.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, Oscar; Saavedra García, Miguel; Fernández Romero, Juan José

    2012-02-01

    Since Pollard established the system for analysing home advantage in 1986, it has been demonstrated and quantified in various sports, including many team sports. This study aims to assess whether home advantage exists in handball, using a sample of more than 19,000 Spanish handball league games. Results of the games played at home and away, the sex of the players, and the levels of the competition were included as variables. In Spanish handball, there was a home advantage of 61%, which means, on average, the team playing at home wins 61% of points available. This value varies according to sex and according to competition level, increasing as competition level decreases and season rank improves. PMID:22582700

  15. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  16. Dissenter offers guidance in sentencing pleas.

    PubMed

    1995-10-20

    Federal Appeals Judge William R. Wilson, Jr. of St. Louis, MI denied defendant [name removed] a reduced sentence based on his HIV status. In the case of U.S. vs. [Name removed], Judge Wilson ruled that the potential onset of AIDS is not sufficient grounds for granting a prisoner a reduced jail sentence. Judge Wilson offers advice to defense lawyers who are seeking more lenient sentences for their HIV-positive clients. He suggests that defense attorneys submit extensive documentation from medical experts that specifies the impact that prison life will have on the HIV-positive inmate's longevity, access to treatment, nutrition, and overall prognosis. Notable cases that have considered extraordinary physical impairment for the purpose of altering sentences include U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Third Circuit Court, U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Sixth Circuit Court, and U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Seventh Circuit Court. PMID:11362840

  17. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  18. No advantage to rhBMP-2 in addition to autogenous graft for fracture nonunion.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Richelle; Forman, Jordanna; Taormina, David P; Egol, Kenneth A

    2014-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins are a necessary component of the fracture healing cascade. Few studies have delineated the efficacy of iliac crest bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), especially, in comparison with the gold standard treatment of nonunion, which is autogenous bone graft alone. This study compared the outcome of patients with fracture nonunion treated with autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 adjuvant vs patients treated with autogenous bone graft alone. A total of 118 consecutive patients who were to undergo long bone nonunion surgery with autogenous bone graft (50) or autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 (68) were identified. Surgical intervention included either harvested iliac autogenous bone graft or autogenous bone graft plus 1.5 mg/mL of rhBMP-2 placed in and around the site of nonunion. No differences were found in the distribution of nonunion sites included within each group. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 100 of 118 patients (84.7%). Analyses of demographic characteristics (including tobacco), medical comorbidities, previous surgeries, and nonunion type (atrophic vs hypertrophic) did not differ. Postoperative complication rates did not differ. The percentage of patients who progressed to union did not differ. Mean time to union in the autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 group was 6.6 months (±3.9) vs 5.4 (±2.7) months in the autogenous bone graft-only group (P=.06). Rates of revision (16.2% for rhBMP-2 plus autogenous bone graft vs 8% for autogenous bone graft) did not differ statistically (P=.19), nor did 12-month scores of pain and functional assessment. Although rhBMP-2 is a safe adjuvant, there was no benefit seen when rhBMP-2 was added to autogenous bone graft in the treatment of long bone nonunion. Given its high cost, rhBMP-2 should be reconsidered as an aid to autogenous bone graft in the treatment of nonunion. PMID:24972432

  19. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  20. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... and members of the military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program will allow mission... military community. This new pilot program will replace the current Community Express Pilot Loan Program, which has been extended through April 30, 2011. (75 FR 80561, December 22, 2010) No new...

  1. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  2. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  3. Analytical advantages of multivariate data processing. One, two, three, infinity?

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2008-08-01

    Multidimensional data are being abundantly produced by modern analytical instrumentation, calling for new and powerful data-processing techniques. Research in the last two decades has resulted in the development of a multitude of different processing algorithms, each equipped with its own sophisticated artillery. Analysts have slowly discovered that this body of knowledge can be appropriately classified, and that common aspects pervade all these seemingly different ways of analyzing data. As a result, going from univariate data (a single datum per sample, employed in the well-known classical univariate calibration) to multivariate data (data arrays per sample of increasingly complex structure and number of dimensions) is known to provide a gain in sensitivity and selectivity, combined with analytical advantages which cannot be overestimated. The first-order advantage, achieved using vector sample data, allows analysts to flag new samples which cannot be adequately modeled with the current calibration set. The second-order advantage, achieved with second- (or higher-) order sample data, allows one not only to mark new samples containing components which do not occur in the calibration phase but also to model their contribution to the overall signal, and most importantly, to accurately quantitate the calibrated analyte(s). No additional analytical advantages appear to be known for third-order data processing. Future research may permit, among other interesting issues, to assess if this "1, 2, 3, infinity" situation of multivariate calibration is really true. PMID:18613646

  4. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  6. Fast, automatically darkening welding filter offering an improved level of safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen

    1996-03-01

    A mode of operation is introduced for the standard 90 degrees twisted nematic (TN) liquid-crystal cell when placed together with an interference filter and positioned between crossed polarizers such that a small stimulating voltage of between 2.0 and 3.0 V is required in order to attain the light state. Further incrementation of the driving electronics reverts the system back to a darker phase. Such cells offer advantages over those of the standard 90 degrees TN device operating in the normally white mode, in that the unit maintains the fast response time from the light to the dark state associated with the employment of TN cells placed between crossed polarizers. In addition, a low transmittance state is achieved when the unit is in the inactivated phase; this is an effect usually correlated with the normally black mode of operation. These cells are therefore ideal candidates for incorporation into fast, automatically darkening, welding filters that are designed to change rapidly from the light to the dark protective state, while offering an improved level of safety by not holding in a potentially hazardous light state should the controlling electronics malfunction. The requirement for this phenomenon to be observed is that the cell displays a low optical transmittance over the green wavelengths of the visible spectrum when in the inactivated phase and placed between crossed polarizers. The presence of an interference filter that possesses a peak transmittance over the central part of the visible spectrum is also necessary. It is shown that there are only two possible cell types that satisfy this criteria, and the optical properties of such cells are analyzed in some detail.

  7. Connecting in Megaclasses: The Netnographic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Norman J.; Rahinel, Ryan; Foster, Mary K.; Patterson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large universities are increasingly offering marketing courses in classes of 300 or more students. Without access to the usual verbal and nonverbal cues, instructors in these megaclasses are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to respond to learners' needs. As a result, marketing instructors have supplemented course infrastructure with…

  8. Catalyst suppliers consolidate further, offer more catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-10-02

    The list of suppliers of catalysts to the petroleum refining industry has decreased by five since Oil and Gas Journal`s survey of refining catalysts and catalytic additives was last published. Despite the consolidation, the list of catalyst designations has grown to about 950 in this latest survey, compared to 820 listed in 1993. The table divides the catalysts by use and gives data on their primary differentiating characteristics, feedstock, products, form, bulk density,catalyst support, active agents, availability, and manufactures.

  9. Creating and promoting a sports performance service offering.

    PubMed

    Harr, Shannon; Shireman, Christopher W; Jebson, R Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Many private hospitals and physician groups are exploring the possibility of expanding their facilities to include advanced ancillary services. Services such as a sports performance center provide additional opportunities for quality patient care and at the same time augment the bottom line. By offering additional ancillary services, healthcare organizations such as an orthopaedics practice can become a full-service center enabling clinicians to more fully provide care to their patients. Marketing and promotion play a crucial role in this type of service. These activities must be designed and carried out in a way that encourages productive results and collaboration as the organization strives to position itself as a full-service center and as a sports specialist in its community. PMID:17494488

  10. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  11. What factors contribute to an ownership advantage?

    PubMed

    Fayed, S A; Jennions, M D; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-04-23

    In most taxa, owners win fights when defending a territory against intruders. We calculated effect sizes for four factors that potentially contribute to an 'owner advantage'. We studied male fiddler crabs Uca mjoebergi, where owners won 92% of natural fights. Owners were not more successful because they were inherently better fighters (r=0.02). There was a small effect (r=0.18) of the owner's knowledge of territory quality (food availability) and a medium effect (r=0.29) of his having established relations with neighbours (duration of active tenure), but neither was statistically significant. There was, however, a significant effect due to the mechanical advantage the owner gained through access to the burrow during fights (r=0.48, p<0.005). PMID:18089521

  12. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  13. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  14. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, W.E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradioactive coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  15. Sinus pericranii: advantages of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bigot, J L; Iacona, C; Lepreux, A; Dhellemmes, P; Motte, J; Gomes, H

    2000-10-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations. A 3-year-old girl presented with a 2 x 2-cm, midline soft-tissue mass at the vertex. Plain skull films and CT using bone windows showed erosion of the parietal bones. MRI confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying communication of the vascular mass with the intracranial dural venous sinus. The advantages of MRI are discussed. PMID:11075608

  16. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in...

  18. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  19. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  20. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  1. Transnational nursing programs: models, advantages and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael

    2002-07-01

    Conducting transnational programs can be a very rewarding activity for a School, Faculty or University. Apart from increasing the profile of the university, the conduct of transnational programs can also provide the university with openings for business opportunities, consultative activities, and collaborative research. It can also be a costly exercise placing an enormous strain on limited resources with little reward for the provider. Transnational ventures can become nonviable entities in a very short period of time due to unanticipated global economic trends. Transnational courses offered by Faculties of Business and Computing are commonplace, however, there is a growing number of health science programs, particularly nursing that are being offered transnational. This paper plans an overview of several models employed for the delivery of transnational nursing courses and discusses several key issues pertaining to conducting courses outside the host university's country. PMID:12383742

  2. Size matters: problems and advantages associated with highly miniaturized sensors.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity. PMID:22736990

  3. 75 FR 19677 - Medicare Program; Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...This final rule makes revisions to the regulations governing the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) and prescription drug benefit program (Part D) based on our continued experience in the administration of the Part C and D programs. The revisions strengthen various program participation and exit requirements; strengthen beneficiary protections; ensure that plan offerings to beneficiaries......

  4. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  5. The Mechanisms Underlying the ASD Advantage in Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Giserman, Ivy; Carter, Alice S; Blaser, Erik

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are faster or more successful than typically developing control participants at various visual-attentional tasks (for reviews, see Dakin and Frith in Neuron 48:497-507, 2005; Simmons et al. in Vis Res 49:2705-2739, 2009). This "ASD advantage" was first identified in the domain of visual search by Plaisted et al. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:777-783, 1998). Here we survey the findings of visual search studies from the past 15 years that contrasted the performance of individuals with and without ASD. Although there are some minor caveats, the overall consensus is that-across development and a broad range of symptom severity-individuals with ASD reliably outperform controls on visual search. The etiology of the ASD advantage has not been formally specified, but has been commonly attributed to 'enhanced perceptual discrimination', a superior ability to visually discriminate between targets and distractors in such tasks (e.g. O'Riordan in Cognition 77:81-96, 2000). As well, there is considerable evidence for impairments of the attentional network in ASD (for a review, see Keehn et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:164-183, 2013). We discuss some recent results from our laboratory that support an attentional, rather than perceptual explanation for the ASD advantage in visual search. We speculate that this new conceptualization may offer a better understanding of some of the behavioral symptoms associated with ASD, such as over-focusing and restricted interests. PMID:24091470

  6. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  7. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  8. Ghost ileostomy: real and potential advantages.

    PubMed

    Miccini, Michelangelo; Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Gregori, Matteo; Barillari, Paolo; Tocchi, Adriano

    2010-10-01

    Loop ileostomy is created to minimize the clinical impact of colorectal anastomotic leak. However, a lot of complications may be associated with ileostomy presence and with its reversal. Moreover, patients hardly accept the quality of life resulting from ileostomy. We describe a simple technique (ghost ileostomy) to combine all the advantages of a disposable ileostomy without entailing its complications in patients submitted to low rectal resection. In case of uneventful postoperative course, the ghost ileostomy prevents all complications related to defunctioning ileostomy. At the same time, in case of anastomotic leakage, the ghost ileostomy is easily and safely converted into a defunctioning ileostomy. PMID:20887836

  9. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    PubMed

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

  10. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings. PMID:10146130

  11. [Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].

    PubMed

    Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

    2001-10-01

    each organ, together with external and cut-surface features. A third section allows the examiner to report other observations not requested previously, while a final section is also provided for the epicrisis and for the formulation of the final diagnosis, the same as that reported in the first form. The database is coupled with an interactive system for collecting voice comments, thereby replacing the need for tape-recorders in the autopsy room. The user can recall a dictation window, dictate a text, check spelling and insert additional text. The database is also coupled to an image acquisition system, on the assumption that moving images allow a more faithful documentation of reality. Therefore, all rooms in which autopsies are carried out on fetuses or neonates have been equipped with a fixed camera linked to a monitor and a video-recorder. A PCB, used for image digitalization, recognizes up to 16,000,000 different colors. Guided by dedicated software, image files are transferred to a computer and then saved with the autoptic report. The database can be consulted and queried in two principle ways: by key words in the contents or main disease descriptions, or by individual words or phrases contained within the complete text of the reports. The present database system for autopsy reporting has proved itself useful in a pathological anatomy service. The combined presence of images and texts renders the system useful also as a research tool. By linking to a Web site dedicated to pathologic anatomy, it will be possible to display online rare cases involving diagnostic difficulties. The system offers great advantages for present and retrospective diagnostics, as well as for research and education purposes. PMID:11725353

  12. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  14. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  15. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  16. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  17. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares. (1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  18. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares.(1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  19. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares. (1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  20. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  1. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  2. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  3. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  4. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 604.43 Section 604.43..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has... respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the record when filing an appeal....

  5. 49 CFR 1018.71 - Referral of a compromise offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral of a compromise offer. 1018.71 Section... § 1018.71 Referral of a compromise offer. The Board may refer a debtor's firm written offer of compromise which is substantial in amount to GAO or to DOJ if the Board is uncertain whether the offer should...

  6. 31 CFR 316.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 316.1 Section 316..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES E § 316.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  7. 31 CFR 332.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 332.1 Section 332..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  8. 46 CFR 201.144 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 201.144 Section 201.144 Shipping... PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.144 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an... accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  9. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with... identification and shall accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  10. 38 CFR 18b.64 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 18b.64... Procedures § 18b.64 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any... record as the offer of proof....

  11. 2015: Rural Medicare Advantage Enrollment Update.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Chance; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Key Findings. (1) Rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by 6.8 percent between March 2014 and March 2015 to 2.1 million members, or 21.2 percent of all rural residents eligible for Medicare. This compares to a national enrollment in MA and other prepaid plans of 31.1 percent (16.7 million) of enrollees. (2) Rural enrollment in Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans (including point-of-service, or POS, plans), Preferred Provider Organization (PP0) plans, and other pre-paid plans (including Medicare Cost and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly Plans) all increased by 5-13 percent. (3) Enrollment in private fee-for-service (PFFS) plans continued to decline (decreasing nationally by 15.8 percent and 12.1 percent in rural counties over the period March 2014-2015). Only eight states showed an increase in PFFS plan enrollment. Five states experienced decreases of 50 percent or more. (4) The five states with the highest percentages of rural beneficiaries enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan are Minnesota (51.8 percent), Hawaii (39.4 percent), Pennsylvania (36.2 percent), Wisconsin (35.5 percent), and New York (31.5 percent). PMID:26793818

  12. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  13. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract But Not Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A

    2016-02-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in J Mem Lang 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this ambiguity advantage may in reality be a polysemy advantage: caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings (homonymy). We report two lexical decision studies that investigated the effects of polysemy with new word sets. In both studies, polysemy was factorially manipulated while homonymy was controlled for. In Experiment 1, where the stimulus set consisted solely of concrete nouns, there was no effect of polysemy. However, in Experiment 2, where the stimulus set consisted of a mix of abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there was a significant polysemy advantage. Together, these two studies strongly suggest that polysemy affects abstract but not concrete nouns. In addition, they rule out several alternative explanations for these polysemy effects, e.g., sense dominance, age-of-acquisition, familiarity, and semantic diversity. PMID:25373555

  14. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25603375

  15. ISMB 2016 offers outstanding science, networking, and celebration.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    The annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) is the major meeting of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB). Over the past 23 years the ISMB conference has grown to become the world's largest bioinformatics/computational biology conference. ISMB 2016 will be the year's most important computational biology event globally. The conferences provide a multidisciplinary forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics/computational biology. ISMB brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics, statistics and related fields. Its principal focus is on the development and application of advanced computational methods for biological problems. ISMB 2016 offers the strongest scientific program and the broadest scope of any international bioinformatics/computational biology conference. Building on past successes, the conference is designed to cater to variety of disciplines within the bioinformatics/computational biology community.  ISMB 2016 takes place July 8 - 12 at the Swan and Dolphin Hotel in Orlando, Florida, United States. For two days preceding the conference, additional opportunities including Satellite Meetings, Student Council Symposium, and a selection of Special Interest Group Meetings and Applied Knowledge Exchange Sessions (AKES) are all offered to enable registered participants to learn more on the latest methods and tools within specialty research areas. PMID:27347392

  16. ISMB 2016 offers outstanding science, networking, and celebration

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    The annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) is the major meeting of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB). Over the past 23 years the ISMB conference has grown to become the world's largest bioinformatics/computational biology conference. ISMB 2016 will be the year's most important computational biology event globally. The conferences provide a multidisciplinary forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics/computational biology. ISMB brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics, statistics and related fields. Its principal focus is on the development and application of advanced computational methods for biological problems. ISMB 2016 offers the strongest scientific program and the broadest scope of any international bioinformatics/computational biology conference. Building on past successes, the conference is designed to cater to variety of disciplines within the bioinformatics/computational biology community.  ISMB 2016 takes place July 8 - 12 at the Swan and Dolphin Hotel in Orlando, Florida, United States. For two days preceding the conference, additional opportunities including Satellite Meetings, Student Council Symposium, and a selection of Special Interest Group Meetings and Applied Knowledge Exchange Sessions (AKES) are all offered to enable registered participants to learn more on the latest methods and tools within specialty research areas. PMID:27347392

  17. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  18. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  19. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  20. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  1. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  2. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  3. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  4. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  5. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-01

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

  6. Steel monoleg design tries for concrete advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The conceptual design of a fixed steel monoleg structure designed for North Sea water depths of 80-250 meters is described. The design was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and funded in part by the European Economic Community. The design aims to give a steel structure some of the advantages of concrete condeeps. Maintenance should be minimized by enclosing the risers inside a monopod. The single-shell, variable geometry of the column structure should also serve to equalize stresses, unlike a conventional space frame where stresses tend to concentrate around the nodes. Construction and installation could be vertical, as in condeep style, or horizontal, as in steel jackets. Thus the fixed steel platform could be either barge-towed and upended with ballast tanks or floated out vertically as built and towed, like a condeep, to a mating with an integrated deck before final tow and installation by simple ballasting.

  7. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  8. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  9. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  10. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  11. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  12. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas

  13. Precise Positioning with Multi-GNSS and its Advantage for Seismic Parameters Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Li, X.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Ge, M.

    2015-12-01

    Together with the ongoing modernization of U.S. GPS and Russian GLONASS, the two new emerging global navigation satellite systems (BeiDou from China and Galileo from European Union) have already been running and multi-GNSS era is coming. Compared with single system, multi-GNSS can significantly improve the satellite visibility, optimize the spatial geometry, reduce dilution of precision and will be of great benefits to both scientific applications and engineering services. In this contribution, we focus mainly on its potential advantages for earthquake parameters estimation and tsunami early warning. First, we assess the precise positioning performance of multi-GNSS by an out-door experiment on a shaking table. Three positioning methods were used to retrieve the simulated seismic signal: precise point positioning (PPP), variometric approach for displacements analysis stand-alone engine (VADASE) and temporal point positioning (TPP). In addition to that, with respect to VADASE and TPP, we extended the original dual-frequency model to single-frequency model and then tested the algorithms. Accuracy, reliability, and continuity were evaluated and analyzed in detail accordingly. Our results revealed that multi-GNSS offer more precise and robust positioning results over GPS-only. At last, as a case study, multi-GNSS data recorded during 2014 Pisagua Earthquake were re-processed. Using co-seismic displacements from GPS and multi-GNSS, earthquake and the aftermath tsunami were inverted, respectively.

  14. Using integration technology as a strategic advantage.

    PubMed

    Fry, P A

    1993-08-01

    The underlying premise of the Managed Competition Act previously cited is that through managed competition providers will be forced to lower care costs while increasing the level of positive care outcomes. Because it may also be that tomorrow's hospitals will find a severe rationing of technology, what can they do to prepare? Most of the systems in place today already have built within them all the necessary potential to address this premise and technology requirement with no change, no conversion, no expense for new equipment and software, and no disruption in day-to-day operations, just a little re-engineering. Today, however, these systems are similar to a 20-mule team pulling in different directions: all the power is there, but the wagon remains motionless and totally unable to reach its objective. It takes a skilled wagonmaster to bring them together, to make the mules work as a cohesive unit, to make the power of 20 mules greater than the sum of 20 mules. So it is and will be for the hospital of tomorrow. System integration is no longer a question of whether but of when. Those hospitals that use it today as a strategic advantage will be in a better position tomorrow to use it as a competitive strategic advantage in an environment that will reward low cost and high positive care outcomes and will penalize those that cannot compete. The technology is already here and economically within reach of nearly every hospital, just waiting to be used. The question that must nag all of us who want to make the health care system of America better is, Why not make the when now? Rich Helppie, president of Superior Consultant Company, summarized the solution well: The old ways will not give way to the new overnight. The re-engineering process in healthcare must evolve. Compared to the last 20 years, however, such evolution may appear to be a massive, forthright, complete, comprehensive, drastic and rapid revolution. Survival is the name of the game, and for healthcare

  15. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel—audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel—interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel—key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics approval City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. Planned outputs We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: ‘what to expect in your virtual consultation’. Discussion The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they

  16. 48 CFR 619.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 619.804 Section 619.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC....804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  17. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  18. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  19. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  20. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  1. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  2. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  3. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology. PMID:21141667

  4. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  5. The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

  6. 43 CFR 3110.7 - Action on offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action on offer. 3110.7 Section 3110.7... Action on offer. (a) No lease shall be issued before final action has been taken on any prior offer to lease the lands or any extension of, or petition for reinstatement of, an existing or former lease...

  7. 26 CFR 300.3 - Offer to compromise fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offer to compromise fee. 300.3 Section 300.3... ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.3 Offer to compromise fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the... provided in this section, this fee applies to all offers to compromise accepted for processing. (b) Fee....

  8. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  9. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  10. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  11. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  12. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  13. 40 CFR 22.23 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR... information may make an offer of proof, which shall be included in the record. The offer of proof for excluded.... The offer of proof for excluded documents or exhibits shall consist of the documents or...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  17. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United...

  18. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower accepts the Agency's offer of incentives, the borrower must complete the following actions: (1) Subject to...

  20. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  1. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  2. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  3. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to offer examinations. 339.302... QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Medical Examinations § 339.302 Authority to offer examinations. An agency may,...

  4. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  5. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  6. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  7. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be invited through public notice given by the Secretary of the Treasury. Such public notices may be issued by...

  8. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  9. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  10. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  11. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  12. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  13. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  14. 49 CFR 1503.641 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 1503.641 Section 1503.641... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.641 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the ALJ may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  15. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  16. 48 CFR 619.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 619.804-2 Section 619.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... offering. (a) When applicable, this notification shall identify that the offering is in accordance with...

  17. 14 CFR 16.231 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 16.231 Section 16.231... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.231 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the hearing officer may offer the evidence on the...

  18. 27 CFR 70.436 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.436 Section 70.436 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cigarette Papers and Tubes § 70.436 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise...

  19. 27 CFR 70.415 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.415 Section 70.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Beer § 70.415 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise of liabilities...

  20. 7 CFR 15.122 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 15.122 Section 15.122 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.122 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the hearing...

  1. 27 CFR 70.449 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.449 Section 70.449 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.449 Offers in compromise. The procedures in the case of offers in...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent offering period... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-11 Subsequent offering period. A bidder may elect to provide a subsequent offering period of at least three business days during which tenders will be...

  3. 48 CFR 19.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 19.804-2....804-2 Agency offering. (a) After completing its evaluation, the agency must notify the SBA of the... statement that prior to the offering no solicitation for the specific acquisition has been issued as a...

  4. 34 CFR 101.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 101.85 Section 101.85 Education... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 101.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the presiding...

  5. 31 CFR 902.5 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Further review of compromise offers... COMPROMISE OF CLAIMS § 902.5 Further review of compromise offers. If an agency is uncertain whether to accept a firm, written, substantive compromise offer on a debt that is within the agency's...

  6. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155... Transportation Adjudications § 406.155 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the administrative law judge may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  7. Final-Offer Arbitration: "Sudden Death" in Eugene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary; Feuille, Peter

    1974-01-01

    A case study on final offer arbitration experiences in Eugene, Oregon, is presented and discussed. Basic criticisms leveled against the final-offer system are opposed by the authors and evidence is given in support of the use of final-offer arbitration. (DS)

  8. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of <10μs and repetition rates can be adjusted continuously from several kHz up to cw mode while addressing power levels from 0-100%. By combining trigger signals with analog modulations nearly any kind of pulse form can be realized. Diode lasers also offer a wide, adaptable range of wavelengths, and wavelength stabilization. We report a line width of less than 0.1nm while the wavelength stability is in the range of MHz which is comparable to solid state lasers. In terms of applications, especially our (broad) wavelength

  9. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  10. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

  11. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities...

  12. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities...

  13. Laboratory in a box: wearable sensors and its advantages for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Bijan; Khan, Tahir; Wrobel, James

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, many gait studies explored potential gait alteration due to various disorders in the gait lab and using camera based systems and force platforms. However, these strategies may not replicate normal outdoor walking. Using this equipment, it is more difficult to measure the variability of walking which is important for maintaining balance and responding to different walking challenges. Additionally, subjects may mask their problem or exaggerate it when they are walking in a short walking distance offered by laboratory based-technology. This study overviews some of the key advantages of wearable technology compared to laboratory-based instrument. Additionally, it explored gait patterns over ample distance of walking compared to walking distance restricted to a gait laboratory environment. Walking patterns of ten healthy young subjects were examined using a wearable sensor technology in a random order over a distance of 7 m, 14 m, and 20 m. Results suggest that participants walk significantly faster by increasing walking distance on average by 15% and 3% when walking distance was increased respectively from 7 m to 14 and from 14 m to 20 m (p<0.05). Interestingly despite a high test-retest reliability for averaged gait parameters (ICC>0.89), the test-retest reliability for gait variability was only acceptable during 20 m walking distance (ICC<0.3 for 7 m and 14 m v. ICC=0.65 for 20 m). Taken together, our findings indicate that for valid and reliable assessment of gait parameters, gait should be performed over ample walking distances. Body worn sensor technology facilitates assessing gait outside of a gait laboratory, over ample walking distance, different footwear condition, different walking surface, and in environment where mimics better true environment where the subject is active in. PMID:22255829

  14. Neural correlates of advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions.

    PubMed

    Güroğlu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person's (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person's profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  15. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  16. Practical advantages of mud cooling systems for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Maury, V.; Guenot, A.

    1995-03-01

    Field case studies of borehole stability have shown that some failures, previously unexplained, were due to thermal effects, such as heating the upper part of open hole sections by mud circulation when drilling deeper or reheating of the bottomhole when mud circulation is stopped. A complete analysis of the thermal regime in boreholes was performed and as a consequence, cooling of mud appeared as a means to mitigate these effects. A series of tests were then carried out to check the practicality of installing such mud cooling systems. Many other advantages then appeared: decrease of the temperature of the borehole allowing better operation of the logging tools, better control of the mud rheology with less additives, extended use of MWD/LWD devices. But the most significant advantage is for the oil based muds which can be maintained at surface below their flash point, improving the safety of operations. This paper recalls and summarizes the results of observations, measurements and studies performed to determine the feasibility of such systems. Operational results are given for several field cases with emphasis on safety. The use of these very simple devices, which have been field proven on normal and high temperature (BHCT = 150 C), is now contemplated for future HP-HT wells.

  17. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    SciTech Connect

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  18. Advantages demonstrated by Thames River crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Lavieri, J.L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that during a 9-day period in June 1991, Yankee Gas Services Co. installed a 1,600-ft. 20-in. steel gas pipeline across the Thames River using the horizontal drilling technique that demonstrated why trench-less construction plays an important part in subsurface pipeline crossing. The crossing was completed ahead of time, under budget and with no adverse affect on the environment. In addition, the project resulted in minimal inconvenience to the public. The pipeline enabled Yankee Gas to provide gas service to new customers.

  19. Building and Accessing Clausal Representations: The Advantage of First Mention versus the Advantage of Clause Recency

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Hargreaves, David J.; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two seemingly contradictory phenomena: the Advantage of the First-Mentioned Participant (participants mentioned first in a sentence are more accessible than participants mentioned second) and the Advantage of the Most Recent Clause (concepts mentioned in the most recent clause are more accessible than concepts mentioned in an earlier clause). We resolved this contradiction by measuring how quickly comprehenders accessed participants mentioned in the first versus second clauses of two-clause sentences. Our data supported the following hypotheses: Comprehenders represent each clause of a two-clause sentence in its own mental substructure. Comprehenders have greatest access to information in the substructure that they are currently developing; that is, they have greatest access to the most recent clause. However, at some point, the first clause becomes more accessible because the substructure representing the first clause of a two-clause sentence serves as a foundation for the whole sentence-level representation. PMID:25505819

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  2. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. PMID:27493184

  3. Offering Global Collaboration Services beyond CERN and HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, J.; Ferreira, P.; Baron, T.

    2015-12-01

    The CERN IT department has built over the years a performant and integrated ecosystem of collaboration tools, from videoconference and webcast services to event management software. These services have been designed and evolved in very close collaboration with the various communities surrounding the laboratory and have been massively adopted by CERN users. To cope with this very heavy usage, global infrastructures have been deployed which take full advantage of CERN's international and global nature. If these services and tools are instrumental in enabling the worldwide collaboration which generates major HEP breakthroughs, they would certainly also benefit other sectors of science in which globalization has already taken place. Some of these services are driven by commercial software (Vidyo or Wowza for example), some others have been developed internally and have already been made available to the world as Open Source Software in line with CERN's spirit and mission. Indico for example is now installed in 100+ institutes worldwide. But providing the software is often not enough and institutes, collaborations and project teams do not always possess the expertise, or human or material resources that are needed to set up and maintain such services. Regional and national institutions have to answer needs, which are growingly global and often contradict their operational capabilities or organizational mandate and so are looking at existing worldwide service offers such as CERN's. We believe that the accumulated experience obtained through the operation of a large scale worldwide collaboration service combined with CERN's global network and its recently- deployed Agile Infrastructure would allow the Organization to set up and operate collaborative services, such as Indico and Vidyo, at a much larger scale and on behalf of worldwide research and education institutions and thus answer these pressing demands while optimizing resources at a global level. Such services would

  4. Employer Health Insurance Offerings and Employee Enrollment Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; Stein, Rebecca; Nicholson, Sean; Bundorf, M Kate

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine how the characteristics of the health benefits offered by employers affect worker insurance coverage decisions. Data Sources The 1996–1997 and the 1998–1999 rounds of the nationally representative Community Tracking Study Household Survey. Study Design We use multinomial logistic regression to analyze the choice between own-employer coverage, alternative source coverage, and no coverage among employees offered health insurance by their employer. The key explanatory variables are the types of health plans offered and the net premium offered. The models include controls for personal, health plan, and job characteristics. Principal Findings When an employer offers only a health maintenance organization married employees are more likely to decline coverage from their employer and take-up another offer (odds ratio (OR)=1.27, p<.001), while singles are more likely to accept the coverage offered by their employer and less likely to be uninsured (OR=0.650, p<.001). Higher net premiums increase the odds of declining the coverage offered by an employer and remaining uninsured for both married (OR=1.023, p<.01) and single (OR=1.035, p<.001) workers. Conclusions The type of health plan coverage an employer offers affects whether its employees take-up insurance, but has a smaller effect on overall coverage rates for workers and their families because of the availability of alternative sources of coverage. Relative to offering only a non-HMO plan, employers offering only an HMO may reduce take-up among those with alternative sources of coverage, but increase take-up among those who would otherwise go uninsured. By modeling the possibility of take-up through the health insurance offers from the employer of the spouse, the decline in coverage rates from higher net premiums is less than previous estimates. PMID:16174133

  5. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following... and surveying, air carrier operations, aircraft sales and services, sale of aviation...

  6. Apixaban and atrial fibrillation: no clear advantage.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    For the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and a high thrombotic risk, the standard treatment is warfarin, an anticoagulant. Dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor, is the alternative when warfarin fails to maintain the INR within the therapeutic range. Patients with a moderate thrombotic risk may receive either warfarin or low-dose aspirin. Apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant, has been authorised in the European Union for use in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate or high risk of thrombosis. In a double-blind, randomised non-inferiority trial versus warfarin in 18 201 patients, the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism was lower in the apixaban group (average 1.3 versus 1.6 events per 100 patient-years; p = 0.01). This difference was mainly due to a lower incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and did not result in a clear decline in mortality. In addition, these results are undermined by multiple methodological flaws. Clinical evaluation included no trials comparing apixaban with dabigatran; any indirect comparison would be risky given the poor quality of the clinical assessment of both drugs in atrial fibrillation. A double-blind, randomised trial including 5598 patients compared apixaban with aspirin but provided little information on these options in patients with a moderate risk of thrombosis, as most patients were at high risk. In clinical trials, major bleeding events were less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin (average 2.1 versus 3.1 events per 100 patient-years), but they were more frequent with apixaban than with aspirin (1.4 versus 0.9 events per 100 patient-years). In 2013, there is no way of monitoring the anticoagulant activity of apixaban in routine clinical practice, and there is no antidote in case of overdose; the same is true for dabigatran. Apixaban is a substrate for various cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and for P-glycoprotein, creating a risk of multiple drug

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening

    PubMed Central

    Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

  8. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  9. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  10. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  11. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  12. The new Medicare Advantage a disadvantage for providers?

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Patrick K

    2004-03-01

    The Medicare Advantage program, a provision of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, encourages providers to think about dealing with Medicare Advantage plans the way they now deal with commercial payers. Consequently, the Medicare Advantage program could either benefit or harm providers. PMID:15029797

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created

  14. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  15. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  16. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  17. 48 CFR 212.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 212.602 Section 212.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 212.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers....

  18. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  19. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  20. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  1. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  2. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  3. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  4. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  5. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  6. 22 CFR 229.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to course offerings. 229.415 Section 229.415 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  7. 45 CFR 2555.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to course offerings. 2555.415 Section 2555.415 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND... Prohibited § 2555.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall not provide any course or...

  8. 22 CFR 146.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to course offerings. 146.415 Section 146.415 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  9. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  10. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  11. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  12. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  13. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  14. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The... provide veterinary services under the VMLRP. As part of the offer, successful VMLRP applicants will...

  15. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  16. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  17. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  18. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  19. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  20. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  1. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  2. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  3. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  5. Current Offerings in Automated Authority Control: A Survey of Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sarah Hager

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of library systems and software vendors that examined the sources, management, and use of authority records in their systems and the functions of an authority control module within an integrated system. Several tables and graphs offer summaries and comparisons of vendors' offerings and capabilities. The questionnaire used is…

  6. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0...

  7. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0...

  8. 31 CFR 346.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 346.0 Section 346.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  9. 31 CFR 343.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 343.0 Section 343.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS General Information § 343.0 Offering of bonds....

  10. 31 CFR 348.0 - Offering of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of securities. 348.0 Section 348.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 348.0 Offering of securities. The Secretary of the Treasury (the Secretary) under authority of...

  11. 31 CFR 341.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 341.0 Section 341.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  12. 31 CFR 348.0 - Offering of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of securities. 348.0 Section 348.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 348.0 Offering of securities. The Secretary of the Treasury (the Secretary) under authority of...

  13. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.0 Offering of certificates. The Secretary of the...

  14. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.0 Offering of certificates. The Secretary of the...

  15. 31 CFR 343.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 343.0 Section 343.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS General Information § 343.0 Offering of bonds....

  16. 31 CFR 346.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 346.0 Section 346.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  17. 31 CFR 341.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 341.0 Section 341.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  18. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  19. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494... Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity...

  20. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  1. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  2. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494... Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity...

  3. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  4. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  5. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  6. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  7. Especially for Women. Programs and Services Offered by School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    This report describes programs and services school boards offer to women employees or women in the community. A special focus is innovative, nontraditional courses and services. The first section discusses offerings for school board staff. An overview of affirmative action/employment equity programs addresses their objectives and describes…

  8. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a registration... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of...

  9. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is offered. Products will be... be provided in any other area which is not covered by a cooperative agreement if the...

  11. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  12. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  13. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  14. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  15. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline. 54.405 Section 54.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline. All...

  16. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  17. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  18. Assuring Quality in Online Offerings: Insights from a University's Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Heather L.; Hall, Michelle; Longman, Debbie G.

    2015-01-01

    As the growth of online education offered by universities accelerates and spreads, universities are increasingly grappling with concerns related to widespread availability and the maintenance of academic quality. The "Quality Matters at Southeastern" Program fosters quality through a peer review process and offers a certification process…

  19. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  20. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  1. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  2. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  3. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  4. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  5. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  7. 7 CFR 58.5 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 58.5 Section 58.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Grading Service § 58.5 Where service is offered. Subject to the provisions of this part, inspection...

  8. Unexpected advantages of a temporary fluid-loss control pill

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1996-09-01

    Economics often dictate research; however, serendipity can benefit the results of research and simultaneously soften the rigidity of economic demands. Such as the case with a recently developed fluid-loss control pill. Economic reasons compelled researchers to find a replacement for an existing field product, the characteristics of which had to be duplicated. Initially, researchers sought to develop a pill that blocked fluid flow into and out of the wellbore and was mixable in brines from 8.35 to 19 lb/gal. The degradation of the replacement crosslinkable hydroxyethyl cellulose fluid (RXHEC) involves uncrosslinking and unzipping of backbone, which simplifies the disposal of returns. In addition to being environmentally acceptable, RXHEC is capable of breaking with weak acids, allowing the use of external breakers in acid-sensitive wells. Additional advantages include the ease with which tubulars can pass through the RXHEC pill and leave it in place, making a remedial pill unnecessary. The RXHEC uses a liquid gel concentrate (LGC) system and is stable beyond 125 C.

  9. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  10. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more

  11. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion

  12. Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore

    2013-01-01

    Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss. PMID:23658546

  13. Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Lore

    2013-01-01

    Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss. PMID:23658546

  14. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF...

  15. Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

  16. Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157462.html Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans Antibodies from 1995 survivor protected ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An antibody treatment for Ebola might be able to protect people for up ...

  17. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease Preliminary research tries new approach to rebuild ... therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble Boy" disease, researchers report. A small, early-stage trial ...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of... equipment shall, at a minimum, have the capability: (1) To allow simultaneous reception of any two...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of... equipment shall, at a minimum, have the capability: (1) To allow simultaneous reception of any two...

  20. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  1. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental ... HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research suggests that injecting adult stems cells directly into the brain may give stroke patients ...

  2. More Healthy Foods Offered in School Lunches, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... made salads in favor of salad bars, but Southern schools were more likely to offer pre-made ... a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Medical Center, in New York City. Studies have found ...

  3. New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159079.html New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers Warns ... this Memorial Day weekend, you might notice a new safety label on the package. This month, the ...

  4. 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those with Severe Hemophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159027.html 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those With Severe Hemophilia ... while the other uncovers the promise of a new drug To use the sharing features on this ...

  5. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental procedure helped restore ... into the brain may give stroke patients a new shot at recovery long after their stroke occurred. " ...

  6. Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160004.html Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia Bacteria's ability to spread within cells ... with mice suggests there is hope for a vaccine to protect against chlamydia, a common, sexually transmitted ...

  7. Research Offers Clues to Dementia with Language Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157752.html Research Offers Clues to Dementia With Language Loss In this rarer form of ... centers may help drive a rare form of dementia that causes people to lose their ability to ...

  8. 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those with Severe Hemophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159027.html 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those With Severe Hemophilia ... while the other uncovers the promise of a new drug To use the sharing features on this ...

  9. Rocky Mountains offer plenty to keep producers looking for more

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the Rocky Mountain region, geological variety offers everything from coalbed methane to helium and carbon dioxide, and producers keep plugging hoping that an upswing in prices could make the region more lucrative.

  10. Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157538.html Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection: Report Lab ... and laboratory ratings don't indicate whether a football helmet is better at protecting high school players ...

  11. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158415.html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease ... WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new gene therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble ...

  12. Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157691.html Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection: Study Many ... of 2012, about 7 percent of American primary care doctors recommended health apps to their patients. Such apps address a ...

  13. Factors Associated With Forensic Nurses Offering HIV nPEP Status Post Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Rotolo, Sue; Austin, Kim Wieczorek; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Nonoccupational, postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is offered inconsistently to patients who have been sexually assaulted. This may be due to Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) programs utilizing diverse nPEP protocols and HIV risk assessment algorithms. This study examines factors associated with FNEs offering nPEP to patients following sexual assault at two FNE programs in urban settings. Offering nPEP is mostly driven by site-specific protocol. At Site 1, in addition to open anal or open genital wounds, the presence of injury to the head or face was associated with FNEs offering nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 64.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 1942.37]). At Site 2, patients assaulted by someone of Other race/ethnicity (non-White, non-African American) were 86% less likely to be offered nPEP (AOR 0.14, 95% CI = [.03, .72]) than patients assaulted by Whites. In addition to following site-specific protocols, future research should further explore the mechanisms influencing clinician decision making. PMID:24733232

  14. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  15. Reproductive fitness advantage of BCR-ABL expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2010-08-01

    Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes confer a fitness advantage to cells that can lead to cancer. The tumor phenotype normally results from the interaction of many mutant genes making it difficult to estimate the fitness advantage provided by any oncogene, except when tumors depend on one oncogene only. We utilize a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), to quantitate the fitness advantage conferred by expression of BCR-ABL in hematopoietic cells from in vivo patient data. We show that BCR-ABL expression provides a high fitness advantage, which explains why this single mutation drives the chronic phase of CML. PMID:20153920

  16. 36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing... before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library? A foundation... for the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new or existing library....

  17. 36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing... before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library? A foundation... for the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new or existing library....

  18. 36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library... before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library? A foundation... for the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new or existing library....

  19. 36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing... before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library? A foundation... for the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new or existing library....

  20. 36 CFR 1281.10 - When does a foundation consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consult with NARA before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing... before offering a gift of a physical or material change, or addition to an existing library? A foundation... for the purpose of making a physical or material change or addition to a new or existing library....

  1. Medicare program; establishment of the Medicare Advantage Program; interpretation. Final rule; interpretation.

    PubMed

    2005-03-21

    This final rule clarifies our interpretation of the meaning of "entity" in the final rule titled "Medicare Program; Establishment of the Medicare Advantage Program" published in the Federal Register on January 28, 2005 (70 FR 4588). Subsequent to the publication of the Medicare Advantage (MA) final rule on January 28, 2005, we have received inquiries from parties interested in offering an MA Regional Plan concerning whether they could jointly enter into a contract with us to offer a single MA Regional Plan in a multistate region. The participating health plans wish to contract with each other to create a single "joint enterprise." They have asked us whether such a joint enterprise could be considered an "entity" under sections 1859(a)(1)and 1855(a)(1) of the Social Security Act, for purposes of offering an MA Regional Plan. The MA final rule is scheduled to take effect on March 22, 2005. Our interpretation of the word "entity" that follows in the "Supplementary Information" section of this final rule is deemed to be included in that final rule. PMID:15786589

  2. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy

    PubMed Central

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a “good-enough” processing strategy in which a “shallow” representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a “deep” (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep—grammatical—operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow—extra-grammatical—operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow–deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  3. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  4. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. PMID:23275406

  5. Epistasis and the selective advantage of sex and recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Viviane M.; da Silva, Juliana K.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of the central mechanisms favoring sex and recombination in real populations is one of the fundamental issues in evolutionary biology. Based on a previous stochastic formulation for the study of sex, here we aim to investigate the conditions under which epistasis favors the fixation of the sexual mode of reproduction in a given population. In addition, we try to identify the evolutionary forces which contribute to this process. One considers a finite population model which assumes the existence of a recombination modifier allele that can activate the recombination mechanism. We have found that sex is very little favored in a scenario of antagonistic epistasis, and this advantage only occurs in a narrow range of values of the selection coefficient sd . On the other hand, synergistic epistasis favors recombination in a very broad domain. However, the major mechanism contributing to the spreading of the modifier allele depends on the range of values of sd . At large sd , background selection favors recombination since it increases the efficacy of selection, while at low sd Muller’s ratchet is the leading mechanism.

  6. Advantage of Being a Dimer for Serratia marcescens Endonuclease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanying; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2009-01-01

    The monomer and dimer of the bacterium Serratia marcescens endonuclease (SMnase) are each catalytically active and the two subunits of the dimer function independently of each other. Nature however chooses the dimer form instead of the monomer. In order to explain this, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both model built complexes of a subunit of SMnase and the dimer with DNA in aqueous solution. We estimated the electrostatic binding energy, analyzed the distribution and dynamics of water around the complexes, identified water clusters in the protein, and related dynamics of water to the protein's function. We find that the dimer form has an electrostatic advantage over the monomer to associate with DNA. Although Mg2+ remains hexa-coordinated during the simulation, the binding pathway of DNA to Mg2+ changes from inner-sphere binding in the monomer to outer-sphere in the dimer, which may be more energetically favorable. In addition, two water clusters in the active site of each monomer and in the dimer complex were identified and localized in two regions, named ‘stabilizing’ and ‘working’ region. Water in the ‘working’ region in the dimer complex has larger fluctuations than that in the monomer. PMID:19053714

  7. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a "good-enough" processing strategy in which a "shallow" representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a "deep" (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep-grammatical-operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow-extra-grammatical-operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow-deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  8. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  9. Dosimetric advantages of IMRT simultaneous integrated boost for high-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen . E-mail: ali@radonc.mcw.edu; Wang, Jian Z.; Jursinic, Paul A.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Wang Dian

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: A sequential two-phase process, initial and boost irradiation, is the common practice for the radiotherapy management of high-risk prostate cancer. In this work, we explore the feasibility of using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), a single-phase process, to simultaneously deliver high dose to the prostate and lower dose to the pelvic nodes. In addition, we introduce the concept of voxel-equivalent dose for the comparison of treatment plans. Methods and materials: The SIB is designed to deliver the same dose (e.g., 45 Gy, 25 x 1.8 Gy) as the conventional method to the pelvic nodes and to deliver higher doses to prostate in the same 25 fractions (i.e., hypofractionation). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was used to determine suitable SIB fractionations that deliver the biologically equivalent doses to prostate. For tumor, the EUD was estimated based on the linear quadratic (LQ) model. The most recent LQ parameters derived from clinical data for prostate cancer were used. The sensitivity of LQ parameters was evaluated. The EUD for normal tissue was computed based on the widely used Lyman model. To be able to consider biologic effectiveness spatially (e.g., voxel by voxel), we propose a new concept, termed the voxel-equivalent dose (VED). The calculation of VED was similar to that for EUD, except that it was done within a voxel. To demonstrate dosimetric feasibility and advantages of the proposed IMRT SIB, we have performed a retrospective planning study on selected patient cases using commercial IMRT and three-dimensional (3D) planning systems. Four treatment scenarios were considered: (1) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent conventional 3D boost plan for prostate gland (2) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for prostate (3) IMRT plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for

  10. Faculty Usage of Social Media and Mobile Devices: Analysis of Advantages and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, Deborah Britt; Siha, Samia; Bell, Reginald L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the perceptions of professors using social media (also called Web 2.0 tools) in the classroom, what kinds of mobile devices are used to access the social media used, and what drives individuals to use them. In addition, it seeks to identify the advantages and concerns faculty has with the use of social media for…

  11. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  12. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  13. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  14. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract but Not Concrete Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in "J Mem Lang" 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this "ambiguity advantage" may in reality be a "polysemy advantage": caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings…

  15. Distance Education in Rural Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews distance-education technologies, their uses for rural schools, and related issues. Lists advantages and disadvantages for satellite TV teaching, microcomputer networks, and two-way TV instruction. Concludes that technologies' advantages outweigh disadvantages. Suggests final decision making and assessment depend on local program content…

  16. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  17. Aging and Text Comprehension: Interpretation and Domain Knowledge Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Kim, Hyo Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adults read two different history texts. In the "knowledge advantage" condition, readers read a history text about an event that was well-known to readers of all ages but most familiar to elderly adults. In the "no advantage" condition, readers read a history text about a political situation of a…

  18. BUSINESS NEEDS AND GRADUATE BUSINESS SCHOOL OFFERINGS IN MARKETING

    PubMed Central

    Thams, Meg; Glueck, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a gap exists in the skill and knowledge businesses require of marketing employees and what the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools actually provide. In this quantitative study, two set of data were collected and compared, and a gap analysis conducted. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from members of the Business Marketing Association (BMA) regarding course preferences that would best prepare students for positions in marketing. Records analysis was then undertaken of the marketing course offerings of AACSB accredited MBA programs offering an emphasis in Marketing. Gap analysis was conducted by applying a test of difference to the results of the two data collection efforts. Results of the study suggest that some misalignment between school offerings and business needs exists. PMID:26726319

  19. New entity for conducting group practice offers new potential.

    PubMed

    Rich, H I

    1994-01-01

    A new form of entity, the limited liability company (LLC), may be used by physicians to conduct group practices with the tax advantages of a partnership and insulation from liability for copractitioner's acts. The author reviews the New Jersey Limited Liability Company Act. PMID:8115063

  20. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  3. First tribal college or university to offer hydrology degree program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, Diana

    2012-07-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confederations exert sovereignty over about 27% of freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 20-30 Native American students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosciences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of Native American hydrologists, the Salish Kootenai College (SKC) in Pablo, Mont., now has associate and bachelor of science degree programs in hydrology, the first hydrology and geoscience degree programs offered by any of the Tribal Colleges and Universities in North America. SKC received approval to offer the degree programs from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities in 2010.

  4. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  5. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Noam; Shaoul, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin). Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72%) and for 128/197 patients (65%) with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23). For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72%) and in 9/20 (45%) with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053). The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment. PMID:27335981

  6. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Gas Permeable Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahn, C.; Bechmann, F.; Hofmann, S.; Dinkel, M.; Emmelmann, C.

    Laser additive manufacturing offers a variety of new design possibilities. In mold making laser additive manufactured inserts with conformal cooling channels are already state of the art. Pneumatic ejectors for injection molds are a new application for laser additive manufacturing. The pneumatic ejectors require a durable gas permeable material. This material is produced by placing the scan vectors for the laser additive manufacturing process in a defined pattern. Trials with different plastics proofed the function and reliability of the pneumatic ejector concept in the injection molding cycle.

  7. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  8. On the advantages of word frequency and contextual diversity measures extracted from subtitles: The case of Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; Simões, Alberto; de Almeida, José João; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the potential advantage of the lexical databases using subtitles and present SUBTLEX-PT, a new lexical database for 132,710 Portuguese words obtained from a 78 million corpus based on film and television series subtitles, offering word frequency and contextual diversity measures. Additionally we validated SUBTLEX-PT with a lexical decision study involving 1920 Portuguese words (and 1920 nonwords) with different lengths in letters (M = 6.89, SD = 2.10) and syllables (M = 2.99, SD = 0.94). Multiple regression analyses on latency and accuracy data were conducted to compare the proportion of variance explained by the Portuguese subtitle word frequency measures with that accounted by the recent written-word frequency database (Procura-PALavras; P-PAL; Soares, Iriarte, et al., 2014 ). As its international counterparts, SUBTLEX-PT explains approximately 15% more of the variance in the lexical decision performance of young adults than the P-PAL database. Moreover, in line with recent studies, contextual diversity accounted for approximately 2% more of the variance in participants' reading performance than the raw frequency counts obtained from subtitles. SUBTLEX-PT is freely available for research purposes (at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases ). PMID:25263599

  9. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Protection (PVP) Office. The PVP office and plant examination facility of the Science and Technology programs.... The PVP office is located as follows: USDA, AMS, Science & Technology Programs, Plant Variety... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below....

  10. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Office. The PVP office and plant examination facility of the Science and Technology programs issues... is located as follows: USDA, AMS, Science & Technology Programs, Plant Variety Protection Office... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below....

  11. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  12. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contains any conditions, exception, or reservation contrary to these instructions, the assembly will be... this section below. (iii) Attached conformed copy to title assembly. (iv) File signed copy with project..., will be used. (d) Payment. After acceptance and distribution of the offer assembly and the...

  13. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 29 CFR 1910.142 or the full set of standards set forth at part 654, subpart E of this chapter, whichever is applicable under the criteria of 20 CFR 654.401; except that, for mobile range housing for... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section...

  14. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 29 CFR 1910.142 or the full set of standards set forth at part 654, subpart E of this chapter, whichever is applicable under the criteria of 20 CFR 654.401; except that, for mobile range housing for... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section...

  15. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 29 CFR 1910.142 or the full set of standards set forth at part 654, subpart E of this chapter, whichever is applicable under the criteria of 20 CFR 654.401; except that, for mobile range housing for... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section...

  16. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 29 CFR 1910.142 or the full set of standards set forth at part 654, subpart E of this chapter, whichever is applicable under the criteria of 20 CFR 654.401; except that, for mobile range housing for... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section...

  17. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  18. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  19. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  20. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...