Sample records for offer additional advantages

  1. Using worms to process food discards offers several advantages

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Using worms to process food discards offers several advantages.Allyou willneedareanearthwormbin,bedding,water, compostingearthworms,andfoodscrapsorany appropriateorganicmaterials. Worm Bin.Toprovide Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage Vermicomposting (earthworm composting) turns many types of kitchen food

  2. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  3. Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional teaching

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Additional Opportunities OIMB offers a marine biology major for undergraduates and additional, mail sent to students should be addressed to Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, PO Box 5389 to Coos Bay. For More Information Oregon Institute of Marine Biology PO Box 5389, Charleston OR 97420

  4. Abstract--Space simulators offer engineers great advantages on studying space-related dynamic behavior without actually

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Evangelos

    Abstract-- Space simulators offer engineers great advantages on studying space-related dynamic, leading to close-to-optimal spacecraft missions. In this paper, an air-bearing planar space simulator space simulators, since the cost of a potential space mission is remarkable. On the other hand, safety

  5. 50-Plus Ways to Be Water Smart 1. If your local water utility offers water-saving incentives or in-home water audits, take advantage

    E-print Network

    50-Plus Ways to Be Water Smart BEHAVIORS 1. If your local water utility offers water-saving incentives or in-home water audits, take advantage of these programs. 2. Don't let water run while brushing your teeth, washing your face, or shaving. 3. Never pour water down the drain when there may be another

  6. Get Help for Free! Take advantage of these Stony Brook departments that offer trained staff with proven records to help YOU improve your academic performance!

    E-print Network

    Ge, Qiaode Jeff

    Get Help for Free! Take advantage of these Stony Brook departments that offer trained staff with proven records to help YOU improve your academic performance! Services Courses Type of Help Location and Approximate Hours* AMS Help Room AMS 102, 151, 161, 201,210 Walk-in questions 010 Harriman, Mon-Fri 9AM­5PM

  7. Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Physical Education (PHED) Activity Courses In addition to the degree programs offered through HSS, over fifty physical education activity courses are offered through the department, serving close a physically active lifestyle is paramount to your health and we strongly encourage all students to adopt

  8. [Introduction of platelet additive solutions in transfusion practice. Advantages, disadvantages and benefit for patients].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Georges; Vasse, Julie; Hervé, Françoise; Tardivel, René; Semana, Gilbert

    2007-05-01

    Platelet additive solutions (PAS) have been developed since the years 1980. However, decisive improvements have been made in the last five years, leading nowadays to several PAS available for transfusion practice. Few compounds are present in PAS, with the intention of controlling platelet metabolic alterations and activation that occur during storage: acetate, which is a substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, enables to maintain oxidative metabolism, is present in all PAS; a buffer effect is required to prevent the progressive pH fall during storage, and is obtained either with sodium phosphate or gluconate; platelet activation is controlled by citrate, and in the latest PAS, by magnesium and potassium. It is important to note that whatever the PAS used, it is mandatory to maintain a final concentration of 20-40% of plasma, mainly in order to ensure glucose availability. The use of PAS leads to a more rationalized blood processing, as it provides an additional volume of plasma available for plasma fractionation, it contributes to standardization of blood components, and it is part of at least one pathogen reduction process. The expected benefit for patient is the reduction of adverse reactions related to plasma. There is already evidence that the incidence of allergic adverse reactions is reduced. In the case of other less frequent adverse reactions such as transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) or haemolytic reaction due to minor ABO incompatibility, only a long-term follow-up through haemovigilance organization will be informative. PMID:17524696

  9. wanted more information, so he approached ECE Prof. Robert Sainati and asked for an additional course offering at the 8000

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    course offering at the 8000 level. Prof. Sainati agreed that a class in wireless application antennas to convince his employer to fund an "Advanced Antennas for Wireless Applications" class at the University introduced students to the types of antennas being used today and some of the design philosophies behind them

  10. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385873

  11. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385863

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Second-order advantage obtained from standard addition first-order instrumental data and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Calculation of the feasible bands of results.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Naimeh; Bahram, Morteza; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2014-03-25

    In order to achieve the second-order advantage, second-order data per sample is usually required, e.g., kinetic-spectrophotometric data. In this study, instead of monitoring the time evolution of spectra (and collecting the kinetic-spectrophotometric data) replicate spectra are used to build a virtual second order data. This data matrix (replicate mode×?) is rank deficient. Augmentation of these data with standard addition data [or standard sample(s)] will break the rank deficiency, making the quantification of the analyte of interest possible. The MCR-ALS algorithm was applied for the resolution and quantitation of the analyte in both simulated and experimental data sets. In order to evaluate the rotational ambiguity in the retrieved solutions, the MCR-BANDS algorithm was employed. It has been shown that the reliability of the quantitative results significantly depends on the amount of spectral overlap in the spectral region of occurrence of the compound of interest and the remaining constituent(s). PMID:24370937

  14. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the…

  15. Providing patients with pharmacogenetic test results affects adherence to statin therapy: results of the Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins (AKROBATS) trial.

    PubMed

    Charland, S L; Agatep, B C; Herrera, V; Schrader, B; Frueh, F W; Ryvkin, M; Shabbeer, J; Devlin, J J; Superko, H R; Stanek, E J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of statin therapy and the numerous strategies used to improve adherence, no strategy has used direct communication of genetic test results to the patient as an adherence and persistence motivator. We investigated in a real-world setting the effect of a process of providing KIF6 test results and risk information directly to 647 tested patients on 6-month statin adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)) and persistence compared with concurrent non-tested matched controls. Adjusted 6-month statin PDC was significantly greater in tested patients: 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.82) vs controls 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), P<0.0001. Significantly more tested patients were adherent (PDC?0.80) (63.4% (59.6-67.1%) vs 45.0% (41.1-48.8%), P<0.0001) and persisted on therapy (69.1% (65.4-72.5%) vs 53.3% (49.4-57.1%), P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in a secondary comparison with 779 unmatched patients who declined testing. The Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins trial provides the first evidence that pharmacogenetic testing may modify patient adherence. PMID:23979174

  16. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    This special issue of JERHRE focuses on ethical considerations in community-based participatory research (CBPR), including IRB practices, partnerships, and CBPR in Aboriginal and Indigenous communities. This Educational Advantage section presents discussion questions relating to the range of issues raised across the different articles. While separate questions are identified for each of the articles, we encourage readers to borrow relevant ideas from other articles in this issue when answering questions. For example, in responding to the Lawrence Research Initiative Working Group questions, what further insight can be gained from the articles written by Postma or Jacklin and Kinoshameg? We encourage you to discuss the following questions in small groups, as the group process will deepen your insights. PMID:19385748

  17. SemiMonthly Pay Vacation or Banked Time Payout Request In addition to the onetime optional cash advance program offered to eligible salaried NASA staff transitioning to semimonthly pay on July 1, 2012,

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    advance program offered to eligible salaried NASA staff transitioning to semimonthly pay on July 1, 2012, the University has recently approved two additional options to assist staff. Eligible NASA salaried employees

  18. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ensure that the appropriate representations and certifications on ORCA are accurate and complete at the time it submits its offer to...code assigned to the contract; (b) It is listed on CCR and ORCA as an EDWOSB or WOSB; (c) There has been no material...

  19. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  20. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

  1. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-print Network

    build- ings. Pellets are used in furnaces built for fairly high combustion temperatures. This technology a range of applications in the emerging bioeconomy. The simplest technology for wood is direct combustion, and then heat is Heat pipe map. Woody Biomass for Energy in Michigan TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION AND INQUIRY EXTENSION

  2. Polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Swift, G. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Polymers, because of the unique properties offered by them, are being employed to larger extents as additives. Polymeric additives may offer incentives such as cost, performance and unique properties. Polymeric additives have been used for years as viscosity modifiers in motor oils, plastisols, antifoaming agents and fillers. New uses are quickly emerging as permanent coloring agent, antibacterial agents and as delivery aids for metals and metal oxides.

  3. Community College Advantages: The Roles of Accreditation with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges offer many advantages over other types of institutions, financially and educationally. This article will explore some of those advantages, including comparisons to other types of institutions. A brief introduction to accreditation will contextualize how community colleges have advantages of certain institutions. Lastly,…

  4. Earth Advantage Institute: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schnepp, Katie

    This brief presentation provides an introduction to the Earth Advantage Institute, which is "a nonprofit organization that works with the building industry to help implement sustainable building practices." Information on the history of the organization, its partners, stakeholders and sponsors is included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  5. was offered successively another normal diet containing 65 p. 100 skim milk powder and two experimental diets obtained by addition of sodium citrate or hydrochloric acid to the normal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    than that observed with milk replacers containing only whey proteins as source of nitrogen. It appearswas offered successively another normal diet containing 65 p. 100 skim milk powder and two amounts. Therefore, the alteration or suppression of the clotting ability of milk proteins

  6. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  7. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan membership are warranted to move more beneficiaries into MA. PMID:24890251

  8. The Advantage of Using Artificial Neural Networks in Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia IANCU; Doru TILIUTE

    The advantages offered by the neural models help investors in evaluating the timelines. We have chosen using ANN in this paper, since their learning (training) highly resembles the characteristics associated to human learning.

  9. Another option is to offer add-on or inclusive packages for multi-night guests. In this scenario guests pay more, but in addition to their room they receive a gift certificate

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    their enterprise as a sole proprietorship, with few special requirements and no legal paperwork. This one person an established business.13 You can embed the farmstay enterprise into your existing farm business or create (LLCs) involve additional legal and accounting requirements, but also provide liability protection

  10. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    PubMed

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the abundance of cells. We also report that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration positively co-varied with each other and, in males, were positively correlated with testosterone. In summary, we offer a higher resolution of understanding of the function of GnRH-I and GnIH during the breeding period of European starlings. PMID:26078369

  11. Unique advantage of gonioscopy for viewing an anterior pyramidal cataract.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Etty

    2001-11-01

    Anterior polar cataracts (APC) are a relatively rare but well-documented form of congenital cataract. Occasionally, these white disc-shaped opacities protrude towards the anterior chamber with an inverse cone-like morphology and are known as anterior pyramidal cataracts. These represent three to four per cent of all types of congenital cataracts. APCs portray a dominant mode of inheritance and generally do not progress over time. Due to their small size, APCs generally have little effect on vision and are simply monitored clinically. Photodocumentation of pyramidal cataracts has traditionally shown biomicroscopic views of the opacities. In addition to a review of APC, this report describes how a gonioscope offers a unique observational advantage in viewing an anterior pyramidal cataract. PMID:12366362

  12. Home advantage in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ruud H

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage. PMID:21104519

  13. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  14. Brief History Degrees Offered

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Research Focus Areas Knoxville Campus Research Facilities Oak Ridge Campus Research Facilities (nearby Source (SNS) · Nuclear Safeguards Laboratory · Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) · OakBrief History Degrees Offered 2012 Graduates Enrollment Faculty Support Staff FY 2013 Research

  15. Advantages and limitations of automatic flexible endoscope reprocessors.

    PubMed

    Muscarella, L F

    1996-08-01

    The advantages and limitations of automatic flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFERs) are presented. These medical devices can increase patient safety and minimize personnel exposure to the liquid chemical germicide and its vapors. Some models feature a printer to document important reprocessing parameters, an in-line tap water filtration system to reduce the likelihood of endoscope (and patient) contamination, and a heater to satisfy the elevated temperature requirements of some liquid chemical germicide labels. Although they offer significant advantages compared with manual reprocessing, AFERs have their limitations. Current models do not automate every endoscope reprocessing step and are not typically designed to reprocess every endoscope channel. Some AFER models may have to be periodically decontaminated to ensure that their internal components do not support microbial colonization. Moreover, their cost per cycle can be considerably more than manual reprocessing without necessarily reducing overall reprocessing time. Its limitations notwithstanding, an AFER is likely to be an asset in a busy endoscopy center. In addition to comparing automated and manual reprocessing, this article addresses important reprocessing issues and purchasing concerns. PMID:8870914

  16. AVC Advantage: Hardware Functional Specifications

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    the functionality of the AVC Advantage hardware, broken down into a number of subsystems. We have attemptedAVC Advantage: Hardware Functional Specifications J. Alex Halderman and Ariel J. Feldman {jhalderm of $82 for the lot [1], and we reverse engineered one of these machines to develop these functional

  17. The Star Rating system and Medicare Advantage plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement. PMID:26072530

  18. Precollege science plan offered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The federal government should help create a system of 2,000 “exemplary” precollege public schools that would lead the country in initiating sweeping changes in science and math education. This is among the recommendations in a recent National Science Board (NSB) report on precollege education that urged increased exposure of students to science and improved teacher quality. The report is unique among recent education reports in that it offers an itemized price tag for its recommendations. The bottom line: a first-year federal government outlay of $956 million.

  19. Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Granryd; J. C. Conklin; J. R. Sand

    1991-01-01

    The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of

  20. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision. PMID:25197892

  1. Commentary: Binding Early Offers versus Caps for Medical Malpractice Claims?

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Like damages caps, early offer reform promises reduction in the costs of medical liability cases. In contrast to damages caps, early offer reform offers advantages to both claimant and defendant. Under early offer, the defendant would have the option to offer an injured patient periodic payments for the patient's net economic losses as they accrue, but not payments for noneconomic losses (pain and suffering). If an early offer were made and accepted, that would settle the claim. This commentary1 explains how an early offer reform might work and summarizes data from a recent closed claim study of medical malpractice cases in Texas and Florida. The data show widespread opportunities for successful early offers and provide evidence that substantial per case savings would result. PMID:17517116

  2. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  3. Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages,

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    to require a cost- efficient, highly effective and scaleable process. Later, the marketing of Monsanto from E. coli. Monsanto's bGH product sells for only $11.60/g (http://www.monsanto.com/dairy/ 3_econom

  4. Does vibration offer any advantage over visual stimulation studies (VSS) in the assessment of erectile capacity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KR Wylie; D Steward; SJ Walters

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether vibration stimulation or erotic videotape material can provide an acceptable diagnostic yield for patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) without the patient needing to endure more explicit erotic films, which may be distasteful to some patients, or intracavernous injections, to which there may be a high inhibitory response. Ninety-five subjects were randomly

  5. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  6. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    E-print Network

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

  7. Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects. PMID:24049878

  8. Selective advantage of diffusing faster.

    PubMed

    Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability. PMID:24856726

  9. Amazing Addition!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Staggs

    2008-04-01

    Math can be fun! Practice your addtion facts in one of these amazing games! Go on a mission with math! -- Addition Mission Count your apples! -- Apple Addition Be a math teacher! -- Chalkboard Addition ...

  10. Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Granryd, E. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration); Conklin, J.C.; Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-08-15

    The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of the heat exchange equipment during the cycle. This additional advantage is particularly useful for analyzing the vapor compression refrigeration cycle using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, where nonisothermal phase-change processes occur. Problems such as heat exchanger pinch-points and wet compression are easily detected. The possible cycle enhancement due to a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is readily apparent. This paper presents and discusses examples of enthalpy-temperature diagrams. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granryd, E.; Conklin, J. C.; Sand, J. R.

    1991-08-01

    The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of the heat exchange equipment during the cycle. This additional advantage is particularly useful for analyzing the vapor compression refrigeration cycle using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, where nonisothermal phase-change processes occur. Problems such as heat exchanger pinch-points and wet compression are easily detected. The possible cycle enhancement due to a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is readily apparent. This paper presents and discusses examples of enthalpy-temperature diagrams.

  12. Amazing Addition!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bolton

    2009-04-22

    I want you to practice your awesome addition skills on the websites below. I know you will do beautifully! Start by going to this website first: Addition Fun!!! Once you finish that website you may continue onto this website: Alien Addition If you have extra time play Around the World Addition: Once you have clicked on the link, click on the button for addition.After that you can choose to play on easy or ...

  13. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    training to introduce the basics of a career in the staffing industry -Assigned mentors to guide youCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description IT staffing and Global Services for 82% of the Fortune 500. Ranked #1 in the industry by IT Services Business

  14. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    overall impact to company?s profitability ?Run monthly reports supporting Financial Analysts includingCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description and creative companies making premium chocolate, with six production sites in Europe, two in the USA

  15. Advantages Of Using Thin Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonborn, K.-H.; Bader, H. C.

    1988-06-01

    In medicine a number of fiber-applications for laser power transmission are used on a routine basis. For example several watts of laser power out of an argon laser ( ? = 488 nm and 514 nm) are transmitted through fibers for ophthalmic surgery. Especially adapted fibers with core diameters of 50 ?m or 80 ?m are used. But this laser is not considered to be a "high power laser". High power lasers used in medicine are - the CO2-laser ( ? = 10.6 ?m) for cutting and - the Nd:YAG-laser ( ? = 1060 ?m and 1320 nm) mainly for coagulation. The beam powers are 20 - 180 W. Because fibers for the CO-laser are presently under development and thus are not yet ready for clinical use we will restrict our scope to Nd:YAG-lasers. The high power beam of the Nd:YAG-laser is usually guided through 600 ?m silica fibers. But also thinner fibers should be possible. In our paper we would like to discuss whether thinner fibers are advantageous and what are the limits for reducing the fiber diameter. After a short recapitulation of fiber data the different aspects correlated to the fiber diameter are reviewed. Each aspect is discussed in detail and finally conclusions are given as to which fiber diameter seems most appropriate depending on the desired application.

  16. Advantages and Uses of AMTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Static conversion systems are gaining importance in recent times because of newer applications of electricity like in spacecraft, hybrid-electric vehicles, military uses and domestic purposes. Of the many new static energy conversion systems that are being considered, one is the Alkali Metal Thermal Electric Converter (AMTEC). It is a thermally regenerative, electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical power. As the name suggests, this system uses an alkali metal in its process. The electrochemical process involved in the working of AMTEC is ionization of alkali metal atoms at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. The electrons produced as a result flow through the external load thus doing work, and finally recombine with the metal ions at the cathode. AMTECs convert the work done during the nearly isothermal expansion of metal vapor to produce a high current and low voltage electron flow. Due to its principle of working it has many inherent advantages over other conventional generators. These will be discussed briefly.

  17. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  18. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  19. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  20. Advantages of blood pressure optimization.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bernard M Y; Manil, Yu Bun; Tse, Hung Fat; Kumana, Cyrus R; Lau, Chu-Pak

    2005-01-01

    Lowering blood pressure (BP) reduces cardiovascular events, but aggressive BP management may not be advantageous. Optimal BP control (target: <120/80 mm Hg) and conventional BP control (target: <140/90 mm Hg) were compared in patients with hypertension in terms of target-organ damage and tolerability. A total of 23 patients with hypertension were randomly assigned to optimal versus conventional therapy for 6 months. Therapy was initiated with lercanidipine 10 mg/day. For BP control, the dose could be doubled or other drugs added. Three indices of target-organ damage were studied: left ventricular mass (LVM) index, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion. The BP decreased markedly by 21.3+/-3.4/13.2+/-1.7 mm Hg in the conventional therapy group and by 26.6+/-3.6/17.9+/-1.5 mm Hg in the optimal therapy group. Diastolic BP was significantly lower, by 4.7+/-2.3 mm Hg, in the optimal therapy group (P<.05). Ambulatory BP was also decreased in both groups. There was no significant change in LVM or FMD in either group. Baseline LVM index and FMD values were correlated with systolic BP (r=0.51, P=.02; r=0.54, P=.009). In the optimal therapy group, urinary albumin excretion increased significantly (P=.04). Plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) decreased with antihypertensive therapy (P=.03). Treatment was well tolerated, and none of the patients withdrew from the study. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the 2 groups. Optimization of BP is feasible, safe, and well tolerated; however, a larger study of longer duration may be needed to demonstrate improvements in LVM and endothelial function with conventional versus optimal therapy. PMID:16418138

  1. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  2. Advantages of redeployable security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A.

    1993-12-31

    Security systems must be proven dependable, cost effective, easily installed and maintained. Further, these technologies should not require skilled technicians to install, align, maintain and/or repair during the project`s life cycle. These new priorities and financial demands have to be addressed utilizing various existing and proven technologies that have been developed and are currently being applied. One of these technologies directly relates to the development and application of rapid deployment and redeployable sensor systems that permit flexible asset protection and smaller perimeters within a given complex, rather than intrusion detection systems for an entire facility. Both Rapid Deployment Intrusion Detection System (RDIDS), and Redeployable Intrusion Detection System (RIDS) technologies can be designed for operation in any weather conditions, impervious to salt air, chemical and most explosive environments, as well as highly resistant to false alarms. These systems utilize photovoltaic power with 12-hour battery backup as their primary source of energy. Sensor systems can be integrated with Radio Frequency (RF) polling transceivers operating in the VHF or UHF frequencies. This enhancement offers extensive flexibility and substantial cash savings Is compared to hard wired installations. RDIDS and RIDS can be deployed for limited areas and be operational in a fraction of the time required for conventional systems. The result affords a fully warranted long life RIDS, modular in design, flexible in application, false alarm free, self-diagnostic, and impervious to most environmental conditions. Further, RIDS can be engineered to interface with fiber optic technology thereby ensuring quality transmission in rural environments. Fiber optic integration proves even more effective when using CCTV cameras. The fiber optic module can be used for monitoring the tamper and alarm circuits as well as video transmission.

  3. Technology Offer Extension of the microscope stage of an

    E-print Network

    Technology Offer Extension of the microscope stage of an optical microscope Keywords life cell imaging, microscope stage insert, microscope slide imaging, life cell imaging culture chambers Advantages This prototype expands the possibilities of ibidi® Slides. It enables continuous microscope operations during

  4. Developmental Integrative BiologyLogistics Logistics management has become a source of competitive advantage and value

    E-print Network

    Tarau, Paul

    Developmental Integrative BiologyLogistics Logistics management has become a source of competitive recognized as a hub of expertise in logistics and supply chain management, offering an exceptional base-Fort Worth metroplex offers superior advantages. The DFW area is the largest inland port in the U

  5. INTRODUCTION The combination of the advantages of silicon-on-

    E-print Network

    INTRODUCTION The combination of the advantages of silicon-on- insulator (SOI) technology and high of electronic properties by strain engineer- ing and heterojunction energy barriers. In addition demonstrate a relaxed SGOI substrate fabricated by a combination of ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition

  6. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , site development, quarries, house lots, utilities and marine work. Throughout the Northeast, we have 6 construction and 2 quarry divisions and an explosives retail company with local offices to support our; engineering, technical services, product and equipment services and safety. We offer high quality training

  7. Summary of Curricula Offered Types of Curricula Offered

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    of Music, the Master of Public Administration, the Master of Public Health, and the Master of Social Work Writing, Theatre Arts) Master of Music Master of Public Administration Master of Public Health Master Administration offers the Bachelor of Science degree in business administration with majors in seven fields

  8. Summary of Curricula Offered Types of Curricula Offered

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    of Music, the Master of Public Administration, the Master of Public Health, the Master of Social Work Master of Public Administration Master of Public Health Master of Social Work Master of Social Work Administration offers the Bachelor of Science degree in business administration with majors in seven fields

  9. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...offer notice will contain sufficient detail to outline each element of damages as well as discuss contributory negligence, the SOL or other reasons justifying a compromise offer. The offer letter should include language indicating that if the offer is...

  10. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...offer notice will contain sufficient detail to outline each element of damages as well as discuss contributory negligence, the SOL or other reasons justifying a compromise offer. The offer letter should include language indicating that if the offer is...

  11. Research Foundation Employee Offer Letter We are pleased to offer you the position of on the payroll of The Research

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Research Foundation Employee Offer Letter Dear We are pleased to offer you the position of on the payroll of The Research Foundation for SUNY in the office of You will receive additional information: Research Foundation Human Resources & Payroll PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY, 13902-6000. Ph: 607-777- 4264

  12. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden…

  13. Offered jointly with International Business

    E-print Network

    Offered jointly with Master in International Business #12;.02 Welcome to Barcelona Welcome to UPF where business, culture and social life drive the community. Barcelona has one of the world's highest. Master in International Business #12;ESCI, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional www.esci.upf.edu .03

  14. Water Pollution Control courses offered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

  15. Will Medicare Advantage Benchmark Reforms Impact Plan Rebates and Enrollment?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act payment reforms. Study Design and Methods First difference regressions of county-level Medicare Advantage payment and enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2006 – 2010. Results A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to Medicare Advantage plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point decrease in MA penetration (p < 0.001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (p < 0.001). Changes were markedly larger in counties with low levels of Traditional Medicare spending, a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. Affordable Care Act reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in low spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 2.7 percentage points in the lowest spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. Conclusions Medicare Advantage enrollment responds to the generosity of supplemental benefits available. MA plans in low-cost counties may have difficulty offering the supplemental benefits that attract enrollees even when benchmarks are set at levels well above Traditional Medicare spending if plans do not find ways to deliver standard Medicare benefits at lower cost. PMID:25495112

  16. Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Absolutely Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Korth

    2005-03-23

    Here are some fun games and activities to help with understanding and using addition. NUMBER LINE PRACTICE Begin with this fun game Line Jumper. Click on the medium level and complete all ten number line problems. When finished close the window and return to complete the next assignment. MR. BEAR\\'S CLOSET In this exciting activiy, Mr. Bear can\\'t decide what to wear. Can you help him? ...

  19. Montana University System Medicare Advantage Plan (MUSMAP)

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Montana University System Medicare Advantage Plan (MUSMAP) Employer Group Health Plan Enrollment Form To Enroll in the Montana University System Medicare Advantage Plan, please provide the following information: Please contact New West Medicare if you need information in another language or format (Large

  20. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  1. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of <10?s and repetition rates can be adjusted continuously from several kHz up to cw mode while addressing power levels from 0-100%. By combining trigger signals with analog modulations nearly any kind of pulse form can be realized. Diode lasers also offer a wide, adaptable range of wavelengths, and wavelength stabilization. We report a line width of less than 0.1nm while the wavelength stability is in the range of MHz which is comparable to solid state lasers. In terms of applications, especially our (broad) wavelength combining technology for power scaling opens the window to new processes of cutting or welding and process control. Fast power modulation through direct current control allows pulses of several microseconds with hundreds of watts average power. Spot sizes of less than 100 ?m are obtained at the work piece. Such a diode system allows materials processing with a pulse parameter range that is hardly addressed by any other laser system. High productivity material ablation with cost effective lasers is enabled. The wide variety of wavelengths, high brightness, fast power modulation and high efficiency of diode lasers results in a strong pull of existing markets, but also spurs the development of a wide variety of new applications.

  2. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    pharmaceutical companies. Adimab's yeast-based monoclonal antibody discovery platform functions like a synthetic packages comprised of competitive salary, bonus, and equity components, in addition to a world class

  3. Cryptic Fitness Advantage: Diploids Invade Haploid Populations Despite Lacking Any Apparent Advantage as

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Cryptic Fitness Advantage: Diploids Invade Haploid Populations Despite Lacking Any Apparent Advantage as Measured by Standard Fitness Assays Aleeza C. Gerstein*, Sarah P. Otto Zoology Department. Surprisingly, none of our fitness component measures (lag phase, growth rate, biomass production) indicated

  4. Electronic Recruiting: An Alternative with Many Advantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Mary J.; Woo, Tony Chi-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Discusses electronic recruiting, a process which enables employers to directly access computerized college student resume information via modem. Addresses such advantages as providing up-to-date student information and alleviating paperwork. Provides an example of this system. (BHK)

  5. MSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter wheat systems August 13, 2003 Ag researchers are studying winter peas and lentils to see whether they offer enough yield advantage over spring peas and lentils that they would make a better rotation choice for winter

  6. A group test of auditory lateral advantage.

    PubMed

    Williams, S M

    1986-06-01

    It is possible to demonstrate the right-sided advantage for speech in a group. This is achieved by playing simultaneous messages over two loudspeakers rather than over headphones. The effect was shown with pre-cued report order in a small (N = 14) and a large (N = 40) group. The effect was larger for the small group. This result argued against an attentional interpretation of the advantage. PMID:3731803

  7. Additive Manufacturing for Mass Customization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Reeves; Chris Tuck; Richard Hague

    \\u000a Additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive manufacturing technology that requires no tooling for production. AM requires\\u000a three dimensional computer aided design (3DCAD) data in order to additively build parts from numerous materials, including polymers, metals and ceramics. Within this chapter the advantages realized\\u000a by taking an AM approach are considered as well as their application in mass customization MC). Particular

  8. Calculating the home advantage in soccer leagues.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Pollard, Richard

    2014-03-27

    A recent article published in the Journal of Human Kinetics (Saavedra et al., 2013) was based on a flawed methodology when calculating the home advantage values in soccer leagues. This led to incorrect calculations, false conclusions and some misleading results about home advantage in 52 soccer leagues of UEFA countries over a 10 year period. The aim of this letter was to explain these flaws and to make sure future research would not be influenced by the subsequent results and conclusions that had been presented. PMID:25031667

  9. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  10. Passive imaging using mm-waves offers very significant advantages in scientific and military surveillance. However, the relatively long

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Andy

    a two-dimensional antenna array into the structure of an aircraft so that the transverse effective dimen passive mm-wave image recorded using the QinetiQ MITRE scanned passive mm-wave imager, shown in Fig. 1 surfaces act as mirrors and have apparent temperatures equal to those of the scene that is reflected

  11. DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zareen Amtul; Mary Keet; Lin Wang; Peter Merrifield; David Westaway; Richard F. Rozmahel; Koichi M. Iijima

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with

  12. DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development. PMID:21931647

  13. Abstract--Helical computed tomography (HCT) offers several advantages on conventional step-and-shoot CT for imaging a

    E-print Network

    the x-ray exposure significantly. This work aims to reduce the radiation by noise reduction on low) the axial sampling of HCT projections is nearly continuous as the detector system rotates; (2) the noise). The statistical PWLS solution was calculated analytically to achieve the maximum reconstruction speed [3

  14. Operating agricultural equipment accurately can be difficult, tedious, or even hazardous. Automatic control offers many potential advantages over human

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    , and tested on a large farm tractor. Automatic Steering of Farm Vehicles Using GPS Michael O'Connor, Thomas of the cab, and an equipment rack was installed inside the cab. Front-wheel angle was sensed and actuated

  15. Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines that Utilize Myeloid Rather than Plasmacytoid Cells Offer a Superior Survival Advantage in Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mahua; Chang, Alan L; Miska, Jason; Wainwright, Derek A; Ahmed, Atique U; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Pytel, Peter; Han, Yu; Tobias, Alex; Zhang, Lingjiao; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that are traditionally divided into two distinct subsets, myeloid DC (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs). pDCs are known for their ability to secrete large amounts of IFN-?. Apart from IFN-? production, pDCs can also process Ag and induce T cell immunity or tolerance. In several solid tumors, pDCs have been shown to play a critical role in promoting tumor immunosuppression. We investigated the role of pDCs in the process of glioma progression in the syngeneic murine model of glioma. We show that glioma-infiltrating pDCs are the major APC in glioma and are deficient in IFN-? secretion (p < 0.05). pDC depletion leads to increased survival of the mice bearing intracranial tumor by decreasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and by decreasing the suppressive capabilities of Tregs. We subsequently compared the ability of mDCs and pDCs to generate effective antiglioma immunity in a GL261-OVA mouse model of glioma. Our data suggest that mature pDCs and mDCs isolated from naive mice can be effectively activated and loaded with SIINFEKL Ag in vitro. Upon intradermal injection in the hindleg, a fraction of both types of DCs migrate to the brain and lymph nodes. Compared to mice vaccinated with pDC or control mice, mice vaccinated with mDCs generate a robust Th1 type immune response, characterized by high frequency of CD4(+)T-bet(+) T cells and CD8(+)SIINFEKEL(+) T cells. This robust antitumor T cell response results in tumor eradication and long-term survival in 60% of the animals (p < 0.001). PMID:26026061

  16. Predicting the Future: Advantages of Semilocal Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hartman; James D. Keeler

    1991-01-01

    In investigating gaussian radial basis function (RBF) networks for their ability to model nonlinear time series, we have found that while RBF networks are much faster than standard sigmoid unit backpropagation for low-dimensional problems, their advantages diminish in high-dimensional input spaces. This is particularly troublesome if the input space contains irrelevant variables. We suggest that this limitation is due to

  17. Newer antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila J. Wallace

    2001-01-01

    The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective

  18. Sustaining Strategic Advantage in the Information Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gezinus J. Hidding

    1999-01-01

    In the information age, the dynamics of competition is intensifying. In such dynamic environments, how long can firms exploit an (IT based) advantage? We classify various well known IT strategy frameworks by the strategy theory they are based on and summarize their basic logic. We show that traditional strategy thinking ignores speed of change or dynamics of competition. A new

  19. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  20. Ace Cash Express Advantage Sales and Marketing

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Ace Cash Express Advantage Sales and Marketing AppFolio AT&T Atmos Energy, MDTX Div Automatic Data. CF Accountants & Consultants Chacon Autos ChildCare Careers Cisco Systems Con-way Multimodal Crowe Capital Markets (FXCM) GEICO Genpact Georgia-Pacific Corp. Grubbs Infiniti GXA Network Solutions Hilton

  1. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  2. The Distribution of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the cyclical development of an issue is critical to effective issues management. Illustrates how an issue evolves in a predictable manner, originating from trends and developing through four identifiable stages. Emphasizes the organization's advantages in systematically managing its response to this process. (KEH)

  3. Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zipse

    1993-01-01

    The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

  4. FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

  5. Utilization of fiber to the home as a Blue Ocean Strategy to gain competitive advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muneer Zuhdi; Elisabeth T. Pereira; Antonio Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    The telecom industry has become overcrowded with companies trying to address limited markets with similar product offerings. Operators need to have the right strategy for upgrading their Access Networks to keep up with the never ending need for higher data rates. This paper examines how deploying FTTH can be the perfect Blue Ocean Strategy to gain a competitive advantage in

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of using artificial neural networks versus logistic regression for predicting medical outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack V. Tu

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are algorithms that can be used to perform nonlinear statistical modeling and provide a new alternative to logistic regression, the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for dichotomous outcomes in medicine. Neural networks offer a number of advantages, including requiring less formal statistical training, ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent

  7. Ireland's Foreign Direct Investment Competitive Advantage and Japanese Outward Foreign Direct Investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Rios-Morales; Louis Brennan

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses Ireland's record in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). FDI has been identified as one of the key factors that has spurred the growth of the Celtic Tiger. An adaptation of Porter's Diamond is offered to explain the determinants of Ireland's competitive advantage in attracting FDI. The overall trends in FDI inflows to Ireland are considered. The study

  8. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  9. Serving Your Customers? Corporate Culture : A Sustainable Market Advantage for Computerized Manufacturing Equipment Vendors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kitchell; Charles S. Mayer

    1994-01-01

    In the 1990s, computerized manufacturing equipment vendors will continue to operate within an increasingly competitive environment as technologies mature and product variety proliferates. Against this climate, recommends a critical marketing tool that offers manufacturers a sustainable market advantage, namely, serving the customer?s corporate culture for market gain. Depicts a systematic approach for computerized manufacturing equipment vendors to observe, interpret and

  10. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  11. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  12. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  13. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised. PMID:19999684

  14. On the many advantages of local-electrode atom probes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T F; Camus, P P; Larson, D J; Holzman, L M; Bajikar, S S

    1996-01-01

    Local extraction electrodes offer several crucial advantages for operation of atom probes. Because of the proximity of the local extraction electrode to the specimen, the electric field produced at the specimen apex by a given voltage is enhanced and the voltage required for field evaporation is reduced. In a voltage-pulsed atom probe, the absolute magnitude of the energy uncertainty is correspondingly reduced. High mass resolution (m/deltam > 1000) may therefore be obtained by accelerating the evaporated ions to a greater total potential after the local extraction electrode. The low extraction voltage may also be pulsed rapidly (100 ps rise time) and at high repetition rates (up to 10(5) pulses per second) using currently available solid-state pulsers. Furthermore, a local electrode and intermediate electrodes may be used as optical elements to control the image magnification. All of these benefits may be applied to any type of atom probe. Local-electrode atom probes (LEAP) should be especially advantageous for developing three-dimensional atom probes with high mass resolution and a large field of view. A sample has been developed that consists of many microtips formed on a planar sample using ion beam mask etching. Microtip samples are especially suited to LEAP. Analysis of electrically insulating samples may also be possible with microtip samples in a LEAP. This combination of features suggests flexible, high speed, high mass resolution atom probes that can work with either conventional needle-shaped specimens or the new style of planar microtip specimens. PMID:22666915

  15. Advantages of a video-assisted approach to parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; De Crea, Carmela; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Sollazzi, Liliana; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Bellantone, Rocco

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the advances in preoperative localization studies, the availability of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay and the introduction of cervicoscopy revolutionized the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Several endoscopic and video-assisted techniques for parathyroidectomy have been described. In spite of the enthusiasm manifested by some authors, the role of these techniques with respect to the time-honored conventional surgery have been largely debated. Among them, video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) has emerged as one of the leading and more diffuse techniques. To date many large and comparative studies have shown that VAP is an efficacious and feasible procedure with the same complication rate as conventional surgery. Moreover, VAP seems to have significant advantages in terms of cosmetic results, postoperative pain, recovery, and patient satisfaction. When compared with other minimally invasive techniques, it offers the significant advantages of being more similar to conventional surgery and reproducible in different surgical settings. Moreover, it permits bilateral neck exploration, associated thyroid resections and can be performed under locoregional anesthesia. All these characteristics and the excellent results obtained render VAP a valid and well-validated, and even preferable, alternative to conventional surgery for the surgical treatment of sporadic PHPT, especially in case of suspected single adenoma. PMID:18971596

  16. The Mechanisms Underlying the ASD Advantage in Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Giserman, Ivy; Carter, Alice S; Blaser, Erik

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are faster or more successful than typically developing control participants at various visual-attentional tasks (for reviews, see Dakin and Frith in Neuron 48:497-507, 2005; Simmons et al. in Vis Res 49:2705-2739, 2009). This "ASD advantage" was first identified in the domain of visual search by Plaisted et al. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:777-783, 1998). Here we survey the findings of visual search studies from the past 15 years that contrasted the performance of individuals with and without ASD. Although there are some minor caveats, the overall consensus is that-across development and a broad range of symptom severity-individuals with ASD reliably outperform controls on visual search. The etiology of the ASD advantage has not been formally specified, but has been commonly attributed to 'enhanced perceptual discrimination', a superior ability to visually discriminate between targets and distractors in such tasks (e.g. O'Riordan in Cognition 77:81-96, 2000). As well, there is considerable evidence for impairments of the attentional network in ASD (for a review, see Keehn et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:164-183, 2013). We discuss some recent results from our laboratory that support an attentional, rather than perceptual explanation for the ASD advantage in visual search. We speculate that this new conceptualization may offer a better understanding of some of the behavioral symptoms associated with ASD, such as over-focusing and restricted interests. PMID:24091470

  17. The selective advantage of crypsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vignieri, Sacha N; Larson, Joanna G; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-07-01

    The light color of mice that inhabit the sandy dunes of Florida's coast have served as a textbook example of adaptation for nearly a century, despite the fact that the selective advantage of crypsis has never been directly tested or quantified in nature. Using plasticine mouse models of light and dark color, we demonstrate a strong selective advantage for mice that match their local background substrate. Further our data suggest that stabilizing selection maintains color matching within a single habitat, as models that are both lighter and darker than their local environment are selected against. These results provide empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that visual hunting predators shape color patterning in Peromyscus mice and suggest a mechanism by which selection drives the pronounced color variation among populations. PMID:20163447

  18. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

  19. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  20. The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Alpert

    2006-01-01

    Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

  1. Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Zipse

    1994-01-01

    The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

  2. Converting FITS into XML: Methods and Advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Shaya, E.; Cheung, C.

    We discuss how and why FITS data should be encapsulated in XML. Our goal is not to throw away the FITS standard entirely. Rather, we seek to re-map the FITS standard into an XML-based format. The advantages of doing so are legion and include: greater interoperability, parsing by XML aware browsers and applications, hierarchical structure for improved searchability, default values for header descriptions, extensibility for specialized usage and future development, and piggybacking on industry applications.

  3. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract But Not Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A

    2014-11-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in J Mem Lang 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this ambiguity advantage may in reality be a polysemy advantage: caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings (homonymy). We report two lexical decision studies that investigated the effects of polysemy with new word sets. In both studies, polysemy was factorially manipulated while homonymy was controlled for. In Experiment 1, where the stimulus set consisted solely of concrete nouns, there was no effect of polysemy. However, in Experiment 2, where the stimulus set consisted of a mix of abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there was a significant polysemy advantage. Together, these two studies strongly suggest that polysemy affects abstract but not concrete nouns. In addition, they rule out several alternative explanations for these polysemy effects, e.g., sense dominance, age-of-acquisition, familiarity, and semantic diversity. PMID:25373555

  4. OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF FACULTIES Offer Letter Guidelines

    E-print Network

    -tenure-track) must contain the following: A disclosure indicating the need for final administrative approval: "Upon acceptance of this offer, your employment will require further and final administrative Approval". All employment eligibility documentation to work in the United States as required by federal law. In addition

  5. The Postdoctoral (Postdoc) Program offers the opportunity for appointees to

    E-print Network

    will be offered a Postdoc Research Associate appointment. In addition, each year approximately 25 Director powerful supercomputers in the world to perform pioneering research in these disciplines. Sponsored and technical vitality by: vsharing new ideas and approaches, vchallenging colleagues to work at the cutting

  6. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  7. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Political Science

    E-print Network

    agencies Non-governmental agencies Private, non-profit organizations Additionally, students completing in political science have gone on to administrative and management positions with private, non-profit as to various international organizations. Internships e division offers a limited number of highly selective

  8. Who is Offering and How Often?

    PubMed Central

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Kulis, Stephen; Okamoto, Scott K.; Tann, Sheila S.; LeCroy, Craig Winston; Dustman, Patricia; Burke, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants respond to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They are asked to consider the frequency of drug offers from specific groups in their social networks and the difficulty associated with refusing drugs from various offerers. The results indicate that female and male American Indian youth differ in the degree of exposure to drug offers and the degree of perceived difficulty in handling such offers. Even after controlling for differences in age, grade level, socioeconomic status, family structure, and residence on a reservation, girls report significantly more drug offers than boys from friends, cousins, and other peers. Compared to boys, girls also report a significantly higher sense of difficulty in dealing with drug offers from all sources. PMID:21350677

  9. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  10. The bilingual advantage in novel word learning.

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined whether bilingualism facilitates acquisition of novel words in adults with different language histories. Word-learning performance was tested in monolingual English speakers, early English-Spanish bilinguals, and early English-Mandarin bilinguals. Novel words were phonologically unfamiliar to all participants, and they were acquired in association with their English translations. At testing, both bilingual groups outperformed the monolingual group. These findings indicate that bilingualism facilitates word-learning performance in adults, and they suggest a general bilingual advantage for novel word learning. PMID:19648456

  11. Gender Applied Applied % Shortlisted Shortlisted % Offered Job Offered Job % Female 1169 35% 112 43% 33 44%

    E-print Network

    Roelleke, Thomas

    Gender Applied Applied % Shortlisted Shortlisted % Offered Job Offered Job % Female 1169 35% 112 43% Gender Applied Applied % Shortlisted % Offered Job % Female 413 42% 39% 35% Male 529 54% 50% 50% Unknown 40 4% 11% 15% Total 982 100% 100% 100% Gender Applied Applied % Shortlisted Shortlisted % Offered Job

  12. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  13. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-01

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

  14. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  15. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  16. Design advantages of run-time reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, Steven A.; Levi, Delon

    1999-08-01

    FPGAs have been successfully used to accelerate a wide variety of applications on a large number of systems. The FPGA devices in these systems are typically configured once by the application and seldom perform any sort of reconfiguration during execution. With the advent of new device architectures and new software tools, the interest in Run-Time Reconfiguration or RTR has increased. As with previous efforts, the focus of RTR has primarily been either in purely theoretical work or in demonstrating performance improvements over software-based solutions. In this paper we explore some of the more practical design issues surrounding RTR systems, and evaluate the advantages of RTR in terms of savings in hardware and software complexity. Preliminary results indicate that RTR can dramatically reduce the amount of FPGA logic and software support necessary for even simple coprocessing applications.

  17. Processing with kW fibre lasers: advantages and limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratky, A.; Schuöcker, D.; Liedl, G.

    2008-10-01

    Up-to-date fibre lasers produce multi-kw radiation with an excellent beam quality. Compared to CO2-lasers, fibre lasers have relatively low operational costs and offer a very high flexibility in production due to the beam delivery with process fibres. As a consequence, fibre lasers have attracted more and more attention. On the other hand, their use in industrial applications especially in the automotive industry is still limited to a certain extent and fibre lasers haven't replaced all other laser sources till now as it could be expected. In laser cutting, the small kerf width produced by fibre lasers should be advantageous since the heated volume is smaller compared to CO2-lasers. In fact, cutting velocities are usually much higher which is also caused by the higher absorption coefficient of most metals at the wavelength emitted by fibre lasers. Nevertheless, cutting with fibre lasers of some metals - e.g. stainless steels - is restricted to a small thicknesses of approx. 5mm. The reason for this is that the surface roughness of the edges increases dramatically with the thickness of the work piece. Applications of fibre lasers include e.g. remote welding or even remote cutting of a large variety of materials with usually excellent results. Due to the excellent beam quality the aspect ratio of the weld seam in relation to the penetration depth is quite good. In the case of thin sheet metal welding such a small beam waist is beneficial - but with thicker sheet metals it is very often disadvantageous since the preparation of samples is more complicated, costs increase and requirements on clamping devices rise. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of fibre lasers are discussed briefly. Applications of a 1.5 kW fibre laser are presented and compared to classical laser systems.

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

  19. Improving analytical understanding through the addition of information: Bayesian and hybrid mathematics approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Diegert, K.V.

    1998-09-13

    Safety analysts frequently must provide results that are based on sparse (or even no) data. When data (or more data) become available, it is important to utilize the new information optimally in improving the analysis results. Two methods for accomplishing this purpose are Bayesian analysis, where "prior" probability distributions are modified to become "posterior" distributions based on the new data, and hybrid (possibilistic/probabilistic analysis) where possibilistic "membership" portrays the subjectivity involved and the probabilistic analysis is "frequentist." Each of these approaches has interesting features, and it is advantageous to compare and contrast the two. In addition to describing and contrasting these two approaches, we will discuss how features of each can be combined to give new advantages neither offers by itself.

  20. IBM Lotus Domino Designer Student Offering

    E-print Network

    IBM Lotus Domino Designer Student Offering Developing Web applications Specialized IT skills. IBM has created this Lotus Domino Designer Student Offering with that purpose in mind: to give you business and technology intersect. IBM Lotus Domino Designer is a highly productive application development

  1. The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

  2. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  3. The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

  4. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  5. Inferring causal structure: a quantum advantage

    E-print Network

    Katja Ried; Megan Agnew; Lydia Vermeyden; Dominik Janzing; Robert W. Spekkens; Kevin J. Resch

    2014-06-19

    The problem of using observed correlations to infer causal relations is relevant to a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Yet given correlations between just two classical variables, it is impossible to determine whether they arose from a causal influence of one on the other or a common cause influencing both, unless one can implement a randomized intervention. We here consider the problem of causal inference for quantum variables. We introduce causal tomography, which unifies and generalizes conventional quantum tomography schemes to provide a complete solution to the causal inference problem using a quantum analogue of a randomized trial. We furthermore show that, in contrast to the classical case, observed quantum correlations alone can sometimes provide a solution. We implement a quantum-optical experiment that allows us to control the causal relation between two optical modes, and two measurement schemes -- one with and one without randomization -- that extract this relation from the observed correlations. Our results show that entanglement and coherence, known to be central to quantum information processing, also provide a quantum advantage for causal inference.

  6. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women-and in particular academic women-contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  7. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  8. Quantifying the Magnetic Advantage in Magnetotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. J.; Sheehan, P. E.; Perry, L. L.; O'Connor, K.; Csonka, L. N.; Applegate, B. M.; Whitman, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are characterized by the production of magnetosomes, nanoscale particles of lipid bilayer encapsulated magnetite, that act to orient the bacteria in magnetic fields. These magnetosomes allow magneto-aerotaxis, which is the motion of the bacteria along a magnetic field and toward preferred concentrations of oxygen. Magneto-aerotaxis has been shown to direct the motion of these bacteria downward toward sediments and microaerobic environments favorable for growth. Herein, we compare the magneto-aerotaxis of wild-type, magnetic Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 with a nonmagnetic mutant we have engineered. Using an applied magnetic field and an advancing oxygen gradient, we have quantified the magnetic advantage in magneto-aerotaxis as a more rapid migration to preferred oxygen levels. Magnetic, wild-type cells swimming in an applied magnetic field more quickly migrate away from the advancing oxygen than either wild-type cells in a zero field or the nonmagnetic cells in any field. We find that the responses of the magnetic and mutant strains are well described by a relatively simple analytical model, an analysis of which indicates that the key benefit of magnetotaxis is an enhancement of a bacterium's ability to detect oxygen, not an increase in its average speed moving away from high oxygen concentrations. PMID:16714352

  9. Advantages of liposomal delivery systems for anthracyclines.

    PubMed

    Allen, Theresa M; Martin, Francis J

    2004-12-01

    Liposomes, closed vesicular structures consisting of one or more lipid bilayers, have generated a great deal of interest as drug delivery vehicles. In particular, they have been investigated for their ability to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors, in efforts to increase therapeutic efficacy and decrease toxicity to normal cells. Development of liposomal chemotherapeutic agents has, in the past, been hindered primarily by the rapid uptake of liposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Numerous strategies that seek to either exploit or avoid this phenomenon have been used. As a result, several liposomal chemotherapeutic agents are now available in the clinic. STEALTH, a novel liposomal system coated with polyethylene glycol, avoids uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, thus improving drug delivery to the tumor while decreasing toxicity. In pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx [PLD]), this delivery system encapsulates doxorubicin within polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes, leading to promising new applications for a well-established drug. Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin citrate complex (Myocet [NPLD]), another liposomal delivery system for doxorubicin, lacks the polyethylene glycol coating, resulting in much shorter circulation times than those of PLD. Daunorubicin citrate liposome (DaunoXome [DNX]) contains daunorubicin encapsulated in a smaller liposome of a different lipid composition. It has circulation times between those of PLD and NPLD. This article reviews the advantages of liposomal delivery systems in general and the divergent approaches that have been taken in developing these agents. PMID:15717735

  10. Receiver Design to Harness Quantum Illumination Advantage

    E-print Network

    Saikat Guha

    2009-04-30

    An optical transmitter that uses entangled light generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), in conjunction with an optimal quantum-optical receiver (whose implementation is not yet known) is in principle capable of obtaining up to a 6 dB gain in the error-probability exponent over the optimum-reception un-entangled coherent-state lidar to detect the presence of a far-away target subject to entanglement-breaking loss and noise in the free-space link [Lloyd'08, Tan'08]. We present an explicit design of a structured quantum-illumination receiver, which in conjunction with the SPDC transmitter is shown to achieve up to a 3 dB error-exponent advantage over the classical sensor. Apart from being fairly feasible for a proof-of-principle demonstration, this is to our knowledge the first structured design of a quantum-optical sensor for target detection that outperforms the comparable best classical lidar sensor appreciably in a low-brightness, lossy and noisy operating regime.

  11. Reading aloud pseudohomophones in Italian: always an advantage.

    PubMed

    Peressotti, Francesca; Colombo, Lucia

    2012-04-01

    In the present article, the lexical contribution to nonword reading was evaluated using Italian pseudohomophones that contained atypical letters or letter sequences. Pseudohomophones were read faster than orthographically matched nonwords in both mixed (Experiment 1) and pure (Experiment 2) lists; in addition, a base-word frequency effect was obtained in both conditions. The same pseudohomophone advantage was observed when nonwords without atypical letter sequences were mixed in the experimental list (Experiment 3 ), and it disappeared only in lexical decision, in which pseudohomophones were rejected as quickly as control nonwords. The pattern of results was explained by assuming that, due to their orthographic properties, the Italian pseudohomophones did not benefit from an orthographic lexical contribution and were mainly processed through the interaction system between the sublexical mechanisms and the phonological output lexicon. PMID:22131251

  12. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  13. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any advertisement which creates a false impression of the grade, quality, make, value, currency of model, size, color, usability, or origin of the product offered, or which may otherwise misrepresent the product in such a manner that later, on...

  14. Solutions 2012 14 local projects offering

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    _______________________ Solutions 2012 14 local projects offering knowledge, skills& hope for our,funneling$4 billiondollarsoutof province every yearto buy whatwe burn. 50x30 proposestodevelopaprovince-wide commitmentandstrategytoincrease renewable energyuse inManitoba to 50% by2030. Thiswouldgenerate local economiesandreduce

  15. Performance advantages of multigrade manual transmission oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain better performance at both low and high temperatures and to improve fuel economy, the performance of an SAE 75W-90 manual transmission gear oil was evaluated in comparison with conventional SAE 90 and SAE 80W gear oils. Good shift characteristics at low temperatures and reduction of gear noise at high temperatures were obtained with the SAE 75W-90 gear oil. Tests with a friction-modified oil indicate that further improvement in fuel economy of the multigrade oil can be obtained by the addition of friction modifiers. 14 refs.

  16. A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable 

    E-print Network

    Clarkson, Harriet

    Research has shown that a bilingual cognitive advantage in young adults manifests inconsistently. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of a bilingual advantage in this age group, whilst looking at factors which may...

  17. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion and surface modifications using bifunctional crosslinkers are presented with advantages, drawbacks and a general outlook.

  18. Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore

    2013-01-01

    Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss. PMID:23658546

  19. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  20. Supply chain collaborative advantage: A firm’s perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Cao; Qingyu Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, firms have strived to achieve greater collaborative advantages with their supply chain partners. The objective of the study is to uncover the nature and characteristics of supply chain collaborative advantage from a focal firm’s perspective. Collaborative advantage is defined as strategic benefits gained over competitors in the marketplace through supply chain partnering and partner enabled knowledge

  1. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan H. Boyko; Adam R. Boyko; Mark G. Boyko

    2007-01-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We

  2. The development and advantages of helium ion microscopy for the study of block copolymer nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan P.; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Leeson, Michael; Morris, Mick A.

    2015-03-01

    Helium ion microscopy (HIM) has been used to study nanopatterns formed in block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Owing to its' small spot size, minimal forward scattering of the incident ion and reduced velocity compared to electrons of comparable energy, HIM has considerable advantages and provides pattern information and resolution not attainable with other commercial microscopic techniques. In order to realize the full potential of BCP nanolithography in producing high density ultra-small features, the dimensions and geometry of these BCP materials will need to be accurately characterized through pattern formation, development and pattern transfer processes. The preferred BCP pattern inspection techniques (to date) are principally atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary electron microscopy (SEM) but suffer disadvantages in poor lateral resolution (AFM) and the ability to discriminate individual polymer domains (SEM). SEM suffers from reduced resolution when a more surface sensitive low accelerating voltage is used and low surface signal when a high accelerating voltage is used. In addition to these drawbacks, SEM can require the use of a conductive coating on these insulating materials and this reduces surface detail as well as increasing the dimensions of coated features. AFM is limited by the dimensions of the probe tip and a skewing of lateral dimension results. This can be eliminated through basic geometry for large sparse features, but when dense small features need to be characterized AFM lacks reliability. With this in mind, BCP inspection by HIM can offer greater insight into block ordering, critical dimensions and, critically, line edge roughness (LER) a critical parameter whose measurement is well suited to HIM because of its' enhanced edge contrast. In this work we demonstrate the resolution capabilities of HIM using various BCP systems (lamellar and cylinder structures). Imaging of BCP patterns of low molecular weight (MW)/low feature size which challenges the resolution of HIM technique. Further, studies of BCP patterns with domains of similar chemistry will be presented demonstrating the superior chemical contrast compared to SEM. From the data, HIM excels as a BCP inspection tool in four distinct areas. Firstly, HIM offers higher resolution at standard imaging conditions than SEM. Secondly, the signal generated from He+ is more surface sensitive and enables visualization of features that cannot be resolved using SEM. Thirdly; superior chemical contrast enables the imaging of un etched samples with almost identical chemical composition. Finally, dimensional measurement accuracy is high and consistent with requirements for advanced lithographic masks.

  3. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  4. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created by temperature difference between injected fluid and the host formation, may be particularly important for reservoir stability in high-temperature offshore locations. Overall, unconventional reservoirs in offshore locations offer the potential benefits of vast and safe storage for captured CO2 emissions.

  5. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ra?iu, M; Purc?rea, T

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  6. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  7. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  8. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  9. Home advantage in speed skating: evidence from individual data.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ruud H

    2005-04-01

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantage in some individual sports, but there is a much more limited literature. This paper addresses the issue of home advantage in speed skating. From a methodological point of view, it is difficult to identify home advantage, because skaters vary in their abilities and the conditions of tournaments vary. There is a small but significant home advantage using a generalized linear mixed model, with random effects for skaters and fixed effects for skating rinks and seasons. Even though the home advantage effect exists, it is very small when compared to variation in skating times due to differences of rinks and individual abilities. PMID:16089186

  10. addition and subtraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hayes

    2011-04-07

    How are addition and subtraction problems related? Recording chart Graphic Organizer Use this link to work on addition with pictures. addition with pictures Go here to work on addition with sentences. addition with sentences Now, go here to work on subtraction sentences. Subtraction sentences Use this link to practice subtraction with pictures. Subtraction with pictures Now let's review! Click here. Fact Family Practice ...

  11. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  12. Three Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advantages and Advances

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich data sets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. PMID:20542136

  13. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic?for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  14. Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Welch

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a signaling model in which high-quality firms underprice at the initial public offering in order to obtain a higher price at a seasoned offering. The main assumption is that low-quality firms must invest in imitation expenses to appear to be high-quality firms, and that with some probability this imitation is discovered between offerings. Underpricing by high-quality firms

  15. Faculty Usage of Social Media and Mobile Devices: Analysis of Advantages and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, Deborah Britt; Siha, Samia; Bell, Reginald L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the perceptions of professors using social media (also called Web 2.0 tools) in the classroom, what kinds of mobile devices are used to access the social media used, and what drives individuals to use them. In addition, it seeks to identify the advantages and concerns faculty has with the use of social media for…

  16. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  17. Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada!

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Appreciative Leadership Development Offered in Canada! November 18, 19, 25, 26 Vancouver, British Columbia The Appreciative Leadership Development Program is an innovative strengths-based learning process during which you discover and build upon your Leadership Positive Core -- your unique strengths, skills

  18. Chemistry & Biology -Mediated Synthetic Biosystems Offer

    E-print Network

    Chemistry & Biology Article Ca2+ -Mediated Synthetic Biosystems Offer Protein Design Versatility and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada 2Edward S. To exploit the potential of Ca2+ signaling, we designed RhoA chimeras for reversible, Ca2+ -dependent control

  19. Telestroke Networking Offers Multiple Benefits beyond Thrombolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut Tatlisumak; Seppo Soinila; Markku Kaste

    2009-01-01

    Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) require immediate attention and stroke expertise, which is rarely offered by community hospitals. Telestroke networks were originally established for delivering thrombolysis to inhabitants of underserved regions where stroke expertise was not available 24\\/7. Rapidly expanding experience addresses the fact that thrombolysis, when given using telestroke consultation, is as safe and effective as when it

  20. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  1. Crossing the arms confuses the clocks: sensory feedback and the bimanual advantage.

    PubMed

    Studenka, Breanna E; Eliasz, Kinga L; Shore, David I; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    The bimanual advantage refers to the finding that tapping with two fingers on opposite hands exhibits reduced timing variability, as compared with tapping with only one finger. Two leading theories propose that the bimanual advantage results from the addition of either sensory (i.e., enhanced feedback) or cognitive (i.e., multiple timekeeper) processes involved in timing. Given that crossing the arms impairs perception of tactile stimuli and modulates cortical activation following tactile stimulation, we investigated the role of crossing the arms in the bimanual advantage. Participants tapped unimanually or bimanually with their arms crossed or uncrossed on a tabletop or in the air. With arms crossed, we expected increased interval timing variance. Similarly, for air tapping, we expected reduced bimanual advantage, due to reduced sensory feedback. A significant bimanual advantage was observed for the uncrossed, but not the crossed posture in tabletop tapping. Furthermore, removing tactile feedback from taps eliminated the bimanual advantage for both postures. Together, these findings suggest that crossing the arms likely impairs integration of internal (i.e., effector-specific) and external (i.e., environment-specific) information and that this multisensory integration is crucial to reducing timing variability during repetitive coordinated bimanual tasks. PMID:23943555

  2. Advantageous swirling flow in 45° end-to-side anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Hojin; Choi, Woorak; Park, Hanwook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-12-01

    The effects of swirling flow on the flow field in 45° end-to-side anastomosis are experimentally investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique to reveal fluid dynamic advantages of swirling flow in the vascular graft. Non-swirling Poiseuille inlet flow unnecessarily induces pathological hemodynamic features, such as high wall shear stress (WSS) at the `bed' side and large flow separation at the `toe' side. The introduction of swirling flow is found to equalize the asymmetric WSS distribution and reduces the peak magnitude of WSS. In particular, the intermediate swirling intensity of S = 0.45 induces the most uniform axial velocity and WSS distributions compared with weaker or stronger swirling flows, which addresses the importance of proper selection of swirling intensity in the vascular graft to obtain optimum flow fields at the host vessel. In addition, swirling flow reduces the size of flow separation because it disturbs the formation of Dean-type vortices in secondary flow and inhibits secondary flow collision. The beneficial fluid dynamic features of swirling flow obtained in this study are helpful for designing better vascular graft suppressing pathological hemodynamic features in the recipient host vessel.

  3. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  4. Multi-core advantages for mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Johnny; Nogatch, John

    2009-04-01

    Smaller design pattern feature sizes continue to increase mask data file sizes, which increases mask data processing (MDP) times. To satisfy the need for faster turn-around-time, MDP has progressively migrated from single-computer computation, to multi-threading, and then to distributed processing on multiple computers. The availability of low cost multi-core processors can be used advantageously to reduce Mask Data Preparation runtime. Compared to single core processors, multi-core processor have higher performance, however, total available memory and I/O bandwidth need to be increased proportionally with the additional cores. Memory per core and available I/O bandwidth limit the maximum number of cores that can be effective with distributed processing. When a single job is broken down to 2 or more tasks, the granularity of the tasks influences the efficiency of the processing. Smaller tasks allow for smaller memory footprint, better distribution of tasks and increased scalability, but increase input file access time and reduce output data compaction. By choosing a combination of multi-threading and distributed processing, faster run-time and better scalability can be achieved, as compared to either technique alone. The optimal configuration depends on the number of cores per processor, number of processors and memory per core.

  5. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  6. Advantage of Being a Dimer for Serratia marcescens Endonuclease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanying; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2009-01-01

    The monomer and dimer of the bacterium Serratia marcescens endonuclease (SMnase) are each catalytically active and the two subunits of the dimer function independently of each other. Nature however chooses the dimer form instead of the monomer. In order to explain this, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both model built complexes of a subunit of SMnase and the dimer with DNA in aqueous solution. We estimated the electrostatic binding energy, analyzed the distribution and dynamics of water around the complexes, identified water clusters in the protein, and related dynamics of water to the protein's function. We find that the dimer form has an electrostatic advantage over the monomer to associate with DNA. Although Mg2+ remains hexa-coordinated during the simulation, the binding pathway of DNA to Mg2+ changes from inner-sphere binding in the monomer to outer-sphere in the dimer, which may be more energetically favorable. In addition, two water clusters in the active site of each monomer and in the dimer complex were identified and localized in two regions, named ‘stabilizing’ and ‘working’ region. Water in the ‘working’ region in the dimer complex has larger fluctuations than that in the monomer. PMID:19053714

  7. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital. PMID:22184876

  8. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. PMID:23275406

  9. Ultralente based insulin regimens--clinical applications, advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Turner, R C; Phillips, M A; Ward, E A

    1983-01-01

    The prolonged action of daily injections of beef ultralente insulin provides a source for the basal, steady state insulin supply which diabetics need in addition to their meal requirements. The complete distinction between basal and meal insulin requirements, provided by two or three injections of soluble insulin per day, allows simple rules to guide both the physician and patient. Thus, the required ultralente dose needs to be continued daily, irrespective of illness or missing meals, whereas the soluble insulin requirements are given according to meals. When starting ultralente insulin therapy a loading dose is required. The doses of ultralente and soluble insulin needed for different severities of diabetes and degrees of insulin resistance can be predicted. A simple regimen to cover the decreasing insulin requirements of newly presenting, ketotic juvenile-onset diabetics has been developed. During surgical operations the continued basal insulin supply, from ultralente insulin, greatly facilitates diabetes control. Whilst many patients have improved nocturnal blood glucose control after transfer to ultralente insulin, optimal control of diabetes sometimes remains difficult in view of the pre-breakfast plasma glucose rise and the longer action of subcutaneous soluble insulin than the physiological meal insulin response. Purified monocomponent beef ultralente insulin is antigenic, and human ultralente insulin might be advantageous. PMID:6349269

  10. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  11. University Archives offers Orange Bowl Exhibit

    E-print Network

    2007-12-11

    & Databases Catalog: books & more E-journals Research by Subject Course Reserves Library Pages A-Z Images KU ScholarWorks KU Digital Collections Hours My Account Request Articles, Books,… Friends & Benefactors Suggestions University Archives offers Orange Bowl... Exhibit KU's University Archives, located in Spencer Research Library, has brought together items from its collections relating to the 1948 and 1969 Orange Bowl games. Included in the small exhibit are a souvenir KU '68 Orange Bowl gym bag, photographs...

  12. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  13. For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    For additional information, contact: Department of Psychology Montana State University 325.montana.edu/wwwpy psydept@montana.edu PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE FOR FUTURE CAREERS Our department offers a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in psychology. This degree prepares undergraduate students for employment in applied settings

  14. Exploring future competitive advantage through sustainable supply chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa J. Markley; Lenita Davis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper's purpose is to outline the potential competitive advantage firms can create through the creation of a sustainable supply chain, and to describe potential measures for managers to use. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Arguing that firms can increase their competitive advantage as a result of a stronger triple bottom line, propositions are created from a natural-resource-based view of the

  15. Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area?

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area? You don't have to do it alone! If you need Medicare plans. Call to schedule an in-home appointment or to find a seminar near you. Humana is a Medicare Advantage organization with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in this Humana plan depends on contract renewal

  16. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  17. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  18. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  19. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds. PMID:17654230

  20. Going Loopy for Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracey DeCloedt

    2012-07-30

    The students will partner up and use Fruit Loops to represent addition equations up to a sum of 10. They will draw, act out, use verbal explanations and write equations to show their addition equations.

  1. Distinct trajectories in the transition to adulthood: are children of immigrants advantaged?

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingxin; Woo, Han S

    2012-01-01

    Studies on children of immigrants have generally ignored distinct developmental trajectories during adolescence and their role in the transition to adulthood. This study identifies distinct trajectories in cognitive, sociobehavioral, and psychological domains and estimates their consequences for young adults. Drawing data from a nationally representative sample of 10,795 adolescents aged 13-17 who were followed up to ages 25-32, the study uses growth mixture modeling to test advantages for children of immigrants. The analysis shows a 1.5-generation advantage in academic achievement and school engagement, as well as a weaker second-generation advantage in academic achievement, but no disadvantage in depression for children of immigrants. In addition, these results hold for children of Hispanic origin. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:22966927

  2. Distinct Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Are Children of Immigrants Advantaged?

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin; Woo, Han Soo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children of immigrants have generally ignored distinct developmental trajectories during adolescence and their role in the transition to adulthood. This study identifies distinct trajectories in cognitive, socio-behavioral, and psychological domains and estimates their consequences for young-adult. Drawing data from a nationally representative sample of 10,795 adolescents aged 13-17 who were followed up to ages 25-32, we use growth mixture modeling to test advantages for children of immigrants. The analysis shows a 1.5 generation advantage in academic achievement and school engagement, as well as a weaker second-generation advantage in academic achievement, but no disadvantage in depression for children of immigrants. In addition, we found that these results hold for children of Hispanic origin. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:22966927

  3. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief statement of the manner and the purpose of the offering, without naming the underwriters; (vi) Whether the issuer is directing its offering to only a particular class of purchasers;...

  4. Our qualified personal training staff offers clients a unique and satisfying experience through their motivational, individualized fitness programs. We offer personal and small-group training as well as fitness and nutritional

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    their motivational, individualized fitness programs. We offer personal and small-group training as well as fitness and nutritional assessments to help you reach your health and fitness goals. Take advantage of our convenientRaining WenowhaveMicroFit!Microfitisthelatesttechnologyin fitness assessment software. This comprehensive program

  5. What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage.

    PubMed

    Morton, J Bruce; Harper, Sarah N

    2007-11-01

    Bilingual children often outperform monolingual children in tasks of cognitive control. This advantage may be a consequence of the fact that bilinguals have more practice controlling attention due to an ongoing need to manage two languages. However, existing evidence is limited because possible differences in ethnicity and socioeconomic status have not been properly controlled. To address this issue, we administered the Simon task to bilingual and monolingual children of identical ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Bilingual and monolingual children performed identically, whereas children from higher SES families were advantaged relative to children from lower SES families. Controlling differences in SES and ethnicity may attenuate the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. PMID:17973787

  6. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry V. Clapp; Rene Paquet; Ann Norris; Babette Pettersen

    2005-01-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents

  7. A nuclear gas turbine perspective: The indirect cycle (IDC) offers a practical solution

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The current generation of nuclear power plants are based on light water reactors and steam cycle power conversion systems. This coupling yields a power plant efficiency of less than 30% when dry-cooled. By utilizing a higher temperature heat source, and a more efficient prime-mover, the next generation of nuclear power plants have the potential for an efficiency of close to 50%, with attendant fuel savings and reduced heat rejection to the environment. The nuclear closed Brayton cycle (NCBC) gas turbine plant involves the coupling of a high temperature reactor (HTR) and a high efficiency helium gas turbine. Studies over many years have shown the merits of an indirect cycle (IDC) approach in which an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the reactor thermal energy to the prime-mover. The major advantages of this include the following: (1) multipurpose nuclear heat source; (2) gas turbine operation in a clean non-nuclear environment; (3) power conversion system simplicity; and (4) maximum utilization of existing technology. An additional factor, which may dominate the above is that the IDC approach is in concert with the only active gas-cooled reactor program remaining in the world, namely a high temperature test reactor (HTTR) under construction in Japan, the culmination of which will be the demonstration of a viable high temperature nuclear heat source. The major theme of this paper is that the IDC nuclear gas turbine offers a practical NCBC power plant concept for operation in the second or third decades of the 21st century.

  8. Comparing the level of dexterity offered by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Jo; Bennett, Allan

    2006-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of latex allergy has been concurrent with the increasing use of latex gloves by laboratory and healthcare workers. In recent years nitrile gloves have been used to replace latex gloves to prevent latex allergy. Nitrile gloves offer a comparable level of protection against chemical and biological agents and are more puncture resistant. However, if manual dexterity is compromised by nitrile gloves to a greater degree than latex then this may increase the risk of sharps injuries. The Purdue pegboard test, which measures both gross and fine finger dexterity, was used to test the dexterity levels of two glove types used at HPA CEPR; Kimberly-Clark SafeSkin nitrile and latex laboratory gloves. There was a statistically significant 8.6% increase in fine finger dexterity provided by latex compared with nitrile SafeSkin laboratory gloves but no difference in gross dexterity between the glove types. There was no significant relationship between glove dexterity and age or gender. The selection of glove size was influenced by the digit length of participants. Moreover, those with longer, thinner fingers appeared to have an advantage when using nitrile SafeSkin gloves. The level of dexterity provided by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves for tasks on a gross dexterity level are comparable and health workers will benefit from the non-allergenic properties of nitrile. For tasks requiring fine finger dexterity nitrile SafeSkin gloves may impede dexterity. Despite this, the degree of restriction appears to have a negligible impact on safety in this study when compared with the risk of latex sensitization and subsequent allergy. In addition to glove material, working practices must also take into account glove size, fit, grip and thickness, as these factors can all influence dexterity. PMID:16357028

  9. Dissenter offers guidance in sentencing pleas.

    PubMed

    1995-10-20

    Federal Appeals Judge William R. Wilson, Jr. of St. Louis, MI denied defendant [name removed] a reduced sentence based on his HIV status. In the case of U.S. vs. [Name removed], Judge Wilson ruled that the potential onset of AIDS is not sufficient grounds for granting a prisoner a reduced jail sentence. Judge Wilson offers advice to defense lawyers who are seeking more lenient sentences for their HIV-positive clients. He suggests that defense attorneys submit extensive documentation from medical experts that specifies the impact that prison life will have on the HIV-positive inmate's longevity, access to treatment, nutrition, and overall prognosis. Notable cases that have considered extraordinary physical impairment for the purpose of altering sentences include U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Third Circuit Court, U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Sixth Circuit Court, and U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Seventh Circuit Court. PMID:11362840

  10. IFP offers three new process technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Institut Francais du Petrole is offering three new processing technologies for license, including one for isomerizing normal C[sub 4] olefins to isobutylene. The latter process, called ISO-4, provides an economically attractive way for refiners and ethylene manufacturers to convert fluid cat cracker and steam cracker C[sub 4] cuts to methyl tertiary butyl ether, says IFP. In ISO-4 units, the catalyst moves continuously down the reactor bed. When it reaches the bottom, it is removed from the reactor, regenerated, and returned to the top of the bed, all continuously. With a constant flow of fresh catalyst, operations can run several years without shutdown for catalyst regeneration, IFP claims. The ISO-4 catalyst is the same type as that used in IFP's octanizing process. The low attrition rate and thorough, continuous regeneration cycle of the Octanizing catalyst result in long service.

  11. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  12. Batch reactors offer efficient wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bolen, G.; Gilbert, A.

    1997-10-01

    Because today`s wastewater treatment applications vary widely, no single treatment system can address all situations. For both municipal and industrial applications, the wide range of treatment requirements has led to the development of numerous continuous-flow configurations. However, many applications are not well-served by continuous-flow, multiple-tank processes. Flow and strength fluctuations in the wastewater stream or, in many cases, in the specific strength or characteristics of the wastewater, are not efficiently handled by conventional, continuous-flow activated sludge. In other applications, extremes of climate, regulatory effluent limitations or other factors may make conventional processes prohibitively costly. Many of these applications, however, are ideally suited for batch reactor operations. Indeed, batch reactors typically offer capital, energy and operations and maintenance savings. Modern equipment technology, along with an increased understanding of batch processes, has resulted in increased batch reactor use.

  13. GRADUATE PROGRAM IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers the master of engineering (M.E.) degree through

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    GRADUATE PROGRAM IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers.S) and doctoral (Ph.D.) degrees through the Graduate School. The mechanical engineer- ing department is recognized with a mechanical engineering focus that will provide a competitive advantage in obtaining

  14. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  15. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  16. Boosting supercapacitor performance of carbon fibres using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide additives.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yachang; Zhu, Miao; Li, Peixu; Zhang, Rujing; Li, Xinming; Gong, Qianming; Wang, Kunling; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-12-01

    Modifying conventional materials with new recipes represents a straightforward yet efficient way to realize large-scale applications of new materials. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) coated carbon fibres (CFs), prepared as fibre-like supercapacitor electrodes, exhibited excellent electrochemical energy storage performance. Upon addition of only a small amount (~1 wt%) of ERGO, the hybrid fibres showed superior electrochemical capacitances (nearly three orders of magnitude enhanced) compared to pure CFs in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Meanwhile, the energy density did not decrease notably as the power density increased. The superior capacitive performance could be attributed to the synergistic effect between wrinkled and porous ERGO sheets and highly conductive CFs. This fibre electrode material also offered advantages such as easy operation, mass production capability, mechanical flexibility and robustness, and could have an impact on a wide variety of potential applications in energy and electronic fields. PMID:24141749

  17. The clinical operating microscope advantage in fixed prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nase, John B

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, magnification and operating light have become more available to dentists in the form of head-mounted loupes and headlights. More recently, restorative dentists have utilized the multiple steps of magnification and reciprocal illumination provided by the clinical operating microscope. The advantages of this technology now are being applied to fixed prosthodontics. This article discusses the specific uses and advantages of the clinical operating microscope, specifically as they relate to optics, ergonomics, and documentation. PMID:15055630

  18. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    E-print Network

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-12-13

    Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices Kostas Kokkinakisa) and Natalie Pak Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 kokkinak... noise for individuals with normal-hearing (NH) abilities (Bronkhorst and Plomp, 1989; Schleich et al., 2004). Recent studies have investigated whether cochlear implant (CI) users may also benefit from binaural listening advan- tages through the addition...

  19. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    E-print Network

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-12-05

    Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices Kostas Kokkinakisa) and Natalie Pak Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 kokkinak... noise for individuals with normal-hearing (NH) abilities (Bronkhorst and Plomp, 1989; Schleich et al., 2004). Recent studies have investigated whether cochlear implant (CI) users may also benefit from binaural listening advan- tages through the addition...

  20. Chloro-sulphur additive

    SciTech Connect

    Lenack, A.L.

    1980-10-14

    Compounds suitable as extreme pressure additives for lubricating oils are of the general formula CX3-S-S-R where X is a halogen and R is a hydrocarbyl. The performance of the compounds is improved by the addition of a stabilizer.

  1. Generalized additive mixed models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Chen

    2000-01-01

    Following the extension from linear mixed models to additive mixed models, extension from generalized linear mixed models to generalized additive mixed models is made, Algorithms are developed to compute the MLE's of the nonlinear effects and the covariance structures based on the penalized marginal likelihood. Convergence of the algorithms and selection of the smooth param¬eters are discussed.

  2. The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Loughran; Jay R Ritter

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have documented that firms conducting seasoned equity offerings have inordinately low stock returns during the five years after the offering, following a sharp run-up in the year prior to the offering. This article documents that the operating performance of issuing firms shows substantial improvement prior to the offering but then deteriorates. The multiples at the time of the

  3. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers...Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  4. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

  5. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655.1304...H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S....

  6. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655.1304...H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S....

  7. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

  8. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655.1304...H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S....

  9. The Risk™ strategic game of rural tourism: how sensory analysis can help in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Santini; Alessio Cavicchi; Maurizio Canavari

    \\u000a \\u000a Abstract  This paper examines how sensory analysis can be effectively implemented to achieve competitive advantage in rural tourism.\\u000a Starting from the theoretical framework of experience economy outlined by Pine and Gilmore (1998), the authors describe how\\u000a firms can differentiate their offer by using sensory analysis. In the first section, the authors provide a description of\\u000a the rural tourism phenomenon and a

  10. ZnO-supported Pd nanoparticle-catalyzed ligand- and additive-free cyanation of unactivated aryl halides using K4[Fe(CN)6].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Dey, Raju; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2014-06-20

    The use of a new ZnO-supported palladium(0) nanoparticle catalyst for the cyanation of aryl halides using a relatively benign cyanide source, K4[Fe(CN)6], is described. This catalyst has been applied for the efficient cyanation of a variety of functionalized aryl bromides and activated aryl chlorides. This process circumvents the need for an additive and a ligand for the reaction and offers the advantages of high product yields, low catalyst loading (0.2 mol % Pd), and recyclability of the catalyst. PMID:24856411

  11. [Escherichia coli, other Enterobacteriaceae and additional indicators as markers of microbiologic quality of food: advantages and limitations].

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1995-03-01

    The 93/43 European Union directive assigns to the food and catering industries the main responsibility for an integrated safety and quality assurance strategy in the food chain. Relying on hazard analysis, followed by design and adoption of control of all critical points and practices ("HACCP"). Hiatus-free compliance with such HACCP-based Codes of Good Practices is to be assessed by monitoring, recording results on process performance charts and gauging such data against experimentally established, attainable and maintainable references ranges ("standards"). Marker microorganisms are a major analytical tool for validating compliance in the sense of the EU directive. They should be expertly chosen amongst microbes usually present in food so that their, whose presence in quantities exceeding predetermined levels point to a lack of microbiological integrity of a food product. This may encompass (i) the potential presence of taxonomically, physiologically and ecologically related pathogens, markers are called index organisms; or else (ii) a lack of process integrity; in this case, markers are termed indicator organisms. The classical index organism was E. coli, introduced in the 1980's to monitor drinking water supplies. It is still used as an appropriate marker to assess the bacteriological safety of raw foods. In the 1920's the coli-aerogenes ("coliform") group was adopted as an indicator to validate the adequate processing, i.e. pasteurization of dairy products. Since the 1950's the entire Enterobacteriaceae taxon is preferred for the latter purpose because it is better defined in determinative sense and includes more organisms of significance. In some food and water supplies, processed for safety, more vigorous or more resistant organisms than the Gram-negative rods are reliable supplementary markers. These include Enterococcus spp., spores of the Clostridium genus, and bacteriophages of E. coli and Bacteroides fragilis mimicking the fate of enteric viruses under particular ecological conditions. Population surveys conducted by the authors provided ranges for epsilon-factors. Those factors were defined as the proportion between colony forming units (cfu) numbers of index organisms and the pathogenic agent to whose potential occurrence they are expected to point. Epsilon factor values obtained for thermotropic Enterobacteriaceae in relation to Salmonella spp. allow the calculation of the probability that the pathogen has been reliably eliminated by the processing of initially contaminated raw materials, when cfu's of the marker organisms remain below a reference range previously fixed. PMID:7546448

  12. Tackifier for addition polyimides containing monoethylphthalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Butler, J. M. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement of addition polyimides wherein an essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers is disclosed. The improved process takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer such as monoethylphthalate (MEP) which is used in lieu of an alcohol solvent, and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepreg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepreg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the layup process. This improvement results in both longer life of the polymer prepreg and the processing of low void laminate and appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  13. Food additives and allergy.

    PubMed

    Weber, R W

    1993-03-01

    There is ample evidence that food additives of several sorts may precipitate adverse reactions. Some of these have catastrophic potential such as sulfite sensitivity in asthmatic patients. Fortunately, asthmatic responses to a variety of additives are certainly not as prevalent as once feared, and are probably unusual. Restricted diets are of no general benefit in asthmatic patients. In contrast to asthma, urticarial or other cutaneous reactions to food additives are more common. A restricted diet for a few months' duration may be beneficial, although the mechanism through which this is achieved is unclear. Suspected food additive sensitivities are best documented by oral challenges, preferably in a double-blind manner. Challenges in asthmatic patients need to be done with patients continuing on their routine medications to avoid false positives. All care should be taken to titrate the doses and schedule the doses appropriately, since several of these agents could provoke large drops in pulmonary function. With urticarial patients, an adequate baseline of urticarial activity needs to be established before the challenges so that fluctuations in normal activity are not construed as a positive result. Despite a large number of studies evaluating the role of food additives in hyperkinesis, results are not uniform. Evidence does suggest that there is a small subset of primarily younger children in whom additives will impact on behavior. As with asthma and additives, the problem appears to be much smaller than originally postulated. PMID:8452311

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. Awesome Addition Games

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Smith

    2010-10-14

    These games are fun to play and will test your addition skills! Click on the links to play the games! Play in the Kitten Match and test your math skills!! Pick the grade level you want to play on. Then pick numbers that add up to equal the number that they give you. Hurry, you're being timed! Use your addition skills to win a Diaper Derby!! First decide what you want your baby to look like! Then perform the addition problem that ...

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  18. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  19. Places and faces: Geographic environment influences the ingroup memory advantage.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-03-01

    The preferential allocation of attention and memory to the ingroup (the ingroup memory advantage) is one of the most replicated effects in the psychological literature. But little is known about what factors may influence such effects. Here the authors investigated a potential influence: category salience as determined by the perceiver's geographic environment. They did so by studying the ingroup memory advantage in perceptually ambiguous groups for whom perceptual cues do not make group membership immediately salient. Individuals in an environment in which a particular group membership was salient (Mormon and non-Mormon men and women living in Salt Lake City, Utah) showed better memory for faces belonging to their ingroup in an incidental encoding paradigm. Majority group participants in an environment where this group membership was not salient (non-Mormon men and women in the northeastern United States), however, showed no ingroup memory advantage whereas minority group participants (Mormons) in the same environment did. But in the same environment, when differences in group membership were made accessible via an unobtrusive priming task, non-Mormons did show an ingroup memory advantage and Mormons' memory for ingroup members increased. Environmental context cues therefore influence the ingroup memory advantage for categories that are not intrinsically salient. PMID:20175617

  20. Reasoning about other people's beliefs: bilinguals have an advantage.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has been observed with bilingual children. Using a traditional false-belief task coupled with an eye-tracking technique, we found that adults in general suffer interference from their own perspective when reasoning about other people's beliefs. However, bilinguals are reliably less susceptible to this egocentric bias than are monolinguals. Moreover, performance on the false-belief task significantly correlated with performance on an executive control task. We argue that bilinguals' early sociolinguistic sensitivity and enhanced executive control may account for their advantage in false-belief reasoning. PMID:21875251

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. Increased flexibility in the delivery of ultrapure water The Milli-Q Advantage system offers flexibility in the quality and delivery of various ultrapure

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of monitoring devices and qualification of water purification units. Millipore has developed a new water purification system that responds to all these needs.This system includes a main water purifica- tion unit and allow the automatic delivery of a selected water volume. Main purification unit The main purification

  3. Uploading Test Questions in Blackboard 6.3 The Upload Question option in Blackboard's Test Manager offers many advantages. It's a faster way to create a large test

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Uploading Test Questions in Blackboard 6.3 The Upload Question option in Blackboard's Test Manager question. Blackboard will successfully upload only correctly formatted questions. Examples of the format (Type the responses in their correct order - Blackboard will automatically scramble the order) MAT

  4. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  5. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  6. Quaternary deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition. These additives consist of a major portion of an oil of lubricating viscosity and a dispersant effective amount of quaternized polyoxyalkylene amine salt additive of molecular weight from about 500 to about 2500. The polyoxyalkylene moiety consists of 1 to 30 oxyalkylene units selected from oxyalkylene units having 2 to 4 carbon atoms. The amine moiety consists of from 1 to about 12 amine nitrogen atoms and from about 2 to 40 carbon atoms, and further consisting of a connecting moiety linking the polyoxyalkylene moiety and the amine moiety.

  7. Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

  8. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition

  9. Arrillaga Sports Center Addition,

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    BioE/ChemE Building emical ding, ion Arrillaga Sports Center Addition, New EV Graduate Student Sports Ctr Music Rehearsal Facility Credit Union Recycling Center Children's Center of the Stanford and Astrophysics Arrillaga Center for Sports and Recreation Herrin Labs 155 Blackwelder Highrise Quillen Highrise

  10. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Norseev; L. Vasaros; D. D. Nhan; N. K. Huan

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been

  11. Additional Sources of Information

    Cancer.gov

    Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

  12. 27 CFR 70.449 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedural Rules Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.449 Offers in compromise. The procedures in the case of offers in compromise of...

  13. Information Management, Analytics & Optimization Services IMS Security Implementation Service Offering

    E-print Network

    Information Management, Analytics & Optimization Services IMS Security Implementation Service Offering The IMS Security Implementation service offering from the IMS Laboratory Technical Specialist group is now available. With IMS Version 10, the IMS supplied Security Maintenance Utility (SMU

  14. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless...

  15. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless...

  16. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless...

  17. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Mark

    Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in evolving yeast populations Clifford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex is a general feature of the life cycle of eukaryotes. It is not universal, however, as many organisms seem to lack sex entirely1 . The widespread occurrence of sex is puzzling, both because meiotic

  18. Elasticity and Mechanical Advantage in Cables and Ropes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity of…

  19. Comparative Advantage and Efficient Advertising in the Attention Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo A. Huberman; Fang Wu

    We analyze the problem that enterprises face when having to decide on the most efiective way to advertise several items belonging to their inventories within the company's webpages. We show that the ability to arbitrarily partition a website among items leads to a comparative advantage among webpages which can be exploited so as to maximize the total proflt of the

  20. Multidimensional Epistasis and the Advantage of Sex Richard A. Watson

    E-print Network

    Multidimensional Epistasis and the Advantage of Sex Richard A. Watson Electronics and Computer "unidimensional epistasis," are a limited subset of possible epistatic landscapes. They claim that more general "multidimensional epistasis" usually confers a disadvantage for sex. However, the evolutionary computation (EC

  1. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos D. Zaridis

    2009-01-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique

  2. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  3. The Advantages of HDPE Piping & Vaults in the

    E-print Network

    The Advantages of HDPE Piping & Vaults in the Geothermal Market Presented By: Jennifer Schneider Resistant · Thermally Conductive · Environmentally Friendly #12;©Uponor 12 Geothermal Vaults · Geothermal Vaults are made from various materials Steel FRP Concrete PE Plate HDPE Pipe Vault · HDPE Vaults

  4. The UNIX/XENIX Advantage: Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of the UNIX/XENIX operating system to support administrative office automation functions--word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic mail, and communications--at the Central Michigan University Libraries. Advantages and disadvantages of the XENIX operating system and system configuration are…

  5. Hatching order explains an extrapair chick advantage in western bluebirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise D. Ferree; Janis Dickinson; Wallace Rendell; Caitlin Stern; Stephanie Porter

    2010-01-01

    Within-family comparisons of offspring growth rates have provided important tests of genetic benefits of extrapair mating for females. Here, we demonstrate that hatching order explains the growth advantage for extrapair young in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana); extrapair nestlings are larger than within-pair nestlings in the same nest, but they also hatch earlier in the clutch, thus benefiting from hatching asynchrony.

  6. Ph.D. Fellowships at NPS The Advantages

    E-print Network

    Kölsch, Mathias

    , CA · Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI · Naval Aviation Weapons Center, Patuxent, MD · Naval-to-three months a year at a naval warfare center or laboratory. 5. Access to base housing is available, with advantageous rates for DoD civilians. 6. Payback of a year of civilian employment at a naval warfare center

  7. Potential Advantages for Millimeter-Wave Heating of Powdered Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jirun Luo; Christian Hunyar; Lambert Feher; Guido Link; Manfred Thumm; Paola Pozzo

    2004-01-01

    Based on electromagnetic induction heating, an interaction model of microwaves with powdered metal has been established. The formulae of attenuation coefficient, heating rate and heating conversion efficiency are obtained and analyzed. The results of calculations show that millimeter waves may be able to overcome the obstacle caused by smaller skin depth and have strong advantages for the microwave heating of

  8. Information advantage and dominant strategies in second-price auctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezra EINY; Ori HAIMANKO; Ram ORZACH; Aner SELA

    2000-01-01

    We study a general model of common-value second-price auctions with differential information. We show that one of the bidders has an information advantage over the other bidders if and only if he possesses a dominant strategy. A dominant strategy is, in fact, unique, and is given by the conditional expectation of the common value with respect to his information field.

  9. Home-field advantage accelerates leaf litter decomposition in forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Ayres; Heidi Steltzer; Breana L. Simmons; Rodney T. Simpson; J. Megan Steinweg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; Nate Mellor; William J. Parton; John C. Moore; Diana H. Wall

    2009-01-01

    Several leaf litter decay studies have indicated that decomposition occurs more rapidly when litter is placed beneath the plant species from which it had been derived than beneath a different plant species (i.e. home-field advantage, HFA), although support for this notion has not been universal. We provide the first quantification of HFA in relation to leaf litter decomposition using published

  10. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage. PMID:25265557

  11. Why Brake-By-Wire (BBW) ? Advantages of BBW

    E-print Network

    Yao, Bin

    at wheel] #12;Sectional Drawing of the Electromechanically Actuated Disk Brake From ITT Brake Pads Caliper Brake Disk Rim Contour 0.032[m] Pad Support [Sectional Drawing of the Continental Teves (formerly ITTWhy Brake-By-Wire (BBW) ? Advantages of BBW Shorter Stopping Distances & Optimized Stability

  12. Evidence of a divided-attention advantage in autism.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M D; Richards, Eric D; Moldes, Vanessa; Sekuler, Allison B

    2007-07-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders appear to have some specific advantages in visual processing, including an advantage in visual search tasks. However, executive function theory predicts deficits in tasks that require divided attention, and there is evidence that people with autism have difficulty broadening their attention (Mann & Walker, 2003). We wanted to know how robust the known attentional advantage is. Would people with autism have difficulty dividing attention between central and peripheral tasks, as is required in the Useful Field of View task, or would they show an advantage due to strengths in visual search? Observers identified central letters and localized peripheral targets under both focused- and divided-attention conditions. Participants were 20 adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome and 20 adults matched to the experimental group on education, age, and IQ. Contrary to some predictions, individuals with autism tended to show relatively smaller divided-attention costs than did matched adults. These results stand in stark contrast to the predictions of some prevalent theories of visual and cognitive processing in autism. PMID:18416504

  13. TAKING SCIENTIFIC ADVANTAGE OF A DISASTROUS OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 19 January 1996, the North Cape barge ran aground on Moonstone Beach in southern Rhode Island, releasing 828,000 gallons of refined oil. This opportunistic study was designed to take scientific advantage of the most severely affected seabird, the common loon (Gavia immer) . As...

  14. Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages Piotr / Published online: 21 August 2012 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract Kefir grains are used the possibility of the re-use of kefir grains grown at 18 °C for 24 h in pasteurized Escherichia coli contaminated

  15. Standardized phenotyping: advantages to horticulture, introduction to the workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces a workshop on standardized phenotyping and the advantages it provides for horticultural crops. The workshop was held at the 2009 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference in St. Louis, MO, and was organized by the Genetics and Germplasm Working Group. The o...

  16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  17. Advantages of flow bindings: an embedded mobile network use case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Boutet; Benoit Le Texier; Julien Montavont; Nicolas Montavont; Guillaume Schreiner

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a demonstration of embedded communication systems on bicycles, and shows the advantages of Flow Bindings associated with the Network Mobility Basic Support (NEMO BS) protocol to distribute traffic along various paths. In June 2007 we demonstrated a new E-bike system by using the ANEMONE Mobile IPv6 testbed. In practice, three bicycles equipped with user terminals evolved on

  18. Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids Diamantis Sellisa , Benjamin J. Callahanb , Dmitri A. Petrova,1 , and Philipp W. Messera,1 Departments of a Biology and b) Molecular adaptation is typically assumed to proceed by sequen- tial fixation of beneficial mutations

  19. Russian Industrial Restructuring: Trends in Productivity, Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudiger Ahrend

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates issues related to industrial restructuring in Russia. Based on extensive sectoral data it examines, more particularly, levels and changes in labour productivity, unit labour costs and revealed comparative advantages for a large number of Russian industrial sectors. The main findings are the following. First, impressive increases in labour productivity have been achieved since 1997, especially during the

  20. Supply chain collaboration: Impact on collaborative advantage and firm performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Cao; Qingyu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Facing uncertain environments, firms have strived to achieve greater supply chain collaboration to leverage the resources and knowledge of their suppliers and customers. The objective of the study is to uncover the nature of supply chain collaboration and explore its impact on firm performance based on a paradigm of collaborative advantage. Reliable and valid instruments of these constructs were developed

  1. ACHIEVING COLLABORATIVE ADVANTAGE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE THROUGH SUPPLY CHAIN COLLABORATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Cao; Qingyu Zhang; Mark A. Vonderembse; T. S. Ragu-Nathan

    Facing uncertain environments, firms have strived to achieve greater supply chain collaboration to leverage the resources and knowledge of suppliers and customers. The objective of the study is to uncover the nature of supply chain collaboration and explore its impact on collaborative advantage and firm performance. Reliable and valid instruments were developed. Data were collected through a Web survey and

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of a "Joint Administrative Agreement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William H.

    Many rural school districts are contemplating joint administrative agreements at the superintendent and central staff level. An Illinois superintendent who participated as a joint administrator of two districts points out the advantages and disadvantages of such an arrangement. The potential budget savings often allow the hiring of a top…

  3. First Author Advantage: Citation Labeling in Research Graham Cormode

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    First Author Advantage: Citation Labeling in Research Graham Cormode University of Warwick G@cs.rutgers.edu ABSTRACT Citations among research papers, and the networks they form, are the pri- mary object of study in scientometrics. The act of making a citation reflects the citer's knowledge of the related literature

  4. Intangible project management assets as determinants of competitive advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gita Mathur; Kam Jugdev; Tak Shing Fung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To explore the role of intangible project management assets in achievement of competitive advantage from the project management process through it being valuable, rare, inimitable, and having organizational support. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected on tangible and intangible project management process assets and competitive characteristics of the project management process using an online survey of North American Project

  5. Communication advantages of line drawings Roberto Casatia, b

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Communication advantages of line drawings Roberto Casatia, b and Alessandro Pignocchia a Institut a the cognitive foundations of a pragmatic account of line drawings. It sets to highlight those features of line drawings that make them, as opposed to other types of visual representations, particularly conducive

  6. On the Advantage of WellBalanced Schemes for

    E-print Network

    On the Advantage of Well­Balanced Schemes for Moving­Water Equilibria of the Shallow Water Equations Yulong Xing1 , Chi­Wang Shu2 , and Sebastian Noelle3 Bericht Nr. 315 Dezember 2010 Key words: Shallow water equation, still water, moving water equilibrium, high order accuracy, well balanced scheme

  7. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  8. Emerging Bilingualism: Dissociating Advantages for Metalinguistic Awareness and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    The present studies revealed different factors associated with the reported advantages found in fully bilingual children for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Participants were 100 children in Study 1 and 80 children in Study 2 in the process of becoming bilingual by attending immersion programs. In both studies, "level of…

  9. Foundations for a Competitive Advantage. ILRDC Special Publication Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Literacy Resource Development Center, Champaign.

    The six articles in this publication provide information on how basic skills education and training can contribute to corporate profitability, using case studies and examples from corporations that promote employee training. The following articles are included: "Laying the Foundations for a Competitive Advantage: Emson's Skills Enhancement…

  10. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  11. Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengan, K.

    1983-01-01

    Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

  12. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  13. Home advantage and player nationality in international club football

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian R. Poulter

    2009-01-01

    The home advantage effect was investigated at a team and player level in Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League football using in-depth performance and disciplinary variables. Performance analysis revealed that the home team scored more goals, had more shots on and off target, had a greater share of possession, and won more corners than the away team. There

  14. Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-07

    The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

  15. Adverse Selection plus Strategic Advantageous Selection Equals Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Cen; John OBrien

    In this paper we apply a learning model from machine learning, to a human trading crowd to understand why the no trade theorem was rejected. Our results reveal that trading volume in a continuous double auction market is associated with inverse learning curves. Inverse learning results from adverse selection among market takers and strategic advantageous selection among market makers. In

  16. From Equal Educational Opportunity to Diversity Advantaged Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.

    2007-01-01

    The case for desegregation has been based largely on research showing its contributions to the educational opportunities and life chances of students of color. However, this has led to remedies that have placed much of the burden of desegregation on people of color and has failed to develop awareness that there are substantial advantages to all…

  17. Education, age, and the cumulative advantage in health.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E; Wu, C L

    1996-03-01

    The positive association between educational attainment and health is well established, but the way in which the education-based gap in health varies with age is not. Do the health advantages of high educational attainment and disadvantages of low educational attainment diverge or converge with age? The cumulative advantage perspective predicts a diverging SES gap in health with age, but past evidence does not allow us to accept or reject the hypothesis. We address this issue in two samples, cross-sectionally and over time, with three health measures. The first data set consists of a 1990 telephone interview of a national probability sample of U.S. households. There are 2,031 respondents, aged 18 to 90. The second is a national probability sample of U.S. households in which 2,436 respondents aged 20 to 64 were interviewed by telephone in 1979 and reinterviewed in 1980. We find that the gap in self-reported health, in physical functioning, and in physical well-being among people with high and low educational attainment increases with age. The health advantage of the well educated is larger in older age groups than in younger. Health advantages of high income and disadvantages of low income also diverge with age, but household income does not explain education's positive effect. PMID:8820314

  18. Secured and encrypted, the Allegiance website allows participants access to up-to-date health plan information twenty-four hours a day. To take advantage of this

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Secured and encrypted, the Allegiance website allows participants access to up-to- date health plan information twenty-four hours a day. To take advantage of this service offered by Allegiance and your employer to speed up your inquiry. Click "Submit" to display your basic information and a list of claims by date

  19. 28 CFR 7.1 - Standing offer of reward.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standing offer of reward. 7.1 Section 7.1 ...CAPTURE OF ESCAPED FEDERAL PRISONERS § 7.1 Standing offer of reward. A standing offer of reward is made for the capture, or...

  20. 31 CFR 332.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 332.1 Section 332.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the...

  1. LC-MS-based holistic metabolic profiling. Problems, limitations, advantages, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gika, Helen G; Wilson, Ian D; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2014-09-01

    The present review aims to critically discuss some of the major problems and limitations of LC-MS based metabolomics as experienced from an analytical chemistry standpoint. Metabolomics offers distinct advantages to a variety of life sciences. Continuous development of the field has been realised due to intensive efforts from a great many scientists from widely divergent backgrounds and research interests as demonstrated by the contents of this special issue. The aim of this commentary is to describe current hindrances to field's progress, (some unique to metabolomics, some common with other omics fields or with conventional targeted bioanalysis) to propose some potential solutions to overcome these constraints and to provide a future perspective for likely developments in the field. PMID:24618029

  2. Arbitrarily little knowledge can give a quantum advantage for nonlocal tasks

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Allcock; Harry Buhrman; Noah Linden

    2009-03-03

    It has previously been shown that quantum nonlocality offers no benefit over classical correlations for performing a distributed task known as nonlocal computation. This is where separated parties must compute the value of a function without individually learning anything about the inputs. We show that giving the parties some knowledge of the inputs, however small, is sufficient to unlock the power of quantum mechanics to out-perform classical mechanics. This role of information held locally gives new insight into the general question of when quantum nonlocality gives an advantage over classical physics. Our results also reveal a novel feature of the nonlocality embodied in the celebrated task of Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt.

  3. [Advantages of early artificial respiration of the newborn infant using a modified T-piece].

    PubMed

    Deckardt, R

    1987-02-01

    Onset of sufficient respiration in the newborn may be delayed and require respiratory assistance. Its early institution is mandatory and its mode guided by the respiratory requirements of the newborn at risk. In our Department we use a simple respiratory equipment consisting of a modified mask elbow and a pigtail bag. We have applied this system in over thousand newborns without any complications. Sufficient respiratory care is easily accomplished. The system offers advantages because of its simplicity. It is lightweight, transparent, without valves and enables the user to applicate assisted or controlled ventilation with or without CPAP or PEEP. Tidal volume and frequency of spontaneous respiration can be gauged by watching the inflated bag's movements. If sufficient fresh gas flow is provided, there is no hazardous rebreathing. An elevated orifice maintains a safe system pressure, while still permitting high inspiratory pressures for resuscitation. Pressures applied are checked by an attached manometer. PMID:3471623

  4. Evolutionary Advantage Conferred by an Eukaryote-to-Eukaryote Gene Transfer Event in Wine Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Marsit, Souhir; Mena, Adriana; Bigey, Frédéric; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Legras, Jean-Luc; Barrio, Eladio; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2015-07-01

    Although an increasing number of horizontal gene transfers have been reported in eukaryotes, experimental evidence for their adaptive value is lacking. Here, we report the recent transfer of a 158-kb genomic region between Torulaspora microellipsoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts or closely related strains. This genomic region has undergone several rearrangements in S. cerevisiae strains, including gene loss and gene conversion between two tandemly duplicated FOT genes encoding oligopeptide transporters. We show that FOT genes confer a strong competitive advantage during grape must fermentation by increasing the number and diversity of oligopeptides that yeast can utilize as a source of nitrogen, thereby improving biomass formation, fermentation efficiency, and cell viability. Thus, the acquisition of FOT genes has favored yeast adaptation to the nitrogen-limited wine fermentation environment. This finding indicates that anthropic environments offer substantial ecological opportunity for evolutionary diversification through gene exchange between distant yeast species. PMID:25750179

  5. Evolutionary Advantage Conferred by an Eukaryote-to-Eukaryote Gene Transfer Event in Wine Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Souhir; Mena, Adriana; Bigey, Frédéric; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Legras, Jean-Luc; Barrio, Eladio; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing number of horizontal gene transfers have been reported in eukaryotes, experimental evidence for their adaptive value is lacking. Here, we report the recent transfer of a 158-kb genomic region between Torulaspora microellipsoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts or closely related strains. This genomic region has undergone several rearrangements in S. cerevisiae strains, including gene loss and gene conversion between two tandemly duplicated FOT genes encoding oligopeptide transporters. We show that FOT genes confer a strong competitive advantage during grape must fermentation by increasing the number and diversity of oligopeptides that yeast can utilize as a source of nitrogen, thereby improving biomass formation, fermentation efficiency, and cell viability. Thus, the acquisition of FOT genes has favored yeast adaptation to the nitrogen-limited wine fermentation environment. This finding indicates that anthropic environments offer substantial ecological opportunity for evolutionary diversification through gene exchange between distant yeast species. PMID:25750179

  6. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  7. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  8. Generalized Additive Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

    1986-01-01

    Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\\\\sum \\\\beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\\\\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\\\\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are

  9. The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA, MA, PhD

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    of Philosophy I · PHIL202History of Philosophy II · EitherPHIL106LogicorPHIL305Mathematical Logic In addition254 Philosophy The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA, MA, PhD Philosophy is best described, linguistics, literature, art, and so on. Special courses in philosophy deal with each of these. Characteristic

  10. The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA, MA, PhD

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    of Philosophy I · PHIL202History of Philosophy II · EitherPHIL106LogicorPHIL305Mathematical Logic In addition243 Philosophy The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA, MA, PhD Philosophy is best described, linguistics, literature, art, and so on. Special courses in philosophy deal with each of these. Characteristic

  11. Accommodation of the service offered by the network for networked control systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Branicky et al., 2003). NCSs are more and more used in industrial applications because they present several, Ethernet). The latter one makes difficult the delay estimation. the traffic load. In addition to the medium applications can disturb the performances offered to the real-time frames. Ethernet is more and more used

  12. CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 -CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB

    E-print Network

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS FALL, 2014 (6/24/14) CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted

  13. CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB

    E-print Network

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 (10/31/12) CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB Atomic, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted

  14. The Wiess School of Natural Sciences Degrees Offered: BA, BS, MA, PhD

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    Chemistry CHEM 430 Quantum Chemistry CHEM 495 Transition Metal Chemistry Additional Laboratory Co120 Chemistry The Wiess School of Natural Sciences Degrees Offered: BA, BS, MA, PhCuLtyfeLLow ValeryKhabashesku KristenKulinowski VisitingProfessor RaphaelLevine #12;Chemistry 121 chemistry

  15. Comparative advantage: the impact of ISO 14001 environmental certification on exports.

    PubMed

    Bellesi, Florencia; Lehrer, David; Tal, Alon

    2005-04-01

    Relative to the enormous acceptance of the ISO 9000 quality standard, the ISO 14001 environmental management certification has been met with only moderate enthusiasm among industrial facilities. The literature on corporate motivation for ISO 14001 participation is relatively modest considering the enormous number of publications reviewing other aspects of its adoption and implementation. It would seem that the present "marketing" package supporting ISO environmental commitments does not seem to offer sufficiently persuasive incentives for increased sales, either domestically or internationally. While researchers assume that a higher export rate of companies is positively associated with higher ISO participation rates, there have been very few empirical studies that support this inference, and conclusions have not been based on data taken from importing countries orfrom a systematic evaluation of expressed corporate preference for products sold by ISO 14001 certified companies. The present study reports the results of a survey to firms in six countries that are Israel's leading trade partners, importing chemicals, textiles, and produce. The survey results confirm that while the international market still considers price and quality as the paramount factors in selection of suppliers, environmental management systems (EMS) are an important feature that is frequently taken into consideration. EMS certification appears to signify a supplier who is managing the business well and exhibiting ethical responsibility. The European market proved to be more environmentally conscious than those in other industrialized parts of the world. EMS offer a particularly valuable advantage for producers wishing to reach European markets. As policy-makers seek to expand the voluntary adoption of EMS, a clear advantage for exporters should be highlighted among national industries. PMID:15871222

  16. Interdisciplinary Graduate Education at UNH Advantages, Opportunities, and Obstacles

    E-print Network

    the programmatic curriculum by drawing on diverse theoretical and methodological frameworks. Over the past several; the emerging fields of neuroscience environmental science, cultural psychology, justice studies, and regional by combining to offer an interdisciplinary degree a very competitive program results. Current interdisciplinary

  17. The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zande, Robin Vande

    2006-01-01

    Design education is an aesthetic and humanistic approach for teaching how to contribute to the improvement of the conditions that affect everyone's lives. This article offers an overview of some important concepts to teach young people about regeneration design and the future of our changing environment. It is becoming increasingly evident that we…

  18. Intraperitoneal delivery of monoclonal antibodies: Influence of class and fragmentation on kinetics and intraperitoneal dosing advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Geatti, O.; Fisher, S.

    1985-05-01

    Intraperitoneal (ip) delivery of monoclonal antibodies may prove beneficial in the diagnosis and therapy of malignancies involving the peritoneal cavity. Marked elevations in intraperitoneal levels of chemotherapeutic agents, without elevated blood levels, have been seen following direct intrapteritoneal instillation. The ''intraperitoneal therapeutic advantage'' of radioantibody delivered ip as compared to iv has not been extensively studied, however. I-131 labeled IgG (225.28S), F(ab')2 of IgG (225.28S) or IgM (FT162) were administered to 3 groups of 6 adult rats. Three rats received 10 ..mu..Ci of radioantibody ip in 20 cc of saline via an ip catheter, while the other 3 rats received 10 ..mu..Ci of labeled antibody iv, also receiving 20 cc of saline ip via an ip catheter. Simultaneous blood and peritoneal fluid samples were then acquired through 7 days. Ip fluid was invariably totally absorbed by 24 hrs, however. Radioactivity/g of fluid and of tissues at sacrifice (7 days post-injection) were determined. Through 6 hrs after ip administration, ip Ab levels were much higher than blood. IgM = 25/1, IgG = 9.5/1, F(ab')2 = 9.2/1. The 0-4 hr advantage of ip delivery over iv ranged from 78.5 for F(ab')2 to 97.7 fold. IgM was retained longer ip than the IgG or F(ab')2. At 7 days the diaphragms of the ip administered Ab animals, had higher radioactivity levels then iv, though other tissue antibody levels were largely similar for ip vs iv delivery. Intraperitoneal delivery of monoclonal antibodies offers considerable advantage in peritoneal radioactivity delivery, especially in the early hrs after injection.

  19. A bilingual advantage in visual language discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Albareda-Castellot, Bàrbara; Weikum, Whitney M; Werker, Janet F

    2012-09-01

    The origins of the bilingual advantage in various cognitive tasks are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that bilinguals' early capacities to track their native languages separately and learn about the properties of each may be at the origin of such differences. Spanish-Catalan bilingual and Spanish or Catalan monolingual infants watched silent video recordings of French-English bilingual speakers and were tested on their ability to discern when the language changed from French to English or vice versa. The infants' performance was compared with that of previously tested French-English bilingual and English monolingual infants. Although all groups of monolingual infants failed to detect the change between English and French, both groups of bilingual infants succeeded. These findings reveal that bilingual experience can modulate the attentional system even without explicit training or feedback. They provide a basis for explaining the ontogeny of the general cognitive advantages of bilinguals. PMID:22810164

  20. Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

    2014-07-01

    Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

  1. The selective advantages of cannibalism in a Neotropical mosquito

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart C. Church; Thomas N. Sherratt

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of larval cannibalism in the Neotropical mosquito Trichoprosopon digitatum. The clutch size of the mosquito in the field was strongly correlated with adult female size, indicating a fitness advantage\\u000a to being large. In controlled laboratory experiments, we compared the survivorship and eventual adult sizes of larvae that\\u000a were given the opportunity to cannibalise conspecifics throughout their

  2. Advantages of high-field tokamaks for fusion reactor development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Cohn; L. Bromberg

    1986-01-01

    High-field designs could reduce the cost and complexity of tokamak reactors. Moreover, the certainty of achieving required plasma performance could be increased. Strong Ohmic heating could eliminate or significantly decrease auxiliary heating power requirements and high values of ntE could be obtained in modest-size plasmas. Other potential advantages are reactor operation at modest values of ß, capability of higher power

  3. Home advantage and referee bias in European football

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Goumas

    2012-01-01

    Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009\\/2010 and 2010\\/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and

  4. [Chorionic Villus Sampling in cytogenetic analysis--disadvantages and advantages].

    PubMed

    Gny?-Wiercioch, Agnieszka; Bloch, Renata; Grolik, Barbara; Hada?, Jolanta; Kania, Agnieszka; Szo?tysik-Szot, Mariola; Sodowska, Henryka

    2012-05-01

    Chorionic villus sampling is used in prenatal diagnosis, enabling to detect fetal genetic abnormalities. Its advantages include the possibility of performing the procedure during the first trimester of pregnancy relatively fast result, risk of miscarriage comparable to that in case of amniocentesis. The disadvantages of this method are: difficult cytogenetic analysis, the possibility of contamination with maternal cells and the risk of mosaicism. There should always be a valid indication to perform the CVS procedure. PMID:22708335

  5. Technology Survey Assistance Tool Focusing on Their Advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Takeuchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Hideo; Nasukawa, Tetsuya

    It is important for R&D managers, consultants, and other people seeking broad knowledge in technology fields to survey technical literature such as research papers, white papers, and technology news articles. One of the important kinds of information for those people regards the effectiveness of new technologies in their own businesses. General search engines are good at selecting documents revealing the details of a specific technology or a technology field, but it is hard to obtain useful information about how a technology will apply to individual business cases from such search results. There is a need for a technology survey assistance tool that helps users find technologies with suitable capabilities. In this paper, two technical tasks were tackled to develop the prototype of this assistance tool: Extraction of advantage phrases and scoring for the advantage phrases to find novel applications in the target technology field. We describe a new method to identify advantage phrases in technical documents and our scoring function that gives higher scores to novel applications of the technology. The results of evaluations showed our phrase identification method with only a few phrasal patterns performs almost as well as human annotators, and the proposed scoring conforms better to the decisions made by professionals than random sort.

  6. Proppant flowback control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A. [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the laboratory and field development of thermoplastic film materials used to reduce proppant flowback that can occur after fracturing treatments. The paper provides a summary of flowback mechanism theories and laboratory tests comparing flowback tendency for various types of treating procedures and materials. Some of these materials include angular proppant, proppant/fiber mixtures, and proppant with film strips tested over a wide range of temperature, closure stress, and flow-rate conditions. Field treatment procedures are discussed, and several case histories are presented. All of the methods evaluated were effective in reducing proppant flowback under certain conditions. Heat-shrink film cut into thin slivers proved to provide flowback reduction over broad temperature and closure stress ranges and was found to cause little impairment to fracture conductivity with some dependency on use concentration, temperature, and closure stress. The film materials were more resistant to damage caused by blending and pumping than all other materials evaluated. In addition, proppant packs, including consolidated packs, were significantly more tolerant of large, repeated stress changes. Field results indicate that the use of the heat-shrink film material as a flowback control agent permits more aggressive bean-up procedures following conventional fracturing treatments. Conventional dry-additive metering systems were used to add the film material to the fracturing fluid proppant slurry.

  7. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration. PMID:21498128

  8. Factors Associated With Forensic Nurses Offering HIV nPEP Status Post Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Rotolo, Sue; Austin, Kim Wieczorek; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2014-04-14

    Nonoccupational, postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is offered inconsistently to patients who have been sexually assaulted. This may be due to Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) programs utilizing diverse nPEP protocols and HIV risk assessment algorithms. This study examines factors associated with FNEs offering nPEP to patients following sexual assault at two FNE programs in urban settings. Offering nPEP is mostly driven by site-specific protocol. At Site 1, in addition to open anal or open genital wounds, the presence of injury to the head or face was associated with FNEs offering nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 64.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 1942.37]). At Site 2, patients assaulted by someone of Other race/ethnicity (non-White, non-African American) were 86% less likely to be offered nPEP (AOR 0.14, 95% CI = [.03, .72]) than patients assaulted by Whites. In addition to following site-specific protocols, future research should further explore the mechanisms influencing clinician decision making. PMID:24733232

  9. The genetic component of human longevity: analysis of the survival advantage of parents and siblings of Italian nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Montesanto, Alberto; Latorre, Valeria; Giordano, Marco; Martino, Cinzia; Domma, Filippo; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that parents, siblings and offspring of long-lived subjects have a significant survival advantage when compared with the general population. However, how much of this reported advantage is due to common genetic factors or to a shared environment remains to be resolved. We reconstructed 202 families of nonagenarians from a population of southern Italy. To estimate the familiarity of human longevity, we compared survival data of parents and siblings of long-lived subjects to that of appropriate Italian birth cohorts. Then, to estimate the genetic component of longevity while minimizing the variability due to environment factors, we compared the survival functions of nonagenarians' siblings with those of their spouses (intrafamily control group). We found that both parents and siblings of the probands had a significant survival advantage over their Italian birth cohort counterparts. On the other hand, although a substantial survival advantage was observed in male siblings of probands with respect to the male intrafamily control group, female siblings did not show a similar advantage. In addition, we observed that the presence of a male nonagenarians in a family significantly decreased the instant mortality rate throughout lifetime for all the siblings; in the case of a female nonagenarians such an advantage persisted only for her male siblings. The methodological approach used here allowed us to distinguish the effects of environmental and genetic factors on human longevity. Our results suggest that genetic factors in males have a higher impact than in females on attaining longevity. PMID:21407257

  10. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the

  11. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Quaternary deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel's composition consisting of a major portion of hydrocarbons, which boils in the gasoline range, and from 30-10,000 ppm of a quaternized polyoxyalkylene amine salt of molecular weight 500-2500. This polyoxyalkylene moiety is characterized as consisting of 1-30 oxyalkylene units with 2-4 carbon atoms apiece. The aforementioned amine moiety consists of 1-2 amine nitrogen atoms and from about 2-40 carbon atoms. In addition, the fuel is characterized as containing a connecting moiety linking the polyoxyalkylene moiety and the amine moiety and within which the anion of the quaternized polyoxylakylene amine salts is composed of either chloride, bromide, or iodide.

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Optical and mechanical design advantages using polymer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doushkina, Valentina; Fleming, Erik

    2009-08-01

    Precision diamond-turned or molded polymer optics are utilized in a wide range of commercial markets and applications including; medical disposables, bar code scan/recognition, security and fingerprint scanners, motion and presence sensors, CCD cameras, laser collimation and others.. The use of polymer optics was previously relegated to less technically challenging applications. Current advancements in polymer technology and injection molding capabilities have increased the manufacturability and precision of polymer optics. Polymer materials with optical properties are being thrust to the design forefront for new, sophisticated electro-optical applications. Designing and manufacturing optics and optical systems using polymers alone or hybrid polymer/glass applications provides complete custom capability and offers new optical and opto-mechanical solutions for a variety of optical and opto-mechanical modules, assemblies and components. Integrated mounting offers configuration flexibility, considerable design freedom, simplified optical alignment, mechanical design, assembly and packaging. The system is assembled, aligned, optically spaced, and sealed in a single manufacturing step.

  16. k-means++: the advantages of careful seeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Arthur; Sergei Vassilvitskii

    2007-01-01

    The k-means method is a widely used clustering technique that seeks to minimize the average squared distance between points in the same cluster. Although it offers no accuracy guarantees, its simplicity and speed are very appealing in practice. By augmenting k-means with a very simple, randomized seeding technique, we obtain an algorithm that is ?(logk)-competitive with the optimal clustering. Preliminary

  17. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: a computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning.

    PubMed

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n = 15, mean age = 25 years) and non-musicians (n = 15, mean age = 23 years) learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones). Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional (MD) decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used MD strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non-native speech learning. PMID:26052304

  18. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: a computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning

    PubMed Central

    Smayda, Kirsten E.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n = 15, mean age = 25 years) and non-musicians (n = 15, mean age = 23 years) learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones). Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional (MD) decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used MD strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non-native speech learning.

  19. China and the WTO: Tariff offers, exemptions, and welfare implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Bach; Will Martin; Jennifer A. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    China and the WTO: Tariff Offers, Exemptions, and Welfare Implications. — Trade reforms have opened the Chinese economy and\\u000a the reforms offered for WTO accession involve further liberalization. To assess the implications of these offers, the authors\\u000a take into account the tariff exemptions that are especially important in China’s trade regime, and the reductions in the variability\\u000a of tariffs at

  20. New additives to offer freeze–thaw stability and increase open time of low\\/zero VOC latex paints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengang Zong; Sarah Wall; Yi-Zhong Li; Jose Ruiz; Herve Adam; Chantal Badre; Fabio Trezzi

    2011-01-01

    With increasing pressure from regulations to reduce VOC in waterborne coatings and the push toward low odor coatings, coalescing aids are being taken out of the formulations. As film forming properties need to remain identical, binder polymers that exhibit low minimum film formation temperatures (MFFT) are being developed and utilized for formulating coating with the expectation that the resulting products

  1. Supporting elderly homecare with smartwatches: advantages and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Lovis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The demographic transition in industrialized countries leads to a growth of elderly population. This population is more prone to chronic diseases and puts an increasing pressure on the healthcare system. One way to reduce the cost associated to the support of this population is to improve its autonomy to keep it independent as long as possible. Many assistive technologies and environmental interventions can be implemented to achieve this goal. In this paper, we are looking at the advantages and drawbacks of smartwatches as a platform to support elderly at home. By doing a literature search and by performing expert interview, we have identified the advantages of this technology to insure the success of promising applications as well as the obstacles that should be gone beyond. Among the advantages, the ubiquity of smartwatches makes possible a continuous medical surveillance, harder to achieve with other devices. Moreover, the versatility of smartwatches provides an appropriate ground to implement a centralized platform providing multiples services facilitating elderly homecare. However, the physical constraints of the watches such as the tiny screen size, the small connectors and the limited power autonomy can be significant barriers to the adoption of these tools. In conclusion, beside the actual homecare system, improving the autonomy and the independence of elderly at home can be leveraged by a combination of environmental and assistive technologies. Smartwatches have definitively the potential to become close assistants to help elderly in their daily life. However, this will not be achieved without dedicating a significant effort in designing appropriate user interfaces and certainly dedicated hardware to respond to the constraints associated with potential physical and cognitive impairments. PMID:25160270

  2. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  3. Composite filter aids for cleanup of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.Y.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines the properties of composite filter aids in additive cleanup using two- and three-component filter aid composites based on perlite, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, and wood flour. Filtration tests were run on naphtha solutions of the additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. The laboratory studies indicate that composites of perlite and kieselguhr with fibrous materials (wood flour or asbestos) show great promise for the removal of solid contaminants from the zinc disalkydithiophosphate additive. The advantages of the filter aid composite based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour in comparison with the two-component composites are the higher filtration rate (by 26%) and the smaller losses of additive (by a factor of 2.1) and isobutyl alcohol (by a factor of 1.6). It is demonstrated that the filtration rate with the three components is 50-60% higher than with the composite of perlite with kieselguhr. The filtration of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive using the composite filter aid based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour, has been adopted at the Volgograd Petroleum Refinery. Includes 2 tables.

  4. Emerging Bilingualism: Dissociating Advantages for Metalinguistic Awareness and Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca

    2011-01-01

    The present studies revealed different factors associated with the reported advantages found in fully bilingual children for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Participants were 100 children in Study 1 and 80 children in Study 2 in the process of becoming bilingual by attending immersion programs. In both studies, level of proficiency in the language of testing was related to performance on metalinguistic tasks and length of time in the immersion program was related to performance on executive control tasks. This dissociation is consistent with models of lifespan development that distinguish between representational structure and executive control. PMID:21906732

  5. Advantages of less-tech, less-than-lethal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marts, Donna J.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages of developing less-tech technologies by reporting on two less-tech, less-than-lethal prototype law enforcement tools developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The devices were developed for the National Institute of Justice, less- than-lethal weapons program: 1) an air bag restraint device for use in restraining suspects who become violent during transport in patrol vehicles, and 2) a retractable spiked barrier strip for stopping fleeing vehicles during high-speed pursuit. The success of both projects relied on developing design requirements in conjunction with the actual users of the devices.

  6. Advantages of the Community Climate Model (CCM) concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, David L.

    1990-07-01

    The advantages of the Community Climate Model (CCM) concept in which many scientist use the same basic model for a variety of scientific studies, were demonstrated in the CCM workshop. At these workshops, many diverse experiments were seen to relate to each other when performed with the same model, and much constructive dialogue took place between experts in different disciplines. The 3rd workshop on CCM was held in July 1990. To augment these workshops and to foster interchange between all users of the NCAR CCM, the CCM Advisory Committee recommended that a CCM progress report be prepared periodically for all users and potential users.

  7. Ising Models of Social Impact: the Role of Cumulative Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohring, G. A.

    1996-02-01

    A statistical mechanical model for Latané's theory of social impact is discussed and extended to include learning. When the persuasive and supportive strengths are not equal, a ferromagnetic and a spin-glass phase emerge. When the persuasive and supportive strengths are equal, and a cumulative advantage learning scheme is used, then the model exhibits two ferromagnetic phases distinguishable by the structure of the correlations. In the first phase the correlations are normally distributed. In the second phase all elements are shown to be highly correlated with either a single element or a small number of elements. These “leaders” determine the equilibrium state of the system.

  8. The advantages, disadvantages, and policies for part-time radiologists: report of the ACR Commission on Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Coleman, Beverly G; Recht, Michael P; Bluth, Edward I

    2014-07-01

    The employment of part-time radiologists (PTRs) has both advantages and disadvantages in various practice settings. The authors examine the pros and cons of PTRs and review the literature regarding PTRs both within and outside the specialty of radiology. The complexity of this issue is manifested in our inability to reach consensus on many policy issues for PTRs. Nevertheless, this article should be helpful in offering an objective, nonbiased background to initiating a discussion on employing PTRs in various radiology practices. PMID:24855984

  9. Rare male mating advantage for inversion karyotype in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, B N

    2004-05-01

    These experiments were conducted to study frequency-dependent sexual selection on the alpha inversion in the left arm of the second chromosome (2L) in Drosophila ananassae. Two different strains, ST/ST-standard gene arrangement and AL/AL-alpha inversion in 2L were used. Female-choice experiments were carried out in five different male ratios. Two different methods of observation have been employed, one in which copulating pairs are aspirated out and the other, in which pairs are not removed. Results were analyzed by chi(2) tests, and log odds plus regression analyses. Regression analyses revealed the presence of one-sided rare male mating advantages for AL/AL males. Preferential mating is present within the strain having AL/AL karyotype. The minority male advantage and preferential mating found in the AL/AL strain are different components of mating success. ANOVA fails to show any significant difference between the outcomes of rare-male experiments using these two different methods. PMID:14990872

  10. Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: springxwang@yahoo.com; Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

  11. Bilateral and two-item advantage in subitizing.

    PubMed

    Railo, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Subitizing refers to people's ability to enumerate small sets of items fast and accurately. The present study examined if the speed and scope of subitizing is improved when the items to be enumerated are presented bilaterally across hemifields rather than unilaterally in a single hemifield. Such an effect, known as the bilateral field advantage, has been observed in a number of other visual tasks. A second aim was to examine whether the speed of subitizing could be explained by the speed it takes to detect the items to be enumerated, as simple reaction times to multiple stimuli are known to be faster than responses to individual items (known as the redundant target effect, RTE). The results revealed a bilateral field advantage even for enumerating two items. Moreover, the two item condition was the optimal subitizing condition - even enumerating one single item took longer - but this effect was not due to the RTE. In fact, the RTE negatively correlated with the speed of enumerating the same stimuli. PMID:25152322

  12. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at e">http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89.

  13. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  14. Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.

    PubMed

    Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

    1990-01-01

    The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage. PMID:10106917

  15. A sequential bioequivalence design with a potential ethical advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces a two-stage approach for evaluation of bioequivalence, where, in contrast to the designs of Diane Potvin and co-workers, two stages are mandatory regardless of the data obtained at stage 1. The approach is derived from Potvin's method C. It is shown that under circumstances with relatively high variability and relatively low initial sample size, this method has an advantage over Potvin's approaches in terms of sample sizes while controlling type I error rates at or below 5% with a minute occasional trade-off in power. Ethically and economically, the method may thus be an attractive alternative to the Potvin designs. It is also shown that when using the method introduced here, average total sample sizes are rather independent of initial sample size. Finally, it is shown that when a futility rule in terms of sample size for stage 2 is incorporated into this method, i.e., when a second stage can be abolished due to sample size considerations, there is often an advantage in terms of power or sample size as compared to the previously published methods. PMID:24871343

  16. Social complementation and growth advantages promote socially defective bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Susanne A.; Velicer, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among diverse individuals that encounter one another in nature have often been studied among animals but rarely among microbes. For example, the evolutionary forces that determine natural frequencies of bacteria that express cooperative behaviours at low levels remain poorly understood. Natural isolates of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sampled from the same fruiting body often vary in social phenotypes, such as group swarming and multicellular development. Here, we tested whether genotypes highly proficient at swarming or development might promote the persistence of less socially proficient genotypes from the same fruiting body. Fast-swarming strains complemented slower isolates, allowing the latter to keep pace with faster strains in mixed groups. During development, one low-sporulating strain was antagonized by high sporulators, whereas others with severe developmental defects had those defects partially complemented by high-sporulating strains. Despite declining in frequency overall during competition experiments spanning multiple cycles of development, developmentally defective strains exhibited advantages during the growth phases of competitions. These results suggest that microbes with low-sociality phenotypes often benefit from interacting with more socially proficient strains. Such complementation may combine with advantages at other traits to increase equilibrium frequencies of low-sociality genotypes in natural populations. PMID:24573856

  17. NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

  18. www.cs.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered

    E-print Network

    as a Center of Excellence in Information Assurance Education by the National Security Agency. We have a fiveCOMPUTER SCIENCE www.cs.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Minor in Computer Science Graduate Degrees Offered: Master of Science in Computer Science Doctor

  19. Unfairness, Anger, and Spite: Emotional Rejections of Ultimatum Offers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madan M. Pillutla; J. Keith Murnighan

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses an anomaly in experimental economics, the rejection of ultimatum offers, and uses a psychological explanation for this essentially economic event. The wounded pride\\/spite model predicts that informed, knowledgeable respondents may react to small ultimatum offers by perceiving them as unfair, feeling anger, and acting spitefully. Results of a large scale experiment support the model, showing that rejections

  20. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155...ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary...provides a non-exclusive safe harbor from integration of private and registered...

  1. Technology Companies are Best Positioned to Offer Health Record Trusts

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    record trusts. Finally, we argue that Personal Health Records (PHRs) are the closest to offering the mainTechnology Companies are Best Positioned to Offer Health Record Trusts Shirley Gaw (sgaw features of health record trusts. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) and the Health Insurance Portability

  2. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  3. College of Liberal Arts Degrees Offered 2013-14

    E-print Network

    Tchumper, Gregory S.

    Education Performance Minors from the College of Liberal Arts Departments Aerospace Studies ClassicsCollege of Liberal Arts Degrees Offered 2013-14 The College also offers students the opportunity/18/13 Bachelor of Arts African American Studies Classics Liberal Studies Public Policy Leadership Anthropology

  4. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with...

  5. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.1308 Section 655.1308 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1308 Offered wage rate. (a) Highest wage...

  6. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  7. Genome Sequence Assembly Using Trace Signals and Additional Sequence Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastien Chevreux; Thomas Wetter; Sándor Suhai

    1999-01-01

    Motivation: This article presents a method for as- sembling shotgun sequences which primarily uses high confidence regions whilst taking advantage of additional available information such as low con- fidence regions, quality values or repetitive region tags. Conflict situations are resolved with routines for analysing trace signals. Results: Initial tests with different human and mouse genome projects showed promising results but

  8. Interruptible Power: An Economic Advantage to Industrial Users 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    utility offering a rate incentive to the customer for allowing the utility to 770 ESL-IE-81-04-134 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 disconnect a portion of service to the customer... on the effective date of the increased credit. TVA, the distributor, and the customer may, however, agree to extend the contract term such that a minimum of five years remain after the effective date of the increased credit. 776 ESL-IE-81-04-134 Proceedings...

  9. Studying cloud aerosol interactions from space - advantages and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Wollner, Uri; Dagan, Guy

    2015-04-01

    As clouds form a complex dynamical system, theoretical studies may offer several attractors for the system to converge to. Such attractors can suggest trends that link changes in aerosol properties to changes in clouds' ones. The variety of possible trends can reflect the reality or can be the result of the research approach. Differences in the way by which the physics is described (say in the turbulence scheme), or in the configurations of the numerical schemes (say bin vs. bulk) may result in significant differences in the cloud (and cloud field) properties. Therefore, it is not uncommon to find reports of contradicting conclusions to this important problem. Observations, despite having numerous problems and limitations, are the only way by which one can find if there is a preferred trend. To do so one has to slice the data to narrow cloud types, environmental conditions and aerosol properties. Furthermore, there are many artifacts or alternative interpretations that one has to consider as a part of the analysis. Most importantly, one has to "ask" the data the right questions, trying to distil clear and coherent set of evidences that will allow not only to find the preferred trend, but also to offer a physical mechanism that later could be further tested with the aid of other approaches, such as numerical models or in situ measurements. Here we will describe some of the challenges of such studies and show how we link observations and numerical models to explain contradicting reports of aerosol interaction with warm convective clouds.

  10. Changing appetites: The adaptive advantages of fuel choice

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Illana A.; Ribeiro, Sofia M.; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Norberg, Erik; Danial, Nika N.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are capable of metabolizing a variety of carbon substrates, including glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies, and amino acids. Cellular fuel choice not only fulfills specific biosynthetic needs, but also enables programmatic adaptations to stress conditions beyond compensating for changes in nutrient availability. Emerging evidence indicates that specific switches from utilization of one substrate to another can have protective or permissive roles in disease pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular determinants of cellular fuel preference may provide insights into the homeostatic control of stress responses, and unveil therapeutic targets. Here, we highlight overarching themes encompassing cellular fuel choice, its link to cell fate and function, its advantages in stress protection, and its contribution to metabolic dependencies and maladaptations in pathologic conditions. PMID:24018218

  11. USSR sees advantages for fluid bed and underground coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    A coal gasification process using a fluidized bed under pressure, with high-temperature scrubbing of dust and sulfurous compounds is being developed at the Institute of Mineral Fuels (IGI). The process has also been tested with a steam-oxygen blast for producing process gases. A test installation has been built at the Moscow Coke-Oven Gas Plant with a capacity of 1000 cubic meters of gas per hour. Calculations at IGI confirmed an economic advantage for fluidized-bed coal gasification compared to Lurgie gas generators. Two underground coal gasification stations using an air blast are currently in operation. The operating UCG stations are small and correspond (in quantity of heat production) to mines of 100,00-400,000 tons of coal a year. The small capacity of these stations and other factors (low heat of combustion, high cost of electrical energy, gas leakage) are causing relatively high production costs. 2 tables.

  12. The bilingual L2 advantage in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Strobach, E Natalia

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the mechanisms by which bilingual proficiency impacts memory processes, two recognition memory experiments were conducted with matched monolingual and bilingual samples. In Experiment 1, monolingual speakers of English and Spanish studied high- and low-frequency words under full attention or cognitive load conditions. In Experiment 2, Spanish-English bilingual participants studied high- and low-frequency words under full-attention conditions in each language. For both monolinguals and bilinguals, low-frequency words were better recognized than high-frequency words. The central new findings were that bilingual recognition was more accurate in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1) and that bilingual L2 recognition was more accurate than monolingual recognition. The bilingual L2 advantage parallels word frequency effects in recognition and is attributed to the greater episodic distinctiveness of L2 words, relative to L1 words. PMID:23606134

  13. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  14. Total hip arthroplasty: areview of advances, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of Osteoarthritis (OA) has been unsatisfactory and often surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) is required. THA is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage arthritic hip conditions. Cemented THA has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with OA. An improvement in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) before surgery might contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of DVT after THA, though post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a chronic condition in the lower extremity does not appear to be a major complication after DVT in patients undergoing THA. For OA, four domains to be evaluated: pain, physical function, joint imaging, and patient global assessment. Thus, THA can be cost saving or, at least cost- effective in improving quality-adjusted life expectancy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances as well as advantages and limitations of THA. PMID:25784971

  15. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25492891

  16. Inhibitory processes in visual perception: a bilingual advantage.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Marx, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual inhibitory control advantages are well established. An open question is whether inhibitory superiority also extends to visual perceptual phenomena that involve inhibitory processes. This research used ambiguous figures to assess inhibitory bilingual superiority in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old mono- and bilingual children (N=141). Findings show that bilinguals across all ages are superior in inhibiting a prevalent interpretation of an ambiguous figure to perceive the alternative interpretation. In contrast, mono- and bilinguals revealed no differences in understanding that an ambiguous figure can have two distinct referents. Together, these results suggest that early bilingual inhibitory control superiority is also evident in visual perception. Bilinguals' conceptual understanding of figure ambiguity is comparable to that of their monolingual peers. PMID:24878102

  17. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  18. Note: This syllabus may represent a past offering of this course and future course offerings may differ.

    E-print Network

    concerns that underlie Standard English. More specifically, after completing this course, students shouldNote: This syllabus may represent a past offering of this course and future course offerings may Quarter/Year: Winter 2012 Course Schedule: Monday and Wednesday, 10:30am-12:20pm Course Description

  19. Research Foundation Employee Offer Letter We are pleased to offer you the position of with the Research

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Research Foundation Employee Offer Letter Dear , We are pleased to offer you the position of with the Research Foundation of State University of New York at Binghamton, a private non profit corporation. You United Sincerely, I Accept the Appointment: Signature and Date cc: Research Foundation Personnel

  20. Decision support for organ offers in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Volk, Michael L; Goodrich, Nathan; Lai, Jennifer C; Sonnenday, Christopher; Shedden, Kerby

    2015-06-01

    Organ offers in liver transplantation are high-risk medical decisions with a low certainty of whether a better liver offer will come along before death. We hypothesized that decision support could improve the decision to accept or decline. With data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, survival models were constructed for 42,857 waiting-list patients and 28,653 posttransplant patients from 2002 to 2008. Daily covariate-adjusted survival probabilities from these 2 models were combined into a 5-year area under the curve to create an individualized prediction of whether an organ offer should be accepted for a given patient. Among 650,832 organ offers from 2008 to 2013, patient survival was compared by whether the clinical decision was concordant or discordant with model predictions. The acceptance benefit (AB)-the predicted gain or loss of life by accepting a given organ versus waiting for the next organ-ranged from 3 to -2 years (harm) and varied geographically; for example, the average benefit of accepting a donation after cardiac death organ ranged from 0.47 to -0.71 years by donation service area. Among organ offers, even when AB was >1 year, the offer was only accepted 10% of the time. Patient survival from the time of the organ offer was better if the model recommendations and the clinical decision were concordant: for offers with AB?>?0, the 3-year survival was 80% if the offer was accepted and 66% if it was declined (P?

  1. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge over their opponents. PMID:23672331

  2. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...necessary to cancel a contract for acceptance by the Government of the Offer to Sell...Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...property and that the Government will not require...the most difficult problems encountered in...

  3. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...necessary to cancel a contract for acceptance by the Government of the Offer to Sell...Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...property and that the Government will not require...the most difficult problems encountered in...

  4. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...necessary to cancel a contract for acceptance by the Government of the Offer to Sell...Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...property and that the Government will not require...the most difficult problems encountered in...

  5. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...necessary to cancel a contract for acceptance by the Government of the Offer to Sell...Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...property and that the Government will not require...the most difficult problems encountered in...

  6. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...necessary to cancel a contract for acceptance by the Government of the Offer to Sell...Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...property and that the Government will not require...the most difficult problems encountered in...

  7. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  8. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  9. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  10. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

  11. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  12. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  13. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  14. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  15. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.42 Human...

  16. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.42 Human...

  17. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.42 Human...

  18. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

  19. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and...

  20. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and...

  1. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and...

  2. When Restaurants Offer Healthy Kids' Fare, Children Eat It

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152323.html When Restaurants Offer Healthy Kids' Fare, Children Eat It After menu makeover, more ... healthier meals at a restaurant chain after the kids' menu got a makeover with healthy options replacing ...

  3. Cut-offs for Main Round offers 2013 admissions

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Cut-offs for Main Round offers 2013 admissions f:\\common\\uas2013\\allocation\\publication\\main round, secondary studies, post-secondary studies and other relevant factors such as employment history and special

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award. ER09DE97.002 [62 FR 64941, Dec. 9,...

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities among Enrollees in Medicare Advantage Plans

    PubMed Central

    Ayanian, John Z.; Landon, Bruce E.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in the control of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose among the various racial and ethnic groups of Medicare enrollees may contribute to persistent disparities in health outcomes. Methods Among elderly enrollees in Medicare Advantage health plans in 2011 who had hypertension (94,171 persons), cardiovascular disease (112,039), or diabetes (105,848), we compared the respective age-and-sex-adjusted proportions with blood pressure lower than 140/90 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter), and a glycated hemoglobin value of 9.0% or lower, according to race or ethnic group. Comparisons were made nationally and within regions and health plans, and changes since 2006 were assessed. Results Black enrollees in 2006 and 2011 were substantially less likely than white enrollees to have adequate control of blood pressure (adjusted absolute differences in proportions of enrollees in the 2 years, 7.9 percentage points and 10.3 percentage points, respectively), cholesterol (11.4 percentage points and 10.2 percentage points, respectively), and glycated hemoglobin (10.1 percentage points and 9.4 percentage points, respectively) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Differing distributions of enrollees among health plans accounted for 39 to 59% of observed disparities in 2011. These differences persisted in 2011 in the Northeast, Midwest, and South (6.9 to 14.1 percentage points, P<0.001 for all comparisons) but were eliminated in the West for all three measures (<1.5 percentage points, P?0.15). Hispanic enrollees were less likely than whites in 2011 to have adequate control of blood pressure (adjusted difference, 1.6 percentage points), cholesterol (adjusted difference, 1.0 percentage points), and glycated hemoglobin (adjusted difference, 3.4 percentage points) (P?0.02 for all comparisons). Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely than whites to have adequate control of blood pressure (difference, 4.4 percentage points; P<0.001) and cholesterol (5.5 percentage points, P<0.001) and had similar control of glycated hemoglobin (0.3 percentage points, P = 0.63). Conclusions Disparities in control of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose have not improved nationally for blacks in Medicare Advantage plans, but these disparities were eliminated in the West in 2011. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.) PMID:25494268

  6. 5. Building #3, original structure, second addition, and first addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Building #3, original structure, second addition, and first addition (from right to left), south and east sides, looking northwest. - S. W. Shattuck Chemical Company, Incorporated, Building No. 3, 1805 South Bannock Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  7. The Advantages of Sealless Pumps in Heat Transfer Fluid Services 

    E-print Network

    Smith, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    in undesirable ways. Sealless pumps are well suited to HTF applications, eliminating many of the issues which challenge mechanical seals. In addition, one type of sealless pump, the canned motor pump, raises the thermal efficiency of HTF systems. Waste heat from...

  8. The Advantages of FTD Drug Development (Part 2 of FTD: The Next Therapeutic Frontier)

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Gold, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hu, William T.; Rosen, Howard; Kramer, Joel; Gao, Fen-Biao; Burton, Edward A.; Chow, Tiffany; Kao, Aimee; Leavitt, Blair; Lamb, Bruce; Grether, Megan; Knopman, David; Cairns, Nigel J.; Mackenzie, Ian; Mitic, Laura; Roberson, Erik D.; Van Kammen, Daniel; Cantillon, Marc; Zahs, Kathleen; Jackson, George; Salloway, Stephen; Morris, John; Tong, Gary; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Dickinson, Susan; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sutherland, Margaret; Abushakra, Susan; Lewcock, Joseph; Farese, Robert; Kenet, Robert O.; LaFerla, Frank; Perrin, Steve; Whitaker, Steve; Honig, Lawrence; Mesulam, Marsel; Boeve, Brad; Grossman, Murray; Miller, Bruce; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD) encompasses a spectrum of related neurodegenerative disorders with behavioral, language and motor phenotypes for which there are currently no effective therapies. This manuscript is the second of two articles that summarize the presentations and discussions that occurred at two symposia in 2011 sponsored by the Frontotemporal Dementia Treatment Study Group (FTSG), a collaborative group of academic and industry researchers that is devoted to developing treatments for FTD. This manuscript discusses the current status of FTD clinical research that is relevant to the conduct of clinical trials and why FTD research may be an attractive pathway for developing therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. The clinical and molecular features of FTD, including rapid disease progression and relatively pure molecular pathology, suggest that there are advantages to developing drugs for FTD as compared to other dementias. FTD qualifies as orphan indication, providing additional advantages for drug development. Two recent sets of consensus diagnostic criteria will facilitate the identification of patients with FTD, and a variety of neuropsychological, functional and behavioral scales have been shown to be sensitive to disease progression. Moreover, quantitative neuroimaging measurements demonstrate progressive brain atrophy in FTD at rates that may surpass Alzheimer's disease (AD). Finally, the similarities between FTD and other neurodegenerative diseases with drug development efforts already underway suggest that FTD researchers will be able to draw upon this experience to create a roadmap for FTD drug development. We conclude that FTD research has reached sufficient maturity to pursue clinical development of specific FTD therapies. PMID:23062850

  9. Citation advantage of Open Access articles likely explained by quality differential and media effects

    E-print Network

    Philip M. Davis

    2007-01-16

    In a study of articles published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Gunther Eysenbach discovered a significant citation advantage for those articles made freely-available upon publication (Eysenbach 2006). While the author attempted to control for confounding factors that may have explained the citation differential, the study was unable to control for characteristics of the article that may have led some authors to pay the additional page charges ($1,000) for immediate OA status. OA articles published in PNAS were more than twice as likely to be featured on the front cover of the journal (3.3% vs. 1.4%), nearly twice as likely to be picked up by the media (15% vs. 8%) and when cited reached, on average, nearly twice as many news outlets as subscription-based articles (4.2 vs. 2.6). The citation advantage of Open Access articles in PNAS may likely be explained by a quality differential and the amplification of media effects.

  10. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  11. Immortality of cell lines: challenges and advantages of establishment.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Muhammad Irfan; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Ghasroldasht, Mohammad M

    2013-10-01

    Cellular immortality happens upon impairment of cell-cycle checkpoint pathways (p53/p16/pRb), reactivation or up-regulation of telomerase enzyme, or upregulation of some oncogenes or oncoproteins leading to a higher rate of cell division.There are also some other factors and mechanisms involved in immortalisation, which need to be discovered. Immortalisation of cells derived from different sources and establishment of immortal cell lines has proven useful in understanding the molecular pathways governing cell developmental cascades in eukaryotic, especially human, cells. After the breakthrough of achieving the immortal cells and understanding their critical importance in the field of molecular biology, intense efforts have been dedicated to establish cell lines useful for elucidating the functions of telomerase, developmental lineage of progenitors, self-renewal potency, cellular transformation, differentiation patterns and some bioprocesses, like odontogenesis. Meanwhile, discovering the exact mechanisms of immortality, a major challenge for science yet, is believed to open new gateways toward understanding and treatment of cancer in the long term. This review summarises the methods involved in establishing immortality, its advantages and the challenges still being faced in this field. PMID:23723166

  12. Elasticity and mechanical advantage in cables and ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity of the cable. This solution has several complex and interesting features, e.g. a large increase in the tension in the cable may occur upon application of F if (i) F lies in a certain range and (ii) the initial tension T1 in the cable (before F is applied) satisfies T1 < 0.0340 ?. Here, ? is the spring constant of a unit length of the cable. For steel cables and cables composed of other materials such as carbon nanorods where the elasticity is low, significant increases in tension are possible. Examples involving walking a tightrope and attempting to increase the tension in a rope hauling a load are considered. Two programs to solve the equations of this work are available in the electronic version of this journal.

  13. Advantages and limitations of LSO scintillator in nuclear physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ludziejewski, T.; Moszynska, K.; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)] [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Klamra, W.; Norlin, L.O. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics] [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Devitsin, E.; Kozlov, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    Light yield, light pulse shape due to {gamma}-rays and {alpha}-particles, energy and time resolutions for three different samples of the LSO scintillator were studied using an XP2020Q photomultiplier and an S3590-03 photodiode. Light yields of 4,200{+-}200 phe/MeV and 18,500{+-}900 e-h pair/MeV were measured for the PM tube and the photodiode, respectively. The light pulse shape exhibits a pure exponential decay with a time constant of 47.2{+-}1.3 ns for both {gamma}-rays and {alpha}-particles. Energy resolutions of 10% and 14.6% for the 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source were obtained for the photomultiplier and the photodiode readout, respectively. A time resolution of 180 ns was observed for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 1 MeV threshold and 400 ps for 100 keV threshold. The study confirmed a number of advantages of the LSO scintillator for nuclear physics experiments, however, for small size samples. For larger volumes the natural radioactivity of the LSO, about 300 counts/s/cm{sup 3}, may limit possible applications. The high number of e-h pair produced in the photodiodes makes LSO very attractive for small compact scintillation probes.

  14. Advantages and applications of CAR-expressing natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Glienke, Wolfgang; Esser, Ruth; Priesner, Christoph; Suerth, Julia D.; Schambach, Axel; Wels, Winfried S.; Grez, Manuel; Kloess, Stephan; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koehl, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:25729364

  15. Making Medicare Advantage a Middle-Class Program

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare Advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the “middle class.” Current Medicare policy of a “single premium” for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare. PMID:23454916

  16. Advantages of synchronized lock-in amplifiers in experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydh, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    The lock-in amplifier is a versatile instrument in many disciplines of physics, due to its ability to resolve small AC signals of given frequency and phase with high resolution. A modern, digital lock-in amplifier digitizes the signal before demodulation and further processing and is thus little more than a data acquisition unit (ADC) and a computer. With the availability of powerful signal processors such as DSPs and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the potential of the lock-in technique has broadened. Several frequency components of a signal could for instance be studied simultaneously. Combining several ADCs in one instrument rather than having separate lock-in amplifiers is especially advantageous. We have developed such a lock-in amplifier with eight simultaneous-sampling inputs connected to an FPGA. With synchronized channels, the time resolution is increased, making it possible to study time-dependent signals and their correlation. This makes the signal source stability less critical and further improves the signal to noise ratio. Examples of experimental use include transport measurements, low-temperature thermometry and frequency characterization.

  17. The Breast Unit Update on advantages and the open issues.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Gianluca; Di Leone, Alba; Masetti, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is acknowledged as an international priority in health care. It is currently the most common cancer in women worldwide, with demographic trends indicating a continuous increase in incidence. In the World, it is estimated that by 2020 there will be approximately 2,000,000 new cases of breast cancer per year. The enormous burden placed by this disease both on the population and on health care systems explains the increasing efforts and resources that have been devoted over the years to the search for a systematic and optimized strategy in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Today, the Breast Unit model is identified as the gold-standard to ensure optimized patient-centered and research-based clinical services for breast cancer patients improving survival rates and patients' quality of life by a multidisciplinary approach in breast care. The present work reviews the lines of development of this multidisciplinary model of breast cancer treatment and analyzes the requirements of a high quality Breast Unit, its potential advantages and the many open issues that still require proper definition and implementation. PMID:25047121

  18. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  19. Comparative advantage strategy for rapid pollution mitigation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Due to its sheer size and growth trend, no other country is facing more daunting challenges than China in reducing its pollutant emissions. A critical but inadequately addressed question is how rapidly China could feasibly achieve such mitigation. The stake is high not only about how much worse China's environmental quality could become but also about how the world can prevent catastrophic climate change. Through examining sulfur dioxide (SO2) mitigation in coal-fired power plants and wind energy development for carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, this article proposes a comparative advantage strategy for overcoming high barriers to fast pollution mitigation. On the demand side, China could first make progress in the deployment of more pollution control facilities and then improve their operational performance. The resulting low technological market entry barriers could help to build enough industrial capacity to meet the huge demand with prices under control. The strategy in the current practice could be improved to establish not only a large supply industry but also a strong one to enable other countries to move more rapidly in pollution mitigation. PMID:23930721

  20. Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2013-11-01

    The MHD-kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall ? (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration.

  1. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheon; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. (75)Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher Km than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. PMID:25912135

  2. Advantages of application of UPLC in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Matysová, Ludmila; Solich, Petr

    2006-01-15

    Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) is a relatively new technique giving new possibilities in liquid chromatography, especially concerning decrease of time and solvent consumption. UPLC chromatographic system is designed in a special way to withstand high system back-pressures. Special analytical columns UPLC Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) packed with 1.7 microm particles are used in connection with this system. The quality control analyses of four pharmaceutical formulations were transferred from HPLC to UPLC system. The results are compared for Triamcinolon cream containing trimacinolone acetonide, methylparaben, propylparaben and triamcinolone as degradation product, for Hydrocortison cream (hydrocortisone acetate, methylparaben, propylparaben and hydrocortisone degradation product), for Indomethacin gel (indomethacin and its degradation products 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 5-methoxy-2-methylindoleacetic acid) and for Estrogel gel (estradiol, methylparaben, propylparaben and estrone as degradation product). The UPLC system allows shortening analysis time up to nine times comparing to the conventional system using 5 microm particle packed analytical columns. In comparison with 3 microm particle packed analytical columns analysis should be shortened about three times. The negative effect of particle decrease is back-pressure increase about nine times (versus 5 microm) or three times (versus 3 microm), respectively. The separation on UPLC is performed under very high pressures (up to 100MPa is possible in UPLC system), but it has no negative influence on analytical column or other components of chromatographic system. Separation efficiency remains maintained or is even improved. Differences and SST parameters, advantages and disadvantages of UPLC are discussed. PMID:18970409

  3. The Relativistic Velocity Addition Formula: A Graphical Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the problem that students balk at the notion velocities do not add algebraically. Offers a geometric model to verify the algebraic formulas that calculate velocity addition. Representations include Galilean relativity, Einstein's composition of velocities, and the inverse velocity transformation. (MDH)

  4. www.biology.pdx.edu For additional information about

    E-print Network

    BIOLOGY www.biology.pdx.edu For additional information about the Biology Department: Visit: Biology Department Portland State University P.O. Box 751 Portland, OR 97207-0751/ Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Biology Bachelor of Science in Biology Minor in Biology Our challenging

  5. Current status of additive solutions for platelets.

    PubMed

    Alhumaidan, Hiba; Sweeney, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The storage of platelets in additive solution (PAS) had lagged behind red cell concentrates, especially in North America. The partial or complete removal of anticoagulated plasma and storage of platelet concentrates in AS presents many advantages. The PAS can be formulated to optimize aerobic metabolism or decrease platelet activation, thus abrogating the platelet storage lesion and potentially improving in vivo viability. Plasma removal has been shown to reduce allergic reactions and the plasma harvested could contribute to the available plasma pool for transfusion or fractionation. PAS coupled to pathogen reduction technology results in a platelet product of equivalent hemostatic efficacy to conventionally stored platelets. Given the above, the likely future direction of platelet storage will be in new generation designer PAS with an extended shelf life and a superior safety profile to plasma stored platelets. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22298435

  6. Advantages of externally powered prosthesis with feedback system using pseudo-cineplasty.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Seiji; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Taniguchi, Masashi; Park, Choong Sik; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Nakajima, Shigeyoshi; Koike, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Externally powered upper-limb prostheses are difficult to use because of the lack of sensory feedback. Neuroprostheses have recently been developed for people with upper-limb amputation but are complicated, expensive, and still developing. We therefore designed a simple system by combining pseudo-cineplasty with extended physiological proprioception to provide sensory feedback to the body. We penetrated the palmaris longus tendon percutaneously with a metal ring, similar to that used in body piercing, in a nondisabled subject as a pseudo-cineplasty. The tendon and ring were connected to the system, and a sensory feedback experiment was performed. We investigated the ability of the user to determine the size of an object grasped by the prosthetic hand without visual information. The subject could distinguish between large and small objects with 100% accuracy and between small, medium, and large objects with 80% accuracy. In pseudo-cineplasty, control and sensory feedback are natural because the prosthetic hand is controlled by muscle contraction. Tension transmitted from the prosthetic hand is sensed via muscle spindles and skin sensors. This technique allows only partial sensory feedback but appears to offer several advantages over other human-machine interfaces. PMID:25436660

  7. Advantage of multi-mode sapphire optical fiber for evanescent-field SERS sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tian, Fei; Chi, Jingmao; Kanka, Jiri; Du, Henry

    2014-10-15

    An unclad, multi-mode single crystal sapphire fiber was used as a platform, and immobilized colloidal Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were used as enabler, for evanescent-field fiber-optic sensing via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) solution. The dependence of the measured Raman intensity on NP coverage density (to a maximum of 120??particles/?m²) as well as the coverage length (to a maximum of 6 cm) was investigated. We demonstrate the utility of SERS-active sapphire fibers for sensitive measurements (10?? M R6G). We further reveal, with the aid of theoretical analysis, that multi-mode fiber offers a significant advantage compared to its single-mode counterpart because the former allows two orders of magnitude higher particle coverage density than the latter to maximize SERS benefit, while maintaining the dominance of Raman gain despite the competitive interplay of NP-induced absorption and scattering loss along the interaction path length. PMID:25361094

  8. Feeding kinematics of freshwater turtles: what advantage do invasive species possess?

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Tabata, Runa; Hori, Tomoya; Mitamura, Hiromich; Arai, Nobuaki

    2014-10-01

    The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) is an invasive turtle species that is displacing the populations of native freshwater turtles in many countries. However, the mechanism that makes red-eared sliders superior competitors has been less well studied. In this study, we compare the feeding kinematics of the red-eared slider with those of Reeves' pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii), a turtle native to East Asia, and offer an explanation as to why red-eared sliders are superior in food competition. Reeves' pond turtles sympatric to red-eared sliders have been reported to have a mainly durophagous diet in contrast to the preference for a soft diet in areas of allopatry to red-eared sliders, indicating the dietary shift resulted from food competition. Maximum neck extension and retraction speed are considered to be indicators of striking ability, but were not found to be superior in red-eared sliders. In fact, maximum neck extension speed was significantly higher in Reeves' pond turtles, though this advantage may be counteracted by the longer neck of Reeves' pond turtles, resulting in similar neck extension times. On the other hand, red-eared sliders had a significantly shorter gape cycle time and neck retraction time, indicating that they can complete feeding in a short time. Therefore, red-eared sliders are suggested to be superior in food competition not due to their striking ability, but due to exploiting preferable food in a shorter time. PMID:25156933

  9. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Tony D.

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:24917839

  10. End-to-end imaging information rate advantages of various alternative communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of various deep space communication systems which are required to transmit both imaging and a typically error sensitive class of data called general science and engineering (gse) are compared. The approach jointly treats the imaging and gse transmission problems, allowing comparisons of systems which include various channel coding and data compression alternatives. Actual system comparisons include an advanced imaging communication system (AICS) which exhibits the rather significant advantages of sophisticated data compression coupled with powerful yet practical channel coding. For example, under certain conditions the improved AICS efficiency could provide as much as two orders of magnitude increase in imaging information rate compared to a single channel uncoded, uncompressed system while maintaining the same gse data rate in both systems. Additional details describing AICS compression and coding concepts as well as efforts to apply them are provided in support of the system analysis.

  11. Starch — Value Addition by Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudrapatnam N. Tharanathan

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking

  12. Advantages of the Retrosigmoid Approach in Auditory Brain Stem Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Vittorio; Fiorino, Francesco G.; Carner, Marco; Giarbini, Nadia; Sacchetto, Luca; Cumer, Guido

    2000-01-01

    From April 1997 to December 1999, six patients (five men and one woman), ranging in age from 22 to 37 years with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) were operated on via the classic retrosigmoid-transmental (RS-TM) approach for removal of a vestibular schwannoma (VS) (tumor size from 12 to 40 mm) and for auditory brain stem implantation (ABI). After tumor removal, the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and the convolution of the dorsal cochlear nucleos were reached, and the ABI was inserted. More recently, an ABI was implanted via the retrosigmoid approach in a 4-year-old boy with a cochlear malformation (common cavity) associated with cochlear nerve aplasia. Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) and neural response telemetry (NRT) were performed to verify the correct positioning of the inserted electrodes. No major complications related to ABI were observed. ABI has been activated to date in five of the NF2 patients. Auditory sensations with various numbers of electrodes were evoked in all patients. We consider the RS-TM approach the route of choice for ABI insertion in patients with NF2 and good hearing, offering a chance of hearing preservation, and in patients with complete cochlear ossification, severe head trauma and cochlear fracture, or nerve disruption, or a combination of these. A new indication for ABI implantation via the RS approach is presented by patients with bilateral cochlear nerve aplasia. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:17171142

  13. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

  14. Advantages of quantum well solar cells for TPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Paul; Ballard, Ian; Barnham, Keith; Nelson, Jenny; Zachariou, Alexander; Button, Chris; Hopkinson, Mark; Pate, Malcom

    1997-03-01

    We discuss the advantages of quantum well solar cells (QWSCs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications and illustrate them with a test cell grown in GaInAsP/InGaAs lattice-matched to InP but not optimised for TPV. It is shown that a GaInAsP quaternary cell with a bandgap of 1.1 ?m with 60 InGaAs QWs has an open circuit voltage of (1.7±0.1) times that of a homogeneous InGaAs cell under a narrow band ytterbia-like illuminating spectrum. Similar enhancements are observed under an erbia-like illumination and in a broad band illumination approximating a black body at 3000K. The quaternary cell absorbs a similar range of wavelengths close to the InGaAs cell. Also, better temperature coefficients for the QWSC than the control cell are observed in a spectrum approximating a black body at 3000K. A comparison is made between the QWSC and two other cells, one InGaAs and one Si, using published spectral response and illuminated current/voltage data. It is shown that whilst InGaAs has a higher power output in black body spectra and Si a higher power output in an ideal ytterbia spectra the QWSC has the highest output in a combination of 2000K black body and ytterbia spectra where 56% of the power output is in the ytterbia emission band. Possible improvements to this non-optimised QWSC are discussed.

  15. Molecular approaches: advantages and artifacts in assessing bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Daniela Santos; Lima-Bittencourt, Cláudia Iracema; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Amaral Nascimento, Andréa Maria

    2007-07-01

    Bacteria account for a major proportion of Earth's biological diversity. They play essential roles in quite diverse environments and there has been an increasing interest in bacterial biodiversity. Research using novel and efficient tools to identify and characterize bacterial communities has been the key for elucidating biological activities with potential for industrial application. The current approach used for defining bacterial species is based on phenotypic and genomic properties. Traditional and novel DNA-based molecular methods are improving our knowledge of bacterial diversity in nature. Advances in molecular biology have been important for studies of diversity, considerably improving our knowledge of morphological, physiological, and ecological features of bacterial taxa. DNA-DNA hybridization, which has been used for many years, is still considered the golden standard for bacteria species identification. PCR-based methods investigating 16S rRNA gene sequences, and other approaches, such as the metagenome, have been used to study the physiology and diversity of bacteria and to identify novel genes with potential pharmaceutical and other biotechnological applications. We examined the advantages and limitations of molecular methods currently used to analyze bacterial diversity; these are mainly based on the 16S rRNA gene. These methods have allowed us to examine microorganisms that cannot be cultivated by routine methods and have also been useful for phylogenetic studies. We also considered the importance of improvements in microbe culture techniques and how we can combine different methods to allow a more appropriate assessment of bacterial diversity and to determine their real potential for industrial applications. PMID:17476541

  16. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    PubMed Central

    Kronick, Richard; Welch, W. Pete

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Data Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004–2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006–2011. Measures Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Results Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006–2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Discussion Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary. PMID:25068076

  17. Economic advantage of pharmacogenomics - clinical trials with genetic information.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Wataru; Mizushima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the benefit and loss for the pharmaceutical companies when they adopt introducing pharmacogenomics in their clinical trials (in the following description, clinical trials by using pharmacogenomics is called "pgx clinical trial"), that is, when they use genetic information in their clinical trials. Particularly, the benefit for the pharmaceutical companies in terms of following two points is analyzed. 1. Development cost of new drug and period of clinical trial can be reduced because a clinical trial needs less subjects, 2. The new drug can be placed on the market earlier because the development period can be shortened. A survey conducted by Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association revealed that the pharmaceutical companies in Japan are interested in "pgx clinical trial". Specifically, 95% of the member companies (n=19) of the Association replied that the establishment of a guideline for pgx clinical trial by regulatory authorities are highly desirable. However, 65% of them (n=13) also replied that pgx clinical trial is difficult for the time being. It can be concluded that the pharmaceutical companies are positive about pgx clinical trial, but they cannot take a step towards it for several reasons: some of them may be worried their sales for non-responders will be reduced, poor understanding of pgx among the concerned parties, and not matured methodology of pgx clinical trial. This study shows that the advantage of pgx clinical trial outweighs its disadvantage. The sales may decrease because the drug is not used for non-responders, however, the number of subjects necessary for a clinical trial can be reduced, study period can be shortened and the drug can be marketed earlier. Furthermore, adverse events (AE) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) during the clinical trial and post-marketing phase can be markedly reduced. This represents a great benefit for the patients, pharmaceutical companies and the society as a whole. PMID:18487794

  18. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  19. State of the art of shear driven chromatography. Advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Veronika; Clicq, David; De Malsche, Wim; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2007-05-11

    The present paper reports on the experimental difficulties encountered when trying to realize the full potential of shear-driven chromatography in nanochannels. While it theoretically offers the possibility to yield over 10,000 plates per centimetre in a few seconds, the practical realization of this potential requires a detector miniaturisation that is carried to the extreme combined with very high sampling rates. In the present study, a charge coupled device camera and a photomultiplier tube combined with pinhole were tested as detector. Despite the fact that the photomultiplier tube could offer a higher sampling rate and a better sensitivity, the charge coupled device turned out to be better suited for the current set-up because of inevitable problems with the stray-light transported through the glass channel wall. The chemistry of the separation surface was additionally studied getting more homogenous coating, thus higher separation efficiency. Having also carried out a number of mechanical improvements, it is now possible to measure separations at a distance of 8mm downstream from the injection point. This is four times further downstream than ever before while realizing a four components mixture separation in less than 1.5s, with a plate generation velocity of about 2000-7000 plates per second depending on the sample. PMID:17336313

  20. The advantages of stereo vision in a face recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Humans can recognize a face with binocular vision, while computers typically use a single face image. It is known that the performance of face recognition (by a computer) can be improved using the score fusion of multimodal images and multiple algorithms. A question is: Can we apply stereo vision to a face recognition system? We know that human binocular vision has many advantages such as stereopsis (3D vision), binocular summation, and singleness of vision including fusion of binocular images (cyclopean image). For face recognition, a 3D face or 3D facial features are typically computed from a pair of stereo images. In human visual processes, the binocular summation and singleness of vision are similar as image fusion processes. In this paper, we propose an advanced face recognition system with stereo imaging capability, which is comprised of two 2-in-1 multispectral (visible and thermal) cameras and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]). Specifically, we present and compare stereo fusion at three levels (images, features, and scores) by using stereo images (from left camera and right camera). Image fusion is achieved with three methods (Laplacian pyramid, wavelet transform, average); feature fusion is done with three logical operations (AND, OR, XOR); and score fusion is implemented with four classifiers (LDA, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression). The system performance is measured by probability of correct classification (PCC) rate (reported as accuracy rate in this paper) and false accept rate (FAR). The proposed approaches were validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Experimental results show that any type of stereo fusion can improve the PCC, meanwhile reduce the FAR. It seems that stereo image/feature fusion is superior to stereo score fusion in terms of recognition performance. Further score fusion after image/feature fusion does not benefit much (or at all) for performance improvement which may imply that the power of image/feature/score fusion shall not be doubly applied to a face recognition process pipeline.

  1. Geothermal Waste Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.

    1992-03-24

    Development of biotechnology for treatment of geothermal residual waste is aimed at the application of low-cost biochemical processes for the surface treatment and disposal of residual geothermal sludges. These processes, in addition to the lowering of disposal cost, are designed to be environmentally acceptable. Recent studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have shown that optimization of several process variables results in fast rates (<24h) of metal removal from residual sludges at acidic pH ({approx}1-2). Optimization of the process variables also enables the removal of radioactive isotopes. In addition, the aqueous phase produced during the bioprocessing which contains solubilized metals can be further treated in a manner which precipitates out the metals and renders the aqueous effluent toxic metal free. In this paper, the various process options will be discussed in terms of biotreatment variables. Chemical composition before and after biotreatment will also be discussed in terms of long-range effects, quality assurance and potential disposal costs.

  2. First tribal college or university to offer hydrology degree program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, Diana

    2012-07-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confederations exert sovereignty over about 27% of freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 20-30 Native American students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosciences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of Native American hydrologists, the Salish Kootenai College (SKC) in Pablo, Mont., now has associate and bachelor of science degree programs in hydrology, the first hydrology and geoscience degree programs offered by any of the Tribal Colleges and Universities in North America. SKC received approval to offer the degree programs from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities in 2010.

  3. Recommendations from friends anytime and anywhere: toward a model of contextual offer and consumption values.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Yongqiang; Wang, Nan

    2013-05-01

    The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  4. Recommendations from Friends Anytime and Anywhere: Toward a Model of Contextual Offer and Consumption Values

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  5. 78 FR 43820 - Medicare Program; Medical Loss Ratio Requirements for the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...0938-AR69 Medicare Program; Medical Loss Ratio Requirements for the Medicare Advantage...titled ``Medicare Program; Medical Loss Ratio Requirements for the Medicare Advantage...Requirements for a Minimum Medical Loss Ratio, we made a typographical error in a...

  6. 32 CFR 37.315 - What are the advantages of using a fixed-support TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false What are the advantages of using a fixed-support...AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS...Expenditure-Based and Fixed-Support Technology Investment Agreements § 37.315 What are the advantages of using a...

  7. 10 CFR 603.315 - Advantages of a fixed-support TIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Advantages of a fixed-support TIA...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS...Expenditure-Based and Fixed-Support Technology Investment Agreements § 603.315 Advantages of a fixed-support...

  8. 50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section 86.112 Wildlife... How States Will Complete Access Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys provide the information...

  9. 50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section 86.112 Wildlife... How States Will Complete Access Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys provide the information...

  10. 50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section 86.112 Wildlife... How States Will Complete Access Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys provide the information...

  11. 50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section 86.112 Wildlife... How States Will Complete Access Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys provide the information...

  12. 50 CFR 86.112 - What are the advantages of doing a survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false What are the advantages of doing a survey? 86.112 Section 86.112 Wildlife... How States Will Complete Access Needs Surveys § 86.112 What are the advantages of doing a survey? Surveys provide the information...

  13. Additional Information For additional information concerning any of the information

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Additional Information For additional information concerning any of the information presented above or older; · possess a valid driver's license appropriate for the type of vehicle driven; · have a safe driving record; and · complete all required defensive driver training. For a complete listing of all

  14. Additional Information You can find additional information about

    E-print Network

    resources http://www.centerwatch.com · National Institutes of Health Clinical Center information any test, medication or procedure · Quit the study at any time · Know your information is secureAdditional Information You can find additional information about participating in a research

  15. Advantages and limitations of mouse models to deplete dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    van Blijswijk, Janneke; Schraml, Barbara U; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Our understanding of DC biology has benefited from studies in CD11c.DTR and CD11c.DOG mouse models that use the CD11c promoter to express a diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor transgene to inducibly deplete CD11c(+) cells. Other models to inducibly deplete specific DC subsets upon administration of DT have also been generated. However, most models suffer from limitations such as depletion of additional cell types or the requirement to be used as radiation chimeras. Moreover, CD11c.DTR and CD11c.DOG mice have recently been reported to display neutrophilia and monocytosis upon DT injection. We discuss here some of the limitations that should be taken into consideration when interpreting results obtained with mouse models of DC ablation. PMID:23322690

  16. Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Vuksan, V; Brighenti, F; Cunnane, S C; Rao, A V; Jenkins, A L; Buckley, G; Patten, R; Singer, W

    1989-10-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the frequency of meals on serum lipid concentrations and carbohydrate tolerance in normal subjects. Seven men were assigned in random order to two metabolically identical diets. One diet consisted of 17 snacks per day (the nibbling diet), and the other of three meals per day (the three-meal diet); each diet was followed for two weeks. As compared with the three-meal diet, the nibbling diet reduced fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B by a mean (+/- SE) of 8.5 +/- 2.5 percent (P less than 0.02), 13.5 +/- 3.4 percent (P less than 0.01), and 15.1 +/- 5.7 percent (P less than 0.05), respectively. Although the mean blood glucose level and serum concentrations of free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and triglyceride were similar during both diets, during the nibbling diet the mean serum insulin level decreased by 27.9 +/- 6.3 percent (P less than 0.01) and the mean 24-hour urinary C-peptide output decreased by 20.2 +/- 5.6 percent (P less than 0.02). In addition, the mean 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion was lower by 17.3 +/- 5.9 percent (P less than 0.05) at the end of the nibbling diet than at the end of the three-meal diet. The blood glucose, serum insulin, and C-peptide responses to a standardized breakfast and the results of an intravenous glucose-tolerance test conducted at the end of each diet were similar. We conclude that in addition to the amount and type of food eaten, the frequency of meals may be an important determinant of fasting serum lipid levels, possibly in relation to changes in insulin secretion. PMID:2674713

  17. The Role of Rest in the NBA Home-Court Advantage Oliver Entine

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Abstract To date, the factors which lead to the very large home court advantage characteristic of the NBAThe Role of Rest in the NBA Home-Court Advantage Oliver Entine Department of Statistics have not yet been well isolated. This study analyzes the relationship between that home court advantage

  18. Destination Management and Relationship Marketing: Two Major Factors to Achieve Competitive Advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyedeh Fatemeh Mostafavi Shirazi; Ahmad Puad Mat Som

    2011-01-01

    To strongly cope in the competitive market of tourism destinations, it is imperative to consider competitive advantages. The major success factors for achieving competitive advantages have not yet been comprehensively examined in the tourism destination literature. Destination management as a universal strategic approach for attaining competitive advantages can run the core resources and address all fundamental elements of a destination.

  19. Compensatory Advantage as a Mechanism of Educational Inequality: A Regression Discontinuity Based on Month of Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory advantage is a mechanism of social stratification that complements cumulative advantage and path dependence. In this article, I first discuss the theoretical foundations of the compensatory advantage and path dependence mechanisms and the methodological challenges that complicate identification of their effects. Next, I present a…

  20. Manufacturing advantages of superplastically formed fine-grain Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comley, Peter N.

    2004-12-01

    Superplastic forming (SPF) of Ti-6Al-4V has traditionally been performed at 900 °C. Although SPF equipment and dies have been developed to withstand this high temperature, their life is limited and maintenance is high. In addition, the formed sheets need chemical milling after processing to remove a significant layer of alpha case, and parts require hand polishing due to a rough die surface caused by high temperature oxidation. The recent development of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a grain size of around 1 µm has led to the possibility of superplastic forming at a much lower temperature than regular Ti-6Al-4V. In addition, the forming speed can be increased. This work looks at some of the SPF attributes of fine-grain titanium, in particular, the optimum forming temperature, the thinning characteristics, alpha case formation, and forming speeds. The authors also address manufacturing advantages, such as die life, equipment needs, and operator comfort. Some prototype and preproduction aircraft components on Boeing airplanes are presented. The results show that the new fine-grain material could significantly lower the cost of SPF Ti-6Al-4V part production for the aerospace industry.

  1. Developing and Offering Student Self-Help Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.

    This document consists of one module extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 3 consists of seven articles on developing and offering student self-help support groups. Article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Youth Engaged in Self-Help: A Guide for Starting Youth Self-Help Groups" (Mary K. Parkinson, Nancy Sax); (2) "Introducing and…

  2. Contrastive Pragmatics of English and Japanese Offers and Requests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Kiel

    This paper analyzes a study by Fukushima (1990) of the English offers and responses of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and reports on an experiment designed to address the perceived weaknesses of Fukushima's work. Fukushima's study found that many Japanese EFL learners could not use appropriate levels of politeness in…

  3. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  4. Initial Public Offerings in Hot and Cold Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Helwege; Nellie Liang

    2004-01-01

    The literature on IPOs offers a wide variety of explanations to justify the dramatic swings in the volume of IPOs observed in the market. Many theories predict that hot IPO markets are characterized by clusters of firms in particular industries for which a technological innovation has occurred, suggesting that hot and cold market IPO firms will differ in quality, prospects,

  5. SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation

    E-print Network

    SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

  6. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy Bachelor of Science in Philosophy Minor in Philosophy "In virtually any of our 24 programs within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Sciences Major topics in philosophy include morality, science, religion, art, persons, value, political

  7. http://geog.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered

    E-print Network

    interest areas. Cultural and Human Geography - the role of culture in giving character to places in urbanGEOGRAPHY http://geog.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Geography Bachelor of Science in Geography Minor in Geography Minor in Geographic Information Systems e Geography Department

  8. Using Offer versus Serve in the School Meals Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, RoseAnna

    The goal of the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) option in the Healthy School Meals Initiative is to minimize plate waste and to encourage more food choices in school meal programs. This manual was designed for child nutrition programs as a tool in helping them meet the Healthy School Meals Initiative, in particular to assist them in identifying a…

  9. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

    E-print Network

    Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Minor in Psychology "In virtually any of our 24 programs within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Sciences e Department of Psychology mission includes a commitment to scholarly inquiry focused on real

  10. Social media offers many ways to grow business

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-03-13

    Facebook and Twitter and YouTube, oh my! For some of us the added communications channels offered by social media can feel overwhelming in a hurry. But whether we like it or not, they’re proving to be valuable marketing tools that small and large companies alike are jumping on board to explore.

  11. An open Forum offered by The DISCOVERY CAMP 2014

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    integrated Data Sets for Management 12.00 Anja Van Der Plas, Nat MIRC, MFMR BREAK, Standing Lunch offered Network in Oceanography on Scientific Knowledge applied to the Sustainable Use of Coastal Upwelling characterization of the sulfur cycle in the Benguelan upwelling zone End of symposium 17:15 #12;

  12. Middle Island Walmart is now offering you a

    E-print Network

    . Doctor's Regular Fees Eyeglass Exam $45 Contact Lens Exam $85-$100 A $5.00 discount on the examinationMiddle Island Walmart is now offering you a 10% savings on your eyewear and contact lenses eye exams for contact lenses and eyeglasses, including glaucoma and cataract screenings. Many designer

  13. Tsunami-Made Electric Current Could Offer Warning

    E-print Network

    Harinarayana, T.

    Tsunami-Made Electric Current Could Offer Warning Killer ocean waves apparently generate electric currents in the ocean that might be used to detect tsunamis quickly. By Larry O'Hanlon | Fri Jan 22, 2010 07:52 AM ET THE GIST: · A new model predicts that tsunamis can generate small surges of electricity

  14. Stormwater Programs offered to Communities in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Stormwater Programs offered to Communities in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater: A Bird's Eye View Provides information about on-the-ground actions for communities to improve stormwater management from landscape to site level scales. Facilitated discussion helps

  15. Summer at the University of Colorado at Boulder offers

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    field studies are conducted at the University's Mountain Re- search Station, one of the prin- cipal. Especially popular is the Recreation Center's Outdoor Pro- gram, offering mountain sports enthusiasts of Arts and Sciences College of Business and Administration College of Engineering and Applied Science

  16. The Effect of Premium Offers and Consumer Buying Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    Premiums programs are common promotional tools, but have received very little empirical study. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a premium program done by Beer Nuts, Inc. A mail survey was sent to the first 250 respondents to the premium offer. Results indicate that most of the respondents were previous Beer Nuts consumers, would

  17. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the maximum acceptable payment rate established by the Deputy...not limited to: (1) Soil erosion; (2) Water quality (both...accepts either the maximum payment rate CCC is willing to offer to enroll...acreage in the program or a lesser...

  18. Analytic Evaluation of a Hybrid Broadcast-Unicast TV Offering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Catrein; Jörg Huschke; Uwe Horn

    2008-01-01

    Today mobile TV services in cellular spectrum are delivered over unicast radio bearers as offered by 3G technologies like WCDMA and HSDPA. Since unicast transmission does not scale very well if mobile TV becomes a true mass service, 3GPP has defined a broadcast extension for UMTS, called multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS). MBMS introduces radio broadcast bearers serving all users

  19. Key management approaches to offer data confidentiality for secure multicast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kin-Ching Chan; S.-H. Gary Chan

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is an efficient way to deliver data to a large group of users in applications such as Internet stock quotes, audio and music delivery, file and video distribution, etc. Many of these applications require the security feature of data confidentiality, which is not readily offered by the \\

  20. Offering Web-of-Things Connectivity to Building Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wireless technologies [?]. Unfortunately, those building management networks do not propose anyOffering Web-of-Things Connectivity to Building Networks G´er^ome Bovet Telecom ParisTech 46 Avenue Building management systems (BMS) are nowadays present in new and renovated buildings, relying on dedicated

  1. What serious video games can offer child obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physi...

  2. Our English Language Centre offers programs for international students

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, David

    is well known. 4. Integrated technology Educational technologies are integrated into all our English. Helping people learn English all over the world Our English language consulting service helps schoolsOur English Language Centre offers programs for international students and visitors seeking high

  3. Exploring Mobile User Acceptance Based on UTAUT and Contextual Offering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhou

    2008-01-01

    A precondition for mobile commerce success is user acceptance. Based on UTAUT that explains user acceptance of information technology, and combined with a special characteristic of mobile technology: contextual offering, we examined the factors significantly affecting mobile commerce user acceptance. We employed questionnaire survey to collect 250 valid papers and analyzed data with SEM software: LISERL. The results show that

  4. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...omissions, or other changes, or advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and dated by the offeror or an authorized agent, and must include payment of the first year's rental...

  5. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...omissions, or other changes, or advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and dated by the offeror or an authorized agent, and must include payment of the first year's rental...

  6. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that the molecularly targeted agent vemurafenib and the immunotherapy agent ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for a disease in which effective treatments have been lacking.

  7. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS...be no corrupt payments or extra sales services, or other items extraneous to the export...amount of the CCC bonus; (B) The intention to submit an offer; or (C) The...

  8. PROFESSIONAL The UAF Community & Technical College offers an associate of

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Program offers a series of aviation piloting courses ranging from ground school classes for private. PROGRAM CONTACT Roger Weggel Assistant Professor, Program Head CTC Aviation Hangar, East Ramp, Fairbanks, the importance of aviation to the Alaskan economy and life-style is unparalleled. The Professional Piloting

  9. Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

  10. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  11. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Women's Studies

    E-print Network

    Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Bachelor of Arts in Women's Studies Bachelor of Science in Women's Studies Minor in Women's Studies Minor in Sexuality, Gender and Queer Studies Postbaccalaureate Certificate in Women's Studies "Women's Studies has challenged me to effectively communicate with not only my

  12. THE OFFER OF ACTIVITIES AND SERVICES CAN BE FOUND

    E-print Network

    Geffner, Hector

    for these activities, please address the Student Information Desk (PIE). w If you require specific information of discounts and benefits on cultural products. CULTURAL ACTIVITIES You can do sport at UPF participating#12;THE OFFER OF ACTIVITIES AND SERVICES CAN BE FOUND: w on Campus Global w on the university

  13. MAINTENANCE The Aviation Maintenance Technology Program offers an associate of

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY The Aviation Maintenance Technology Program offers an associate of applied science in aviation maintenance and certificates in airframe, powerplant, or airframe and powerplant maintenance. It is one of the few twelve month Federal Aviation Administration Part-147 certified

  14. Program Title Date Offered # of Participants Client Implementaion

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Support Nov 1-6, 2010 14 Emergency Medical Services: Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support Nov 23-27, 2010 20 Medical Services: Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support 4 Emergency Medical Services: Advanced Trauma CareProgram Title Date Offered # of Participants Client Country of Implementaion Emergency Medical

  15. Teaching and Testing Mathematical Problem Solving by Offering Optional Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Joost; Riemersma, Fre

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of transfer capability focuses on a study of secondary education students in the Netherlands that investigated transfer in mathematics education. Describes the construction of a computer-assisted program based on strengthening the connection of strategic and domain specific knowledge and offering hints during teaching as well as during…

  16. If SWORD Is the Answer, What Is the Question?: Use of the Simple Web-Service Offering Repository Deposit Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Stuart; Hayes, Leonie; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Corfield, Antony; Davis, Richard; Donohue, Tim; Wilson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the repository deposit protocol, Simple Web-service Offering Repository Deposit (SWORD), its development iteration, and some of its potential use cases. In addition, seven case studies of institutional use of SWORD are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the recent…

  17. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Natalie H; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization. PMID:25520686

  18. Nonindigenous Plant Advantage in Native and Exotic Australian Grasses under Experimental Drought, Warming, and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Godfree, Robert C.; Robertson, Bruce C.; Gapare, Washington J.; Ivkovi?, Miloš; Marshall, David J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Zwart, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    A general prediction of ecological theory is that climate change will favor invasive nonindigenous plant species (NIPS) over native species. However, the relative fitness advantage enjoyed by NIPS is often affected by resource limitation and potentially by extreme climatic events such as drought. Genetic constraints may also limit the ability of NIPS to adapt to changing climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated evidence for potential NIPS advantage under climate change in two sympatric perennial stipoid grasses from southeast Australia, the NIPS Nassella neesiana and the native Austrostipa bigeniculata. We compared the growth and reproduction of both species under current and year 2050 drought, temperature and CO2 regimes in a multifactor outdoor climate simulation experiment, hypothesizing that NIPS advantage would be higher under more favorable growing conditions. We also compared the quantitative variation and heritability of growth traits in populations of both species collected along a 200 km climatic transect. In contrast to our hypothesis we found that the NIPS N. neesiana was less responsive than A. bigeniculata to winter warming but maintained higher reproductive output during spring drought. However, overall tussock expansion was far more rapid in N. neesiana, and so it maintained an overall fitness advantage over A. bigeniculata in all climate regimes. N. neesiana also exhibited similar or lower quantitative variation and growth trait heritability than A. bigeniculata within populations but greater variability among populations, probably reflecting a complex past introduction history. We found some evidence that additional spring warmth increases the impact of drought on reproduction but not that elevated atmospheric CO2 ameliorates drought severity. Overall, we conclude that NIPS advantage under climate change may be limited by a lack of responsiveness to key climatic drivers, reduced genetic variability in range-edge populations, and complex drought-CO2 interactions. PMID:24832795

  19. Young Children with Additional Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Annie

    1998-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series focuses on young children with special or additional needs and provides information on care and education for these children in early childhood settings in Australia. The booklet discusses the use of the term "additional needs" and the value of respecting racial…

  20. Visual advantage of enhanced flight vision system during NextGen flight test evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.

    2014-06-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.