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1

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

2

Tetherless ROV offers major advantage  

SciTech Connect

Tethers supply the current generation of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) with power, navigational commands and data links. The power required by ROVs to carry long tethers increases rapidly in proportion to depth, and additionally, snagging on subsea obstacles is very common. A technical advancement could come with the development of autonomous subsea vehicles with onboard power and an acoustic, rather than hard wire, data link to the surface. Important research in this area presently is being conducted at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University. The feasibility of the system is discussed.

Russell, G.T.

1984-11-01

3

Self-contained cable systems offer advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pressure oil-filled (LPOF) cable systems, while seldom used in this country, have several advantages of interest to engineers. Less oil and insulating paper is required for low-pressure than for the more commonly used high-pressure systems because of the single core. The lower pessure offers safety features in the event of accidental oil loss. LPOF cables are used internationally because of

A. S. Morello; E. Occhini

1977-01-01

4

Single-size reduction offers workover, completion advantages  

SciTech Connect

Multilateral (ML) drilling technology promises enhanced flexibility and profit potential. In ML completions, two or more horizontal sections are drilled from a single parent well bore to enable multiple-layer reservoir drainage. ML technology (MLT) provides a means to complete multiple, separate, pressure-isolated lateral sections from a single well bore that can be closed and re-entered as desired. MLT offers the advantages of horizontal completions while saving costs and time over multiple individual horizontal well bore installations. To optimize ML increased production benefits, surface facilities and production tubing must be sized to accommodate these increases. This paper reviews the design and materials selection criteria for developing an effective ML program.

Collins, D. [Halliburton Energy Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-01-01

5

Combination pharmacotherapy for stopping smoking: what advantages does it offer?  

PubMed

Globally, tobacco kills almost 5 million people around the world annually. Seven first-line pharmacotherapies are currently available and recommended by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco dependence, all of which have been proven to be effective for increasing tobacco abstinence rates when used as monotherapy. However, not all smokers are able to quit with single-drug therapy. Some smokers may benefit from combination therapy that includes the simultaneous use of different nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) or medications with different mechanisms of action (e.g. NRT and bupropion). Combination therapy with different types of NRT may provide a therapeutic advantage by increasing serum nicotine concentrations, and combination therapy with different drugs may capitalize on synergy obtained from two different mechanisms of action. However, controversy exists regarding this approach. Available data suggests that combination therapy may increase abstinence rates compared with monotherapy. However, the cost effectiveness of this approach has not been clearly demonstrated. PMID:20394453

Ebbert, Jon O; Hays, J Taylor; Hurt, Richard D

2010-04-16

6

Why People Reject Advantageous Offers – Non-monotone Strategies in Ultimatum Bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

When using the strategy method in ultimatum bargaining, many researchers ask responders for the minimal acceptable offer only implicitly assuming strategies to be monotone. Recent research has shown, however, that subjects decline disadvantageous and advantageous proposals. We report on an ultimatum game video experiment where more than 50 percent of the responders rejected advantageous offers. Proposers and responders acted together

Heike Hennig-Schmidt; Zhu-Yu Li; Chaoliang Yang

2004-01-01

7

Patient-matched total knee arthroplasty: does it offer any clinical advantages?  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess if patient-matched cutting blocks reduce operating time, blood loss and length of stay on top of improving implant alignment and offer operational or economic benefits, as claimed by manufacturers. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing TKA using patient matched technology and compared them with patients undergoing TKA using standard instrumentation; all were operated on between September 2010 and June 2012. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon at a single centre using the same implants. We collected data on operating time, length of stay and blood loss and also measured component alignment. Thirty-nine patients underwent TKA using patient-matched technology during the study period. Data was compared with that from 50 patients undergoing TKA using standard instrumentation during the same period. We found no significant difference in operating time, length of stay or blood loss between the two groups. There was also no difference in femoral or tibial component alignment although we did observe that the femorotibial angle of TKAs using patient-matched technology was 0.9 degrees more valgus (183.5 degrees versus 182.6 degrees, p = 0.035). In this study, patient-matched technology did not appear to give any clinical advantages over standard techniques although, equally, it did not appear to show any disadvantages. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether operational or economic benefits may be achieved by adoption of patient matched instrumentation. PMID:23926734

Barke, Samuel; Musanhu, Ed; Busch, Constant; Stafford, Giles; Field, Richard

2013-06-01

8

Cryoplasty offers no advantage over standard balloon angioplasty for the treatment of in-stent stenosis.  

PubMed

In-stent restenosis is the primary failure mode of endovascular treatment of occlusive disease in the femeropopliteal segment. Cryoplasty has been proposed to reduce intimal hyperplasia through induction of apoptosis. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of cryoplasty for treatment of in-stent restenosis compared to conventional balloon angioplasty (CBA). After IRB approval, a retrospective record review was performed of reinterventions for in-stent restenosis by a single vascular surgery group at a university hospital. Reinterventions involving cryoplasty and CBA were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after intervention with duplex imaging to identify significant recurrent stenosis utilizing established velocity criteria. Data collected included basic demographic information and comorbidities as well as time to restenosis. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves with the log rank test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Cox proportional hazards models. From December 2004 to November 2007, 76 reinterventions were performed using CBA (n = 39) or cryoplasty (n = 37) for in-stent restenosis without placement of additional stents. Periprocedural technical success (>30% residual stenosis) was 100% for both groups, with no complications. The two cohorts were statistically similar in mean age, gender, comorbidities, tobacco use and use of statins, aspirin and Plavix. However, the mean lesion length was significantly longer in the cryoplasty cohort (CBA: 140.9 mm, Cyro: 191.7 mm; P = 0.032). The mean time to recurrent stenosis or need for additional secondary intervention was significantly shorter for the cyroplasty cohort than for the CBA, 4.09 and 10.79 months, respectively (P = .0001). Recurrent stenosis-free survival was significantly lower in the cyroplasty cohort at 3 months (CBA: 96.9%, Cyro: 88.9%) and 6 months (CBA: 84.0%, Cyro: 43.8%; P = .0089). Cyroplasty as a modality for treatment of in-stent stenosis in the femoropopliteal segment offers no benefit over CBA. PMID:23493284

Shin, S H; Baril, D T; Chaer, R A; Makaroun, M S; Marone, L K

2013-03-14

9

DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

10

REAL-TIME ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS OF SOUND BY TAKING ADVANTAGE OF PSYCHOACOUSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an original technique designed in or- der to speed up additive synthesis. This technique consists in tak- ing into account psychoacoustic phenomena (thresholds of hearing and masking) in order to ignore the inaudible partials during the synthesis process, thus saving a lot of computation time. Our al- gorithm relies on a specific data structure called

Mathieu Lagrange; Sylvain Marchand

11

Real-time additive synthesis of sound by taking advantage of psychoacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we present an original technique designed in order to speed up additive synthesis. This technique consists in taking into account psychoacoustic phenomena,(thresholds of hearing and masking) in order to ignore the inaudible partials during the synthesis process, thus saving a lot of computation time. Our algorithm relies on a specific data structure called “skip list” and

M. Lagrange; S. Marchand

2001-01-01

12

Combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography offers unique advantages for elucidation of the structural basis of protein complex assembly.  

PubMed

NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography are two premium methods for determining the atomic structures of macro-biomolecular complexes. Each method has unique strengths and weaknesses. While the two techniques are highly complementary, they have generally been used separately to address the structure and functions of biomolecular complexes. In this review, we emphasize that the combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography offers unique power for elucidating the structures of complicated protein assemblies. We demonstrate, using several recent examples from our own laboratory, that the exquisite sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy in detecting the conformational properties of individual atoms in proteins and their complexes, without any prior knowledge of conformation, is highly valuable for obtaining the high quality crystals necessary for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Thus NMR spectroscopy, in addition to answering many unique structural biology questions that can be addressed specifically by that technique, can be exceedingly powerful in modern structural biology when combined with other techniques including X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:21318479

Feng, Wei; Pan, LiFeng; Zhang, MingJie

2011-02-14

13

Educational advantage.  

PubMed

What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385863

2006-03-01

14

Educational advantage.  

PubMed

WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385873

2006-06-01

15

ADDITION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Addition can be so much fun, especially with these games. Tweet, Tweet, Addition is not a game for the birds. Keep the game Math Popper away from all sharp pins! Watch out! Addition facts are attacking the spaceships in Addition Attack In Cannon Math you can shoot people out of a cannon! It is great fun!! Dr. Brain s Robot needs help with his math facts. Can you help ...

Games, Aidan'S M.

2010-12-20

16

Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will practice adding! Practice with Fribbit! Fribbit Addition Add the numbers to save the apples. Save the Apples! Help the pirate add his marbles. Pirate Marble Addition Catch the correct sum! Fish Addish Balance the sides of the equal sign. Balance Equations ...

Hoffmann, Mrs.

2011-08-09

17

Math Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With material tailored to first through eighth grades, Math Advantage is a great way for elementary and middle school students to learn basic concepts of mathematics. There are several interactive, multimedia activities for each grade level. They are all very well made with colorful animations and sound, so children should enjoy using them. The E-Lab is another section that has over twenty Java applets for grades three to eight. Everything from counting to topics in algebra and trigonometry are covered. Large glossaries of mathematical terms are also provided.

18

Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

Nikias, C. L. Max

2008-01-01

19

Brazing in a nitrogen-based atmospheres offers advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly two decades, liquid nitrogen-based atmosphere systems have enabled commercial heat treaters and manufacturing companies to braze parts with good and consistent quality, increase plant safety and throughput, meet just-in-time delivery requirements, and enter new markets. Because of these benefits, many heat treaters and manufacturing companies have switched from endothermically and exothermically generated atmospheres to liquid-nitrogen-based atmospheres such as

B. B. Bonner; D. Garg; P. T. Kilhefner

1993-01-01

20

The effects of integrated supply management practices and environmental management practices on relative competitive quality advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superior quality continues to be central to a manufacturing company's success, and firms are constantly striving for quality advantage over their competition. It is therefore crucial for companies to ensure the sound practice of quality management principles. However, companies must also seek additional avenues to enhance the relative competitive quality advantage of their product offerings. In this context, we examine

Ram Narasimhan; Tobias Schoenherr

2012-01-01

21

The effects of integrated supply management practices and environmental management practices on relative competitive quality advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superior quality continues to be central to a manufacturing company's success, and firms are constantly striving for quality advantage over their competition. It is therefore crucial for companies to ensure the sound practice of quality management principles. However, companies must also seek additional avenues to enhance the relative competitive quality advantage of their product offerings. In this context, we examine

Ram Narasimhan; Tobias Schoenherr

2011-01-01

22

Final-offer arbitration: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the expansion of the collective bargaining system in the public sector in the United States during the 1960s and early 1970s. Discussion of the types of third-party intervention to resolve work stoppages in the public sector; Comparison of the effectiveness of a conventional and a final-offer arbitration; Definition of compulsory arbitration. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)

Gary Long; Peter Feuille

1974-01-01

23

Precollege science plan offered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The federal government should help create a system of 2,000 “exemplary” precollege public schools that would lead the country in initiating sweeping changes in science and math education. This is among the recommendations in a recent National Science Board (NSB) report on precollege education that urged increased exposure of students to science and improved teacher quality. The report is unique among recent education reports in that it offers an itemized price tag for its recommendations. The bottom line: a first-year federal government outlay of $956 million.

Richman, Barbara T.

24

Competitive - Advantage or Benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'competitive advantage' is used by practitioners and debated amongst academics. This paper argues that it may well be benefit rather than advantage that improves the firm's competitive position The problems with the notion of competitive advantage are briefly discussed, followed by discussion of the dimensions of value creation. Examining exchange and value as concepts enables this paper to

Steven Goodman

25

The challenge of sustaining competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how the requirements for sustainable competitive advantage differ depending on the change cycle that characterizes markets. It offers guidelines for evaluating a business's competitive position and describes how organizations in different market environments utilize capabilities such as quality, service, speed, and market-driven learning to achieve competitive advantage.

Stanley F. Slater

1996-01-01

26

Simple Machines - Mechanical Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video uses working simple machines to demonstrate how to calculate mechanical advantage. Suitable for any school program involving simple machines. Demonstrates pulley systems including a chain block.

2007-01-01

27

48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Acquisition Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property Over the Simplified Lease Acquisition Threshold 570.303-3 Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. Follow the procedures in FAR...

2012-10-01

28

Community College Advantages: The Roles of Accreditation with Financial Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community colleges offer many advantages over other types of institutions, financially and educationally. This article will explore some of those advantages, including comparisons to other types of institutions. A brief introduction to accreditation will contextualize how community colleges have advantages of certain institutions. Lastly, librarians can build upon the institutional advantages that community colleges have especially through collaboration and partnering

Kay Shelton

2010-01-01

29

Medicare Advantage Private Fee-for-Service Plans: What Privatization Means for Today's Beneficiaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally solely a government-administered program, Medicare is now offering options involving private insurers. Private fee-for-service plans may offer additional benefits and lower out-of-pocket costs. These plans are expected to have lower administrative costs, but currently require a government subsidy. Advantages and disadvantages of such plans are discussed, and examples showing detailed cost comparisons of two plans, SmartValue Classic and Humana

Melissa M. Ostrowski

2012-01-01

30

NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

Gittell, Ross

2012-01-01

31

Networking for marketing advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

States that networking theories have attracted increasing attention during the 1990s – although the network concept is certainly not new. Looks at the computer industry in Silicone Valley, California and the textile industry in Prato, central Italy. Discusses co-operative behaviour and the relative advantages derived from such arrangements. Examines the slate industry in North Wales and, specifically, the decision by

Cheryl Dennis

2000-01-01

32

EFEITO DA PELETIZAÇÃO E ADIÇÃO DE ENZIMAS E VITAMINAS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E APROVEIT AMENTO DA ENERGIA E NUTRIENTES EM FRANGOS DE COR TE DE 1 A 21 DIAS DE IDADE Effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was carried out an experiment to evaluate the effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old. A total of 350 broiler chickens, COBB, males, were used ( (47g ± 2.5g) in a completely randomized design, with the treatments in a

José Laureano Barbosa Leite; Paulo Borges Rodrigues; Elias Tadeu Fialho; Rilke Tadeu; Fonseca de Freitas; Adriano Kaneo Nagata; Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

33

Waste fuels offer attractive alternative to oil, gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of using wastes to fuel industrial plants is enhanced by recent fluctuations in both price and supplies of oil and gas. Biomass as a fuel source offers industrial users cost and reliability advantages. An overview of biomass processing technologies compares several methods and outlines their advantages and remaining obstacles, many in the form of community regulations. The flexibility

1982-01-01

34

Vegetarian Diets: What Are the Advantages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since

C. Leitzmann

2005-01-01

35

Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

36

Commentary: Binding Early Offers versus Caps for Medical Malpractice Claims?  

PubMed Central

Like damages caps, early offer reform promises reduction in the costs of medical liability cases. In contrast to damages caps, early offer reform offers advantages to both claimant and defendant. Under early offer, the defendant would have the option to offer an injured patient periodic payments for the patient's net economic losses as they accrue, but not payments for noneconomic losses (pain and suffering). If an early offer were made and accepted, that would settle the claim. This commentary1 explains how an early offer reform might work and summarizes data from a recent closed claim study of medical malpractice cases in Texas and Florida. The data show widespread opportunities for successful early offers and provide evidence that substantial per case savings would result.

O'Connell, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

37

Commentary: Binding Early Offers versus Caps for Medical Malpractice Claims&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like damages caps, early offer reform promises reduction in the costs of medical liability cases. In contrast to damages caps, early offer reform offers advantages to both claimant and defendant. Under early offer, the defendant would have the option to offer an injured patient periodic payments for the patient's net economic losses as they accrue, but not payments for noneconomic

JEFFREY O'CONNELL

2007-01-01

38

Creating corporate advantage.  

PubMed

What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

39

Tom Marshburn Offers Holiday Greetings  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn offered his greetings from Russia before departing for the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan where he will launch Dec. 19 on a Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft to join Expedition 34 on the station.

Mark Garcia

2012-12-18

40

Does vibration offer any advantage over visual stimulation studies (VSS) in the assessment of erectile capacity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to determine whether vibration stimulation or erotic videotape material can provide an acceptable diagnostic yield for patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) without the patient needing to endure more explicit erotic films, which may be distasteful to some patients, or intracavernous injections, to which there may be a high inhibitory response. Ninety-five subjects were randomly

KR Wylie; D Steward; SJ Walters

2001-01-01

41

Novel naphthylstyryl-pyridinium potentiometric dyes offer advantages for neural network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submucous plexus of the guinea pig intestine is a quasi-two-dimensional mammalian neural network that is particularly amenable to study using multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV) [Biol. Bull. 183 (1992) 344; J. Neurosci. 19 (1999) 3073]. For several years the potentiometric dye of choice for monitoring the electrical activity of its individual neurons has been di-8-ANEPPS [Neuron

A. L. Obaid; L. M. Loew; J. P. Wuskell; B. M. Salzberg

2004-01-01

42

Offering Choice in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A teacher educator incorporates active involvement of students and choice in two different college classrooms. The first class was an undergraduate reading/literacy education class. Students were offered the choice of the RAP (Reading Addiction Process) option or taking the final exam. Students read materials of their own choice on a daily basis.…

Smith, Arthur E.

43

The Open Access Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open

Gunther Eysenbach

2006-01-01

44

Investigating Home Court Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Dan Nettleton of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, presents data from 1997 Big Ten Conference men's basketball games involving the University of Iowa Hawkeyes. These games are analyzed in a series of scatterplots which are accompanied by bivariate statistical inference. Additionally, the data can be used to represent inference techniques such as confidence regions, paired comparisons, and simultaneous confidence intervals. This is a great activity for a sports fan wanting to learn more about the statistics attached to his or her favorite sport.

Nettleton, Dan

2009-02-06

45

The offerings from the Hyperboreans.  

PubMed

The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a secret item hidden within the sheaf. The mythical traditions about these Hyperboreans recalled the Hellenic peoples' Indo-European origins, back in the time before the tribal migrations that brought them eventually into the Mediterranean lands, and the secret offering pertained to Apollo's more ancient religion in that pre-Greek Hyperborean context.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6685798

Ruck, C A

1983-08-01

46

Home advantage in professional tennis.  

PubMed

Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage. PMID:21104519

Koning, Ruud H

2011-01-01

47

Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.  

PubMed

One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

Pointer, D D

1990-01-01

48

Policy offers protection from harassment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

McNutt, Marcia

49

Quality Competence: a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of quality management and competitive advantage, and explores the notion of strategic status of quality as a source of sustained competitive advantage. In addition, the paper presents a number of suggestions to the Chinese telecommunications industry on the development of quality competence in order to sustain, an advantage over foreign competitors.

Zhi-yu WANG; Yan-lin QIU; Shi-he GUI

2006-01-01

50

Competitive Advantage through Specialty Franchising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that competitive mobility is based on strategic adaptation to meet customer needs and market trends. This type of competitive advantage is characteristic of mobile service franchises, and it also has implications for non-franchised businesses. Reviews the growth of mobile service franchises and the consumer trends supporting their development, and examines how these franchises use mobility to create competitive advantage.

John F. Preble; Richard C. Hoffman

1994-01-01

51

Australia: universities offer diversity in computer graphics curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview of computer graphics education in Australia offers a few surprises in the diversity demonstrated by university curricula, and the languages and hardware used. Computer graphics is taught as a third year course at most Australian universities, with some universities also offering an additional advanced graphics course at the fourth year level.Most universities include what has evolved into a

Marion S. Cottingham

1996-01-01

52

Waste fuels offer attractive alternative to oil, gas  

SciTech Connect

The economics of using wastes to fuel industrial plants is enhanced by recent fluctuations in both price and supplies of oil and gas. Biomass as a fuel source offers industrial users cost and reliability advantages. An overview of biomass processing technologies compares several methods and outlines their advantages and remaining obstacles, many in the form of community regulations. The flexibility of resource recovery and its ability to meet industry goals of reducing the unit costs of energy justify efforts to plan in accordance with regulatory constraints. (DCK)

Gershman, H.W.

1982-06-14

53

43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unofficial copies of that form in current use. For noncompetitive...additions, omissions, or other changes, or advertising. The original copy of each offer must be typed or printed plainly in ink, signed in ink and dated by the...

2012-10-01

54

Revealed Competitive Advantage for Wheat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new indicator of trade performance, called 'revealed competitive advantage' (RCA), is used to examine the changing nature of wheat competitiveness and noncompetitiveness. Time series RCA measures for 5 wheat-exporting countries and 20 wheat-importing co...

T. Vollrath

1987-01-01

55

Energy Advantages for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

Griffin, J. Tim

2012-01-01

56

Achieving a sustainable service advantage.  

PubMed

Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

Coyne, K P

57

Six Sigma and competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is claimed that the Six Sigma programme brings competitive advantages to companies that implement it. This paper studies the validity of this claim by positioning Six Sigma in the paradigms provided by the literature on competitive strategy. The main functionality of Six Sigma projects is to improve operational effectiveness and efficiency. A continual improvement of operational effectiveness and efficiency

Jeroen de Mast

2006-01-01

58

Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a

Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

2004-01-01

59

Selective advantage for sexual reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as ?seek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

2006-06-01

60

Selective advantage for sexual reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as ?seek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

2006-03-01

61

Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this ques- tion, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where flrms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two difierent models of advertising: In the flrst model, advertising in?uences the goodwill consumers extend towards

Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

2003-01-01

62

Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

1994-01-01

63

Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

1994-01-01

64

Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the returns earned by subscribing to initial public offerings of equity. K. Rock (1986) suggests that initial public offerings of equity returns are required by uninformed investors as compensation for the risk of trading against superior information. The authors show that initial public offerings of equity with more informed investor capital require higher returns. The marketing underwriter's

Richard B Carter; Steven Manaster

1990-01-01

65

Who is Offering and How Often?  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study examines gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants respond to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They are asked to consider the frequency of drug offers from specific groups in their social networks and the difficulty associated with refusing drugs from various offerers. The results indicate that female and male American Indian youth differ in the degree of exposure to drug offers and the degree of perceived difficulty in handling such offers. Even after controlling for differences in age, grade level, socioeconomic status, family structure, and residence on a reservation, girls report significantly more drug offers than boys from friends, cousins, and other peers. Compared to boys, girls also report a significantly higher sense of difficulty in dealing with drug offers from all sources.

Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Kulis, Stephen; Okamoto, Scott K.; Tann, Sheila S.; LeCroy, Craig Winston; Dustman, Patricia; Burke, Aimee M.

2011-01-01

66

Compensatory advantages of toe walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The study's hypothesis is that toe walking requires less peak muscle strength distally about the ankle and knee compared with normal heel-toe walking and thus may have compensatory advantages for patients with upper motor neuron injury and distal muscle weakness.Design: Motion analysis and force platform data were collected in able-bodied subjects during toe walking and normal walking. Sagittal plane

D. Casey Kerrigan; Patrick O. Riley; Shannon Rogan; David T. Burke

2000-01-01

67

Knowledge-based strategy to deliver sustained competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually every product, service or the way they are produced and delivered can be copied, often in a different part of the world, almost over night. The window of opportunity before a competitive offering enters the market is shrinking. The solution lies in identifying the intangible competitive advantages—those not easily visible to the cornpetitors and therefore almost impossible to copy.

Martin Whitehill

1997-01-01

68

The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to develop a comprehensive measure of brand orientation and empirically examine whether a fashion retailer's brand orientation assists in explaining variations in its retail offer advantage over competitors. This study provides a conceptualisation and operationalisation of brand orientation within the context of fashion retailing. Four dimensions of brand orientation are introduced including distinctiveness, functionality,

Kerrie Brïdson; Jody Evans

2004-01-01

69

High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school.1 This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at ``worse off'' schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at ``worse off'' schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at ``better off'' schools take these courses. At ``worse off'' schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

2011-12-01

70

Influence of wire addition direction in C02 laser welding of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser beam welding of aluminum alloys is expected to offer both the technical and economical advantages. In most cases welding wire addition is necessary from the viewpoints to suppress hot cracks, improve mechanical properties of the weld as well as to reduce demands on the edge preparation, fit-tolerance, and beam alignment. In practice, the filler wire could be added to

Rongshi Xiao; Kai Chen; Tiechuan Zuo; Guenter Ambrosy; Helmut Huegel

2002-01-01

71

Job Search Success: Comparing Job Offer Rates In and Out of Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether job offers arrive more frequently for those in employment than for those in unemployment. To this end, we take advantage of a unique Australian data set which contains information on both accepted and rejected job offers. Our estimation strategy takes account of the selectivity associated with the initial employment state and we allow for individual heterogeneity

Deborah Cobb-Clark; Paul Frijters; Guyonne Kalb

2004-01-01

72

Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

2010-01-01

73

Job offer acceptance behavior and reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of a positive reinforcement program on a hypothesized indicator of dissonance (college seniors rescinding a job offer acceptance after previously accepting) in 2 companies. 196 Ss were provided reinforcement from the firm they decided to join, while another 196 Ss received no reinforcement. Ss receiving reinforcement rescinded job offers at a significantly lower rate than Ss not

John M. Ivancevich; James H. Donnelly

1971-01-01

74

Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

2004-01-01

75

Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

2010-01-01

76

Advantages of a one-part resin system for processing aerospace parts by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-part resin systems for RTM are being recognized as having several significant advantages over the more common two-part systems in use today. The advantages in processing include elimination of mix ratio concerns, reduction of in-process QC testing and reduction of worker exposure to chemicals. 3M Aerospace Materials Department offers a unique one-part resin system for RTM that provides additional advantages. The 3M PR 500 is derated during manufacture thereby eliminating the degassing step and pumping directly from the shipping container is possible. The excellent stability of this one-part resin dramatically reduces waste and cleanup. Equipment for handling one-part systems will be discussed as well as a brief review of the unique characteristics and properties of 3M PR 500.

Sundsrud, Gerald J.

1993-01-01

77

Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.  

PubMed

In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects. PMID:24049878

Linehan, Kathryn

2013-07-19

78

Addition Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these addition games to review your addition facts. 1. First, to review of your addition facts you will practice them by using these flashcards. Flashcards After you review your addition facts by using the flashcards, you get to play some addition games! Try your hardest and have fun! 2. Play this addition fishing game Addition Fishing Game 3. Next you get to practice your ...

Felsted, Ms.

2010-04-12

79

Intelligent Anvils - advantages and limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the geological processes of the Earth and determining their related physical and chemical parameters is one of the fundamental tasks of experimental research in Earth Sciences. Such investigations are possible using for example diamond anvil cells (DAC)-based techniques which allow in situ measurements. However, depending of the parameters studied and depths investigated, it may be rather difficult or even impossible to accurately measure or determine parameters like pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity during DAC experiments. Zaitsev et al. (Phys. Stat. Sol., 185, 59-674, 2001) have shown the possibility to integrate conducting microstructures into the crystalline structure of the diamond anvils, offering the possibility to create active and passive electrical devices at any place below the sensor surface. These microstructures are produced by high temperature / high energy implantation at depths of 0-3 ?m below the surface of the anvils. This technique offers the possibility to create heaters, temperature sensors, pressure sensors and maybe other types of sensor. Recent usability tests show that the integration of sensors and heaters on one and the same diamond anvil is useless because both types of devices interfere with each other. This is caused by extremely different operating voltages of both devices and the temperature driven surface conductivity of diamonds. We therefore present a new kind of the Burchard-Zaitsev-cell type (Burchard et al., Rev. Sci. Instr., 74, 1263-1266, 2003), modified for external heating but still able to operate implanted, intelligent diamond anvils. The electrical separation of heating devices and sensor devices opens the possibility to operate cells using intelligent anvils up to higher temperatures and therefore to measure parameters like temperature and pressure during a DAC experiment in situ. Calibration curves will be presented. The possibilities and limits of this technology will be discussed, more especially the combination of DACs equipped with modified anvils together with micro-analytical techniques.

Bureau, H.; Burchard, M.; Gonde, C.; Massare, D.; Henry, S.; Kubsky, S.; Meijer, J.

2005-12-01

80

Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

2012-01-01

81

Chris Hadfield Offers Holiday Greetings (English version)  

NASA Video Gallery

Canadian Space Agency Flight Engineer Chris Hadfield offered his greetings from Russia before departing for the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan where he will launch Dec. 19 on a Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft to join Expedition 34 on the station.

Mark Garcia

2012-12-18

82

16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502...such new commodity is offered for retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The package...

2013-01-01

83

Modular and Manufactured Houses Offer Homeowners the Building America and ENERGY STAR(R) Advantage: Genesis Homes -- Auburn Hills, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Genesis Homes is headquartered in Auburn, Michigan, and has 11 factories throughout the nation. They build modular and manufactured homes with quality design, construction practice, and building materials that qualify for the Energy Star label.

Not Available

2002-01-01

84

Energy Considerations Show that Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a Catalytic Advantage over Ordinary Hydrogen Bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-barrier hydrogen bonds have recently been proposed as a major factor in enzyme catalysis. Here we evaluate the feasibility of transition state (TS) stabilization by low-barrier hydrogen bonds in enzymes. Our analysis focuses on the facts that (i) a low-barrier hydrogen bond is less stable than a regular hydrogen bond in water, (ii) TSs are more stable in the enzyme

Arieh Warshel; Arno Papazyan

1996-01-01

85

Economic Aspects of Electronic Commerce in Financial Services and Advantageous Steps to Extended Offers in Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the results of two projects our research group is presently conducting. We start our with sketching preliminary results of a long-term government project geared to reveal efficiency conditions for successful electronic commerce particularly in the financial services field. We address questions relating to the innovative use of new channels for distributing financial services focusing

Hans Ulrich Buhl; Andreas Will

1998-01-01

86

Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

2012-09-01

87

Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

French, Paddy James

88

Advantages and Uses of AMTEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static conversion systems are gaining importance in recent times because of newer applications of electricity like in spacecraft, hybrid-electric vehicles, military uses and domestic purposes. Of the many new static energy conversion systems that are being considered, one is the Alkali Metal Thermal Electric Converter (AMTEC). It is a thermally regenerative, electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical power. As the name suggests, this system uses an alkali metal in its process. The electrochemical process involved in the working of AMTEC is ionization of alkali metal atoms at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. The electrons produced as a result flow through the external load thus doing work, and finally recombine with the metal ions at the cathode. AMTECs convert the work done during the nearly isothermal expansion of metal vapor to produce a high current and low voltage electron flow. Due to its principle of working it has many inherent advantages over other conventional generators. These will be discussed briefly.

Lodhi, M. A. K.

2012-10-01

89

Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?  

PubMed

A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

Leitzmann, Claus

2005-01-01

90

Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

2013-06-01

91

8 EMS vendors now offer guaranteed savings plans  

SciTech Connect

At least eight companies now offer company-wide insurance policies guaranteeing the savings projections of energy-management system (EMS) dealers. The plans can guarantee either that energy costs will be lower than the lease payments or that the user will achieve a stated payback. The plan requires users to buy a maintenance contract with their system. Drawbacks are the disincentive for users to seek additional energy savings and the problem of how to measure the savings. Users can request a policy through an insurance company if they are hesitant about a company policy. Spokesmen for several companies offering the insurance option describe the highlights of their programs. (DCK)

Raymond, M.

1983-02-14

92

Fitness Memberships and Favorable Selection in Medicare Advantage Plans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Because Medicare Advantage plans must pay for covered services, they may design insurance benefits to appeal to healthier beneficiaries. METHODS We identified 11 Medicare Advantage plans that offered new fitness-membership benefits in 2004 or 2005 and matched these plans to 11 Medicare Advantage control plans that did not offer coverage for fitness memberships. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compared the self-reported health status of persons who enrolled after the fitness benefit was added to the plan with the self-reported health status of persons entering the same plan before the fitness benefit was offered. RESULTS The proportion of enrollees reporting excellent or very good health was 6.1 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 9.7) among the 755 new enrollees in plans that added fitness benefits than among the 4097 earlier enrollees. The proportion of new enrollees reporting activity limitation was 10.4 percentage points lower (95% CI, 6.6 to 14.3) and the proportion reporting difficulty walking was 8.1 percentage points lower (95% CI, 4.4 to 11.7), as compared with earlier enrollees. Within control plans, the differences between the 1154 new enrollees and the 3910 earlier enrollees were 1.5 percentage points or less for each measure. The adjusted differences between the fitness-benefit plans and the control plans were 4.7 percentage points higher for general health (95% CI, 0.2 to 9.2), 9.2 percentage points lower for activity limitation (95% CI, 5.1 to 13.3), and 7.4 percentage points lower for difficulty walking (95% CI, 4.5 to 10.4). These differences persisted at 2 years for activity limitation and difficulty walking. CONCLUSIONS Medicare Advantage plans offering coverage for fitness memberships may attract and retain a healthier subgroup of the Medicare population. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.)

Cooper, Alicia L.; Trivedi, Amal N.

2012-01-01

93

Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of the heat exchange equipment during the cycle. This additional advantage is particularly useful for analyzing the vapor compression refrigeration cycle using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, where nonisothermal phase-change processes occur. Problems such as heat exchanger pinch-points and wet compression are easily detected. The possible cycle enhancement due to a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is readily apparent. This paper presents and discusses examples of enthalpy-temperature diagrams.

Granryd, E.; Conklin, J. C.; Sand, J. R.

1991-08-01

94

2,2Dimethoxypropane as electrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,2-Dimethoxy-propane (DMP) was studied as an additive in 1moldm?3 LiPF6 ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate (1:1, w\\/w) for lithium-ion battery, which was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and half cell tests. Cyclic voltammetry and half cell data show that the use of DMP as an additive to the organic solutions at very low level (ca. 0.005wt%) offers the advantage of forming

Chia-Chin Chang; Li-Jane Her; Li-Chia Chen; Yen-Yu Lee; Shyh-Jiun Liu; Hsien-Ju Tien

2007-01-01

95

The Role of Strategic Alliances in Gaining Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a critical assessment of the role of strategic alliances in gaining sustainable competitive advantage through building knowledge assets. To do so, it develops a conceptual model, in which three key concepts: the role of \\

Refik Culpan

2008-01-01

96

How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan  

MedlinePLUS

How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Revised April 2013 Medicare offers prescription ... MA-PDs.” You’ll get all of your Medicare coverage (Part A and Part B), including prescription ...

97

ADVANTAGES OF USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE RESULTS OF CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although it is traditional to calculate results of chronic toxicity tests using hypothesis testing to detect statistically significant differences from the control, calculation of results using regression analysis offers several major advantages. Regression analysis can directly ...

98

Food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized:(1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack;(2) to even out seasonal supplies;(3) to improve their eating quality;(4) to improve their nutritional value.The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives.

Michael Spencer

1974-01-01

99

S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

Thralls, Sharon

1989-01-01

100

The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know…

Perlmutter, David D.

2013-01-01

101

S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

Thralls, Sharon

1989-01-01

102

Developmental implications of commercial broadcasters' educational offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of public policy on the quality and availability of educational television for children. Three episodes of each of the 44 educational and informational (E\\/I) programs offered by the commercial broadcasters in the Philadelphia television market during the 1998\\/1999 season were examined for: target audience, primary lesson, episode focus, educational strength, social diversity, and violence. The

Amy B Jordan; Kelly L Schmitt; Emory H Woodard

2001-01-01

103

Chris Hadfield Offers Holiday Greetings (French version)  

NASA Video Gallery

Canadian Space Agency Flight Engineer Chris Hadfield offered his greetings in French from Russia before departing for the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan where he will launch Dec. 19 on a Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft to join Expedition 34 on the station.

Mark Garcia

2012-12-18

104

Next Generation Networks: the service offering standpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we will present the objectives and resultsof the Eurescom Project Pl109 [1]. The overallgoal is to support this view, in evaluating solutions forNGNs from a service-offering standpoint and understandingthe wider effects of introducing NGNs in termsof the inter-operability and functionality of NGN prod-ucts

Paolo Falcarin; Patricia Lago; Alessandra Andreetto; Carlo Alberto Licciardi

2002-01-01

105

Annual Meeting Offers Expanded Child Neurology Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Academy has responded to member requests for more attention to pediatric neurology with the new Specialists in Focus: Child Neurology, which will provide a special, more intensive program for child neurology subspecialists. The new offerings will highlight the latest findings and progress in pediatric neurology. \\

Jonathan W. Mink

2010-01-01

106

Special Report on Cocurricular Offerings and Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes results of a study of secondary school student participation in extracurricular activities. The activity offerings were identified and classified into eleven groups: 1) class-related, 2) athletics, 3) music, 4) school services, 5) drama, 6) school publications, 7) personal interests, 8) honor, 9) student government, 10)…

Buser, Robert L.; Humm, William L., Ed.

107

Offering telephone counseling to smokers using pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas telephone-based counseling has been found to be effective in supporting smokers interested in quitting smoking, it is not known whether proactive efforts to reach smokers receiving cessation medications will enhance their likelihood of successful quitting. We had an opportunity to test, in a health plan setting, an offer of telephone- based counseling with smokers identified from health plan records

Raymond G. Boyle; Leif I. Solberg; Stephen E. Asche; Jackie L. Boucher; Nicolaas P. Pronk; Catharine J. Jensen

2005-01-01

108

NOAA offers new service in technical information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new service known as Oasis (Oceanic and Atmospheric Scientific Information System) has been announced by the Technical Information Division (TID) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.The service offers computer searches of citations to published literature and references to research in progress or recently completed in the fields of atmospheric, marine, and earth sciences and of marine resources. Data

Anonymous

1974-01-01

109

Earnings quality at initial public offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, contrary to popular belief, initial public offering (IPO) firms report more conservatively. We attribute this to the higher quality reporting demanded of public firms by financial statement users and consequentially higher monitoring by auditors, boards, analysts, rating agencies, press, and litigants, and to greater regulatory scrutiny [Ball, R., Shivakumar, L., 2005. Earnings quality in UK private firms:

Ray Ball; Lakshmanan Shivakumar

2008-01-01

110

16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement...the true facts are subsequently made known to the buyer, the law is violated if the first contact or interview is secured...

2013-01-01

111

Ownership Structure and Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggarwal and Klapper study the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance, and the initial public offering (IPO) process. They examine equity ownership by different institutions, such as foreign and domestic financial institutions, banks with and without lending relationships, venture capitalists, and corporations prior to an IPO. The authors also analyze the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance. They use

Reena Aggarwal; Leora Klapper

2003-01-01

112

Advantages of quantum mechanics on phase space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics formulated in terms of (wave) functions over phase space is shown to have numerous advantages over the standard approach. These advantages arise in the contexts of discussion of the theoretical framework and of descriptions of laboratory experiments.

Schroeck, F. E.

1994-01-01

113

Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings

Erik Sandberg; Mats Abrahamsson

2011-01-01

114

Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed acrossfirms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link betweenfirm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value,

Jay Barney

1991-01-01

115

Time Compression Diseconomies and Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central issue in competitive strategy is the ability of firms to sustain competitive advantages, a topic that is usually treated taking existence of the competitive advantage as given. We endogenize both the existence and sustainability of competitive advantage using a duopoly model in which each firm can develop a resource that improves its competitive position. We as- sume time

Gonçalo Pacheco-de-Almeida; Peter Zemsky

116

Dynamic Comparative Advantages in the ASEAN+3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to investigate the dynamic changes in comparative advantage of the ASEAN, China, Republic of Korea and Japan (commonly abbreviated as the ASEAN+3). By applying statistical and econometric methods on Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) index, this paper concludes that there have been changes in the patterns of comparative advantage in the ASEAN+3. The increases in overall comparative

Tri Widodo

2009-01-01

117

Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a signaling model in which high-quality firms underprice at the initial public offering in order to obtain a higher price at a seasoned offering. The main assumption is that low-quality firms must invest in imitation expenses to appear to be high-quality firms, and that with some probability this imitation is discovered between offerings. Underpricing by high-quality firms

Ivo Welch

1989-01-01

118

Competitive advantage on a warming planet.  

PubMed

Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

2007-03-01

119

Earnings quality at initial public offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We show that, contrary to popular belief, initial public offering (IPO) firms report more conservatively. We attribute this to the higher,quality reporting,demanded,of public,firms by financial statement,users and,consequentially,higher monitoring by auditors, boards, analysts, rating agencies, press, and litigants, and to greater regulatory scrutiny [Ball, R., Shivakumar, L., 2005. Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness. Journal of

R. Ball; L. Shivakumar

2006-01-01

120

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...

121

Active Intelligent Service Offer System Addition Environment variable and Local variable  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been highlighted and spread that the cutting edge system and intelligence home system raised from dramatic development of IT technology. Through the progressed application of home networking tech. and diverse multi-media, there are plenty of efforts to pursue the realization of human convenience. As a home networking services is on the increase, so is the demand for context-aware

Kyung-sang Sung; Oh Hae-seok

2006-01-01

122

Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.  

PubMed

Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits. PMID:22049623

Law, Oliver

2011-01-01

123

Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.  

PubMed

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

Purc?rea, Victor Lorín; Ra?íu, Monica; Purc?rea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

124

Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy  

PubMed Central

Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill.

Ratiu, M; Purcarea, T

2008-01-01

125

Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

1985-01-01

126

Food additives.  

PubMed

The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

Berglund, F

1978-01-01

127

Sustainable competitive advantage or temporary competitive advantage : Improving understanding of an important strategy construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Competitive advantage is an important construct in the strategy discipline. The purpose of this paper is to explore an appropriate definition of competitive advantage, seek to identify sources of competitive advantage for firms and improve understanding of why in many industries for many firms competitive advantage is only a temporary outcome due to the influence of environmental uncertainty.

Tim OShannassy

2008-01-01

128

An artificial negotiating agent modeling approach embedding dynamic offer generating and cognitive layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a dynamic offer generating unit and cognitive layer are suggested for artificial agents based negotiation systems. For this purpose, first, adaptive time and behavior dependent tactics are developed taking advantages from time continuity and dynamics aspects (features) integrated in their modeling. Then, a negotiation strategy (bilateral over single issue) based on these two tactics is suggested. Second,

Arash Bahrammirzaee; Amine Chohra; Kurosh Madani

2011-01-01

129

IFP offers three new process technologies  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole is offering three new processing technologies for license, including one for isomerizing normal C[sub 4] olefins to isobutylene. The latter process, called ISO-4, provides an economically attractive way for refiners and ethylene manufacturers to convert fluid cat cracker and steam cracker C[sub 4] cuts to methyl tertiary butyl ether, says IFP. In ISO-4 units, the catalyst moves continuously down the reactor bed. When it reaches the bottom, it is removed from the reactor, regenerated, and returned to the top of the bed, all continuously. With a constant flow of fresh catalyst, operations can run several years without shutdown for catalyst regeneration, IFP claims. The ISO-4 catalyst is the same type as that used in IFP's octanizing process. The low attrition rate and thorough, continuous regeneration cycle of the Octanizing catalyst result in long service.

Not Available

1992-11-23

130

Multifunctional additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lubricant composition is described comprising a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor effective proportion of a multifunctional friction reducing\\/high temperature stabilizing additive compound consisting of a Câ to Cââ hydrocarbyl triamine borate adduct or mixtures thereof.

A. G. Horodysky; J. M. Kaminski; H. Ashjian; H. A. Gawel

1986-01-01

131

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

132

Vector Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2D applet simulates vector addition geometrically. The user selects the angle and magnitude of two vectors, which are then added together by the applet. The resultant vector and the values of its magnitude and angle, as well as the values of the x and y components of all three vectors, are calculated and displayed.

Duffy, Andrew

2004-11-28

133

Addition Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An addition machine is a computing device with a finite number of registers, limited to the following six types of operations: input to register x; copy register y to register x; add register y to register x; subtract register y from register x; compare r...

R. W. Floyd D. E. Knuth

1989-01-01

134

Which patients should be offered caesarean section?  

PubMed

Caesarean section (CS) rates have steadily risen from 10% of all deliveries in the 1980s to a current figure of around 23.8%. Approximately 75% of CS are emergency procedures and only 25% are elective planned deliveries. When deciding whether to offer CS, it is important to consider the psychological implications for the patient as well as the physical and mental sequelae in future pregnancies. Clinicians should provide pregnant women with evidence-based information and support. Information should include details about the true indication(s) for the CS and what it implies, including its risks and benefits. The updated NICE guideline does not advocate CS in uncomplicated pregnancies. However, it supports CS on maternal request when attempts to empower the mother to have a vaginal birth have not been successful. CS on maternal request only represented 1.4% of all CS in 2001. CS may reduce perineal and abdominal pain during birth and 3 days postpartum. It may also reduce injury to the vagina, early postpartum haemorrhage and obstetric shock. The following patients should be offered a planned elective CS: singleton breech presentation at term, after external cephalic version has failed, has been declined or is contraindicated; multiple pregnancies when the first twin is not cephalic; placenta praevia, minor or major, (close to or covering the os); HIV-positive women who are not on any antiretroviral therapy, have a high viral load or co-infection with hepatitis C irrespective of viral load; and women with primary genital herpes simplex virus infection occurring in the third trimester. PMID:22662515

Bedoya-Ronga, Alvaro; Currie, Ian

2012-03-01

135

Sun Tzu and sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) has been a strategic concern to enterprises. In the era of knowledge economy, such an advantage migrates to the human-brain oriented intangible assets, or, intellectual property right (IPR). Combined with strategy, this brings up the importance of multi-disciplinary integration and business renovation in management infrastructure for the sake of SCA. Because a strong philosophical foundation is

MuChiu Chang

2004-01-01

136

Knowledge transfer as sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production management techniques have been used in industries to assure the competitive advantage to complete in global economy. Industries using techniques naturally expect return from techniques implementation by use those techniques efficiently and lead to gain greater result in competitive advantage. The knowledge of each technique requires appropriate knowledge transferring among workers in organizations. The study of knowledge transfer confirms

K. Bisalyaputra

2004-01-01

137

Sustaining competitive advantages in mergers and acquisitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With company mergers and acquisitions from the 1980s, an emerging issue was to sustain competitive advantage through the use of IT. However, research in individual organisations has shown that sophisticated IT alone is not enough to sustain competitive advantage. Intangible resources such as organisational leadership, culture and business processes are also needed [(J.C. Henderson and N. Venkatraman, 1989), (S. Chatterjee,

Y. Cheung; I. Martin; M. Chan

2004-01-01

138

Competitive Advantage and Internal Organization: Nucor Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why does the cost of organizing particular activities differ across competitors? This article explores in detail the organization of Nucor, a steel minimill that has sustained a significant cost advantage over its competitors. Nucor's past success highlights the complementarities among organizational policies and competitive advantage as well as barriers to the imitation of apparently superior organizational arrangements. The case study

Pankaj Ghemawat

1995-01-01

139

77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Community Advantage Pilot Program. SBA continues to refine and improve the design of the Community Advantage Pilot Program...to 7(a) loans for the CA Pilot Program. SBA continues to refine and improve the design of the CA Pilot Program and, on...

2012-02-08

140

The Persistence of Wives' Income Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent reports using cross-sectional data indicate an increase in the percentage of wives who outearn their husbands, yet we know little about the persistence of wives' income advantage. The present analyses utilize the 1990-1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 3,481) to examine wives' long-term earnings advantage

Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

2006-01-01

141

The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

2009-01-01

142

Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

2011-02-01

143

Absolutely Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun games and activities to help with understanding and using addition. NUMBER LINE PRACTICE Begin with this fun game Line Jumper. Click on the medium level and complete all ten number line problems. When finished close the window and return to complete the next assignment. MR. BEAR\\'S CLOSET In this exciting activiy, Mr. Bear can\\'t decide what to wear. Can you help him? ...

Korth, Mrs.

2005-03-23

144

The art process offers increased refinery flexibility  

SciTech Connect

In today's economic climate one of the key concepts in refining is flexibility. Flexibility to meet product demand given changes in crude slate. Flexibility to shift the product slate from residual fuel to diesel fuel while the crude charge gets heavier. The ART Process, by virtue of its ability to remove metals and asphaltenes from contaminated feedstocks, can offer a refiner this flexibility. The ART Process is a combination of selective vaporization and fluid decarbonization/ demetallation. The ART Process removes over 95% of the metals and asphaltenes from residual oil as well as 30-50% of the sulfur and nitrogen. All this is done while preserving the hydrogen content of the feedstock. Subsequent conversion processes can be accomplished in conventional downstream catalytic processing units. The ART Process utilizes a fluidizable solid particle proprietary to Engelhard sold under the trademark ARTCAT /SUP TM/ . The particle is designed and engineered with an affinity for asphaltenes and metals. Fluidized ARTCAT solid has essentially the same particle size distribution, density and fluidization characteristics as fluid catalytic cracking catalyst. ARTCAT material, however, has low surface area and catalytic activity.

Haseltine, R.P.; Caldwell, D.L.; Logwinuk, A.K.

1983-03-01

145

Immunization services offered in Québec (Canada) pharmacies.  

PubMed

Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: 1) promote vaccination, 2) counsel patients on vaccination, 3) sell vaccines and 4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administration. In 2008-09, an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all Québec pharmacy owners (n = 1663). Among the 1102 (66%) respondents, 90% stated that vaccines were sold, 27% that a nurse administered vaccines in their pharmacy and 44% were planning to offer vaccine administration in the next five years. Three out of four stated they were doing vaccine promotion and 65%, vaccine counselling. Half of respondents said they would be willing to administer vaccines themselves if legislative modifications were made. Recommendations for cold chain maintenance were followed in 23% of pharmacies selling vaccines. Presence of another health professional in the pharmacy, higher number of opening hours, not being located in the same building than a medical clinic and having an agreement to collaborate with a public health unit or a medical clinic for immunization were positively associated with vaccine administration in multivariate analysis. Higher perceived difficulties with lack of demand from patients were negatively associated with vaccine administration. Most pharmacists are willing to increase their involvement in immunization. Collaboration between public health professionals and pharmacists should be reinforced. PMID:23782530

Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne

2013-06-19

146

Do neural networks offer something for you?  

SciTech Connect

The concept of neural network computation was inspired by the hope to artifically reproduce some of the flexibility and power of the human brain. Human beings can recognize different patterns and voices even though these signals do not have a simple phenomenological understanding. Scientists have developed artificial neural networks (ANNs) for modeling processes that do not have a simple phenomenological explanation, such as voice recognition. Consequently, ANN jargon can be confusing to process and control engineers. In simple terms, ANNs take a nonlinear regression modeling approach. Like any regression curve-fitting approach, a least-squares optimization can generate model parameters. One advantage of ANNs is that they require neither a priori understanding of the process behavior nor phenomenological understanding of the process. ANNs use data describing the input/output relationship in a process to {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} about the underlying process behavior. As a result of this, ANNs have a wide range of applicability. Furthermore, ANNs are computationally efficient and can replace models that are computationally intensive. This can make real-time online model-based applications practicable. A neural network is a dense mesh of nodes and connections. The basic processing elements of a network are called neurons. Neural networks are organized in layers, and typically consist of at least three layers: an input layer, one or more hidden layers, and an output layer. The input and output layers serve as interfaces that perform appropriate scaling between `real-world` and network data. Hidden layers are so termed because their neurons are hidden to the real-world data. Connections are the means for information flow. Each connection has an associated adjustable weight, w{sub i}. The weight can be regarded as a measure of the importance of the signals between the two neurons. 7 figs.

Ramchandran, S. [Monsanto Company, Alvin, TX (United States); Rhinehart, R.R.

1995-11-01

147

Evolutionary advantages of polyploidy in halophilic archaea.  

PubMed

Several species of haloarchaea have been shown to be polyploid and thus this trait might be typical for and widespread in haloarchaea. In the present paper, nine different possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea are discussed, including low mutation rate, radiation/desiccation resistance, gene redundancy and survival over geological times and at extraterrestrial sites. Experimental indications exist for all but one of these evolutionary advantages. Several of the advantages require gene conversion, which has been shown to be present and active in haloarchaea. PMID:23356308

Soppa, Jörg

2013-02-01

148

Exploring the Sequential Lineup Advantage Using WITNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively\\u000a specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629–654,\\u000a 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced\\u000a a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential

Charles A. Goodsell; Scott D. Gronlund; Curt A. Carlson

2010-01-01

149

Principles of Economics: understanding opportunity cost, comparative advantage, and absolute advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In principles of economics students many times have trouble understanding the concept of opportunity cost, connecting opportunity cost to comparative advantage, and differentiating between absolute advantage and comparative advantage. This activity allows the instructor to detect whether a large number of students exhibit any of these misconceptions, and then focus on the most problematic concepts in class.

Clerici-Arias, Marcelo

150

Additive Manufacturing Instructional Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two instructional videos from RapidTech, the National Center for Rapid Technologies, show types of additive manufacturing processes. The first video is 6:12 in length and describes "The 3D Printer Revolution" by explaining what 3D printing is, its advantages, and how it may drastically change manufacturing. The second video is 1:30 in length and titled "Manufacturing in Motion: First Survey on the 3D Printing Community." The video presents the results from survey questions in graph form.

2013-06-14

151

AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SOURCES OF CHANGES OVER TIME IN THE JOB FINDING RATE USING RESERVATION WAGES AND REJECTED WAGE OFFERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a structural dynamic job search model where nonstationarity originates from the change over time in the benefit level, the job offer arrival rate, and the wage offer distribution. The model is estimated on the French sample of the ECHP taking advantage of direct observation of reservation wages, rejected job offers, and associated rejected wages. We find that the

Stefan Lollivier; Laurence Rioux

2010-01-01

152

Principles and advantages of robotics in urologic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the available minimally invasive surgical techniques (ie, laparoscopy) have clear advantages, these procedures continue to cause problems for patients. Surgical tools are limited\\u000a by set axes of movement, restricting the degree of freedom available to the surgeon. In addition, depth perception is lost\\u000a with the use of two-dimensional viewing systems. As surgeons view a “virtual” target on a television

Antonio Renda; Guy Vallancien

2003-01-01

153

Toward creating competitive advantage with logistics information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Successfully implementing and exploiting the right information technologies is critical to maintaining competitiveness in today's supply chain. However, simply adopting off-the-shelf technologies may not necessarily induce this competitiveness unless the organization combines these technologies with additional complimentary resources. This study draws on the logistics innovation literature, resource-advantage theory, and the resource-based view of the firm with the purpose

Benjamin T. Hazen; Terry Anthony Byrd

2012-01-01

154

20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655.1304...Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

2010-04-01

155

20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

2010-04-01

156

20 CFR 655.104 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.104 Section 655.104...Workers) § 655.104 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

2009-04-01

157

A model of labour supply with job offer restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We specify a model of labour supply with job offer restrictions. A job offer is defined by a wage rate and working hours. The number of job offers is restricted, and follows a Poisson distribution. Individuals choose the alternative with the highest utility level. Three specifications are estimated: a basic specification, a specification in which the number of job offers

Hans G. Bloemen

2000-01-01

158

20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655.202...Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment...employed U.S. workers, each employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer...

2012-04-01

159

The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have documented that firms conducting seasoned equity offerings have inordinately low stock returns during the five years after the offering, following a sharp run-up in the year prior to the offering. This article documents that the operating performance of issuing firms shows substantial improvement prior to the offering but then deteriorates. The multiples at the time of the

Tim Loughran; Jay R Ritter

1997-01-01

160

Measuring home advantage in Spanish handball.  

PubMed

Since Pollard established the system for analysing home advantage in 1986, it has been demonstrated and quantified in various sports, including many team sports. This study aims to assess whether home advantage exists in handball, using a sample of more than 19,000 Spanish handball league games. Results of the games played at home and away, the sex of the players, and the levels of the competition were included as variables. In Spanish handball, there was a home advantage of 61%, which means, on average, the team playing at home wins 61% of points available. This value varies according to sex and according to competition level, increasing as competition level decreases and season rank improves. PMID:22582700

Gutiérrez Aguilar, Oscar; Saavedra García, Miguel; Fernández Romero, Juan José

2012-02-01

161

[Mammography screening--advantages and disadvantages].  

PubMed

Mammography screening involves advantages as well as disadvantages. Intensive research in this area is being carried out both internationally and in Denmark. As mammography screening becomes nationwide in Denmark in 2007, it is crucial to closely monitor the advantages as well as the disadvantages, their extent and the possibility of optimizing the balance between them. The effect of a screening programme on breast cancer mortality is not likely to be evident until several years after starting the programme, and it is necessary to define process indicators for close monitoring of the programme. PMID:17953873

Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter; Vejborg, Ilse M M

2007-09-01

162

17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign...Rights Offerings, Exchange Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption...in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of...

2013-04-01

163

Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

Mihaela I. MUNTEAN

2007-01-01

164

Advantages of the color octet gluon picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that there are several advantages in abstracting properties of hadrons and their currents from a Yang-Mills gauge model based on colored quarks and color octet gluons. On leave from Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern, Switzerland.

H. Fritzsch; M. Gell-Mann; H. Leutwyler

1973-01-01

165

Human Resource Synergic Advantages with Organization Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organization change becomes the core of firm survival and development in the complex and variable environment. Organizations must study and change continuously to keep up their vigor and advantages. As an initiative, dominant, special productive factor, human resource taking part in organization change and synergic change can ensure success. Analyzing the conception of organization change and the influencing factors implies

Xin Zhang

2009-01-01

166

Creating a sustainable competitive advantage through training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines how customer needs are represented within the training evaluation framework of an organisation. The authors assert that meeting customer needs on time, every time, is a route to achieving and sustaining competitive advantage, and training is a tool that organisations should use to succeed at this. Information on good practice from the National Training Awards case studies

Rebecca Burden; Tony Proctor

2000-01-01

167

Evolutionary advantage of foresight in markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the competitive advantage of price signal information for traders in simulated double auctions. Previous work has established that more information about the price development does not guarantee higher performance. In particular, traders with limited information perform below market average and are outperformed by random traders; only insiders beat the market. However, this result has only been shown in

Daniel Hennes; Daan Bloembergen; Michael Kaisers; Karl Tuyls; Simon Parsons

2012-01-01

168

Requirements engineering for e-business advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of contributing to the achievement of business advantage for companies engaging in e-business, we propose a requirements engineering framework that incorporates a business strategy dimension. We employ Jackson's Problem Frames approach, goal modeling, and business process modeling to achieve this. Jackson's context diagrams, used to represent business model context, are integrated with goal models to describe the

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June M. Verner; Keith T. Phalp

2006-01-01

169

RE Approach for e-Business Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of contributing to the achievement of business advantage for companies engaging in e-business, we propose a requirements engineering approach that incorporates a business strategy dimension. We employ both goal modeling and Jackson's Problem Frames approach to achieve this. Jackson's context diagrams, used to represent the business model context, are integrated with goal-models to describe the complete business

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June Verner

2004-01-01

170

77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to small businesses in underserved areas. SBA continues to refine and improve the design of the Community Advantage Pilot Program...financings approved by SBA. (76 FR 56262). SBA continues to refine and improve the design of the CA Pilot Program and, on...

2012-11-09

171

From Competitive Advantage to Knowledge Cybernetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business organisations generally like to have a competitive advantage in their market. The strategic management paradigm develops theory to help this occur. Its early theory arises from optimising economic theory, the inadequacy of which led to the resource-based view. Then knowledge management was harnessed which sees knowledge as a valuable strategic resource recognising the need to look more inside the

Maurice Yolles

2006-01-01

172

Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

2009-01-01

173

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's competitive business environments require business organizations to employ every method at their disposal in order to understand their internal and external business environments. Business organizations no longer can sustain a competitive advantage for a prolonged period without proactively collecting and analyzing business intelligence (BI) and competitive intelligence (CI) to manage their businesses performance (BPM) in real-time. A linear quantitative

Joseph C. Blankenship

2004-01-01

174

Self Concepts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of 707 students show that all disadvantaged children do not necessarily have negative self concepts. In fact, they show just the opposite at the elementary school level; however, self concept diminishes for both disadvantaged and advantaged students at the secondary school level. (NH)

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

1970-01-01

175

Japan's Competitive Advantages in the Global Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes Japan's competitive advantages in trade, comparing the nation with other industrialized countries. Paucity in resources, often mentioned in reference to Japan, we note, is overstated. Favorable climate and certain other aspects of the geography, for example, are unacclaimed but important bounties of nature. Relevant also in the context are such other factors as population, culture, and events

John Riew

176

A Few Advantages of Economic Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to discuss some of the main advantages of an employeemanaged system: a labour productivity edge on capitalistic businesses, the suppression of external firm control, slower monopoly-building and softer competition, the eclipse of the paramount role of economics in social evolution and a reduced need for state intervention into the economy. The author’s analysis sheds

Bruno Jossa

2010-01-01

177

Frozen pronuclear oocytes: advantages for the patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first reported pregnancy in a human being after a frozen\\/thawed eight cell stage preembryo, cryopreservation of preembryos has been integrated as an important element of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The cryopreservation technique has brought several advantages to ART. It allows the transfer of a limited number of embryos in the collection cycle, thereby reducing the risk of multiple

N. Nikolettos; S. Al-Hasani

2000-01-01

178

What is the Evolutionary Advantage of Migraine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to migraine is determined by genetic factors and is therefore subject to the forces of natural selection. Migraine is a common and ancient disorder whose prevalence may be increasing, suggesting that a migraine-prone nervous system may be associated with reproductive or survival advantages. Five evolutionary explanations are reviewed that might account for the persistence of migraine: (i) migraine as

E Loder

2002-01-01

179

Knowledge Orchestration for Sustained Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few areas, which have attracted the proposal of as many theories as organizational knowledge and its management. Despite this diversity this article identifies a number of issues, which continue to challenge theoretical explorations into organizational knowledge: (1) It still remains difficult to understand how organizations can manage knowledge to their fullest advantage; given that knowledge is inherently tacit

Max Erik Rohde; David Sundaram

2011-01-01

180

Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.  

PubMed

N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. PMID:18590368

Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

2008-06-01

181

Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.  

PubMed

When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p < .01) for increasing tangential forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive. PMID:22431218

Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

2012-02-01

182

VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the

2004-11-01

183

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-06-01

184

Adaptive memory: animacy processing produces mnemonic advantages.  

PubMed

It is adaptive to remember animates, particularly animate agents, because they play an important role in survival and reproduction. Yet, surprisingly, the role of animacy in mnemonic processing has received little direct attention in the literature. In two experiments, participants were presented with pronounceable nonwords and properties characteristic of either living (animate) or nonliving (inanimate) things. The task was to rate the likelihood that each nonword-property pair represented a living thing or a nonliving object. In Experiment 1, a subsequent recognition memory test for the nonwords revealed a significant advantage for the nonwords paired with properties of living things. To generalize this finding, Experiment 2 replicated the animate advantage using free recall. These data demonstrate a new phenomenon in the memory literature - a possible mnemonic tuning for animacy - and add to growing data supporting adaptive memory theory. PMID:23261948

VanArsdall, Joshua E; Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Blunt, Janell R

2013-01-01

185

Women and nurse executives. Finally, some advantages.  

PubMed

How do chief nurse executives (CNEs) and chief executive officers (CEOs) compare on selected components of organizational socialization, and do differences exist between genders? To answer these questions, the author compared 127 male CEOs, 127 female CEOs, 232 female CNEs, and 117 male CNEs on their self-reported leadership styles, managerial values, and skills. The differences found between both genders and positions on all measures are largely advantageous to women and nurses in healthcare administration. PMID:8410326

Borman, J S

1993-10-01

186

TELEVISED TRIALS: WEIGHING ADVANTAGES AGAINST DISADVANTAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments over televised trials juxtapose purported advantages—education about judicial process, restoration of public confidence in the courts, and crime deterrent value—against potential disadvantages—increased prejudicial publicity and public embarrassment of defendants. Although no empirical research has been conducted to test either hypothesis, anecdotal evidence—concerned with news viewing motivation and attention, news recall and retention, and television's function in shaping public

SUSANNA R. BARBER; Suzanna R. Barber

1985-01-01

187

ELECTRONIC BANKING - ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customer's products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of

Bojan Daniela; Mutu Simona; Paun Dragos

2010-01-01

188

Advantages and disadvantages of using artificial neural networks versus logistic regression for predicting medical outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks are algorithms that can be used to perform nonlinear statistical modeling and provide a new alternative to logistic regression, the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for dichotomous outcomes in medicine. Neural networks offer a number of advantages, including requiring less formal statistical training, ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent

Jack V. Tu

1996-01-01

189

The resource-based view and sustainable competitive advantage: the case of a financial services firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is a theory that has been explored in academic literature as a means of explaining competitive advantage and, in turn, superior performance amongst firms. In this paper it is argued that the model developed by Fahy offers a concise picture of the nature and role of key resources in strategic management but this

Val Clulow; Julie Gerstman; Carol Barry

2003-01-01

190

Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

2004-01-01

191

THE RELATIONAL VIEW: COOPERATIVE STRATEGY AND SOURCES OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we offer a view that suggests that a firm's critical resources may span firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis for understanding competitive advan- tage is the relationship between firms and identify four potential sources of interor- ganizational competitive advantage: (1) relation-specific assets, (2)

JEFFREY H. DYER; HARBIR SINGH

1998-01-01

192

The female advantage in college academic achievements and horizontal sex segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study offers a structural explanation for the female advantage in college completion rates, stressing the importance of horizontal sex segregation across fields of study in shaping educational outcomes and gender inequality. Results from a nationally representative sample of students who matriculated at 4-year institutions in 1995 reveal a high level of gender segregation by field of study. Field of

Sigal Alon; Dafna Gelbgiser

2011-01-01

193

Fairness and the Willingness to Accept Plea Bargain Offers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with the typical assumption in plea bargaining law and economics, we show defendants may reject plea offers based on fairness considerations. Specifically, offers where the sanction clearly appears excessive for the crime (\\

Avishalom Tor; Oren Gazal-Ayal; Stephen M. Garcia

2010-01-01

194

The market and operating performance of Chinese seasoned equity offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the short-term market and the long-term operating performance of Chinese seasoned equity issues (Seasoned Equity Offerings (SEOs)). Employing data for 596 rights offerings and 181 private placements for the period 1998 to 2004, we find significant positive short-term market reaction for both rights offerings and private placements; however, the long-term operating performance of the firms offering private

Ohannes George Paskelian; Stephen Bell

2010-01-01

195

Size Matters: Problems and Advantages Associated with Highly Miniaturized Sensors  

PubMed Central

There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity.

Dahlin, Andreas B.

2012-01-01

196

17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Offerings by blank check companies. 230.419 Section...Requirements § 230.419 Offerings by blank check companies. (a) Scope of the...under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check company. (2) For purposes of...

2010-04-01

197

17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Offerings by blank check companies. 230.419 Section...Requirements § 230.419 Offerings by blank check companies. (a) Scope of the...under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check company. (2) For purposes of...

2013-04-01

198

17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Offerings by blank check companies. 230.419 Section...Requirements § 230.419 Offerings by blank check companies. (a) Scope of the...under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check company. (2) For purposes of...

2009-04-01

199

49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the PO, during a hearing in which the respondent had an opportunity to respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the...

2012-10-01

200

49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the PO, during a hearing in which the respondent had an opportunity to respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the...

2011-10-01

201

What influences salary: A study of MIS faculty job offers  

Microsoft Academic Search

What matters when you’re negotiating a job offer? We address this and other questions using data from the Association for Information Systems (AIS) Salary Surveys on compensation, rank, publication data, and similar data associated with MIS Faculty job offers. Our study has three primary findings. First, school and individual factors influence the position and salary offered, but individual factors have

M. Pamela Neely; Thomas Tribunella; Zhi Tang; Clyde Elrikur Hull

2008-01-01

202

FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

203

Protecting Your Turf: First-mover Advantages as a Barrier to Competitor Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product innovation for a juice company and its associated first-mover advantages are analyzed. Stochastic simulation is used to model market size, price, competitive intensity, and the likelihood of competitor entry. Results of moving first allow the firm to capture market share, realize first-mover advantages in excess of $2 million, and deter competitor innovation. In addition, the proposed model is flexible

Brian C. Briggeman; Michael A. Gunderson; Joshua D. Detre

2006-01-01

204

Protecting Your Turf: First Mover Advantages as a Barrier to Competitor Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product innovation for a juice company and its associated first-mover advantages are analyzed. Stochastic simulation is used to model market size, price, competitive intensity, and the likelihood of competitor entry. Results of moving first allow the firm to capture market share, realize first-mover advantages in excess of $2 million, and deter competitor innovation. In addition, the proposed model is flexible

Brian C. Briggeman; Michael A. Gunderson; Joshua D. Detre

2005-01-01

205

Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

2007-10-01

206

Solubility advantage from amorphous etoricoxib solid dispersions.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate kinetic solubility advantage of amorphous etoricoxib solid dispersions prepared with three water soluble polymers and correlate it with solid state and supersaturated drug solution stabilization potential of these polymers. Methods: Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of etoricoxib were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) at 70:30w/w ratio and characterized for glass transition temperature (T(g)), miscibility and intermolecular interactions. Kinetic solubility profiles of amorphous etoricoxib and its ASDs were determined in water at 37 °C. Solid-state stability was assessed by enthalpy relaxation studies at a common degree of undercooling of around 19.0 °C at 0% RH. Recrystallization behavior of supersaturated drug solution was evaluated in the absence and presence of pre-dissolved polymer at 37 °C. Results: Amorphous etoricoxib exhibited rapid solid-to-solid transition to yield a solubility advantage of merely 1.5-fold in water. Among the ASDs, etoricoxib-PVP dispersion exhibited maximal "peak" (2-fold) and "plateau" (1.8-fold) solubility enhancement, while etoricoxib-PVA dispersion could only sustain the "peak" solubility achieved by amorphous etoricoxib. In contrast, etoricoxib-HEC dispersion displayed no solubility advantage. The rank order for solid state and supersaturated solution stabilization followed a similar trend of amorphous etoricoxib?

Dani, Prateek; Puri, Vibha; Bansal, A K

2013-01-10

207

Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.  

PubMed

The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

George, R J

1996-06-01

208

Using information networks for competitive advantage.  

PubMed

Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings. PMID:10146130

Rothenberg, R L

1995-01-01

209

Competitive advantage in public-sector organizations: explaining the public good\\/sustainable competitive advantage paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource-based views of the firm and in particular Kay's (Why Firms Succeed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995) model of sustainable competitive advantage have been used to advance an understanding of differences in the competitive advantage of private-sector firms. We extend the analysis to a public-sector firm where its major purpose includes engaging in public good by giving away its knowledge

Judy Matthews; Arthur D. Shulman

2005-01-01

210

Plant offerings from Roman cremations in northern Italy: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the remains of plants (cereals, pulses, fruit and vegetables) used as offerings in cremation burials in\\u000a northern Italian Roman cemeteries between the 1st century b.c. and the 3rd century a.d. The custom of burning plant offerings on the funeral pyre was widespread in the Iron Age, but in the Roman Empire such offerings\\u000a became more frequent and

Mauro Rottoli; Elisabetta Castiglioni

211

China and the WTO: Tariff offers, exemptions, and welfare implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and the WTO: Tariff Offers, Exemptions, and Welfare Implications. — Trade reforms have opened the Chinese economy and\\u000a the reforms offered for WTO accession involve further liberalization. To assess the implications of these offers, the authors\\u000a take into account the tariff exemptions that are especially important in China’s trade regime, and the reductions in the variability\\u000a of tariffs at

Christian F. Bach; Will Martin; Jennifer A. Stevens

1996-01-01

212

Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

2012-05-01

213

ATTRACT--applications in telemedicine taking rapid advantage of cable television network evolution.  

PubMed

ATTRACT is a project that intends to provide telemedicine services over Cable Television Networks. ATTRACT is an European Commission funded project (Healthcare Telematics). The main objective of ATTRACT is to take advantage of emerging European Cable Television network infrastructures and offer cost-effective care to patients at home. This will be achieved through a set of broadband network applications that competitively provide low cost interactive health-care services at home. The applications will be based on existing or developing European Cable Television network infrastructures in order to provide all kind of users with affordable homecare services. It is ATTRACT's intention that citizens and users benefit from high quality access to home telemedical services which also implies cost savings for patients, their families and the already over burdened health institutions. In addition, the European industries will have extensive opportunities to develop, evaluate and validate broadband network infrastructures providing multimedia and interactive telemedical services at home. ATTRACT contributes to the EU telecommunications and telematics policy objectives that promote the development and validation of "applications and services" which "provide an intelligent telematic environment for the patient in institutions and other points of care that helps the patient to continue, as far as possible, normal activities and external communication". PMID:10180587

Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A

1998-01-01

214

Organizations advocating for youth: the local advantage.  

PubMed

Youth occupy a unique place in our democratic society. They must primarily rely on others to speak on their behalf as decisions are made about the allocation of resources within and across various youth-serving institutions. Advocacy organizations comprise crucial representational assets for all youth, but America's poorest children and youth especially need an effective voice to speak for and about them. Yet advocates for youth in urban areas face tough challenges since urban voters typically have few positive connections to youth. This article draws on three years of research focused on three organizations in the San Francisco Bay Area that have successfully advocated for better policies for youth. The authors explore the strategies that these organizations have employed to overcome the challenges they face, with particular attention to the advantages that follow from advocating at the local rather than at the state or federal level. PMID:18384136

Deschenes, Sarah; McLaughlin, Milbrey; Newman, Anne

2008-01-01

215

[Nanoparticles (part 2)--advantages and health risk].  

PubMed

Over the recent years, nanotechnologies and their products--nanoparticles--have become extremely popular among scientists. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with biomedical sciences, through optics, textile, construction, motorization industries, and ending with electricity and electronics. New possibilities of nanoproducts application emerge almost every day. However, it should be remembered that nanoparticles carry both advantages and risks. Small-size-particles enable overcoming the systemic barriers unnoticeably to humans. Exposure to nanoparticles is a serious threat; it may take all possible routes, of which inhalation is the most important one. Toxicity of nanoparticles is manifested by inflammation resulting probably from oxidative stress. Nanosceptics even find certain similarities between nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, one of the most popular nanoparticles, and asbestos fibers. In view of a rapid development of nanotechnologies it is essential to establish adequate criteria for risk assessment that could protect against potential harmful effects arising from specific properties of substances occurring in the form of nanoparticles. PMID:17926516

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria

2007-01-01

216

Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

Krischel, Detlef

217

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

218

Hidden advantages for men in nursing.  

PubMed

Men comprise a small minority of professional nurses in the United States. Yet men in nursing earn more money than women on average, and they are overrepresented in administration and other prestigious specialties. This article explores the hidden advantages for men in the profession, focusing on (1) hiring and promotions, (2) relationships with physicians and colleagues, and (3) relationships with patients. Data from in-depth interviews with male nurses throughout the United States are used to demonstrate that cultural and social stereotypes about masculinity pressure men into some of the best-paying and most prestigious nursing specialties. Administrators are encouraged to develop more gender-sensitive criteria for evaluating performance that reward both reputedly "masculine" and "feminine" qualities. PMID:7830974

Williams, C L

1995-01-01

219

Take advantage of your insurance carrier  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the developer of an independent energy facility is to make a profit through the sale of electricity and steam. The most effective way to achieve this objective is to design, build and operate a facility in a way that maximizes its availability and efficiency without increasing expenses. A property carrier has a range of insurance products and engineering services designed not only to transfer risk but to increase availability and efficiency and reduce the cost of operating and maintaining a facility. The independent energy producer can benefit by taking full advantage of traditional and specialty insurance products as well as engineering services that are available today. There is a whole range of insurance products that apply during the various stages of pre-construction, construction, testing and commercial operation, and these are described.

Carlow, S.M.

1990-02-01

220

[Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].  

PubMed

The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

1997-12-01

221

Medicare program; prohibition of midyear benefit enhancements for Medicare Advantage organizations. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule prohibits Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations, including organizations offering MA plans to employer and union group health plan sponsors, from making midyear changes to nonprescription drug benefits, premiums, and cost-sharing submitted in their approved bids for a given contract year. This final rule also clarifies that MA organizations offering certain kinds of plans restricted to employer and union group health plan sponsors and not open to general enrollment may continue to offer benefit enhancements as they do currently, through means other than midyear benefit enhancements (MYBEs). Programs of all-inclusive care for elderly (PACE) are not subject to the provisions of this final rule and may continue to offer enhanced benefits as specified in our guidance for PACE plans. PMID:18949878

2008-07-28

222

Initial public offerings in the gaming industry: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fastest growing segment of the hospitality industry is gaming-related business. This industry has experienced record numbers of companies going public, and their stocks are considered favorable long-term investments. Research in the initial public offering (IPO) area suggests that investors acquiring stock at the initial offering price earn large returns. The purpose of this study was to determine if large

Stanley M. Atkinson; Stephen M. LeBruto

1995-01-01

223

Offer price, transaction price and time-on-market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether or not the offer price affects the transaction price and the number of days the property is on the market. Specifically, is it possible for the broker to use the offer price as an instrument for obtaining a higher transaction price? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To test the hypothesis the general

Kicki Björklund; John Alex Dadzie; Mats Wilhelmssona

2006-01-01

224

Burnt offerings: Animal bone in Anglo?Saxon cremations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Anglo?Saxon cremations contain some animal bone from funeral offerings, but often this material is not systematically identified or studied. This means that an important bias is present in the study of grave goods from most English cremation cemeteries, and that an important data set, which could offer insights into a people's view of life and death, and their relationship

J. M. Bond

1996-01-01

225

Vocational Education Offerings in Rural High Schools. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the types of vocational education programs offered in rural, suburban, and urban schools. Data from the 1999 Survey on Vocational Programs in Secondary Schools indicate no significant differences in the distribution of vocational education offerings in urban and suburban schools, so they were combined into a single category of…

Hudson, Lisa; Shafer, Linda

226

Factors affecting investment bank initial public offering market share  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of several factors on the market share of investment banks that act as book managers in initial public offerings (IPOs) between 1984 and 1995. For established banks, IPO first-day returns, one-year abnormal performance, abnormal compensation, industry specialization, analyst reputation, and association with withdrawn offers have a significant impact on changes in market share. These factors

Craig G. Dunbar

2000-01-01

227

An Empirical Assessment of Early Offer Reform for Medical Malpractice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early offer reform proposal for medical malpractice provides an option for claimants to receive prompt payment of all their net economic losses and reasonable attorney fees. Using a large sample of closed individual medical malpractice claims from Texas supplemented by data from Florida, this article provides an empirical assessment of the consequences of the early offer reform. Noneconomic damages

Joni Hersch; Jeffrey OConnell; W. Kip Viscusi

2007-01-01

228

South Carolina to Offer Scholastic Journalism Distance Education Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of a new scholastic journalism distance education course offered by the University of South Carolina for high school teachers. Describes some of the topics, including Introduction to Scholastic Journalism, the Law of the Student Press, Background and History of High School Journalism, and Writing and News Values. Offers

Dickey, Beth B.

1995-01-01

229

Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

Glenn, David

2007-01-01

230

Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

231

Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

Eggert, John D.

232

Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

233

Sustainable competitive advantage: towards a dynamic resource-based strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of strategic advantage and distinguishes it from competitive advantage. This concept helps to explain the full nature of sustainable competitive advantage through uncovering the dynamics of resource-based strategy. A new classification of resources emerges, demonstrating that rents are more relevant than profits in the analysis of sustainable competitive advantage.

Kazem Chaharbaghi; Richard Lynch

1999-01-01

234

Countably additive gambling and optimal stopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of discrete-time optimal stopping is presented within the more general framework of countably additive gambling theory. In particular, offered here is a substitute for a fundamental theorem of optimal stopping due to Chow, Robbins, and Siegmund.

Lester E. Dubins; William D. Sudderth

1977-01-01

235

Quantifying the Magnetic Advantage in Magnetotaxis  

PubMed Central

Magnetotactic bacteria are characterized by the production of magnetosomes, nanoscale particles of lipid bilayer encapsulated magnetite, that act to orient the bacteria in magnetic fields. These magnetosomes allow magneto-aerotaxis, which is the motion of the bacteria along a magnetic field and toward preferred concentrations of oxygen. Magneto-aerotaxis has been shown to direct the motion of these bacteria downward toward sediments and microaerobic environments favorable for growth. Herein, we compare the magneto-aerotaxis of wild-type, magnetic Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 with a nonmagnetic mutant we have engineered. Using an applied magnetic field and an advancing oxygen gradient, we have quantified the magnetic advantage in magneto-aerotaxis as a more rapid migration to preferred oxygen levels. Magnetic, wild-type cells swimming in an applied magnetic field more quickly migrate away from the advancing oxygen than either wild-type cells in a zero field or the nonmagnetic cells in any field. We find that the responses of the magnetic and mutant strains are well described by a relatively simple analytical model, an analysis of which indicates that the key benefit of magnetotaxis is an enhancement of a bacterium's ability to detect oxygen, not an increase in its average speed moving away from high oxygen concentrations.

Smith, M. J.; Sheehan, P. E.; Perry, L. L.; O'Connor, K.; Csonka, L. N.; Applegate, B. M.; Whitman, L. J.

2006-01-01

236

Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems  

SciTech Connect

Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more-traditional credit vehicle, to recover both system and administrative costs. This approach has a number of features that should appeal to PV owners, including long-term, fixed-cost, attractive financing; loans that are tied to the tax capacity of the property rather than to the owner's credit standing; a repayment obligation that transfers along with the sale of the property; and a potential ability to deduct the repayment obligation from federal taxable income as part of the local property tax deduction. For these reasons, Berkeley's program, which was first announced on October 23, 2007, has received considerable nationwide attention in both the trade and general press. Since the announcement, cities from throughout California and the broader U.S. have expressed keen interest in the possibility of replicating this type of program. In California alone, the cities of Santa Cruz, Santa Monica and Palm Desert are all reportedly considering similar programs, while the city of San Francisco has recently announced its own program, portions of which closely parallel Berkeley's approach. In addition, a bill (AB 811) that would authorize all cities in California, not just charter cities like Berkeley, to create this type of program was approved by the California General Assembly on January 29 and is currently under consideration in the State Senate. A similar bill in Colorado (HB 1350) was signed into law on May 28. Elsewhere, the city of Tucson, Arizona has also considered this financing approach.

Bolinger, Mark A

2008-07-06

237

The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

2011-01-01

238

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryMammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast

Sylvia H. Heywang-Köbrunner; Astrid Hacker; Stefan Sedlacek

2011-01-01

239

Who Is Offering and How Often? Gender Differences in Drug Offers Among American Indian Adolescents of the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants responded to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They were asked to consider the frequency of drug offers from specific groups in their social networks and the

Andrea Dixon Rayle; Stephen Kulis; Scott K. Okamoto; Sheila S. Tann; Craig Winston LeCroy; Patricia Dustman; Aimee M. Burke

2006-01-01

240

Quantitative exploration of performance enhancements offered by active matrix x-ray imagers fabricated on plastic substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of active matrix imagers fabricated on plastic substrates has become increasingly possible due to widespread efforts to develop the means to create inexpensive, very large area, flexible displays. In addition to benefits associated with cost, robustness, and weight, such novel x-ray imaging devices could provide significant performance improvements by virtue of substrates offering a thinner profile, lower density, and lower atomic number composition, as well as the ability to mechanically conform to non-planar geometries. One potential candidate for advantageous utilization of plastic substrates is that of a high resolution, indirect detection active matrix imager operated at mammographic x-ray energies. Such an imager, configured in an arc and operated in a back illumination geometry, could offer enhanced modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency by virtue of reduced optical spread in the scintillator relative to the optical sensor as well as reduction (or elimination) of oblique angles of incidence of primary x-rays. Motivated by such prospects, it is of interest to quantify the degree of performance improvement to be expected from such novel devices. In this paper, we describe a methodology under development by our collaboration to quantitatively examine the performance of indirect detection active matrix imagers incorporating plastic substrates. This methodology is based on the cascaded systems formalism with input provided by, among other things, Monte Carlo simulation of radiation and optical transport in the detector. Finally, illustrative examples of the use of this methodology are presented - although key input parameters are, as yet, insufficiently precise to allow the simulations to accurately depict the complete physical situation.

Antonuk, Larry E.; Wang, Yi; Behravan, Mahdokht; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Du, Hong; Badano, Aldo

2007-03-01

241

A TIME-SERIES DESCRIPTIVE MODEL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE TRAJECTORY - BUILDING INTERMITTENT COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN HYPERMOVING MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the external context (market environment) changes at hyper speed, the advantage of resources as the conditions for gaining competitive advantage has to be changed reactively. The purpose of this paper is to present a time-series descriptive model of competitive advantage trajectory in such industry, where it is difficult for a set of identical resources to sustain such an advantage.

TATSUYUKI NEGORO; MAMIKO WAKABAYASHI

242

Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

2013-03-01

243

Laboratory in a box: wearable sensors and its advantages for gait analysis.  

PubMed

Until recently, many gait studies explored potential gait alteration due to various disorders in the gait lab and using camera based systems and force platforms. However, these strategies may not replicate normal outdoor walking. Using this equipment, it is more difficult to measure the variability of walking which is important for maintaining balance and responding to different walking challenges. Additionally, subjects may mask their problem or exaggerate it when they are walking in a short walking distance offered by laboratory based-technology. This study overviews some of the key advantages of wearable technology compared to laboratory-based instrument. Additionally, it explored gait patterns over ample distance of walking compared to walking distance restricted to a gait laboratory environment. Walking patterns of ten healthy young subjects were examined using a wearable sensor technology in a random order over a distance of 7 m, 14 m, and 20 m. Results suggest that participants walk significantly faster by increasing walking distance on average by 15% and 3% when walking distance was increased respectively from 7 m to 14 and from 14 m to 20 m (p<0.05). Interestingly despite a high test-retest reliability for averaged gait parameters (ICC>0.89), the test-retest reliability for gait variability was only acceptable during 20 m walking distance (ICC<0.3 for 7 m and 14 m v. ICC=0.65 for 20 m). Taken together, our findings indicate that for valid and reliable assessment of gait parameters, gait should be performed over ample walking distances. Body worn sensor technology facilitates assessing gait outside of a gait laboratory, over ample walking distance, different footwear condition, different walking surface, and in environment where mimics better true environment where the subject is active in. PMID:22255829

Najafi, Bijan; Khan, Tahir; Wrobel, James

2011-01-01

244

The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.  

PubMed

The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

2012-01-01

245

Dynamic Labor Force Participation Decisions of Males in the Presence of Layoffs and Uncertain Job Offers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a utility maximization model of workers who make decisions to work or not over a lifetime. The objective is to maximize the presented discounted value of utility arising from the participation decisions. In addition to duration dependence introduced through time-variant job offer and layoff probabilities, state dependence enters the model by the existence of a different risk

Füsun Gönül

1989-01-01

246

Multi-period Online Optimization in TAC SCM: The Supplier Offer Acceptance Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formalize the supplier offer acceptance problem in TAC SCM as a multi-stage stochastic program. In addition, we suggest a heuristic for solving this problem using the rollout method, following one or two stage approximations of the multi-stage stochastic program as the base policy dur- ing rollouts. We also describe a heuristic based on the no- tion of marginal utility

Sarah Bell; Michael Benisch; Margaret Benthall; Amy Greenwald; Michael Carl Tschantz

2004-01-01

247

Recognition advantage of happy faces: Tracing the neurocognitive processes.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify the brain processes-and their time course-underlying the typical behavioral recognition advantage of happy facial expressions. To this end, we recorded EEG activity during an expression categorization task for happy, angry, fearful, sad, and neutral faces, and the correlation between event-related-potential (ERP) patterns and recognition performance was assessed. N170 (150-180ms) was enhanced for angry, fearful and sad faces; N2 was reduced and early posterior negativity (EPN; both, 200-320ms) was enhanced for happy and angry faces; P3b (350-450ms) was reduced for happy and neutral faces; and slow positive wave (SPW; 700-800ms) was reduced for happy faces. This reveals (a) an early processing (N170) of negative affective valence (i.e., angry, fearful, and sad), (b) discrimination (N2 and EPN) of affective intensity or arousal (i.e., angry and happy), and (c) facilitated categorization (P3b) and decision (SPW) due to expressive distinctiveness (i.e., happy). In addition, N2, EPN, P3b, and SPW were related to categorization accuracy and speed. This suggests that conscious expression recognition and the typical happy face advantage depend on encoding of expressive intensity and, especially, on later response selection, rather than on the early processing of affective valence. PMID:23880097

Calvo, Manuel G; Beltrán, David

2013-07-20

248

Steroids Offer Mostly Short-Term Carpal Tunnel Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Steroids offer mostly short-term carpal tunnel relief (*this ... 4, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Steroids By Kathryn Doyle NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Steroid ...

249

50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service is offered. Inspection service may be furnished...

2011-10-01

250

15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer of hearing. The hearing officer shall receive the formal challenge and shall...

2013-01-01

251

15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer of hearing. The hearing officer shall receive the formal challenge and shall...

2012-01-01

252

48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...proposing to furnish an âequalâ product, in accordance with the âBrand Name...information for each offered âequalâ product: Contract Line Item Number (if any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in...

2012-10-01

253

7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The...

2013-01-01

254

42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO...

2012-10-01

255

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.42 Human...

2009-04-01

256

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.42 Human...

2010-04-01

257

32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Form 42, Offer to Sell Real Property, is...Engineers, the Chiefs of the Real Estate Divisions, and the incumbents...instruments: Provided, The price set forth in the instrument...with responsibility for real estate acquisition)...

2013-07-01

258

21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION...

2013-04-01

259

48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers...awarding the lease. (3) State the relative importance of...Government's requirements, pricing matters, evaluation procedures...

2012-10-01

260

48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers...awarding the lease. (3) State the relative importance of...Government's requirements, pricing matters, evaluation procedures...

2011-10-01

261

The advantages of the LMA over the tracheal tube or facemask: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis was performed on randomised prospective trials comparing the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with other forms\\u000a of airway management to determine if the LMA offered any advantages over the tracheal tube (TT) or facemask (FM). Of the 858\\u000a LMA publications identified to December 1994, 52 met the criteria for the analysis. Thirty-two different issues were tested\\u000a using Fisher’s method

J. Brimacombe

1995-01-01

262

Services Offered to Preschool Children in Texas Public Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Services to preschoolers in public libraries in Texas are offered by the majority of the libraries (87.4%), but the offerings are, for the most part, recent developments, with 62.1% in existence for less than 20 years, and 44.7% in existence for less than 10 years. The services are supported by very small allocations from library budgets (the majority allocated less

Joyce Williams Bergin; June H. Schlessinger; Bernard S. Schlessinger

1988-01-01

263

Streptokinase, urokinase, and tissue plasminogen activator: Pharmacokinetics, relative advantages, and methods for maximizing rates and consistency of lysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early reperfusion of occluded coronary arteries offers great promise as a method for minimizing myocardial damage after acute\\u000a myocardial infarction. Such reperfusion is usually attempted via administration of fibrinolytic agents. Urokinase may hold\\u000a marginal advantages over streptokinase, especially in patients with high preexisting titers of antistreptokinase antibodies.\\u000a These minor differences, however, pale in comparison to important advantages demonstrated by the

Alan S. Maizel; Joseph J. Bookstein

1986-01-01

264

The strategic imperative and sustainable competitive advantage: Public policy implications of resource-advantage theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy theorists share (1) the view that the strategic imperative of a firm should be sustained, superior financial performance\\u000a and (2) the belief that this goal can be achieved through a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. Neoclassical\\u000a perfect competition and traditional industrial organization economics, however, imply that the sustained performance goal\\u000a advocated by strategy theorists is anticompetitive and its

Shelby D. Hunt

1999-01-01

265

Advantages of isofocal printing in maskmaking with the ALTA 3500  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALTA 3500, an advanced scanned-laser mask lithography tool produced by Etec, was introduced to the marketplace in 1997. The system architecture was described and an initial performance evaluation was presented. This system, based on the ALTA 3000 system, uses a new 33.3X, 0.8 NA final reduction lens to reduce the spot size to 0.27 micrometers FWHM, thereby affording improved resolution and pattern acuity on the mask. An anisotropic chrome etch process was developed and introduced along with a TOK iP3600 resist to take advantage of the improved resolution. In this paper we will more extensively describe the performance of the ALTA 3500 scanned laser system and the performance of these new processes. In addition, an investigation of the benefits of operating in the optimal isofocal print region is examined and compared to printing at the nominal process conditions.

Fuller, Scott E.; Pochkowski, Mike

1999-04-01

266

Improving analytical understanding through the addition of information: Bayesian and hybrid mathematics approaches  

SciTech Connect

Safety analysts frequently must provide results that are based on sparse (or even no) data. When data (or more data) become available, it is important to utilize the new information optimally in improving the analysis results. Two methods for accomplishing this purpose are Bayesian analysis, where "prior" probability distributions are modified to become "posterior" distributions based on the new data, and hybrid (possibilistic/probabilistic analysis) where possibilistic "membership" portrays the subjectivity involved and the probabilistic analysis is "frequentist." Each of these approaches has interesting features, and it is advantageous to compare and contrast the two. In addition to describing and contrasting these two approaches, we will discuss how features of each can be combined to give new advantages neither offers by itself.

Cooper, J.A.; Diegert, K.V.

1998-09-13

267

Offer Patterns of Nationally Placed Livers by Donation Service Area  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that national liver distribution is highly concentrated in 6 US centers, and this raises the possibility of expedited placement. Therefore, we evaluated all national offers of nationally placed livers (n=1625) to adult wait-list candidates from February 2005 to January 2010. We developed a model to predict national utilization pathways; pathways exceeding the best-fit linear unbiased predictions by ?3 standard errors were defined as preferred. All 51 donation service areas (DSAs) placed 1 or more livers nationally, but the percentage per DSA ranged from 1% to 36%. Of 2830 possible national DSA-center pathways, 87% were used. Five hundred eighty livers (36%) were accepted on the first national offer. Four DSAs accounted for 47% of first-national-offer livers, and 44% of these were accepted by a single center. In comparison with first-offer livers using nonpreferred pathways, first offers along a preferred pathway were offered to fewer status 1 candidates (19% versus 61%) and had lower median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores (22 versus 36, P<0.001). In conclusion, DSA placement patterns of national livers vary widely, with 4 DSAs exporting a high proportion of national livers on the first national offer to non–status 1 candidates with MELD scores less than their local transplant MELD scores. Although this practice may facilitate liver placement, it raises the possibility of expedience trumping patient need. Here we propose changes to the national liver distribution system that will help to balance equity, efficiency, and transparency.

Lai, Jennifer C.; Feng, Sandy; Vittinghoff, Eric; Roberts, John P.

2013-01-01

268

A Structural Non-Stationary Model of Job Search: Stigmatization of the Unemployed by Job Offers or Wage Offers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a structural non-stationary model of job search in the fashion of van den Berg (1990). Non-stationarity comes from the duration-dependence in benefits, in the arrival rate of job offers, and in wage offers. The model is then estimated using the French sample of the ECHP Survey (1994-2000). This data set provides the variables required to identify the model

Stefan Lollivier; Laurence Rioux

2005-01-01

269

Competitive advantages of evolutionary computation for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining the technical and business competitive advantages of evolutionary computation (EC) is critical for successful marketing of this technology in industry and other research communities. The key competitive advantages of EC, based on industrial applications in the chemical industry are presented in the paper. Gaining competitive advantage by integrating EC with statistical methods, neural networks, and support vector machines is

Arthur K. Kordon; Alex N. Kalos; Flor A. Castillo; Elsa Jordaan; Guido Smits; Mark E. Kotanchek

2005-01-01

270

Sustainable competitive advantage for educational institutions: a suggested model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a model of the factors that are critical to the establishment and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantage for education services enterprises in international markets. It draws together theories of competitive advantage developed by industrial economics and management theory, with literature relating to services marketing. In examining a theory of sustainable competitive advantage for services exports, the paper

Tim Mazzarol; Geoffrey Norman Soutar

1999-01-01

271

Evaluating the sustainable competitive advantage model for corporate real estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to establish empirical connections between corporate real estate management (CREM) practices and organisations' sources of sustainable competitive advantage (SSCA). The alignment of CREM practices with modes of achieving competitiveness provides greater competitive advantage from CREM. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model for sustainable competitive advantage for corporate real estate (CRE) theorising the connections between CREM practices and

Christopher Heywood; Russell Kenley

2008-01-01

272

Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on oVer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found

NIGEL J. BALMER; ALAN M. NEVILL

273

Evidence of a divided-attention advantage in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with autism spectrum disorders appear to have some specific advantages in visual processing, including an advantage in visual search tasks. However, executive function theory predicts deficits in tasks that require divided attention, and there is evidence that people with autism have difficulty broadening their attention (Mann & Walker, 2003). We wanted to know how robust the known attentional advantage

M. D. Rutherford; Eric D. Richards; Vanessa Moldes; Allison B. Sekuler

2007-01-01

274

Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We

Ryan H. Boyko; Adam R. Boyko; Mark G. Boyko

2007-01-01

275

Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context

NJ BALMER; AM NEVILL; AM WILLIAMS

2003-01-01

276

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening.  

PubMed

Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

2011-05-27

277

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening  

PubMed Central

Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs.

Heywang-Kobrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

2011-01-01

278

An overview of Electronic Document Management System product offerings.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to provide insight in the evaluation of Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMSs) and the current EDMS vendors and their product offerings. Comparisons are made between the vendors and the products over the past decade. Appendix A and Appendix B outline many of today's key vendor offerings. Issues such as HIPAA and medical errors are discussed as it becomes clearer that the quality of patient care can be positively impacted with the application of information technology such as EDMSs. PMID:12402637

Doupnik, Anita M

2002-08-01

279

The metabolic advantage of tumor cells  

PubMed Central

1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them...

2011-01-01

280

The metabolic advantage of tumor cells.  

PubMed

1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase). 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

Israël, Maurice; Schwartz, Laurent

2011-06-07

281

Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data  

PubMed Central

Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss.

Thaler, Lore

2013-01-01

282

Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data.  

PubMed

Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit from the use of echolocation, previous research conducted under controlled experimental conditions has shown that echolocation improves blind people's spatial sensing ability. The current study investigated if there is also evidence for functional benefits of echolocation in real life. To address this question the current study conducted an online survey. Thirty-seven blind people participated. Linear regression analyses of survey data revealed that, while statistically controlling for participants' gender, age, level of visual function, general health, employment status, level of education, Braille skill, and use of other mobility means, people who use echolocation have higher salary, and higher mobility in unfamiliar places, than people who do not use echolocation. The majority of our participants (34 out of 37) use the long cane, and all participants who reported to echolocate, also reported to use the long cane. This suggests that the benefit of echolocation that we found might be conditional upon the long cane being used as well. The investigation was correlational in nature, and thus cannot be used to determine causality. In addition, the sample was small (N = 37), and one should be cautious when generalizing the current results to the population. The data, however, are consistent with the idea that echolocation offers real-life advantages for blind people, and that echolocation may be involved in peoples' successful adaptation to vision loss. PMID:23658546

Thaler, Lore

2013-05-08

283

Dietary protein requirements and adaptive advantages in athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary guidelines from a variety of sources are generally congruent that an adequate dietary protein intake for persons over the age of 19 is between 0·8-0·9 g protein/kg body weight/d. According to the US/Canadian Dietary Reference Intakes, the RDA for protein of 0·8 g protein/kg/d is "...the average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all [~98 %]… healthy individuals..." The panel also states that "...no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." These recommendations are in contrast to recommendations from the US and Canadian Dietetic Association: "Protein recommendations for endurance and strength trained athletes range from 1·2 to 1·7 g/kg/d." The disparity between those setting dietary protein requirements and those who might be considered to be making practical recommendations for athletes is substantial. This may reflect a situation where an adaptive advantage of protein intakes higher than recommended protein requirements exists. That population protein requirements are still based on nitrogen balance may also be a point of contention since achieving balanced nitrogen intake and excretion likely means little to an athlete who has the primary goal of exercise performance. The goal of the present review is to critically analyse evidence from both acute and chronic dietary protein-based studies in which athletic performance, or correlates thereof, have been measured. An attempt will be made to distinguish between protein requirements set by data from nitrogen balance studies, and a potential adaptive 'advantage' for athletes of dietary protein in excess of the RDA. PMID:23107527

Phillips, Stuart M

2012-08-01

284

Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

285

MEDIA LEGITIMATION EFFECTS IN THE MARKET FOR INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we argue that media-provided information affects investors' impressions of newly public firms. In 225 initial public offerings (IPOs), the volume of media- provided information had a negative, diminishing relationship with underpricing and a positive, diminishing relationship with stock turnover on the first day of trading. The relationship between the tenor of media-provided information and underpricing in- creases

TIMOTHY G. POLLOCK; VIOLINA P. RINDOVA

2003-01-01

286

The Human Resource Executive Effect in Initial Public Offering Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] There is much discussion about HRM becoming strategic, in part by hiring a senior HR executive. This study explores whether that recommendation can help entrepreneurial, growth-oriented companies. By applying organizational inertia concepts, we study whether having a senior HRM executive, reporting to the CEO, affects firm performance in a sample of initial public offering (IPO) firms. Results indicate that

Theresa M. Welbourne; Linda A. Cyr

1999-01-01

287

Museum Showcase: Museums Offer Classrooms the Treasures of Many Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes resources that museums make available to classrooms nationwide, particularly multicultural exhibits and educational programs. Describes specific offerings at 14 museums that include inservice teacher training, educational tours, and curriculum materials in Chicano culture, African diversity, Western stereotypes, art, the Holocaust,…

Punske, Lori

1992-01-01

288

INNOVATION, APPROPRIABILITY, AND THE UNDERPRICING OF INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the information asymmetries theory of underpricing, we investigate the role of innovation in the underpricing of initial public offerings (IPOs). We develop and test a model in which patents reduce information asymmetries in industries where the link between patents and inventive returns is transparent, thereby reducing underpricing. Conversely, patents reflect increased information asymmetries and underpricing in industries where the

MICHAEL B. HEELEY; SHARON F. MATUSIK

2007-01-01

289

20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriateness of any job qualification specified in the job offer. (c) Minimum...conditions. Every job order accompanying an...must provide housing at no cost to the H-2A...must document to the satisfaction of the CO that the...

2010-04-01

290

Offerings to Sang Hyang Bathari Durga and Nyai Lara Kidul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the offerings that are regularly presented by the rulers of the court of Surakarta to the Hindu-Javanese goddess Durga and her counterpart, the Queen of the Southern Ocean. It is based on my observations of ritual actions, which are placed in the historical context of Javanese written sources. While the central issue is the remarkable continuity of

CLARA BRAKEL

291

Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These "Best Practices" have been developed by eight regional accrediting commissions in response to the emergence of technologically mediated instruction offered at a distance as an important component of higher education. They attempt to address concerns that regional accreditation standards are not relevant to the new distributed learning…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. Western Cooperative for Educational Communications.

292

What Does (E)pistemology Have To Offer Feminists?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since traditional epistemology has not been able to present a generality but rather has represented a male perspective as if it is general, neutral, and inclusive of women, then there is the possibility of offering a feminist epistemology. Thus, the critique of the tradition has to come first, to create a space where feminists can begin to…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

293

Key management approaches to offer data confidentiality for secure multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicasting is an efficient way to deliver data to a large group of users in applications such as Internet stock quotes, audio and music delivery, file and video distribution, etc. Many of these applications require the security feature of data confidentiality, which is not readily offered by the \\

Kin-Ching Chan; S.-H. Gary Chan

2003-01-01

294

26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualified offer period ends for cases in the Tax Court and other Federal courts using...with jurisdiction over the Tax Court case. After answering the case, the...rejected by Appeals. Because the Tax Court case had not yet been answered...

2013-04-01

295

48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in solicitations seeking offers on a âbrand name or equalâ basis to allow offerors...product, in accordance with the âBrand Name or Equalâ provision of this solicitation...Contract Line Item Number (if any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by...

2011-10-01

296

Social media offers many ways to grow business  

SciTech Connect

Facebook and Twitter and YouTube, oh my! For some of us the added communications channels offered by social media can feel overwhelming in a hurry. But whether we like it or not, they’re proving to be valuable marketing tools that small and large companies alike are jumping on board to explore.

Madison, Alison L.

2011-03-13

297

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

Weible, Rick

2010-01-01

298

Using Offer versus Serve in the School Meals Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) option in the Healthy School Meals Initiative is to minimize plate waste and to encourage more food choices in school meal programs. This manual was designed for child nutrition programs as a tool in helping them meet the Healthy School Meals Initiative, in particular to assist them in identifying a…

Holliday, RoseAnna

299

Experiences and lessons learned offering certificates in computer technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our Computer Science Department applied for and received a grant of $280,000 to create and offer Certificates in 6 technical areas (Computing Technology Literacy, Dynamic Web Site Programming, UNIX System Administration, Database Application Development, TCP\\/IP Networking, and Advanced Software Engineering). The goal of the Grantor (Colorado Institute of Technology) was to increase the educational level of the technology workforce in

Noel F Lejeune

2006-01-01

300

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the benefits available from internship programs. Of all respondents,

Rick Weible

2009-01-01

301

Evaluating the riskiness of initial public offerings: 1980-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the dot.com collapse, investor sentiment toward initial public offerings (IPOs) has turned negative. To many investors, IPOs have come to symbolize the insider abuses and stock market excesses of the Internet bubble period; to others, investing in IPOs is inherently fraught with danger. This paper asks the question, Have IPOs indeed become more perilous to the

Stavros Peristiani

2003-01-01

302

The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment  

PubMed Central

In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30–40%, compared with 60–70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior.

Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S.

2009-01-01

303

Valuating risk from sales contract offer maturity in electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electricity retail business has always been exposed to a significant risk due to a very volatile nature of the wholesale electricity market. Recently, this trend has been accelerating, as electricity-forward price can rise or fall during one day by an amount comparable to the retailer’s margin. As a result, the risk that arises from sales contract offer maturity can

Ludvik Bartelj; Dejan Paravan; Andrej F. Gubina; Robert Golob

2010-01-01

304

Optimal ordering policies in response to a discount offer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sometimes supplier offers a temporary price discount to increase cash flow or decrease the inventory level of certain items. Thus, the manufacturer may be able to improve the effectiveness of his inventory system by ordering a special quantity at this sale period. In this paper, economic order quantity (EOQ) models with a discounted price are developed to obtain the optimal

Bhaba R. Sarker; Mahmood Al Kindi

2006-01-01

305

E-confidence: Offer and acceptance in online contracting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online contracting, as a focal point of electronic commercial transactions, has been developing since the 1990s. Recent international legislation, namely the 2005 United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (the UN Convention) is a significant legal achievement. However, the validity and effectiveness of electronic offer and acceptance is still an issue for debate. This paper

Faye Fangfei Wang

2008-01-01

306

Contrastive Pragmatics of English and Japanese Offers and Requests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyzes a study by Fukushima (1990) of the English offers and responses of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and reports on an experiment designed to address the perceived weaknesses of Fukushima's work. Fukushima's study found that many Japanese EFL learners could not use appropriate levels of politeness…

Christianson, Kiel

307

School meals in French secondary state schools: Do national recommendations lead to healthier nutrition on offer?  

PubMed

To improve the dietary offering in schools, the French authorities published recommendations on nutrition in 1999, which were then revised in 2007. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional offering in secondary school meals and the extent to which the recommendations promote balanced nutritional offerings. In 2005, a national survey was conducted on a representative sample of secondary schools, either administrated by the Ministry of Education (ES) or the Ministry of Agriculture (AS). Information on school-catering organisation and twenty consecutive meals was collected from each of the 707 secondary schools surveyed. Nutritional composition was estimated according to the French food composition database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of food-group frequency guidelines (FFG) on nutritional offering. It was found that 15 and 26 % of ES and AS schools, respectively, had high compliance with the FFG, at lunch. Macronutrient content was unbalanced in ES school lunches in which 42·8 % lipids, 21·5 % proteins and 35·7 % carbohydrates contributed to the energy. Nevertheless, proper offerings in Fe, Ca and vitamin C content were observed. In addition, a lower offering in lipids and a higher offering in proteins, Ca, vitamin C and Fe were found when the FFG were applied (P < 0·001). Similar results were found for AS schools. This paper confirms the effectiveness of FFG in providing nutritionally balanced school meals. However, others measures such as nutrition promotion and actions to improve children's food habits have to be introduced to make the recommendations more effective and easier to understand. PMID:21835099

Bertin, Mélanie; Lafay, Lionel; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dubuisson, Carine

2011-08-12

308

Does the Quality of Online Customer Experience Create a Sustainable Competitive Advantage for E-Commerce Firms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims have often been made that the quality of the online customer experience in terms of web site ease of use, selection of goods offered, quality of customer service, the effectiveness of virtual community building, and site personalization are crucial to the success of e-commerce firms. If differences in the quality of online customer experiences provide a long-term competitive advantage,

Mohan Venkatachalam; Shivaram Rajgopal; Suresh Kotha

2000-01-01

309

A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better croppi ng system. Little is known about a new double- hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a

Boyie Jall; Wan Sulaiman; Wan Harun; Jamal Talib; Mohd Fauzi Ramlan

2009-01-01

310

Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

Waghid, Y.

2010-01-01

311

Three Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advantages and Advances  

PubMed Central

Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich data sets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.

Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S.

2010-01-01

312

Property Investment and Property Development Firm Performance Around Initial Public Offerings and Rights Offerings: U.K. Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the well-documented underperformance of equity issuers, property investment firms undertaking initial public offerings and rights issues have performed indistinguishably from similar nonissuing firms. Property development companies that issued equity over the same period performed significantly worse than nonissuing firms. The major difference between property development and property investment firms is that property investment firms hold portfolios of

Marcus Gerbich; Mario Levis; Piers Venmore-Rowland

1999-01-01

313

Creating Value for Competitive Advantage in Supply Chain Relationships: The Case of the Sri Lankan Tea Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The declining competitiveness of the Sri Lankan tea industry is an example of shifting competitive advantage in agribusiness. This research uses a case study approach to identify the specific role of information and communication on exporter\\/importer relationships within the tea supply chain, and the impact on value addition, channel member performance and competitive advantage in the Sri Lankan tea industry.

Dulekha Kasturiratne; Nigel D. Poole

2006-01-01

314

Drilling fluid additives  

SciTech Connect

The addition of magnesium oxide to a drilling fluid additive comprising bentonite and ferrochrome lignosulfonate, the drilling fluid additive having a pH of about 9.5 to 12, increases the usefulness of such a drilling fluid additive and increases considerably the yield point of the drilling fluid containing this drilling fluid additive.

Forster, J.W.; Roper, L.E.

1980-06-24

315

Do REITs Manipulate Their Financial Results Around Seasoned Equity Offerings? Evidence from US Equity REITs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses two questions: Is there earnings management in the REIT industry around seasoned equity offerings (SEO)?\\u000a How is earnings management affected by financial and governance factors? Discretionary accruals methods are used to measure\\u000a earnings management. In addition, the difference between actual and calculated FFO is used to capture the potential FFO manipulation.\\u000a We examine how these manipulation measures

Yuan Wei Zhu; Seow Eng Ong; Wee Yong Yeo

2010-01-01

316

Ethical issues in recommending and offering fetal therapy.  

PubMed Central

Fetal therapy should be offered and recommended for a viable fetus when these criteria are met: invasive therapy is reliably judged to have a high probability of being life-saving or of preventing serious and irreversible disease, injury, or disability for the fetus and for the child it can become; such therapy is reliably judged to involve low mortality risk and low or manageable risk of serious disease, injury, or disability to the viable fetus and the child it can become; and the mortality risk and the risk of disease, injury, or disability to the pregnant women is reliably judged to be low or manageable. When one or more of these criteria are not satisfied, intervention is experimental and can only be offered, not recommended, on the basis of benefit to future patients and the autonomy of the pregnant woman. Images

Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

1993-01-01

317

Nisshesha rechaka pranayama offers benefits through brief intermittent hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia has been a frightening term for doctors and medical students because of the possibility of damage to cells, tissues and organs. However, we now know that brief, episodic hypoxia gives rise to several adaptive responses. These responses in general prepare the body for better tolerating such hypoxic episodes, and also offer protection against several other types of insults. Indeed, scientists at the erstwhile U.S.S.R. have developed what is known as ‘hypoxia therapy’ and reaped the benefits of brief intermittent hypoxia for the last several decades. In India, yogic treatment of various diseases is common. A lesser known but important variety of Pranayama is ‘nisshesha rechaka’, which may be described as breath holding at residual volume. Studies done at our centre have demonstrated that Nisshesha rechaka is the easiest way to produce brief, intermittent hypoxia. There is therefore reason to believe that Nisshesha rechaka pranayama may offer benefits through this mechanism.

Malshe, Prakash Chintamani

2011-01-01

318

Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.  

PubMed

Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method. PMID:10142191

Sen, S; Lawler, J P

1995-05-01

319

Job Offer Management: How Improve the Ranking of Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market of online job search sites grows exponentially. This implies volumes of information (mostly in the form of free\\u000a text) become manually impossible to process. An analysis and assisted categorization seems relevant to address this issue.\\u000a We present E-Gen, a system which aims to perform assisted analysis and categorization of job offers and of the responses of\\u000a candidates. This

Rémy Kessler; Nicolas Béchet; Juan Manuel Torres Moreno; Mathieu Roche; Marc El-bèze

2009-01-01

320

Equity Issues and the Disappearing Rights Offer Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical model based on the Myers-Majluf framework that attempts to explain the choice of public companies among alternative methods for issuing seasoned equity primarily in terms of differences in “information-asymmetry” and “adverse selection” costs. The key insight is that a “pure” (or uninsured) rights offering is likely to be the lowest-cost flotation method only in cases

B. Espen Eckbo

2008-01-01

321

Users are offered 3-year dels on gas from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANR Pipeline Co. of Canada is offering three-year contracts to large industrial natural gas users in the Midwest. The spot market price for Canadian gas is $2.10 (US) per thousand cubic feet, and will likely go lower to continue driving down self-help prices. ANR hopes to penetrate US spot markets to 5.8% of the US gas supply this year. The

Ponczak

1986-01-01

322

Venture Capitalists, Syndication and Governance in Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the development of effective boards in venture capital (VC)-backed initial public offerings. It argues\\u000a that VC-backed IPOs suffer from two sets of agency costs which are related to principal–agent and principal–principal relationships\\u000a between the founders and members of the VC syndicate. Using a unique sample of 293 entrepreneurial IPOs in the UK it shows\\u000a that VC syndicates

Igor Filatotchev; Mike Wright; Mufit Arberk

2006-01-01

323

The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underpricing of initial public offerings that has been widely documented appears to be a short-run phenomenon. Issuing firms during 1975-84 substantially underperformed a sample of matching firms from the closing price on the first day of public trading to their three-year anniversaries. There is substantial variation in the under performance year-to-year and across industries, with companies that went public

Jay R Ritter

1991-01-01

324

Multi-core advantages for mask data preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smaller design pattern feature sizes continue to increase mask data file sizes, which increases mask data processing (MDP) times. To satisfy the need for faster turn-around-time, MDP has progressively migrated from single-computer computation, to multi-threading, and then to distributed processing on multiple computers. The availability of low cost multi-core processors can be used advantageously to reduce Mask Data Preparation runtime. Compared to single core processors, multi-core processor have higher performance, however, total available memory and I/O bandwidth need to be increased proportionally with the additional cores. Memory per core and available I/O bandwidth limit the maximum number of cores that can be effective with distributed processing. When a single job is broken down to 2 or more tasks, the granularity of the tasks influences the efficiency of the processing. Smaller tasks allow for smaller memory footprint, better distribution of tasks and increased scalability, but increase input file access time and reduce output data compaction. By choosing a combination of multi-threading and distributed processing, faster run-time and better scalability can be achieved, as compared to either technique alone. The optimal configuration depends on the number of cores per processor, number of processors and memory per core.

Yeap, Johnny; Nogatch, John

2009-04-01

325

Optical advantages and function of multifocal spherical fish lenses.  

PubMed

The spherical crystalline lenses in the eyes of many fish species are well-suited models for studies on how natural selection has influenced the evolution of the optical system. Many of these lenses exhibit multiple focal lengths when illuminated with monochromatic light. Similar multifocality is present in a majority of vertebrate eyes, and it is assumed to compensate for the defocusing effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration. In order to identify potential optical advantages of multifocal lenses, we studied their information transfer capacity by computer modeling. We investigated four lens types: the lens of Astatotilapia burtoni, an African cichlid fish species, an equivalent monofocal lens, and two artificial multifocal lenses. These lenses were combined with three detector arrays of different spectral properties: the cone photoreceptor system of A. burtoni and two artificial arrays. The optical properties compared between the lenses were longitudinal spherical aberration curves, point spread functions, modulation transfer functions, and imaging characteristics. The multifocal lenses had a better balance between spatial and spectral information than the monofocal lenses. Additionally, the lens and detector array had to be matched to each other for optimal function. PMID:23201932

Gagnon, Yakir; Söderberg, Bo; Kröger, Ronald

2012-09-01

326

Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

Obenschain, Stephen

2010-11-01

327

Gene Networks and Metacommunities: Dispersal Differences Can Override Adaptive Advantage  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is an important mechanism contributing to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In metapopulation and metacommunity ecology, dispersal enables new patches to be colonized; in evolution, dispersal counter-acts local selection, leading to regional homogenization. Here, I consider a three-patch metacommunity in which two species, each with a limiting quantitative trait underlain by gene networks of 16 to 256 genes, compete with one another and disperse among patches. Incorporating dispersal among heterogeneous patches introduces a tradeoff not observed in single-patch simulations: if the difference between gene network size of the two species is greater than the difference in dispersal ability (e.g., if the ratio of network sizes is larger than the ratio of dispersal abilities), then genetic architecture drives community outcome. However, if the difference in dispersal abilities is greater than gene network differences, then any adaptive advantages afforded by genetic architecture are over-ridden by dispersal. Thus, in addition to the selective pressures imposed by competition that shape the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, dispersal among patches creates an escape that may further alter the effects of different genetic architectures. These results provide a theoretical expectation for what we may observe as the field of ecological genomics develops.

Malcom, Jacob W.

2011-01-01

328

Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.  

PubMed

Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination. PMID:23346066

Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

2013-01-21

329

A Structural Non-stationary Model of Job Search : Stigmatization of the Unemployed by Job Offers or Wage Offers ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a structural non-stationary model of job search in the fashion of van den Berg (1990).Nonstationarity comes from the duration-dependence in benefits, in the arrival rate of job offers, and in wageoffers. The model is then estimated using the French sample of the ECHP Survey (1994-2000). This data setprovides the variables required to identify the model (reservation wages, job

Stéfan Lollivier; Laurence Rioux

2005-01-01

330

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

2012-03-01

331

Racial similarities in response to standardized offer of influenza vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite known benefits of influenza vaccination and coverage by Medicare Part B, elderly minority patients are less likely\\u000a to receive influenza vaccination than whites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVES: To test whether a nonphysician-initiated standardized offer of influenza vaccination to all elderly primary care patients\\u000a would result in similar proportions of African-American and white patients accepting vaccine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: In 7 metropolitan Detroit primary

Kendra L. Schwartz; Anne Victoria Neale; Justin Northrup; Joseph Monsur; Divya A. Patel; Rodrigo Tobar; Pascale M. Wortley

2006-01-01

332

Fielding The Automated Container Offering System: An interim report  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Container Offering System (TACOS) is a cargo booking assistant currently being fielded in the International Traffic Directorate of the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC). The expert system automates the selection process for type and size of SEAVAN containers, ports, carrier, and ship for containerized military cargo moving from the continental US to Europe. It is designed to perform all processing on simple cases and provide assistance to the human booker on complex cases. MTMC processes requests for {approximately}1000 containers per week on these routes. This paper is a case history which describes factors guiding development of TACOS to illustrate several themes which occur in other (military) logistics expert system projects.

Dixon, B. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Rochette, D. (Army Artificial Intelligence Center, Washington, DC (USA)); Crandell, J. (Military Traffic Management Command, Falls Church, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

333

Sustained competitive advantage in small firm virtual organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper examines the factors that affect the sustained competitive advantage of small firm virtual organisations. Virtual organisations are separate firms that for certain activities (transactions) behave as if they were a single firm. A sustained competitive advantage occurs when a strategy is implemented that increases firm value but is not capable of duplication by other firms. The extent

Grant Castner

334

Global Sourcing: The Race to Future Strategic Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic competitive advantage is about being better than your competitors in terms of the things or services that your customers or markets want from their specific global market. We believe that all markets are global. Hence, all business operations must consider both the global markets for sources of supply as well as an expanding customer base. Competitive advantages can be

Gregg H. Malicki; R. David Nelson; Robert A. Kemp

335

The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidates the underlying economics of the resource-based view of competitive advantage and integrates existing perspectives into a parsimonious model of resources and firm performance. The essence of this model is that four conditions underlie sustained competitive advantage, all of which must be met. These include superior resources (heterogeneity within an industry), ex post limits to competition, imperfect resource

Margaret A. Peteraf

1993-01-01

336

A comprehensive study on profits and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate which strategic resources or industry structural conditions help firms build up a competitive advantage and sustain it over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Our approach is based on one main variable. Firm-specific profits (proxy for competitive advantage) were estimated as the difference between a firm's profits and the average profitability of its

Pablo Gonzalo Ramirez; Toyohiko Hachiya

2008-01-01

337

Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

Byrd, Terry Anthony

2001-01-01

338

A framework for concentric diversification through sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the issue of diversification around the core business, namely concentric diversification. There have been many diversification failures reported over the last few decades. Little guidance has been available to firms who plan to diversify in order to grow. The literature relating to competitive advantage, sustainable competitive advantage, and concentric diversification is reviewed. A process is then presented

Rasoava Rijamampianina; Russell Abratt

2003-01-01

339

Achieving Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Family Capital Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been long asserted that family businesses hold advantages over nonfamily businesses, to date, there have been very few theories developed as to exactly why family businesses hold competitive advantages over nonfamily businesses. This article introduces the concept of family capital and proposes that family capital has potential impact on business performance. Specifically, this article suggests that family

James Hoffman; Mark Hoelscher; Ritch Sorenson

2006-01-01

340

Measuring Sustained Competitive Advantage for a Sample of Kansas Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined sustained competitive advantage for a sample of 377 Kansas Farm Management Association farms with continuous data from 1988-2007. Technical, allocative, scale and overall efficiency indices were calculated for each farm and year. Approximately 30 percent of the farms exhibited significantly above average overall efficiency levels. These farms had a competitive advantage. Conversely, approximately 28 percent of the

Elizabeth Yeager; Michael Langemeier

2009-01-01

341

Competitive advantage in interfirm cooperation: old and new explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how different strategy theories complement each other with respect to understanding competitive advantage of a single firm that utilizes interfirm cooperation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides an analytical review of three schools of strategy research in order to highlight their contributions, shortcomings, and interrelations with respect to sustainable competitive advantage

Paavo Ritala; Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen

2010-01-01

342

Research of Competitive Advantage in Family Firms on Organizational Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agency theory and resource-based view explain the competitive advantage of family firms from the perspective of agency cost and resource in family firms. However, their explanation all overlook the competitive environment in which family firms are embedded. This paper tries to explain the competitive advantage of family firms from the perspective of organizational flexibility. More specifically, it: (a) reviews the

Jun Xie; Zhongwen Tang

2009-01-01

343

The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

Feliciano, Cynthia

2012-01-01

344

Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

2012-01-01

345

A Holistic Model of Competitive Advantage: Integrating the IMP Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking aspects of relationships with some measure of competitive advantage has become a growing topic of interest for marketing and strategy scholars. Studies in this area have focussed on trust, commitment, mutual goals, power, social bonding, transaction costs, information exchange, idiosyncratic investment and governance, each of which have been shown to influence the incidence of relationship-based competitive advantage (Morgan and

Daniel Prior; Francis Buttle

346

Realising competitive advantage through HRM in New Zealand service industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging source of competitive advantage for service industries is the knowledge, skills and attitudes of their employees. Indeed, achievement of a ‘service quality’ culture, considered imperative for competitive advantage in service organisations, supposedly results from the use of best practice human resource management (HRM), and from a strategic approach to their implementation. This paper empirically explores the use of

Vicky Browning; Fiona Edgar; Brendan Gray; Tony Garrett

2009-01-01

347

Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

Teulings, Coen N.

2005-01-01

348

The export competitive advantages of Turkish manufacturing companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the export competitive advantage differences between high- and low-performing companies in Turkey. The paper specifically and separately analyzes the companies' export resources, export skills, and export competitive advantages in order to identify the discrimination effects of each variable. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured questionnaire was sent to 98 Turkish exporting companies

Mehmet Haluk Köksal; Engin Özgül

2010-01-01

349

Comparative Advantage Theory and Its Revelation to China's Foreign Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though comparative advantage theory was born in the nineteen century, its core thought still has been the important theoretic weapon for every country to guide the development of foreign trade and make foreign trade policies. The paper expatriated on the main idea of comparative advantage theory from the three aspects of why, how and what. Secondly, on the background of

Li-ping Wang

2009-01-01

350

48 CFR 52.214-34 - Submission of Offers in the English Language.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Submission of Offers in the English Language. 52.214-34 Section... Submission of Offers in the English Language. As prescribed in 14.201-6... Submission of Offers in the English Language (APR 1991) Offers...

2010-10-01

351

Expansion of dental benefits under the Medicare Advantage program.  

PubMed

Uninsured older adults are twice as likely to not receive needed dental care as their insured counterparts. Yet, nearly one-third of older adults have untreated dental caries, and older adults are more likely to have complete tooth loss, periodontal disease, and oral cancer. Moreover, persons sixty-five and older had the lowest percentage of individuals with dental insurance and the highest average out-of-pocket expenses of all persons with a dental visit in 2000. Given that retiree health benefits for large companies have declined from 66 percent in 1988 to 38 percent in 2003, it is unlikely that the private sector will increase funding for dental benefits for the elderly. However, some Medicare managed care plans already cover either preventive or comprehensive dental benefits. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 created incentives for Medicare managed care plans to offer beneficiaries additional benefits, including dental. The First Seniority Dental Plan, described in this article, demonstrates that it is possible to create a dental plan that is affordable for the HMO, reimburses providers at reasonable rates, provides a reduction in costs to Medicare beneficiaries, and may present a method to expand dental benefits for elders of the future. PMID:16141091

Compton, Robert D

2005-09-01

352

Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

353

Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

Štefunková, S.

2012-03-01

354

7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Washington, DC 20250-0270. (7) Statistics Branch Office. The Statistics Branch office of Science and Technology Programs...agencies within the USDA. In addition, the Statistics Branch office generates sample plans and...

2013-01-01

355

Recommendations from friends anytime and anywhere: toward a model of contextual offer and consumption values.  

PubMed

The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

Shen, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Yongqiang; Wang, Nan

2013-03-26

356

Assessment of the microbial quality of water offered to captive psittacine birds.  

PubMed

To investigate potential water-source microbes, 44 samples of water offered to individually caged psittacine birds were aseptically collected from 14 bird-owning households and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No samples were positive for E. coli; however, 21 of 25 water samples (84%) from open containers and 7 of 19 samples (37%) from bottles exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency standards for coliforms. Fourteen of 24 open containers (58%) and 7 of 19 bottles (37%) grew heterotrophic bacteria that exceeded 500 colonies/ml. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from water samples from 1 open container and 1 bottle. These results suggest that potentially pathogenic bacteria can be found in water offered to companion psittacine birds. Additional studies are needed to assess whether these bacteria are clinically important causes of disease and to develop husbandry methods that will reduce contamination. PMID:19530401

Evans, Erika E; Netiffee-Osborne, Julie; Webb, Donna; Jay, Paula; Flammer, Keven

2009-03-01

357

Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to…

Al-Asfour, Ahmed

2012-01-01

358

cDNA vaccination against parasitic infections: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed technology for DNA vaccination appears to offer the good prospect for the development of a multivalent vaccines that will effectively activate both the humoral and cell mediated mechanisms of the immune system. Currently, DNA vaccination against such important parasitic diseases like malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, schistosomosis, fasciolosis offers several new opportunities. However, the outcome of vaccination depends very

Wawrzyniec Kofta; Halina Wedrychowicz

2001-01-01

359

Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents

Terry V. Clapp; Rene Paquet; Ann Norris; Babette Pettersen

2005-01-01

360

Physics Offerings Differ by Socioeconomic Profile of the School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we look at physics offerings by socioeconomic profile of the school, we do not find dramatic differences in the number of seniors enrolled at each type of school; the number of physics teachers is also fairly evenly distributed. About one-third of the seniors and one-third of the physics teachers are at each type of school. However, there are significant differences in the number of physics classes and physics students by socioeconomic profile of the school. The nature of these differences means that teachers who teach physics at better-off schools are able to specialize in physics more easily, while those who teach at worse-off schools likely teach more classes in subjects outside physics.

2011-10-01

361

Benefits and challenges perceived by patients with cancer when offered a nurse navigator  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lack of communication, care and respect from healthcare professionals can be challenges for patients in trajectories of cancer, possibly accompanied by experienced fragmentation of the care, anxiety and worries. One way to try to improve delivery of care is additional help from nurse navigators (NN) offered in a predefined shorter or longer period, but patients’ experiences with this have seldom been investigated. Aims To explore experiences of nurse navigation offered in a short period of a longer subsequent part of cancer trajectories by patients who can use the help on offer. Methods The NNs worked from one hospital department with patients in the transition between primary care and a university hospital before admission. A phenomenological-hermeneutical longitudinal study was performed from referral and until two months after discharge from the hospital. Semi-structured interviews with five patients who could use the help from an NN provided data for the analysis, which started open-minded. Results Affectional bonds were made to the NN and patients felt that they benefited from her presence and her help, which they requested until one month after discharge. They were disappointed and felt rejected when the contact to the NN stopped. Conclusion In efforts to increase quality of care for patients with cancer we recommend an increased awareness of cultural areas within the healthcare system, which may be an impediment to good communication. Moreover, we recommend paying special attention to critical periods in cancer patients’ trajectories, as well as to the theory of attachment to supplement thoughts of continuity of care and coordination in the care for women. In short, it is fine to offer additional help to those who can use it, but in practice as well as in research we recommend awareness of how and when to stop the help, to prevent patients from feeling hurt.

Thygesen, Marianne K; Pedersen, Birthe D; Kragstrup, Jakob; Wagner, Lis; Mogensen, Ole

2011-01-01

362

Free Math Worksheets/Addition and Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers multiple pre-made worksheets to practice addition and subtraction. Pages include a set of problems, the answer sheet, and printable  flashcards. There is the option for students to fill in the answers to the problem sheets, which will be graded by the computer; next students could print a copy of their work.  Additionally flash cards may be answered on-line with immediate feedback.

Cafe, Math F.

2009-03-16

363

Research With Senior Level Students: Advantages--Disadvantages--Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research in chemical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Also describes a five-year program designed to eliminate disadvantages and complement the graduate program. (SK)

Tassios, Dimitrios

1981-01-01

364

Collegiate Licensing in Canada and the Statutory Advantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a specific provision in a Canadian statute enabling universities and other educational institutions to obtain protection and financial gain in a collegiate licensing program, an advantage not held in other countries or by other trademark licensers in Canada. (MSE)|

Burshtein, Sheldon

1985-01-01

365

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.|

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

366

Terms of Trade, Competitive Advantage, and Trade Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the competitive determination of the pattern of trade, seen as a choice of technique problem within a two-country, two-commodity, circulating capital model. It seeks to re-examine the analytical premises of the principle of comparative advantage. The establishment of competitive advantage is addressed in a Sraffian framework that allows the integration of the choice of technique problem to

Ramaa Vasudevan

2012-01-01

367

Comparative Advantage: Theory, Empirical Measures And Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of three main parts i.e. theory, analytical tool and case studies of comparative advantage. Firstly, we review the theory and various empirical measures of comparative advantage. We would argue that for the catching-up economies, like ASEAN countries, the meaning of “leading exported products” could be examined from the two points of view i.e. international competitiveness and country’s

Tri WIDODO

2009-01-01

368

The neural basis of the bilateral distribution advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Letters can be matched by their physical identity (i.e., a–a: same\\/A–a: different) or by their name (both a–a and A–a: same). The latter, more demanding task has in previous experiments led to an advantage of bilateral over within-hemifield matches, which was not observed in the former. We have investigated the neural basis of this bilateral distribution advantage (BDA) in letter

Stefan Pollmann; Eran Zaidel; D. Yves von Cramon

2003-01-01

369

High-tech industries and competitive advantage in emerging markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the issue of competitive advantage among high-tech industries in emerging markets. It is argued that, for high-tech multi-national companies (MNCs) competing in emerging markets, technology leadership generates some very important competitive advantage that past research has not studied sufficiently. Data from 408 foreign-funded firms competing in China's telecommunications equipment industry provides convincing evidence supporting this argument.

Ji Li; Kevin Lam; Gongming Qian

1999-01-01

370

America's secret competitive advantage is a dirty secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noted management guru Michael E Porter identifies seven unique competitive advantages for the U.S. economy to explain the country’s pre-eminence; they range from (among others) its environment for entrepreneurship, its institutions of higher learning, its technology and innovation machine, to its commitment to competition and free markets. In this article, I argue that there is another critical competitive advantage

Ranjan Sreedharan

2009-01-01

371

Microdiscectomy: spinal anesthesia offers optimal results in general patient population.  

PubMed

Spinal anesthesia provides a safe and highly satisfactory alternative to general anesthesia in patients undergoing limited lumbar surgery. Nevertheless, it is not commonly used for spinal surgery, and in some centers it is not even considered as an option for spinal procedures. This study presents the current anesthetic technique for patients undergoing microdiscectomy and compares the peri- and postoperative outcomes in 76 patients drawn from a case-controlled study group. Patients underwent microdiscectomy for herniated nucleus pulposus under spinal (43 patients) or general anesthesia (33 patients). Patients ranged from 18 to 40 years, and all were anesthesia class 1. Surgical and anesthesia times were longer for the general anesthetic group, as was total anesthetic time. Urinary retention was more common in the general anesthesia group (p = .035). Postanesthetic care unit admission times were significantly shorter among general anesthetic patients compared with spinal anesthetic patients (p < .001). Spinal anesthesia patients required less pain medication and experienced less nausea and emesis. Even among young, medically fit patients, spinal anesthesia provided specific advantages over general anesthesia, including decreased anesthesia time, decreased nausea and antiemetic requirements, reduced analgesic requirements, and a trend toward lower complication rates and shorter hospital stay. Both surgeon and patient satisfaction with this anesthetic approach is high. PMID:17371640

McLain, Robert F; Tetzlaff, John E; Bell, Gordon R; Uwe-Lewandrowski, Kai; Yoon, Helen J; Rana, Maunak

2007-01-01

372

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural substrates that mediate tracking and visual working memory (WM), the present work examined whether or not a bilateral advantage also arises during storage in visual WM. Using a recall procedure to assess working memory for orientation information, we found a reliable bilateral advantage; recall error was smaller with bilateral sample displays than with unilateral displays. To demonstrate that the bilateral advantage influenced storage per se rather than just encoding efficiency, we replicated the observed bilateral advantage using sequentially presented stimuli. Finally, to further characterize how bilateral presentations enhanced storage in working memory, we measured both the number and the resolution of the stored items and found that bilateral presentations lead to an increased probability of storage, rather than enhanced mnemonic resolution. Thus, the bilateral advantage extends beyond the initial selection and encoding of visual information to influence online maintenance in visual working memory.

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

373

Clubs and societies offer connection, collaboration and career support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clubs and societies at The University of Notre Dame Australia's Sydney Campus are more active than ever before, with a rise in the activities arranged by organisations on Campus. This month, clubs and societies have hosted the Minister for School Education and Minister for Early Childhood and Youth, the Honorable Peter Garrett MP. Additionally, the Rural Health Organisation of

Elizabeth Fenech

2012-01-01

374

Additive usage levels.  

PubMed

With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

Langlais, R

375

Additional Reference Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Additional Reference Article Information. Grace Chai, Laura Governale, Patty Greene, Hina Mehta, Vicky Borders-Hemphill, David Money. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/pediatricadvisorycommittee

376

Food & Color Additive Petitions  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Resources related to food and color additive petitions, including petitions currently held in abeyance. Quick ... Food. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

377

Vector Addition Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition model allows the user to practice vector addition of two vectors in two dimensions. You are given the magnitude and direction of the two vectors, and your goal is to fill in the nine values in the table (showing the x-component, y-component, and length) of the two vectors, and the resultant vector that is the sum of the first two vectors. The Vector Addition was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

378

Comparing models of the combined-stimulation advantage for speech recognition  

PubMed Central

The “combined-stimulation advantage” refers to an improvement in speech recognition when cochlear-implant or vocoded stimulation is supplemented by low-frequency acoustic information. Previous studies have been interpreted as evidence for “super-additive” or “synergistic” effects in the combination of low-frequency and electric or vocoded speech information by human listeners. However, this conclusion was based on predictions of performance obtained using a suboptimal high-threshold model of information combination. The present study shows that a different model, based on Gaussian signal detection theory, can predict surprisingly large combined-stimulation advantages, even when performance with either information source alone is close to chance, without involving any synergistic interaction. A reanalysis of published data using this model reveals that previous results, which have been interpreted as evidence for super-additive effects in perception of combined speech stimuli, are actually consistent with a more parsimonious explanation, according to which the combined-stimulation advantage reflects an optimal combination of two independent sources of information. The present results do not rule out the possible existence of synergistic effects in combined stimulation; however, they emphasize the possibility that the combined-stimulation advantages observed in some studies can be explained simply by non-interactive combination of two information sources.

Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

379

Should medical students be routinely offered BCG vaccination?  

PubMed

BCG vaccination is no longer routinely offered to all medical students in Victoria. Practices in Australia's 15 medical schools vary widely with respect to BCG vaccination and surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) infection during the medical course. Health care workers can be exposed to TB in Australian hospitals, but the risk is much higher if they undertake work in countries with a high prevalence of TB, such as during student electives. BCG vaccination is safe, cheap and protects 50% or more of recipients from active TB, including multidrug-resistant TB. Protection is long-lasting, requires only a single dose, and there is new evidence that BCG may prevent primary infections, not just active disease. Although BCG vaccination interferes with the interpretation of the tuberculin skin test (TST), newer tests (QuantiFERON-TB Gold, T-SPOT.TB) are unaffected by BCG vaccination. We propose a standard approach for all Australian medical students that includes screening with TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold/T-SPOT.TB at course entry, and recommending BCG vaccination for students who test negative, provided they have not previously received BCG vaccine. PMID:16999674

Graham, Maryza; Howley, Tanya M; Pierce, Robert J; Johnson, Paul D

2006-09-18

380

Industrial CO laser with tens of kilowatt power: technical offer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser with power tens of kilowatt would be essential for dismantlement of obsolete nuclear-power reactors, laser-hardening the surfaces of railway rails and etc. The production of high power, high efficiency, high specific energy and high optical beam quality can be obtained in the experimental systems of a quasi-cw electroionization CO laser with cooling a CO mixture by its expansion in the nozzles. The way of transfer to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the continuous formation of a CO laser mixture during laser operation. CO laser mixture is formed by using air as a buffer gas (about 90%). CO molecules are generated in oxidation reaction of oxygen-containing molecules with carbon. The carbon arises from a decomposition of hydrocarbon fuel on the catalyst surface. CO mixture is excited by radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic gas flow without an electron gun. The given conception was used on a small-scale model system to demonstrate that the laser radiation was possible in a CO mixture with combustion products and air, which are excited by RF discharge in a supersonic flow. The industrial CO laser with tens of kilowatt power is offer with open working cycle without ejecting toxic CO into the atmosphere by converting CO molecules to C02 ones. The estimated cost of a laser is several hundred thousand and the small sizes of laser give possibility to install its on manipulator without fiber-optic delivery.

Baranov, Igor Y.

2005-09-01

381

Well servicing fluid additive  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a fluid, pourable well servicing fluid additive comprising a water-soluble polymer, an alkaline earth metal base, and a fibrous material suspended in an oleaginous liquid with a gellant and, optionally, a dispersant therefor. The additive is useful in preparing spud muds, lost circulation pills, and spacer fluids during well servicing operations.

Moity, R.M.

1984-03-27

382

The Risk™ strategic game of rural tourism: how sensory analysis can help in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  This paper examines how sensory analysis can be effectively implemented to achieve competitive advantage in rural tourism.\\u000a Starting from the theoretical framework of experience economy outlined by Pine and Gilmore (1998), the authors describe how\\u000a firms can differentiate their offer by using sensory analysis. In the first section, the authors provide a description of\\u000a the rural tourism phenomenon and a

Cristina Santini; Alessio Cavicchi; Maurizio Canavari

383

Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

Zaridis, Apostolos D.

2009-08-01

384

Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening), healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed “right ear advantage”. Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables). The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli. Methods Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task. Results A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale. Conclusion The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.

Smucny, Jason; Wylie, Korey; Tregellas, Jason

2012-01-01

385

The nonprofit advantage: Producing quality in thick and thin child care markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers-lower child-staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of professional development for staff. Nonprofit centers may have an additional

Gordon Cleveland; Michael Krashinsky

2009-01-01

386

Vector Addition Patterns Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition Patterns model illustrates the tail-to-tip method of adding vectors. The table at the bottom shows the components and lengths of the vectors. You can also rotate the vectors and trace out some interesting patterns. The Vector Addition Patterns model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition_patterns.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-05-02

387

5 CFR 536.402 - Appeal of termination of benefits because of reasonable offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...offer of a position was not a reasonable offer. (c) The Office of...benefits based on a declination of a reasonable offer by an employee in an...agency, which establishes a reasonable doubt as to the appropriateness...

2010-01-01

388

5 CFR 536.402 - Appeal of termination of benefits because of reasonable offer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...offer of a position was not a reasonable offer. (c) The Office of...benefits based on a declination of a reasonable offer by an employee in an...agency, which establishes a reasonable doubt as to the appropriateness...

2009-01-01

389

49 CFR 173.51 - Authorization to offer and transport explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authorization to offer and transport explosives. 173.51 Section 173...173.51 Authorization to offer and transport explosives. (a) Unless otherwise...person may offer for transportation or transport an explosive, unless it has been...

2011-10-01

390

49 CFR 173.51 - Authorization to offer and transport explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Authorization to offer and transport explosives. 173.51 Section 173...173.51 Authorization to offer and transport explosives. (a) Unless otherwise...person may offer for transportation or transport an explosive, unless it has been...

2012-10-01

391

48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT...

2012-10-01

392

48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 3052.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (JUN...

2012-10-01

393

48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT...

2011-10-01

394

48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 3052.216-70... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed... Evaluation of Offers Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (JUN...

2011-10-01

395

32 CFR 644.543 - Determination of acceptable offers after advertising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination of acceptable offers after advertising. 644.543 Section 644.543 ...Determination of acceptable offers after advertising. (a) Generally an acceptable offer...such property as a result of public advertising, it will be readvertised unless...

2013-07-01

396

A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.  

PubMed

Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n?=?178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

Ljungberg, Jessica K; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2013-09-04

397

Electric vehicles and solar power; Enhancing the advantages of electricity  

SciTech Connect

At first glance, this is an odd-couple combination of topics. On reflection, they represent, in their own way and collectively, the power of electricity to harness innovation to the crowning issue of the coming decades sustainability. This paper reports that electricity has unique advantage for transforming the world's energy resources into an array of goods and services that fundamentally improve the quality and sustainability of life. My remarks will focus on how these two emerging technologies (electric vehicles and solar photovoltaics) reflect these advantages. Both of these technologies are now becoming competitive in important niche markets, and I expect their impact on utility power systems to grow substantially. In particular, I want to show, using these two symbolic examples, how innovative technologies on both the supply side and the demand side can complement each other to enhance the advantages of electricity over the next decade.

Yeager, K.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-10-01

398

If SWORD Is the Answer, What Is the Question?: Use of the Simple Web-Service Offering Repository Deposit Protocol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the repository deposit protocol, Simple Web-service Offering Repository Deposit (SWORD), its development iteration, and some of its potential use cases. In addition, seven case studies of institutional use of SWORD are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the recent…

Lewis, Stuart; Hayes, Leonie; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Corfield, Antony; Davis, Richard; Donohue, Tim; Wilson, Scott

2009-01-01

399

If SWORD Is the Answer, What Is the Question?: Use of the Simple Web-Service Offering Repository Deposit Protocol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the repository deposit protocol, Simple Web-service Offering Repository Deposit (SWORD), its development iteration, and some of its potential use cases. In addition, seven case studies of institutional use of SWORD are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the recent…

Lewis, Stuart; Hayes, Leonie; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Corfield, Antony; Davis, Richard; Donohue, Tim; Wilson, Scott

2009-01-01

400

Copper Containing Ballistic Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with this invention, it has been found that the addition of certain copper compounds to solid propellant composition can materially increase the burning rate of the propellant grains while simultaneously reducing the pressure exponent in the...

R. C. Corley

1981-01-01

401

Base Blocks Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

402

Polyaluminoxanes as Fuel Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven polyaluminoxanes, obtained by the interaction of aluminum isopropylate with various acids, were synthesized and characterized. On the basis of polyaluminoxanes which are soluble in hydrocarbons stable fuel additives were prepared with the help of a ...

I. A. Kholomonov M. M. Alimova P. I. Samin S. G. Arabyan V. V. Sher

1972-01-01

403

An Asymmetric Model of Heterozygote Advantage at Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes: Degenerate Pathogen Recognition and Intersection Advantage  

PubMed Central

We characterize the function of MHC molecules by the sets of pathogens that they recognize, which we call their “recognition sets.” Two features of the MHC–pathogen interaction may be important to the theory of polymorphism construction at MHC loci: First, there may be a large degree of overlap, or degeneracy, among the recognition sets of MHC molecules. Second, when infected with a pathogen, an MHC genotype may have a higher fitness if that pathogen belongs to the overlapping portion, or intersection, of the two recognition sets of the host, when compared with a genotype that contains that pathogen in only one of its recognition sets. We call this benefit “intersection advantage,” ?, and incorporate it, as well as the degree of recognition degeneracy, m, into a model of heterozygote advantage that utilizes a set-theoretic definition of fitness. Counterintuitively, we show that levels of polymorphism are positively related to m and that a high level of recognition degeneracy is necessary for polymorphism at MHC loci under heterozygote advantage. Increasing ? reduces levels of polymorphism considerably. Hence, if intersection advantage is significant for MHC genotypes, then heterozygote advantage may not explain the very high levels of polymorphism observed at MHC genes.

Stoffels, Rick J.; Spencer, Hamish G.

2008-01-01

404

Boosting supercapacitor performance of carbon fibres using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide additives.  

PubMed

Modifying conventional materials with new recipes represents a straightforward yet efficient way to realize large-scale applications of new materials. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) coated carbon fibres (CFs), prepared as fibre-like supercapacitor electrodes, exhibited excellent electrochemical energy storage performance. Upon addition of only a small amount (?1 wt%) of ERGO, the hybrid fibres showed superior electrochemical capacitances (nearly three orders of magnitude enhanced) compared to pure CFs in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Meanwhile, the energy density did not decrease notably as the power density increased. The superior capacitive performance could be attributed to the synergistic effect between wrinkled and porous ERGO sheets and highly conductive CFs. This fibre electrode material also offered advantages such as easy operation, mass production capability, mechanical flexibility and robustness, and could have an impact on a wide variety of potential applications in energy and electronic fields. PMID:24141749

Cao, Yachang; Zhu, Miao; Li, Peixu; Zhang, Rujing; Li, Xinming; Gong, Qianming; Wang, Kunling; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Hongwei

2013-10-21

405

Broadband local service offerings using free-space optical links: a network business perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 This paper describes a promising optical wireless broadband technology that will provide low cost broadband services to the local access `last mile' market. This paper examines the application, advantages and limitations of utilizing Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) systems for broadband access markets. The service markets that would fully utilize FSOC technologies include metropolitan areas, BLECs (multi- tenant dwellings/business apartments), campuses, industrial parks and `pole-to-hole' neighborhood deployments. This paper will identify weather dependent link availability as being the primary consideration in defining and selecting suitable locations for FSOC-based systems. Link availability in turn determines link range, type of service, and the need for transmission diversity. This paper will describe the implications of telecom `five nines' last-mile access availability and its effect on the transparent integration of FSOC technologies into the existing fiber optic networks. This paper will also describe propagation losses and link budget requirements for broadband FSOC-based local service. During adverse weather conditions, stand-alone, FSOC-based optical wireless links typically offer path lengths of less than 200 meters while still meeting the `five nines' availability criteria. This paper will also consider `availability limited' services. These services may prove to be attractive to customers who are willing to accept broadband service on an `as available basis'. The use of availability-enhancing transmission diversity and the use of intelligent `roof-top' routing and optical wireless cross connects between buildings will also be discussed.

Britz, David M.; Dodley, J. P.; Barnickel, D. J.

2001-02-01

406

Courtship dives of Anna's hummingbird offer insights into flight performance limits.  

PubMed

Behavioural displays are a common feature of animal courtship. Just as female preferences can generate exaggerated male ornaments, female preferences for dynamic behaviours may cause males to perform courtship displays near intrinsic performance limits. I provide an example of an extreme display, the courtship dive of Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). Diving male Anna's hummingbirds were filmed with a combination of high-speed and conventional video cameras. After powering the initial stage of the dive by flapping, males folded their wings by their sides, at which point they reached an average maximum velocity of 385 body lengths s(-1) (27.3 m s(-1)). This is the highest known length-specific velocity attained by any vertebrate. This velocity suggests their body drag coefficient is less than 0.3. They then spread their wings to pull up, and experienced centripetal accelerations nearly nine times greater than gravitational acceleration. This acceleration is the highest reported for any vertebrate undergoing a voluntary aerial manoeuvre, except jet fighter pilots. Stereotyped courtship behaviours offer several advantages for the study of extreme locomotor performance, and can be assessed in a natural context. PMID:19515669

Clark, Christopher James

2009-06-10

407

Courtship dives of Anna's hummingbird offer insights into flight performance limits  

PubMed Central

Behavioural displays are a common feature of animal courtship. Just as female preferences can generate exaggerated male ornaments, female preferences for dynamic behaviours may cause males to perform courtship displays near intrinsic performance limits. I provide an example of an extreme display, the courtship dive of Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). Diving male Anna's hummingbirds were filmed with a combination of high-speed and conventional video cameras. After powering the initial stage of the dive by flapping, males folded their wings by their sides, at which point they reached an average maximum velocity of 385 body lengths s?1 (27.3 m s?1). This is the highest known length-specific velocity attained by any vertebrate. This velocity suggests their body drag coefficient is less than 0.3. They then spread their wings to pull up, and experienced centripetal accelerations nearly nine times greater than gravitational acceleration. This acceleration is the highest reported for any vertebrate undergoing a voluntary aerial manoeuvre, except jet fighter pilots. Stereotyped courtship behaviours offer several advantages for the study of extreme locomotor performance, and can be assessed in a natural context.

Clark, Christopher James

2009-01-01

408

Chinese Young Children's Strategies on Basic Addition Facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergartens in China offer structured full-day programs for children aged 3-6. Although formal schooling does not commence until age 7, the mathematics program in kindergartens is specifically focused on developing young children's facility with simple addition and subtraction. This study explored young Chinese children's strategies for solving basic addition facts as well as their intuitive understanding of addition via interview

Huayu Sun

2008-01-01

409

[Bradford's method of determining protein: application, advantages and disadvantages].  

PubMed

This method is based on Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 binding with proteins. The mechanism of protein molecule binding with the stain is described. The authors emphasize high sensitivity of this simple and rapid method and discuss its advantages and shortcomings vs. Lowry's method. The range of laboratory application of the method is considered. PMID:2470965

Shono, N I; Baskaeva, E M

1989-01-01

410

Emerging Bilingualism: Dissociating Advantages for Metalinguistic Awareness and Executive Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present studies revealed different factors associated with the reported advantages found in fully bilingual children for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Participants were 100 children in Study 1 and 80 children in Study 2 in the process of becoming bilingual by attending immersion programs. In both studies, "level of…

Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca

2012-01-01

411

Potential Advantages for Millimeter-Wave Heating of Powdered Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on electromagnetic induction heating, an interaction model of microwaves with powdered metal has been established. The formulae of attenuation coefficient, heating rate and heating conversion efficiency are obtained and analyzed. The results of calculations show that millimeter waves may be able to overcome the obstacle caused by smaller skin depth and have strong advantages for the microwave heating of

Jirun Luo; Christian Hunyar; Lambert Feher; Guido Link; Manfred Thumm; Paola Pozzo

2004-01-01

412

Comparative Advantage and the Cross-section of Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business cycles are both less volatile and more synchronized with the world cycle in rich countries than in poor ones. We develop two alternative explanations based on the idea that comparative advantage causes rich countries to specialize in industries that use new technologies operated by skilled workers whereas poor countries specialize in industries that use traditional technologies operated by unskilled

Aart Kraay; Jaume Ventura

2007-01-01

413

Comparative Advantage and the Cross-section of Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business cycles are both less volatile and more synchronized with the world cycle in rich countries than in poor ones. We develop two alternative explanations based on the idea that comparative advantage causes rich countries to specialize in industries that use new technologies operated by skilled workers, while poor countries specialize in industries that use traditional technologies operated by unskilled

Aart Kraay; Jaume Ventura

2001-01-01

414

Babies Boost Skills by Taking Advantage of Rhythm and Ryhme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a way to boost babies' skills by taking advantage of rhythm and rhyme. Becoming aware of rhyming sounds boosts brain activity and a child's early literacy ability. Adding singsong rhyming words to requests for attention is an effective way for teachers to get toddlers to listen to what they say. Rhymes and rhythms add zest…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2006-01-01

415

Advantage of rare HLA supertype in HIV disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules help to determine the specificity and repertoire of the immune response. The great diversity of these antigen-binding molecules confers differential advantages in responding to pathogens, but presents a major obstacle to distinguishing HLA allele–specific effects. HLA class I supertypes provide a functional classification for the many different HLA alleles that

Elizabeth Trachtenberg; Bette Korber; Cristina Sollars; Thomas B Kepler; Peter T Hraber; Elizabeth Hayes; Robert Funkhouser; Michael Fugate; James Theiler; Yen S Hsu; Kevin Kunstman; Samuel Wu; John Phair; Henry Erlich; Steven Wolinsky

2003-01-01

416

Logic Devices with Spin Wave Buses: Potential Advantages and Shortcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyze the performance and estimate the efficiency of the spin-wave based logic devices. The main potential advantage of using spin wave for information transmission and processing is that a bit of information can be transmitted without use of an electric current. Spin-wave based devices may find an application as an interface between the electronic and magnetic circuits. The

A. Khitun; Mingqiang Bao; Ji-Young Kim; A. Hong; A. P. Jacob; K. L. Wang

2008-01-01

417

Sustained competitive advantage with inter-organizational information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of competitive advantage from an inter-organizational information system (IOIS) is considered. It is noted that sustainability has two aspects: retaining the competitive edge itself, or, failing that, retaining market share gained before competitors offset the edge. It is argued that in some cases an IOIS that promises to be profitable in the short run can turn out to

Vivek Choudhury

1988-01-01

418

The sustainable competitive advantage model for corporate real estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this paper is to propose a model for the relationship between corporate real estate management (CREM) practices and an organisation's sustainable competitive advantage. Corporate real estate (CRE) plays an important but poorly recognised role in organisational competitiveness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model was developed from the strategic management, organisational competitiveness, and CRE literatures. A total of

Christopher Heywood; Russell Kenley

2008-01-01

419

Systemic knowledge processes, innovation and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Turbulence and complexity in the business environment is growing along with the need for external information in creating innovation, as innovation is seen as the primary source of sustainable competitive advantages in the knowledge economy. Consequently, the underlying information processes were external information are gathered and put into use, are crucial for companies in their development of innovation,

Jon-Arild Johannessen; Bjørn Olsen

2009-01-01

420

Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and to ascertain where differences might exist across

Christopher D. Hopkins; Mary Anne Raymond; Les Carlson

2011-01-01

421

Asset Stocks and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their paper, Dierickx and Cool suggest that the strategic factor markets model developed in Barney (Barney, J. B. 1986a. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Sci. (October) 1231--1241.) cannot be applied in the analysis of sustained competitive advantages due to asset stocks accumulated over time. In this comment, it is shown that the discussion of asset

Jay B. Barney

1989-01-01

422

Revisiting an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those of us who contributed to the Journal of Management’s 1991 special issue on a resourcebased view of the firm began with the assumption that it is possible for a firm to gain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Based on that general premise, we presented various arguments suggesting that a firm’s resources represent a major source of that potential

C. Marlene Fiol

2001-01-01

423

THE ROLE OF BRICOLAGE IN SUSTAINED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE (SUMMARY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the resource based view (RBV) of the firm has often examined the role of human capital in building sustainable competitive advantage; and work in entrepreneurial bricolage has investigated the process of combining human capital assets to create value under conditions of time and resource constraints, the properties of human capital that enable successful combination have been largely unexamined. This

Preeta M. Banerjee; Benjamin Campbell; Brian M. Saxton

2011-01-01

424

The Timing of Resource Development and Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a formal model of the timing of resource development by competing …rms. Our aim is to deepen and extend resource-level theorizing about sustainable competitive advantage. Our analysis formalizes the notion of barriers to imitation, particularly those based on time compression diseconomies where the faster a …rm develops a resource the greater the cost. Time compression diseconomies are derived

Gonçalo Pacheco-de-Almeida; Peter Zemsky

2007-01-01

425

Competitive advantage as a legitimacy-creating process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how small firms in the tattooing industry actively shape institutional expectations of value for consumers in a changing industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws upon interviews with key actors in the firms under study to explore their experiences with consumers and other constituents in determining how competitive advantage is constructed

Gina Grandy; David Wicks

2008-01-01

426

Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management…

Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

2009-01-01

427

Binaural Advantage for Younger and Older Adults with Normal Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…

Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.

2008-01-01

428

Standardized phenotyping: advantages to horticulture, introduction to the workshop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article introduces a workshop on standardized phenotyping and the advantages it provides for horticultural crops. The workshop was held at the 2009 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference in St. Louis, MO, and was organized by the Genetics and Germplasm Working Group. The o...

429

Lower extremity leg amputation: An advantage in running?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal in the rehabilitation of amputees is full reintegration into society. The ability to engage in sports activities is part of the rehabilitation. The prosthetic leg is individually fitted and specialized for one specific type of competition. The discussions regarding bilateral trans?tibial amputee, Oscar Pistorius, focus on the advantages of wearing prosthetic feet. With a holistic view on prosthetic

Knut Lechler; Magnus Lilja

2008-01-01

430

Comparative Advantage and Efficient Advertising in the Attention Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the problem that enterprises face when having to decide on the most efiective way to advertise several items belonging to their inventories within the company's webpages. We show that the ability to arbitrarily partition a website among items leads to a comparative advantage among webpages which can be exploited so as to maximize the total proflt of the

Bernardo A. Huberman; Fang Wu

431

The development of competitive advantage through sustainable event management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Whilst the debate rages between progressive and destructive considerations of economic development, this paper aims to develop thinking around the sustainable event and its contribution to competitive advantage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper defines the sustainable event and considers different position that might be adopted by private and public sector organisations when addressing the triple bottom line of sustainable

Stephen Henderson

2011-01-01

432

Can theoretical knowledge and application yield competitive advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Given that marketing practitioners often perceive theory as something abstract, with little relevance to their work, the objective is to explain why and how competent application of theory can be highly useful and even lead to competitive advantage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Conceptualisation and personal interpretation, with real-world case examples. Findings – Knowledge of relevant theoretical principles, if combined with

Kjell Grønhaug; Geir Grundvåg Ottesen

2007-01-01

433

Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

1999-01-01

434

Elasticity and Mechanical Advantage in Cables and Ropes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Abstract. The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity…

O'Shea, M. J.

2007-01-01

435

Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

Rengan, K.

1983-01-01

436

Information technology applications and competitive advantage in hotel companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to propose a conceptual framework that illustrates how information technology (IT) applications may lead to competitive advantage in hotel companies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is written based on a synthesis of previous literature in this area. Findings – Multiple areas need to be carefully evaluated in developing and implementing IT projects so that they can

Anil Bilgihan; Fevzi Okumus; Khaldoon “Khal” Nusair; David Joon-Wuk Kwun

2011-01-01

437

Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower…

Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

2008-01-01

438

The role of the brand name in obtaining differential advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the brand equity literature, little attention has been paid to comparing the role of product and brand name attributes in obtaining differential advantages. This work presents a framework for analysis based on the benefits of these attributes as conceived by consumers. Two types of benefits are identified in both attributes – functional and symbolic benefits – and the dimensions

A. Belén del Río; Rodolfo Vázquez; Víctor Iglesias

2001-01-01

439

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

440

Advantage from adversity: Learning from disappointment in internal corporate ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ventures represent opportunities to create or renew competitive advantages for established firms by expanding their pools of competences. In undertakings as uncertain as new ventures, however, disappointment is virtually inevitable. The implications of this conclusion are explored at both the strategic and the operational levels of the organization, utilizing cross-case comparisons of 23 ventures initiated by a single financial

Rita Gunther McGrath

1995-01-01

441

The framework of competitive advantage based chance discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the competitive advantage, the analyst has to collect and analyze useful news. Therefore, the text mining technology is necessary for extracting information from the collected news. Both data mining and text mining are, as we know, frequency based methods; the low frequency data are usually deleted to discover the associative rules. As a result, some rare but actually

Chao-Fu Hong; Leuo-Hong Wang; Jheng-Long Wu

2008-01-01

442

Frames of significance: technological agenda-forming for strategic advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological innovation is a source of competittive advantage and potential corporate rejuvenation. The problematic issues that managers frame, then devote attention and resurces to solving, constitute the strategic technological agenda of the firm. We propose and elaborate a perceptual frame model by which the agenda may be understood. We use the model to interpret three innovation episodes in divisions of

Martyn Pitt; Ken Clarke

1997-01-01

443

Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique

Apostolos D. Zaridis

2009-01-01

444

Searching for Competitive Advantage in the Black Box  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the sources of potential competitive advantage. It builds upon previous work by Flamholtz (1995) to develop a model of the determinants of organizational success and failure as well as subsequent empirical studies of the link between the model and financial performance (Flamholtz and Aksehirli, 2000,;Flamholtz and Hua, 2002). The paper discusses the extension of the model

Eric Flamholtz; Wei Hua

2003-01-01

445

COBALT 60 KILOCURIE TELETHERAPY ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS--TECHNICAL PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of Co⁶° therapy over conventional x-ray therapy, ; stemming from the fact that in the lst instance energy absorption within the ; tissues is by the Compton effect and in the 2nd case by the photoelectric effect, ; are: (1) increased skin tolerance, (2) reduced bone absorption, (3) increase in ; depth dose, (4) diminished radiation sickness, and

Patricio

1961-01-01

446

Thermal plasma spraying for SOFCs: Applications, potential advantages, and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the applications, potential advantages, and challenges of thermal plasma spray (PS) processing for nanopowder production and cell fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed. PS processing creates sufficiently high temperatures to melt all materials fed into the plasma. The heated material can either be quenched into oxide powders or deposited as coatings. This technique has

Rob Hui; Zhenwei Wang; Olivera Kesler; Lars Rose; Jasna Jankovic; Sing Yick; Radenka Maric; Dave Ghosh

2007-01-01

447

Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

Lonsway, Kimberly A.

448

Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

2011-01-01

449

Solvent refining of lube oils the MP advantage  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in lube oil solvent refining is towards the increased use of MP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) as the solvent. This paper explains why by providing an economic analysis of using MP versus furfural refining. Included are a grassroots comparison; an analysis of converting an existing unit to MP; and a brief review of why MP provides an advantage.

Jahnke, F.C.

1986-01-01

450

The Changing Comparative Advantages and Export Structure of Chinese Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1980s, China's export in service has been developing dramatically, and its rank in the world increased quickly as well. However, Analysis based on improved RCA suggests that Chinese service, as a whole still hasn't comparative advantage. An observation the specific service sectors based on RSCA reveals travel service has been becoming more comparative while transportation service has lost its

HE Shu-Quan

2007-01-01

451

Italy?s Comparative Advantage: A Long-Run Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the Italian economy over the past 150 years since unification was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the country?s integration with European and global commodity markets: foreign trade in the long run grew on average faster than the overall economy. Behind the dynamics of aggregate trade, Italy?s comparative advantage changed fundamentally over the last 150 years. The

Giovanni Federico; Nikolaus Wolf

2012-01-01

452

Comparative Advantages in Italy: A Long-Run Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of Italy since her unification in 1861 reflects the two-way relationship between foreign trade and economic development. Its growth was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the country's integration with European and global commodity markets: foreign trade in the long run grew on average faster than the overall economy. Behind the dynamics of aggregate trade, Italy's comparative advantage

Giovanni Federico; Nikolaus Wolf

2011-01-01

453

Towards the evolutionary emergence of increasingly complex advantageous behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of complex entities with advantageous behaviours beyond our manual design ca- pability requires long-term incremental evolution with continuing emergence. In this paper, we argue that artificial selection models, such as traditional genetic algorithms, are fundamentally in- adequate for this goal. Existing natural selection systems are evaluated, revealing both significant achievements and pitfalls. Thus, some requirements for the perpetuation

A. D. Channon; Robert I. Damper

2000-01-01

454

The Advantage of Disadvantage: Underdogs in the Political Arena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political candidates are often labeled as underdogs, either by the press or themselves. This paper explores connotations associated with the underdog label in the political arena. We argue that being labeled an underdog has a strategic advantage because it is associated with positive qualities, particularly likeability. The current studies demonstrate that partisan supporters prefer to see their favored candidate as

Nadav Goldschmied; Joseph A. Vandello

2009-01-01

455

Potential thermoregulatory advantages of shade use by desert bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ungulates in arid climates use a variety of mechanisms to cope with environmental conditions that can result in heat stress and dehydration. Use of shade during midday is common among desert ungulates of the southwestern United States. Desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) use both vegetation and caves as sources of thermal cover. We assessed potential thermoregulatory advantages of the

J. W. Cain; B. D. Jansen; R. R. Wilson; P. R. Krausman

2008-01-01

456

What Did Simon Say? Revisiting the Bilingual Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingual children often outperform monolingual children in tasks of cognitive control. This advantage may be a consequence of the fact that bilinguals have more practice controlling attention due to an ongoing need to manage two languages. However, existing evidence is limited because possible differences in ethnicity and socioeconomic status…

Morton, J. Bruce; Harper, Sarah N.

2007-01-01

457

Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding article in the special issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes on the foundations of knowledge transfer in organizations argues that the creation and transfer of knowledge are a basis for competitive advantage in firms. The article builds on a framework of knowledge reservoirs to show why knowledge transfer can be difficult and to identify the kinds

Linda Argote; Paul Ingram

2000-01-01

458

Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification  

SciTech Connect

The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

2011-11-07

459

A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

2010-01-01

460

Location in negotiation: Is there a home field advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although location is considered to play an important role in negotiation potentially favoring one side over the other, little research has examined whether negotiating on one’s home field indeed confers an advantage to the resident party. We tested this possibility by experimentally manipulating participants’ occupancy status (resident versus neutral versus visitor). Across three studies, we find that residents of an

Graham Brown; Markus Baer

2011-01-01

461

Surviving in the digital age by utilizing libraries' distinctive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to make libraries adjust their roles in the digital age through exploring changing user needs and expectations, and utilizing libraries' distinctive advantages, so that library resources can be much better used and library users can be best served. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Library user surveys were conducted by Peking University Library

Suqing Liu; Sansan Liao; Jing Guo

2009-01-01

462

Taking advantage: informal social mechanisms and equal opportunities policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how factors including class position, education, social network membership and cultural capital contribute to the intergenerational transmission of class advantage for women and men in different European welfare states. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyses the European Social Survey round 1 data. Findings – Education is the dominant institutional mechanism for

Peter Taylor-Gooby

2011-01-01

463

Left ear advantages in detecting emotional tones using dichotic listening task in an Arabic sample.  

PubMed

Advantages associated with the left ear (right brain hemisphere) have been reported in some studies. Of these, some have specifically suggested that the left ear has a more heightened ability to detect emotional tones. Meanwhile others have pointed to factors such as age and gender as potentially leading to manifestations of human laterality. This study investigates which brain hemisphere is more involved in emotional processing of auditory information in Arab participants. We aimed to replicate the previous studies because no single study has been done in the Arabic region previously. Additionally, people in this region prefer to use the right side of their body, e.g., hand, ear, foot, etc., for most daily tasks. To acquire data a dichotic listening task (DLT) was administered to 28 male and 23 female (Edinburgh, UK) university students aged 19 to 38; 13 were left-handed and 38 were right-handed. The results showed a significant left ear advantage in the auditory processing of emotional information. There was a significant negative correlation between ear preference and handedness. Left ear advantage related only to handedness. Thus right-handed participants were more likely than left-handers to have a left ear advantage. The relationship between ear preference and gender was non-significant. The conclusion that might be drawn from this study is that the left ear (right hemisphere) is more involved in emotional processing than the right ear (left hemisphere), especially for right-handed people. PMID:23461765

Alzahrani, Abdulrahman D; Almuhammadi, Marwan A

2013-03-06

464

Additives in plastics.  

PubMed Central

The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

Deanin, R D

1975-01-01

465

Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?  

PubMed Central

Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and some Black African male students and female Indian students.

Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

2012-01-01

466

Improving fruit and wine: what does genomics have to offer?  

PubMed

Will we still be drinking wines made from Pinot Noir and eating McIntosh apples in the 23rd century? Elite grape and apple cultivars, vegetatively propagated for centuries, are highly susceptible to evolving pathogens. In response, growers continually expand their agrochemical weaponry at enormous environmental costs. By contrast, breeders are seeking disease-resistant, tastier alternatives to the handful of dominant cultivars by exploring genetic diversity in these fruits. However, this is a formidable task because consumers cling to ancient cultivars, and breeding long-lived woody perennials is laborious and expensive. Although genomics tools may not solve the former sociocultural dilemma, they can help overcome the latter practical obstacles. Screening seedlings for desirable genetic profiles using molecular techniques reduces the time and high costs associated with growing plants to maturity and evaluating fruit. Such screening is currently in its infancy in apples and grapes, but the adoption of modern DNA sequencing technologies and statistical approaches promises to accelerate cultivar improvement significantly. Here, I describe standard approaches for molecular breeding in apples and grapes, and some of the challenges associated with the collection and analysis of next-generation DNA sequence data. In addition, I urge breeders to establish populations specifically designed for a future of inexpensive genome sequencing. PMID:23428114

Myles, Sean

2013-02-19

467

Electrophilic addition of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been

Yu. V. Norseev; L. Vasaros; D. D. Nhan; N. K. Huan

1988-01-01

468

Sixth Stack Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the construction of a high density, mobile shelving storage facility addition to the General Library at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana campus. Building criteria, space considerations, and the utilization of mobile storage technology are noted. Illustrative material is provided. (EJS)|

Collier, Martin H.

1982-01-01

469

Additive Pulse Mode Locking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new principle of mode locking is analyzed: additive pulse mode locking. It is shown to be operative in two-cavity soliton lasers, but it also permits mode locking with fibers in the positive dispersion regime. A simple model is developed that displays t...

E. P. Ippen H. A. Haus L. Y. Liu

1989-01-01

470

Soluble oil additive concentrate  

SciTech Connect

An additive concentrate was proposed which consisted of 1 to 12 parts alkyl aryl sulfonates (mixture of oil-soluble and water-soluble sulfonates) per part of secondary butyl alcohol. This concentrate was to be combined with the appropriate proportions of liquid hydrocarbon and water to form anhydrous and water-containing soluble oils.

Holm, L.W.

1973-10-30

471

48 CFR 52.214-34 - Submission of Offers in the English Language.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Submission of Offers in the English Language. 52.214-34 Section 52...214-34 Submission of Offers in the English Language. As prescribed in 14.201-6...provision: Submission of Offers in the English Language (APR 1991) Offers...

2009-10-01

472

A National Survey of Counselor Education Departments: Course Offerings on Marriage and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes information gathered in a national survey of the course offerings and programs in marriage and family counseling offered by 244 counselor education departments. Approximately two-thirds of those departments offered such courses. Approximately 90 percent of the departments supported marriage and family course offerings in counselor…

Peltier, Steven W.; Vale, Sara O.

1986-01-01

473

Availability and Reliability Advantages of GPS\\/Galileo Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be quantified by availability, accuracy and reliability. The deployment of Galileo by the European Union will provide double the number of navigation satellites currently available to users and offer improvements in accuracy and reliability. This paper briefly describes the design of the proposed Galileo system. Availability and accuracy are then

Kyle O'Keefe

474

The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Design education is an aesthetic and humanistic approach for teaching how to contribute to the improvement of the conditions that affect everyone's lives. This article offers an overview of some important concepts to teach young people about regeneration design and the future of our changing environment. It is becoming increasingly evident that…

Zande, Robin Vande

2006-01-01

475

Drilling mud additive  

SciTech Connect

A processor is described for drilling a borehole that encounters a water-sensitive shale, with the borehole being drilled by operating a drilling means, and circulating therein a drilling fluid, when the encountering of borehole instability due to the interaction of the water and water-sensitive shale is at least imminent, circulating as the drilling fluid an aqueous brine solution that contains from about 0.2 to about 2.0 pounds of an additive per barrel. The additive comprises: 27% by weight of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylate-polyacrylamide copolymer having a molecular weight of at least three million and which is from about 20 to about 50% hydrolyzed; and 70% by weight of potassium chloride.

Halliday, W.S.; Thielen, V.M.

1987-05-12

476

[Biologically active food additives].  

PubMed

More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

1998-07-01

477

Electrophilic addition of astatine  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

1988-03-01

478

Generalized Additive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\\\\sum \\\\beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\\\\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\\\\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are

Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

1986-01-01

479

Temporal changes in home advantage in English football since the Second World War: what explains improved away performance?  

PubMed

This study examined temporal trends in home advantage in the top two English football divisions and used change point analysis to test the hypothesis that home advantage has not remained constant over time. Regression analysis was used to model the impact of substitutions (a proxy for "information transfer") and the points system on home advantage. The results suggest that changing from two points for a win to three points for a win has led to a 0.39 reduction (95% confidence interval=0.21 to 0.56) in the ratio of home wins to away wins. Increasing the number of substitutions is associated with a small increase in the ratio of home wins to away wins, although this is not statistically significant. The evidence indicates that, in this particular context, the extent of home advantage has diminished. This contradicts most other published work, which suggests that home advantage is stable over time. I argue that this reduction is more likely to be the result of the introduction of three points for a win, which has lessened the incentives for away teams to settle for a draw, than an increase in "information transfer". Research into temporal trends in home advantage is interesting in its own right but might, in addition, shed light on determinants of the home advantage phenomenon. PMID:16195016

Jacklin, Paul B

2005-07-01

480

Comparative advantage: the impact of ISO 14001 environmental certification on exports.  

PubMed

Relative to the enormous acceptance of the ISO 9000 quality standard, the ISO 14001 environmental management certification has been met with only moderate enthusiasm among industrial facilities. The literature on corporate motivation for ISO 14001 participation is relatively modest considering the enormous number of publications reviewing other aspects of its adoption and implementation. It would seem that the present "marketing" package supporting ISO environmental commitments does not seem to offer sufficiently persuasive incentives for increased sales, either domestically or internationally. While researchers assume that a higher export rate of companies is positively associated with higher ISO participation rates, there have been very few empirical studies that support this inference, and conclusions have not been based on data taken from importing countries orfrom a systematic evaluation of expressed corporate preference for products sold by ISO 14001 certified companies. The present study reports the results of a survey to firms in six countries that are Israel's leading trade partners, importing chemicals, textiles, and produce. The survey results confirm that while the international market still considers price and quality as the paramount factors in selection of suppliers, environmental management systems (EMS) are an important feature that is frequently taken into consideration. EMS certification appears to signify a supplier who is managing the business well and exhibiting ethical responsibility. The European market proved to be more environmentally conscious than those in other industrialized parts of the world. EMS offer a particularly valuable advantage for producers wishing to reach European markets. As policy-makers seek to expand the voluntary adoption of EMS, a clear advantage for exporters should be highlighted among national industries. PMID:15871222

Bellesi, Florencia; Lehrer, David; Tal, Alon

2005-04-01

481

An in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety.  

PubMed

We examined the possibility of an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. Specifically, we videotaped White and Black participants while they engaged in same-race or interrace interactions. Then we asked White and Black observers to view these videotapes (unaware of the racial context) and provide their impressions of participants' anxiety. Two results pointed to an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. First, only same-race observers perceived a modulation of participants' anxious behavior as a function of racial context. This held true not only for relatively subjective perceptions of global anxiety, but also for perceptions of single, discrete behaviors tied to anxiety. Second, we found that only same-race observers provided descriptions of anxiety that tracked reliably with participants' cortisol changes during the task. These results suggest that White and Black Americans may have difficulty developing a sense of shared emotional experience. PMID:19121129

Gray, Heather M; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Denny-Brown, Carrigan

2008-12-01

482

Development of the deontic advantage in reasoning: Reply to Cummins.  

PubMed

In response to Cummins's report that comments on our article (Dack & Astington, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2011, Vol. 110, pp. 94-114), this article clarifies our perspective on what constitutes the deontic advantage, and notes similarities and differences between Cummins's perspective and our own. Like Cummins, we believe that young children are capable of deontic reasoning and that methodological factors alone cannot explain this ability. However, we maintain that it is important to be precise about methodology in order to facilitate investigation of how the deontic advantage changes over developmental time, and this question is our main interest, although as yet incompletely answered. Contrary to Cummins, we do not think that existing data can speak to the issue of the potential innateness of deontic reasoning. We also disagree with Cummins's perspective on norm versus normative proposition and with some of her comparisons between deontic and epistemic phenomena. PMID:23660177

Astington, Janet Wilde; Dack, Lisa Ain

2013-05-06

483

The binocular advantage in visuomotor tasks involving tools.  

PubMed

We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a "buzz-wire" task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing). We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity. PMID:23755355

Read, Jenny C A; Begum, Shah Farzana; McDonald, Alice; Trowbridge, Jack

2013-03-20

484

Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.  

PubMed

In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

2013-10-29

485

Wind powered generator with gravity assisted mechanical advantage booster  

SciTech Connect

The wind powered mechanical and electric power generator, is a process and apparatus which uses the mechanical advantage of a lever arm to multiply the energy of a moving or mobile weight which is wind powered from a propeller drive, and converts by gravity and mechanical advantage said energy to useful work. The unit consists in its simplest form of a counter balanced wheel on one side of a centerline shaft and a concentrated weight on the opposite side, both kept rigid by a connecting structure beam, the entire unit made to revolve around the centerline shaft by moving a mobil weight around the wheel perimeter in concert with the units rotation so as to continually produce an off-balance of weights, which then uses gravity to cause the total unit to rotate. The mobile weight is driven around the wheel by a wind powered small propeller.

Vaseen, V.A.

1982-01-19

486

Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations  

SciTech Connect

We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

Girard, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Baggio, J. [CEA CESTA, BP 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Meunier, J. P. [Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France)

2011-07-01

487

America's secret competitive advantage is a dirty secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michael E Porter, a leading management thinker, identifies seven uniquely American competitive advantages to explain the country’s pre-eminence. He points to America’s environment for entrepreneurship, its science, technology, and innovation machine, its institutions for higher learning, its strong commitment to competition and free markets, its efficient capital markets (especially for risk capital), and its fundamental dynamism and resilience that embraces

Ranjan Sreedharan

2009-01-01

488

R&D portfolio management framework for sustained competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained competitive advantage requires a portfolio of R&D (research and development) projects which is balanced in terms of certain qualitative factors especially competitiveness category (i.e., capacity, competency), phase (i.e., basic research, applied research, development), and novelty category (i.e., evolutionary, revolutionary) because they help ensure that a firm has a continuous stream of both short and long range sources of profitability.

William R. Bitman

2005-01-01

489

Revisiting an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those of us who contributed to the Journal of Management’s 1991 special issue on a resource-based view of the firm began with the assumption that it is possible for a firm to gain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Based on that general premise, we presented various arguments suggesting that a firm’s resources represent a major source of that potential

C. Marlene Fiol

2001-01-01

490

Evaluation of the advantages of vacuum heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Heat treatment in vacuum furnaces has the following advantages over the treatment in salt tanks: a considerable reduction\\u000a of the ecologically unfavorable load on the biosphere, improvement of the labor conditions, a recoupment period of 3–3.5 years\\u000a (the economic efficiency of the furnace after the recoupment period is 40 thousand rubles a year due to the absence of harmful\\u000a and

S. P. Konakov; A. I. Lyapunov

2000-01-01

491

The survival advantage of olfaction in a competitive environment  

PubMed Central

Olfaction is generally assumed to be critical for survival because this sense allows animals to detect food and pheromonal cues. While the ability to sense sex pheromones [1–3] is likely to be important for insects, the contribution of general odor detection to survival is unknown. We investigated the extent to which the olfactory system confers a survival advantage on Drosophila larvae foraging for food under conditions of limited resources and competition from other larvae.

Asahina, Kenta; Pavlenkovich, Viktoryia; Vosshall, Leslie B.

2008-01-01

492

Robotic-assisted surgery in children: advantages and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of surgical robots in minimally invasive surgery was developed to overcome difficulties seen with conventional laparoscopic\\u000a surgery. I report my experience with pediatric robotic-assisted surgery and highlight its feasibility, safety, advantages,\\u000a and limitations. Children and infants included in this study underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures performed\\u000a by the author, using the original da Vinci surgical system, between July 2005 and

Abdulrahman Al-Bassam

2010-01-01

493

The Perinatal Advantage of Mexican-Origin Latina Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine if there is a perinatal advantage for birth outcomes among Mexican-origin Latina (Latina) women compared to white non-Hispanic (white) women, after adjusting for maternal, paternal, and infant factors.METHODS: 1,439,583 births from the 1990–1993 California linked birth and infant death certificate data sets were analyzed for the risk of low birth weight infants and infant mortality.RESULTS: Latina women

Nancy A Hessol; Elena Fuentes-Afflick

2000-01-01

494

Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikk{beta} confers growth advantages  

SciTech Connect

Mice lacking hepatocyte IKK{beta} (Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep}) are defective in TNF{alpha}-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G{sub 0} {yields} G{sub 1} transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikk{beta} also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGF{alpha} and TNF{alpha}, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, {beta}-actin and integrin {beta}1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikk{beta}{sup {delta}}{sup hep} mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikk{beta}-deleted hepatocytes.

Koch, Katherine S. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States); Maeda, Shin [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); He, Guobin; Karin, Michael [Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0723, La Jolla, CA 92093-0723 (United States); Leffert, Hyam L. [Hepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0636, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636 (United States)], E-mail: hleffert@ucsd.edu

2009-03-06

495

Combine and conquer: advantages and disadvantages of fixed-dose combination therapy.  

PubMed

The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not achieve the glycaemic goals recommended by leading diabetes organizations using monotherapy alone, and often require multiple antihyperglycaemic agents to achieve glycaemic control. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapies offer a means to simplify complex treatment regimens, and have several advantages that help patients reach their glycaemic goals. In this review, four key benefits are identified and discussed in support of FDCs for treatment of patients with T2DM: (i) Greater efficacy compared with higher dose monotherapy, (ii) Reduced risk of adverse reactions relative to higher dose monotherapy, (iii) Lower overall costs and (iv) Improved medication concordance. Given these advantages, the place of fixed combination therapy in the course of treatment is discussed. Establishing a therapeutic strategy that incorporates fixed combination therapy (including combinations with insulin) will simplify the treatment of diabetes, ideally resulting in improved medication concordance, clinical outcomes and quality of life for patients with T2DM. PMID:23013323

Bell, D S H

2012-10-25

496

Color Chips-Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps the learner conceptualize the addition of signed numbers. The user clicks and drags red and black colored chips to a circle to represent a problem and then simplifies by placing a red negative chip on top of a positive black chip. The student actually sees the opposite pair disappear. Users may practice problems generated by the computer, themselves or free play with the chips. There are separate tabs to access information for the learner, the instructor and to seek help.

2005-01-01

497

Oil additive process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

Bishop, H.

1988-10-18

498

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

499

Additional Pu-238 production  

SciTech Connect

Possible DOD demands for up to 1 MW thermal of heat sources could be partially met by increasing SRP Pu-238 production. The Pu-238 would be an alternate or supplement to Sr-90 in these heat sources. There is a growing surplus of Np-237 target material which could be used to produce high-assay Pu-238 (83.5%). In addition SRP produces low assay Pu-238 (approx. 27%) that could be extracted instead of being sent to the waste tanks. About 216 kg or 121 kw thermal of additional high-assay Pu-238 could be produced at SRP through FY1997; it would produce power at an incremental cost of approx. $1160/watt. About 77 kg or 44 kw thermal of low assay Pu-238 could also be recovered through FY1997; it would generate power at approx. $1850/watt. These quantities would supply only a fraction (approx. 1/6 of the 1 MW demand projection. Also the costs are considerably higher than the costs for Sr-90 fission product heat sources. Sr-90 from SRP and Hanford could supply the total 1 MW thermal requirement (150 MCi at $1 to $3 per Ci) at costs in the range of $150 to $450 per watt.

O'Neill, G.F.

1982-10-04

500

c-DNA vaccination against parasitic infections: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Recently developed technology for DNA vaccination appears to offer the good prospect for the development of a multivalent vaccines that will effectively activate both the humoral and cell mediated mechanisms of the immune system. Currently, DNA vaccination against such important parasitic diseases like malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, schistosomosis, fasciolosis offers several new opportunities. However, the outcome of vaccination depends very much on vaccine formulations, dose and route of vaccine delivery, and the species and even strain of the vaccinated host. To overcome these problems much research is still needed, specifically focused on cloning and testing of new c-DNA sequences in the following: genome projects: different ways of delivery: design of vectors containing appropriate immunostimulatory sequences and very detailed studies on safety. PMID:11522401

Kofta, W; Wedrychowicz, H

2001-09-12