Science.gov

Sample records for offer additional advantages

  1. Electrical/mechanical hybrid rigs offer drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Lagersen, F.

    1983-09-12

    Lagersen Drilling Co., founded in April 1976, is operating five rigs that, for their capacities are, to our knowledge, the most fuel efficient, maintenance-free, and portable in the industry. The rigs are a combination electrical/mechanical design with a General Electric two-on-two dc control system. We use them in the 12,000 to 20,000-ft range (Fig. 1). Rig 4 began operating in July 1981 in Eastern Oklahoma while Rigs 5 and 6 have been drilling in North Louisiana and East Texas since September 1981. Rigs 7 and 8 began operating in Western Oklahoma in early 1982. All five rigs are designed essentially identically except Rig 5 is a 1,000-hp rig. These hybrids result from a program begun in 1979 after 5 years of experience working with mechanical rigs. The compounded mechanical rigs operated just about as well as would be expected, but were not as cost efficient as desired. New rig design. We felt that as a relatively small drilling contractor we had to be able to offer more service-more hole for the money--in order to compete. And, as the industry changes, rigs that are going to be stacked will be the least efficient ones. We expect that as the cost of fuel climbs, the fuel efficiency of drilling rigs will be looked at more and more closely. The first thing we decided was that we wanted a rig designed to work efficiently in the 12-20,000-ft range, and that it would be electric. We wanted the deep hole (more than 15,000 ft) capability while avoiding what we see as inefficiencies inherent to larger rigs rated for 25,000 or 30,000 ft. For one thing, less than 9% of all deep wells drilled exceed 20,000 ft. The choice of electric drive isn't very startling. But we weren't convinced that we had seen an electric system that couldn't be improved upon.

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.280 - What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my agency? 102-118.280 Section 102-118.280 Public Contracts and Property Management... for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.280 What advantages does the prepayment audit offer my...

  7. A Neurocognitive Investigation of Bilingual Advantages at Additional Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated bilingual advantages at additional languages learning by comparing early, highly proficient bilinguals to monolinguals' learning of an additional language in adulthood. The study used both behavioral and neurocognitive measures (event-related potentials) and tested subjects along the trajectory of learning from low to high…

  8. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  9. Rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems offer additional options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, Paul A.

    The propulsion cycles presented at the 1991 IAF Congress in Montreal, and at The World Hydrogen Conference 1992 in Paris were the subject of an IAF paper for the 1992 World Space Conference in Washington DC. RBCC propulsion systems from several nations were analyzed in terms of a SSTO space launcher with a 7-Mg payload. The RBCC concept emerged from the advanced injector ramjet research of the early 1960s. The performance of the current RBCC propulsion systems such that the specific thrust of a rocket is combined with the specific impulse of an airbreather. This performance offers a new perspective to the options available. In a brief review of the present RBCC the reasons for these options are developed. The spectrum of the system options is presented in three examples, a LACE VTOL SSTO, an HTOL SSTO and a HTOL TSTO. Results using the present RBCC are dramatically different from the past concept of the Conventional Combined Cycle propulsion system, i.e., combinations of separate engines. The integration of the engine cycles into a single thermodynamically integrated system significantly changes the propulsion performance.

  10. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering, management. and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboratioi is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of cLul+sent programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example. major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities. produce highly visible achievements. and appeal to a11 additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  11. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating for long periods in free space must be developed. The engineering. management, and operational successes of the Space Station have demonstrated that international collaboration is possible. However, there is a danger that the hard-won lessons of current programs will be lost without continuing development of in-space operations. A program to achieve. for example, major astronomical goals in space using astronauts and robots will sustain international capabilities, produce highly visible achievements, and appeal to an additional broad community of stakeholders not currently involved with missions to the lunar surface.

  12. REU Programs at Field Research Stations Offer Unique Advantages that may Enhance Retention of Students in STEM Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. Y.; Marinelli, R. L.; Heidelberg, K., IV

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that undergraduate participation in research opportunities strengthens the retention of students in STEM fields. Increasing students' confidence levels in their scientific abilities, aiding in the development of their scientific identity, and strengthening their sense of belonging to a scientific community have been cited as important contributing factors. Research field stations offer unique advantages that amplify these benefits by challenging students to plan and work in the field, enhancing networking opportunities with multi-disciplinary professionals from numerous institutions and hierarchical levels, and creating a stronger sense of belonging and comradery within a science community. The USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies' (WIES) Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program is an 8-week program that begins on the main USC campus in Los Angeles and moves to a marine field station on Catalina Island during weeks 2-7, before returning to the mainland to complete the last week of the program. This unique model provides REU students with an opportunity to become integrated into faculty mentors' labs on the main campus, while exposing them to life as a researcher at a field station, both of which contribute significantly to the students' development as a scientist. Here, we present the WIES REU model and include a discussion of benefits and challenges to this unique infrastructure.

  13. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  14. DOES MICRO LC/MS OFFER ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL LC/MS IN IDENTIFYING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lower maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of disinfection by-products were set for drinking water municipalities by the Stage 1 DBP Rule in November, 1998. With these new regulations, additional water treatment plants are expected to choose alternative disinfectants to chlorine. Al...

  15. Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

  16. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  17. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  18. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  19. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  20. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  1. Heritability of heterozygosity offers a new way of understanding why dominant gene action contributes to additive genetic variance.

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2015-07-01

    Whenever allele frequencies are unequal, nonadditive gene action contributes to additive genetic variance and therefore the resemblance between parents and offspring. The reason for this has not been easy to understand. Here, we present a new single-locus decomposition of additive genetic variance that may give greater intuition about this important result. We show that the contribution of dominant gene action to parent-offspring resemblance only depends on the degree to which the heterozygosity of parents and offspring covary. Thus, dominant gene action only contributes to additive genetic variance when heterozygosity is heritable. Under most circumstances this is the case because individuals with rare alleles are more likely to be heterozygous, and because they pass rare alleles to their offspring they also tend to have heterozygous offspring. When segregating alleles are at equal frequency there are no rare alleles, the heterozygosities of parents and offspring are uncorrelated and dominant gene action does not contribute to additive genetic variance. PMID:26100570

  2. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB requirement? 127.504 Section 127.504 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Providing patients with pharmacogenetic test results affects adherence to statin therapy: results of the Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins (AKROBATS) trial.

    PubMed

    Charland, S L; Agatep, B C; Herrera, V; Schrader, B; Frueh, F W; Ryvkin, M; Shabbeer, J; Devlin, J J; Superko, H R; Stanek, E J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of statin therapy and the numerous strategies used to improve adherence, no strategy has used direct communication of genetic test results to the patient as an adherence and persistence motivator. We investigated in a real-world setting the effect of a process of providing KIF6 test results and risk information directly to 647 tested patients on 6-month statin adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)) and persistence compared with concurrent non-tested matched controls. Adjusted 6-month statin PDC was significantly greater in tested patients: 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.82) vs controls 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), P<0.0001. Significantly more tested patients were adherent (PDC?0.80) (63.4% (59.6-67.1%) vs 45.0% (41.1-48.8%), P<0.0001) and persisted on therapy (69.1% (65.4-72.5%) vs 53.3% (49.4-57.1%), P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in a secondary comparison with 779 unmatched patients who declined testing. The Additional KIF6 Risk Offers Better Adherence to Statins trial provides the first evidence that pharmacogenetic testing may modify patient adherence. PMID:23979174

  5. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several potential applications. PMID:26338226

  6. 13 CFR 127.504 - What additional requirements must a concern satisfy to submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... representations and certifications on ORCA are accurate and complete at the time it submits its offer to the... corresponding to the NAICS code assigned to the contract; (b) It is listed on CCR and ORCA as an EDWOSB or...

  7. Advantage of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil regimen for cytotoxic T cell-mediated defence and its inhibition by additive steroid administration in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, S; Ozawa, K; Kaido, T; Mori, A; Fujimoto, Y

    2016-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that the recipients with the highest pre-existing numbers of CD8(+) effector T cells (TE ) [hyperparathyroidism (HPT)E recipients] occupied approximately 30% of adult transplant recipients performed in our hospital. HPTE recipients demonstrated very poor clinical outcome compared with the remaining 70% of recipients with the lowest pre-existing TE (LPTE recipient). This study aimed to clarify the best combined immunosuppressive regimen related to function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for HPTE recipients. Eighty-one HPTE recipients were classified into three types, according to the immunosuppressive regimens: type 1, tacrolimus (Tac)/glucocorticoid (GC); type 2, Tac/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/GC; and type 3, Tac/MMF. Frequencies of severe infection, rejection and hospital death were the highest in types 1 and 2, whereas the lowest occurred in type 3. The survival rate in type 3 was the highest (100%) during follow-up until post-operative day 2000. Regarding the immunological mechanism, in type 1 TE perforin and interferon (IFN)-γ were generated through the self-renewal of CD8(+) central memory T cells (TCM ), but decreased in the early post-transplant period due to marked down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 of TCM. In type 2, the self-renewal TCM did not develop, and the effector function could not be increased. In type 3, in contrast, the effectors and cytotoxicity were correlated inversely with IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM levels, and increased at the highest level around the pre-transplant levels of IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM . However, the immunological advantage of Tac/MMF therapy was inhibited strongly by additive steroid administration. PMID:26560892

  8. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the…

  9. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  10. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  11. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  12. Attracting Foreign Students to America Offers More Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikias, C. L. Max

    2008-01-01

    Prestigious American universities are franchising their brands in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, building campuses and making it possible for students in those regions to receive an American degree while remaining at home. In doing so, however, they undercut an important component of American education and economy: educating international…

  13. Advantages offered by high average power picosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, C.

    2011-03-01

    As electronic devices shrink in size to reduce material costs, device size and weight, thinner material thicknesses are also utilized. Feature sizes are also decreasing, which is pushing manufacturers towards single step laser direct write process as an attractive alternative to conventional, multiple step photolithography processes by eliminating process steps and the cost of chemicals. The fragile nature of these thin materials makes them difficult to machine either mechanically or with conventional nanosecond pulsewidth, Diode Pumped Solids State (DPSS) lasers. Picosecond laser pulses can cut materials with reduced damage regions and selectively remove thin films due to the reduced thermal effects of the shorter pulsewidth. Also, the high repetition rate allows high speed processing for industrial applications. Selective removal of thin films for OLED patterning, silicon solar cells and flat panel displays is discussed, as well as laser cutting of transparent materials with low melting point such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). For many of these thin film applications, where low pulse energy and high repetition rate are required, throughput can be increased by the use of a novel technique to using multiple beams from a single laser source is outlined.

  14. Hybrid catfish offers performance advantages for US catfish farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the only hybrid among 28 interspecific hybrid crosses and backcrosses evaluated within the family Ictaluridae to exhibit dominant traits desirable for intensive aquaculture. In a 2004 pond trial, hybrid catfish outperformed channel catfish in all the production trai...

  15. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  16. The open access advantage.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open access papers continues to widen. I conclude with the observation that the "open access advantage" has at least three components: (1) a citation count advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), (2) an end user uptake advantage, and (3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. More research is needed, and JMIR is inviting research on all aspects of open access. As the advantages for publishing open access from a researchers' point of view become increasingly clear, questions around the sustainability of open access journals remain. This journal is a living example that "lean publishing" models can create successful open access journals. Open source tools which have been developed by the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia with contributions from the Epublishing & Open Access group at the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation in Toronto are an alternative to hosting journals on commercial open access publisher sites. PMID:16867971

  17. The advantages of biodegradation of cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Jim

    1989-12-01

    The biodegradation of cyanides and the biosorption of toxic metals from mining process effluents are proven technologies which offer many advantages over chemical treatment methods. These advantages include cost effectiveness, treatment performance, resistance to upset, low sludge production, metals removal and recovery, flexible design characteristics, compatibility with effluent-receiving streams and the capability for self-regulation with changing process conditions.

  18. Negotiating a Job Offer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests some operating principles for job candidates for academic appointments. Notes that candidates should receive offers in writing. Lists compensation, perquisites, fringe benefits, and other conditions that candidates should negotiate. (RS)

  19. First offers as anchors: the role of perspective-taking and negotiator focus.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, A D; Mussweiler, T

    2001-10-01

    Three experiments explored the role of first offers, perspective-taking, and negotiator self-focus in determining distributive outcomes in a negotiation. Across 3 experiments, whichever party, the buyer or seller, made the 1st offer obtained a better outcome. In addition, 1st offers were a strong predictor of final settlement prices. However, when the negotiator who did not make a 1st offer focused on information that was inconsistent with the implications of the opponent's 1st offer, the advantageous effect of making the 1st offer was eliminated: Thinking about one's opponent's alternatives to the negotiation (Experiment 1), one's opponent's reservation price (Experiment 2), or one's own target (Experiment 3) all negated the effect of 1st offers on outcomes. These effects occurred for both face-to-face negotiations and E-mail negotiations. Implications for negotiations and perspective-taking are discussed. PMID:11642352

  20. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  1. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    PubMed

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the abundance of cells. We also report that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration positively co-varied with each other and, in males, were positively correlated with testosterone. In summary, we offer a higher resolution of understanding of the function of GnRH-I and GnIH during the breeding period of European starlings. PMID:26078369

  2. Creating Collaborative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Chris, Ed.

    Although interorganizational collaboration is becoming increasingly significant as a means of achieving organizational objectives, it is not an easy process to implement. Drawing on the work of authors with extensive experience, an accessible introduction to the theory and practice of creating collaborative advantage is presented in this volume.…

  3. [Effect of the addition of a fiber-rich concentrate to a hay-based diet, offered at two levels of feeding in the adult rabbit. 2. Measurements of digestibility].

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T

    1987-01-01

    The effect of adding a fibre-rich concentrate (wheat bran or beet pulp) to a hay-based diet (cook's foot-lucerne: 50/50) on the apparent digestibility of diets was measured in three groups of 8 adult doe rabbits (New-Zealand White X Californian). Diet composition was as follows: 90% hay only (diet F), hay + bran (diet FS) or hay + pulp (diet FP). Two levels of feeding were tested: ad libitum and 2/3 of ad libitum intake. Addition of wheat bran and especially of beet pulp led to a significant increase in the apparent digestibility of the whole diet. Our results confirm the high digestibility of cell-wall constituents of beet pulp: the apparent digestibility coefficient of hemicellulose in diet FP reached 60% (versus 23% for diet F) and that of cellulose 45% (21% for diet F). Wheat bran supplied digestible hemicellulose (ADC = 48% for diet FS) while the apparent digestibility of bran cellulose was not higher than that of hay (ADC = 22%). This digestive interaction between raw material was accompanied by an interaction with the digestive transit. The less digestible diet (diet F) exhibited the shortest mean residence time (MRT). However, diet FS exhibited the longest residence time whereas it was less digestible than diet FP. These results suggest that, in the rabbit, wheat bran is a transit-regulator as already observed in other species. Measuring apparent digestibility between the 10th and the 16th day of the feed restriction was too early for our doe rabbits. Values measured were not significantly different from those obtained during ad libitum feeding, although the MRT of diets was longer during restricted feeding. PMID:2821593

  4. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  5. NE Won't Return to Pre-Recession Employment until 2015, but Region's "Education" Advantage Could Offer "Economic" Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The New England states continue to experience slow growth and slow recovery of the jobs lost in the 2008 to 2009 recession. The main reason for this is the continued weakness in global and U.S. economic conditions. The U.S. and New England economies continue to be affected by the weak European economy and sovereign debt crisis and by weakness in…

  6. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  7. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan membership are warranted to move more beneficiaries into MA. PMID:24890251

  8. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  9. Self-Advantage in the Online World

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongsheng; Wang, Fang; Gu, Nianjun; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In the current research, screen name was employed to explore the possible cognitive advantage for self-related online material. The results showed that one’s own screen name and real name were detected faster than famous names in both visual search and discrimination tasks. In comparison, there was no difference in visual search speed for the two kinds of self-related names. These findings extend self-advantage from the physical world to the virtual online environment and confirm its robustness. In addition, the present findings also suggest that familiarity might not be the determining factor for self-advantage. PMID:26461490

  10. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  11. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  12. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  13. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  14. Web Consulting for Non-Academic Educational Missions: How Instructional Design Offers a Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Mattke, Paige Hawkins

    2013-01-01

    Based on a recently completed study of education directors at science museums, this article addresses how design-and-development consultants might use those findings to enhance the way in which they propose and deliver Website services to non-academic organizations with either primary or complementary educational missions. After a very brief…

  15. Home advantage in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ruud H

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home advantage, restrictions on the specification of the model need to be imposed. We find that although significant home advantage exists for men, the performance of women tennis players appears to be unaffected by home advantage. PMID:21104519

  16. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  17. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  18. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  19. Job Corps Vocational Offerings Review. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    The relative effectiveness of current Job Corps vocational offerings was evaluated, and occupations suitable for addition to the Job Corps vocational curricula were identified. Characteristics of Job Corps enrollees and the occupations in which training was provided were identified. To assess their comparative effectiveness, training occupations…

  20. Medicare Advantage: options for standardizing benefits and information to improve consumer choice.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ellen; Hoadley, Jack

    2008-04-01

    The Medicare Advantage (MA) program offers beneficiaries a choice of private health plans as alternatives to the traditional fee-for-service Medicare program. MA plans potentially provide additional value, but as plan choices have proliferated, consumers contemplating their options have had difficulty understanding how they differ. Through "standardization" more consistent types of information and a limited number of dimensions along which plans vary--MA plans could reduce complexity and improve beneficiaries' ability to make informed choices. Such standardization steps would offer more meaningful variation in the health coverage options available to beneficiaries, Medicare officials and their community partners would find it far easier to educate beneficiaries about their health plan choices, and beneficiaries would better understand what they were buying. Standardization might also strengthen the ability of the market-based Medicare Advantage program to incorporate beneficiary preferences. PMID:18426037

  1. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  2. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  3. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden…

  4. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  5. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement. PMID:26072530

  6. The offerings from the Hyperboreans.

    PubMed

    Ruck, C A

    1983-08-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a secret item hidden within the sheaf. The mythical traditions about these Hyperboreans recalled the Hellenic peoples' Indo-European origins, back in the time before the tribal migrations that brought them eventually into the Mediterranean lands, and the secret offering pertained to Apollo's more ancient religion in that pre-Greek Hyperborean context.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6685798

  7. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  8. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  9. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  10. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  11. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  12. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  13. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  14. Gaining the Arts Literacy Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Public schools must give all students the arts-literacy advantage by developing their skills in communication, culture, cognition, and creativity. Afterschool programs and private lessons are insufficient. A national study finds that a district's provision of arts education is strongly influenced by community support, insistence, and…

  15. Advantage, Absence of Advantage, and Disadvantage Among Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy DiTomaso

    2008-09-23

    DiTomaso talks about survey data on the career experiences of 3,200 scientists and engineers from 24 major companies. Her survey findings indicate that most people who do well in their careers and make significant contributions to their organizations get assistance from others in their workplace in many forms, including offering opportunities such as good projects, providing resources that make good performance more likely, and opening up networking possibilities.

  16. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  17. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision. PMID:25197892

  18. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    PubMed

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816

  19. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  20. Selective Advantage of Diffusing Faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Benzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We study a stochastic spatial model of biological competition in which two species have the same birth and death rates, but different diffusion constants. In the absence of this difference, the model can be considered as an off-lattice version of the voter model and presents similar coarsening properties. We show that even a relative difference in diffusivity on the order of a few percent may lead to a strong bias in the coarsening process favoring the more agile species. We theoretically quantify this selective advantage and present analytical formulas for the average growth of the fastest species and its fixation probability.

  1. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  2. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  3. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  4. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary...

  5. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Only One Offer. 252.215... Clauses 252.215-7008 Only One Offer. As prescribed at 215.408(4), use the following provision: Only One... requested additional cost or pricing data if the Contracting Officer notifies the Offeror that— (1) Only...

  6. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    PubMed

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase. PMID:25399464

  7. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  8. [Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

  9. Good things come to those who wait: late first offers facilitate creative agreements in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Maddux, William W; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Perez Nückel, Ricardo; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-06-01

    Although previous research has shown that making the first offer leads to a distributive advantage in negotiations, the current research explored how the timing of first offers affects the creativity of negotiation agreements. We hypothesized that making the first offer later rather than earlier in the negotiation would facilitate the discovery of creative agreements that better meet the parties' underlying interests. Experiment 1 demonstrated that compared with early first offers, late first offers facilitated creative agreements that better met the parties' underlying interests. Experiments 2a and 2b controlled for the duration of the negotiation and conceptually replicated this effect. The last two studies also demonstrated that the beneficial effect of late first offers was mediated by greater information exchange. Thus, negotiators need to consider the timing of first offers to fully capitalize on the first offer advantage. Implications for our understanding of creativity, motivated information exchange, and timing in negotiations are discussed. PMID:23696126

  10. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  11. Advantages of redeployable security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A.

    1993-12-31

    Security systems must be proven dependable, cost effective, easily installed and maintained. Further, these technologies should not require skilled technicians to install, align, maintain and/or repair during the project`s life cycle. These new priorities and financial demands have to be addressed utilizing various existing and proven technologies that have been developed and are currently being applied. One of these technologies directly relates to the development and application of rapid deployment and redeployable sensor systems that permit flexible asset protection and smaller perimeters within a given complex, rather than intrusion detection systems for an entire facility. Both Rapid Deployment Intrusion Detection System (RDIDS), and Redeployable Intrusion Detection System (RIDS) technologies can be designed for operation in any weather conditions, impervious to salt air, chemical and most explosive environments, as well as highly resistant to false alarms. These systems utilize photovoltaic power with 12-hour battery backup as their primary source of energy. Sensor systems can be integrated with Radio Frequency (RF) polling transceivers operating in the VHF or UHF frequencies. This enhancement offers extensive flexibility and substantial cash savings Is compared to hard wired installations. RDIDS and RIDS can be deployed for limited areas and be operational in a fraction of the time required for conventional systems. The result affords a fully warranted long life RIDS, modular in design, flexible in application, false alarm free, self-diagnostic, and impervious to most environmental conditions. Further, RIDS can be engineered to interface with fiber optic technology thereby ensuring quality transmission in rural environments. Fiber optic integration proves even more effective when using CCTV cameras. The fiber optic module can be used for monitoring the tamper and alarm circuits as well as video transmission.

  12. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  13. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  14. Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granryd, E.; Conklin, J. C.; Sand, J. R.

    1991-08-01

    The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of the heat exchange equipment during the cycle. This additional advantage is particularly useful for analyzing the vapor compression refrigeration cycle using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, where nonisothermal phase-change processes occur. Problems such as heat exchanger pinch-points and wet compression are easily detected. The possible cycle enhancement due to a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is readily apparent. This paper presents and discusses examples of enthalpy-temperature diagrams.

  15. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a) You must evaluate offers solely in accordance with the... solicitation. The file must include the basis for evaluation, an analysis of each offer, and a summary...

  16. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons...

  17. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  18. Space propulsion: The antimatter advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, A.; Edwards, C.; Kane, A.; Pandipati, S. )

    1993-11-01

    With each century come new and exciting technologies, but perhaps the most challenging innovations have occurred in the modern era as a result of man's quest to explore the universe. While enormous advancements have occurred during the space age, there still remain significant obstacles in deep space exploration. A practical challenge to exploration is the development of a type of propulsion suitable for deep space endeavors. The development of such a propulsion system would greatly facilitate space research, while providing additional opportunities for other classes of exploration not yet defined. Based upon current research, there exist several possibilities for future propulsion techniques. Some of the most promising research has dealt with antimatter and its usefulness in energy production. The potential of antimatter as an efficient and renewable energy source exists, yet important practical and scientific concerns must be overcome to make this technology feasible. For deep space exploration to be successful, more advanced and powerful propulsion systems need to be devised. Current rocket technology is inadequate to meet these future needs. The authors predict that antimatter propulsion will emerge as the new standard for space exploration. At least the beginnings of this new technology are expected within the next twenty years.

  19. The Accreditation Process: Focusing on the Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, J. Harvey; Bailey, Gerald Douglass

    1976-01-01

    Community and school personnel are not always aware of the many advantages that are derived from accreditation activities. Unless these advantages are recognized, the authors contend, many of their benefits will be lost. (Editor)

  20. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice... Advantage'' to provide 7(a) loan guaranties to small businesses in underserved markets, including Veterans and members of the military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program will allow...

  1. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of changes to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA provided an overview of the...

  2. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a...

  3. Energy considerations show that low-barrier hydrogen bonds do not offer a catalytic advantage over ordinary hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Warshel, A; Papazyan, A

    1996-11-26

    Low-barrier hydrogen bonds have recently been proposed as a major factor in enzyme catalysis. Here we evaluate the feasibility of transition state (TS) stabilization by low-barrier hydrogen bonds in enzymes. Our analysis focuses on the facts that (i) a low-barrier hydrogen bond is less stable than a regular hydrogen bond in water, (ii) TSs are more stable in the enzyme active sites than in water, and (iii) a nonpolar active site would destabilize the TS relative to its energy in water. Combining these points and other experimental and theoretical facts in a physically consistent frame-work shows that a low-barrier hydrogen bond cannot stabilize the TS more than an ordinary hydrogen bond. The reason for the large catalytic effect of active site hydrogen bonds is that their formation entails a lower reorganization energy than their solution counterparts, due to the preorganized enzyme environment. PMID:8942991

  4. DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development. PMID:21931647

  5. Modular and Manufactured Houses Offer Homeowners the Building America and ENERGY STAR(R) Advantage: Genesis Homes -- Auburn Hills, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Genesis Homes is headquartered in Auburn, Michigan, and has 11 factories throughout the nation. They build modular and manufactured homes with quality design, construction practice, and building materials that qualify for the Energy Star label.

  6. Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines that Utilize Myeloid Rather than Plasmacytoid Cells Offer a Superior Survival Advantage in Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mahua; Chang, Alan L; Miska, Jason; Wainwright, Derek A; Ahmed, Atique U; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Pytel, Peter; Han, Yu; Tobias, Alex; Zhang, Lingjiao; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that are traditionally divided into two distinct subsets, myeloid DC (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs). pDCs are known for their ability to secrete large amounts of IFN-?. Apart from IFN-? production, pDCs can also process Ag and induce T cell immunity or tolerance. In several solid tumors, pDCs have been shown to play a critical role in promoting tumor immunosuppression. We investigated the role of pDCs in the process of glioma progression in the syngeneic murine model of glioma. We show that glioma-infiltrating pDCs are the major APC in glioma and are deficient in IFN-? secretion (p < 0.05). pDC depletion leads to increased survival of the mice bearing intracranial tumor by decreasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and by decreasing the suppressive capabilities of Tregs. We subsequently compared the ability of mDCs and pDCs to generate effective antiglioma immunity in a GL261-OVA mouse model of glioma. Our data suggest that mature pDCs and mDCs isolated from naive mice can be effectively activated and loaded with SIINFEKL Ag in vitro. Upon intradermal injection in the hindleg, a fraction of both types of DCs migrate to the brain and lymph nodes. Compared to mice vaccinated with pDC or control mice, mice vaccinated with mDCs generate a robust Th1 type immune response, characterized by high frequency of CD4(+)T-bet(+) T cells and CD8(+)SIINFEKEL(+) T cells. This robust antitumor T cell response results in tumor eradication and long-term survival in 60% of the animals (p < 0.001). PMID:26026061

  7. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  8. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Email Alerts for Family Physicians: Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hani; Grad, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. Objective The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants’ suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the “Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior” model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. Results All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. Conclusions The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts. PMID:25803184

  12. Cumulative Advantage in the Skill Development of STEM Graduate Students: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.; Maher, Michelle A.; Roksa, Josipa; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Studies of skill development often describe a process of cumulative advantage, in which small differences in initial skill compound over time, leading to increasing skill gaps between those with an initial advantage and those without. We offer evidence of a similar phenomenon accounting for differential patterns of research skill development in…

  13. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised. PMID:19999684

  14. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  15. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  16. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Acquisition Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property Over the Simplified Lease Acquisition Threshold 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a) The... basis for evaluation, an analysis of each offer, and a summary of findings. (f) Also see...

  17. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  18. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  20. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  1. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  2. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  3. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  4. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  5. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers....

  6. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR part 240. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  7. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR part 240. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  8. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR 240.14d-1 through 240.14f-1. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  9. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR part 240. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  10. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR part 240. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  11. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  12. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  13. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  14. Relocatable Classrooms Offer Choice and Cost Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliemmo, Bob; Suggs, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Addresses school safety issues surrounding portable classrooms and the advantage of using portables for school districts on tight budgets. The history of portables and the options they provide school districts are highlighted. (GR)

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of pinless external fixation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R; Giele, H; Simpson, A H

    2000-12-01

    The AO pinless external fixator (PEF) uses trocar tipped clamps to grip the outer tibial cortex rather than pins to transfix it. Its main advantage is to avoid further contamination of the medullary canal in open tibial fractures where a nail may subsequently be used. We tested the anatomical safety of this device and its effect on plastic surgical procedures compared with a standard unilateral external fixator (UEF).The PEF and UEF were placed on two amputated limbs which were then dissected. Structures at risk were traced on ten cadaver limbs. We found that important anatomical structures were endangered by the PEF and that safe zones could not always be defined. The UEF avoided these structures. Plastic surgical approaches were made more difficult by the PEF which imposed limitations on local flap design and endangered the arterial perforators which supply them. We conclude that safety is compromised by the PEF because margins for error are small. It poses additional problems in soft tissue reconstruction and highlights the need for co-operation between plastic surgical and orthopaedic teams in choice of fixation device. PMID:11154752

  16. Using membrane stress to our advantage.

    PubMed

    Shearman, G C; Attard, G S; Hunt, A N; Jackowski, S; Baciu, M; Sebai, S C; Mulet, X; Clarke, J A; Law, R V; Plisson, C; Parker, C A; Gee, A; Ces, O; Templer, R H

    2007-06-01

    The nature of the bilayer motif coupled with the ability of lipids and proteins to diffuse freely through this structure is crucial to the viability of cells and their ability to compartmentalize domains contained therein. It seems surprising to find then that biological as well as model membranes exist in a dynamic state of mechanical stress. The stresses within such membranes are surprisingly large, typically reaching up to 50 atm (1 atm=101.325 kPa) at the core of the membrane and vary as a function of depth. The uneven distribution of lateral pressures within monolayer leaflets causes them to bend away from or towards the water interface. This can result in the formation of complex, self-assembled mesophases, many of which occur in vivo. Our knowledge of the principles underlying membrane mechanics has reached the point where we are now able to manipulate them and create nano-structures with reasonable predictability. In addition, they can be used both to explain and control the partitioning of amphipathic proteins on to membranes. The dependence of the dynamics of membrane-bound proteins and the chemical reactivity of amphipathic drug molecules on membrane stresses suggests that Nature itself takes advantage of this. Understanding and manipulating these internal forces will be a key element in creating self-assembled, biocompatible, nanoscale cell-like systems. PMID:17511638

  17. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  18. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  19. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  20. Cross-border utility investment: Translating investment risk into global advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, A.; Graham, E.

    1995-06-01

    Investment in the rapidly expanding utility sector in many emerging markets offers real growth prospects for utility companies. But one must execute a global strategy that addresses the many additional risk factors, political obstacles, management challenges, tax complications and long-term funding requirements to succeed in this demanding environment. There is skepticism in some quarters that investments in foreign assets will prove fruitful for utilities and their shareholders. US utilities must realiza higher returns on foreign investment in order to compensate shareholders adequately for the added political and currency risk associated with these investments. This article describes the environment leading to cross-border power investment, several key strategic considerations related to the international power sector, and how these considerations can be used to create strategic advantage.

  1. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  2. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  3. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

  4. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  5. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  6. 2 Experimental Drugs Offer Hope Against Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154898.html 2 Experimental Drugs Offer Hope Against Psoriasis: Studies Targeted therapies produce significant results, researchers say ... News) -- Two experimental drugs show promise in treating psoriasis and a related condition, psoriatic arthritis, new studies ...

  7. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... presented in a clear, concise and understandable manner and in a type size that is easily readable... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular:...

  8. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  9. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  10. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  11. Informal leadership support: an often overlooked competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Peters, L H; O'Connor, E J

    2001-01-01

    As environmental pressures mount, the advantage of using the same strategies and tactics employed by competitors continues to shrink. An alternative is adapting and applying answers successfully employed in other industries to health care organizations. Working with informal influence leaders to share your change management efforts represents one such example. Informal influence leaders offer an often-overlooked source of competitive advantage--they have already earned credibility and respect from others, who regularly look to them for guidance. When sharing their views, they significantly influence the acceptance or rejection of new initiatives. Influence leaders reach into every conversation, every meeting, and every decision made in an organization. The important question is whether they will exert their leadership in support or in opposition to changes you propose. By identifying influence leaders and inviting them to join a group to discuss change initiatives, physician executives can create a positive force for change. PMID:11387893

  12. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Osgood, G. L.; Reinhard, G. G.

    1984-11-13

    A novel nonacidic fuel additive which is soluable in gasoline, diesel fuels and other liquid aliphatic hydrocarbons, and which comprises the product produced by mixing ketone peroxides, ketones, a Group III metal, an alcohol, and borontrifloride, or liquid cobalt, or a chlorobenzine. The fuel additive further comprises a ketone solvent, said ketones preferrably being methyl etyhl ketones and their peroxides and solvents. The fuel additive of the present invention, serves to increase power output, lower the ignition point of the carrier fuel, increase mileage, and, especially when used with diesel, reduces the effect of cold temperatures on the viscosity, turbidity, and color of the diesel fuel to temperatures as severe as-40/sup 0/ C.

  13. Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  17. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  18. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  19. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  20. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  1. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  2. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  3. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement or a Free Trade Agreement (see 5.203(h)). ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its...

  4. Special Report on Cocurricular Offerings and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Robert L.; Humm, William L., Ed.

    This report describes results of a study of secondary school student participation in extracurricular activities. The activity offerings were identified and classified into eleven groups: 1) class-related, 2) athletics, 3) music, 4) school services, 5) drama, 6) school publications, 7) personal interests, 8) honor, 9) student government, 10)…

  5. Education: National Labs Offer New Student Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program offered by the U.S. Department of Energy for undergraduate science and engineering students aimed at providing research experience during the academic year at the six national laboratories. Reviews the potential interest and benefits to students. (CW)

  6. Study Offers Ways to Better European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    School systems that track students into certain classes and academic programs based on ability end up worsening disparities between high and low performers, according to a far-ranging report that offers recommendations for improving education across Europe. The study, commissioned by a branch of the European Union (EU), also found that bilingual…

  7. Let's Increase, Not Reduce, Foreign Language Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschke, Claus

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of college students have been conducted to determine their needs for foreign language study. Students desired career-oriented foreign language programs that meet their professional needs. As a result of the surveys, the University of Houston will offer language courses in German oriented to hotel majors, business majors and opera singers.…

  8. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 5(C) OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... construed to authorize or condone the illegal setting or policing of retail prices by a packager or...

  9. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 5(C) OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... construed to authorize or condone the illegal setting or policing of retail prices by a packager or...

  10. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 5(C) OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... construed to authorize or condone the illegal setting or policing of retail prices by a packager or...

  11. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 5(C) OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... construed to authorize or condone the illegal setting or policing of retail prices by a packager or...

  12. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 5(C) OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... construed to authorize or condone the illegal setting or policing of retail prices by a packager or...

  13. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  14. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  15. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  16. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, R.H.

    1986-09-02

    A fuel is described for stored fuel capable of reducing the amount of macroscopic sludge particles formed from polymerization reactions promoted by bacteria and oxidation. More than about 50 parts by weight of the additive comprises an amine selected from the group consisting of polymerization products of ethylene diamine, polymerization products of analogs and homologs of ethylene diamine, and mixtures thereof, about 25 parts by weight of an aromatic solvent selected from the group consisting of naphtha products having a boiling range of from about 420/sup 0/F. (216/sup 0/C.) to about 545/sup 0/F. (285/sup 0/C.), about 25 parts by weight of a poly alpha olefin synthetic oil and an effective amount of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Tris(2 Hydroxyethyl)S-Triazine biocide.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  19. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  20. Commuting Student Lacks Advantages of Dorm Resident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nancy A.

    1975-01-01

    College and university students who live in campus residence halls are found to have a significant educational advantage over those who commute to campus, either from their parents' homes or from apartments or other off-campus housing. Residence hall dwellers are better off financially, educationally, and in other ways to begin with. Then, largely…

  1. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  2. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  3. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  4. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Raţiu, M; Purcărea, T

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far–reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new typess of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  5. Offering memorable patient experience through creative, dynamic marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, Victor Lorín; Raţíu, Monica; Purcărea, Theodor; Davila, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Creative, dynamic strategies are the ones that identify new and better ways of uniquely offering the target customers what they want or need. A business can achieve competitive advantage if it chooses a marketing strategy that sets the business apart from anyone else. Healthcare services companies have to understand that the customer should be placed in the centre of all specific marketing operations. The brand message should reflect the focus on the patient. Healthcare products and services offered must represent exactly the solutions that customers expect. The touchpoints with the patients must be well mastered in order to convince them to accept the proposed solutions. Healthcare service providers must be capable to look beyond customer's behaviour or product and healthcare service aquisition. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources: disintegrating and radically reassembling operational processes: and restructuring the organization to accommodate new types of work and skill. PMID:20108466

  6. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  7. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  8. Procedures offered in the medical spa environment.

    PubMed

    Taub, Amy F

    2008-07-01

    Medical spas' menus of services vary widely and depend greatly on the medical director or owner's experience and predilection. Core services include: microdermabrasion, mild chemical peels, medical facials, laser hair removal, photorejuvenation, botulinum toxin, and injectable fillers. Common procedures include cellulite reduction, tissue tightening, and acne treatments. Less common procedures that are more likely to be performed in medical spas with direct on-site daily involvement of the medical director include: laser resurfacing, laser-assisted lipoplasty, sclerotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and cosmetic surgery. Multisite spas often use multi-platform devices to assist with uniformity in menu offerings and training. PMID:18555951

  9. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  10. Connecting in Megaclasses: The Netnographic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Norman J.; Rahinel, Ryan; Foster, Mary K.; Patterson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large universities are increasingly offering marketing courses in classes of 300 or more students. Without access to the usual verbal and nonverbal cues, instructors in these megaclasses are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to respond to learners' needs. As a result, marketing instructors have supplemented course infrastructure with…

  11. Connecting in Megaclasses: The Netnographic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Norman J.; Rahinel, Ryan; Foster, Mary K.; Patterson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large universities are increasingly offering marketing courses in classes of 300 or more students. Without access to the usual verbal and nonverbal cues, instructors in these megaclasses are disadvantaged in terms of their ability to respond to learners' needs. As a result, marketing instructors have supplemented course infrastructure with…

  12. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  13. What factors contribute to an ownership advantage?

    PubMed

    Fayed, S A; Jennions, M D; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-04-23

    In most taxa, owners win fights when defending a territory against intruders. We calculated effect sizes for four factors that potentially contribute to an 'owner advantage'. We studied male fiddler crabs Uca mjoebergi, where owners won 92% of natural fights. Owners were not more successful because they were inherently better fighters (r=0.02). There was a small effect (r=0.18) of the owner's knowledge of territory quality (food availability) and a medium effect (r=0.29) of his having established relations with neighbours (duration of active tenure), but neither was statistically significant. There was, however, a significant effect due to the mechanical advantage the owner gained through access to the burrow during fights (r=0.48, p<0.005). PMID:18089521

  14. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

  15. The advantage of cyclic spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    April, Eric

    1991-12-01

    This report shows that cyclic spectral analysis, as a general tool for signal spectral analysis, is much superior to more conventional spectral analysis. Three major advantages are pointed out: (1) its signal's discriminatory capability enables signal selectivity (even for highly corrupted environments); (2) it provides a richer domain for signal analysis; and (3) the theory of spectral correlation allows much more complete mechanism for modelling communication signals in several applications. A conceptual view of the cyclic spectrum is presented along with a working example. A strong mathematical foundation for the theory of spectral correlation involved in cyclic spectral analysis is provided. Finally, investigations are made on some interesting applications where exploitation of the inherent redundancy associated with spectral correlation can be used advantageously.

  16. Will the Latino Mortality Advantage Endure?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Noreen

    2016-04-01

    Persons of Mexican origin and some other Latino groups in the United States have experienced a survival advantage compared with their non-Latino White counterparts, a pattern known as the Latino, Hispanic, or epidemiological paradox. However, high rates of obesity and diabetes among Latinos relative to Whites and continued increases in the prevalence of these conditions suggest that this advantage may soon disappear. Other phenomena, including high rates of disability in the older Latino population compared with Whites, new evidence of health declines shortly after migration to the United States, increasing environmental stressors for immigrants, and high-risk values of inflammatory markers among Latinos compared with Whites support this prediction. One powerful counterargument, however, is substantially lower smoking-attributable mortality among Latinos. Still, it is questionable as to whether smoking behavior can counteract the many forces at play that may impede Latinos from experiencing future improvements in longevity on a par with Whites. PMID:26966251

  17. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  18. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception. PMID:25469168

  19. Women and nurse executives. Finally, some advantages.

    PubMed

    Borman, J S

    1993-10-01

    How do chief nurse executives (CNEs) and chief executive officers (CEOs) compare on selected components of organizational socialization, and do differences exist between genders? To answer these questions, the author compared 127 male CEOs, 127 female CEOs, 232 female CNEs, and 117 male CNEs on their self-reported leadership styles, managerial values, and skills. The differences found between both genders and positions on all measures are largely advantageous to women and nurses in healthcare administration. PMID:8410326

  20. The thermal protection offered by lightweight survival systems.

    PubMed

    Light, I M; Dingwall, R H; Norman, J N

    1980-10-01

    The thermal protection offered by lightweight survival systems was evaluated in a mountain environment. When subjects were exposed for 3 h in bags manufactured from polythene, in metallised plastic sheeting, and in a casualty bag incorporating MPS, no significant differences in thermal benefit were found. The protection offered by each system was comparable and the practical experience gained in the field would suggest that the simple polythene bag was superior to the MPS bag when one considers strength, durability, multiplicity of roles, and cheapness. Addition of a fibre pile liner equivalent to 1.5 clo units during exposure in the MPS-lined casualty bag effectively eliminated cold stress and metabolic compensation. Without this liner, the thermal performance of the casualty bag was very similar to the other two lightweight systems. PMID:6781462

  1. Variability in the clear speech intelligibility advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Kenneth; Smiljanic, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann

    2005-09-01

    The overall intelligibility advantage for sentences produced in clear versus conversational speech is well-documented. This study looked at recognition accuracy across words in early and late positions in semantically anomalous and meaningful sentences spoken in clear versus conversational speaking styles. For both sentence types, the results showed the expected overall intelligibility advantage for clear speech over conversational speech. For the semantically anomalous sentences, in both speaking styles, a decline in keyword identification rate was observed with words earlier in the sentence being more accurately recognized than words later in the sentence. Furthermore, the intelligibility advantage for clear over conversational speech remained relatively constant across word positions. For the meaningful sentences, the decline in keyword identification rate across word positions was observed for conversational speech only. Meaningful sentences spoken in clear speech yielded a high, relatively stable word identification rate across position-in-sentence, resulting in a larger clear speech intelligibility benefit for words late in the sentence than for words early in the sentence. These results suggest that for typical meaningful sentences, the acoustic-phonetic enhancements of clear speech and the availability of semantic-contextual information combine to ``boost'' the intelligibility of words in late sentence positions.

  2. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  3. Advantages of catalytically de-waxed lubricant base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonmaker, J.P.; Stiponavic, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The production of base oils used in the formulation of lubricants involves the vacuum distillation of crude oil followed by a series of processing steps that improve physical and chemical properties including viscosity index and oxidative stability. An important stage in this process is the removal of linear parafins (wax) from the base oil which can crystalize causing poor flow properties at low temperatures. {open_quotes}De-waxing{close_quotes} may be accomplished using a solvent precipitation batch process (solvent de-waxing: SDW) or through a more modern continuous catalytic process (catalytic de-waxing: CDW) which offers many advantages. In general, catalytically de-waxed base oils exhibit improved low temperature fluidity which provides enhanced performance for transmission fluids and other lubricants required to operate efficiently at temperature reaching -40{degrees}C. A discussion of the molecular mechanisms involved in CDW and results of viscometric testing at low temperatures will be presented.

  4. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  5. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  6. Regular versus Online versus Blended: A Qualitative Description of the Advantages of the Electronic Modes and a Quantitative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael; Byrne, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this article discusses the advantages of offering courses online or in a blended format from an instructor's and manager's perspective. These advantages include: (a) improved distance support of faculty in the delivery of courses; (b) effective delivery of tutoring for students; (c) increased facility in the sharing of digital…

  7. To offer or not to offer: the role of price in employers' health insurance decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of changes in price on employers' decisions to offer health insurance. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A 1993 survey of 22,347 private employers in ten states was used. STUDY DESIGN: Probit regression was used to estimate the probability of offering insurance as a function of the price and employer characteristics. For employers who did not offer insurance, a price cannot be directly observed. We estimated price for nonofferors using reported quotes received by recent shoppers and a selection model to correct for differences between recent shoppers and nonshoppers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in price affect decisions to offer insurance; however, even a 40 percent reduction in premiums would lead to only a 2 to 3 percentage point increase in the share of employers offering insurance. Employers of low-wage workers are substantially less likely to offer health insurance than other employers. CONCLUSIONS: Policies to reduce the number of uninsured that focus on increasing the supply of employment-based insurance are unlikely to have the intended effect unless coupled with policies to help low-wage workers afford insurance. PMID:11666111

  8. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  9. Advantages of a video-assisted approach to parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; De Crea, Carmela; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Sollazzi, Liliana; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Bellantone, Rocco

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the advances in preoperative localization studies, the availability of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay and the introduction of cervicoscopy revolutionized the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Several endoscopic and video-assisted techniques for parathyroidectomy have been described. In spite of the enthusiasm manifested by some authors, the role of these techniques with respect to the time-honored conventional surgery have been largely debated. Among them, video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) has emerged as one of the leading and more diffuse techniques. To date many large and comparative studies have shown that VAP is an efficacious and feasible procedure with the same complication rate as conventional surgery. Moreover, VAP seems to have significant advantages in terms of cosmetic results, postoperative pain, recovery, and patient satisfaction. When compared with other minimally invasive techniques, it offers the significant advantages of being more similar to conventional surgery and reproducible in different surgical settings. Moreover, it permits bilateral neck exploration, associated thyroid resections and can be performed under locoregional anesthesia. All these characteristics and the excellent results obtained render VAP a valid and well-validated, and even preferable, alternative to conventional surgery for the surgical treatment of sporadic PHPT, especially in case of suspected single adenoma. PMID:18971596

  10. Reboxetine: additional benefits to the depressed patient.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S A

    1997-01-01

    Reboxetine is a new selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that has been shown to be effective in both the short-(4-8 weeks) and long-term (up to 12 months) treatment of depression. Four positive placebo-controlled studies showed reboxetine to have significant antidepressant efficacy; the response rate (> or = 50% decrease in HAM-D total score) with reboxetine ranging from 56-74%. Comparator-controlled trials showed reboxetine to be at least as efficacious as imipramine and desipramine in both adults and elderly patients. Reboxetine is also as effective as fluoxetine in the overall depressed population. However, subset analysis showed reboxetine to be significantly superior to fluoxetine in severely depressed patients. Reboxetine also showed significant advantages over fluoxetine in terms of social functioning, positively affecting patients' self perception and motivation towards action. The therapeutic effect of reboxetine is maintained for at least up to 1 year. During long-term therapy, 78% of patients receiving reboxetine were in remission at last assessment compared with only 45% of patients in the placebo group. Fewer reboxetine-treated patients relapsed (22%) compared with those receiving placebo (56%). In summary, reboxetine is effective in both the short- and long-term treatment of depression, and is at least as efficacious as traditional tricyclic antidepressant drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The additional benefits offered by reboxetine to the depressed patient include effective long-term treatment, efficacy in all grades of depression (including severe cases) and, importantly, specific advantages on social functioning. These additional benefits make reboxetine a favourable choice in the management of depression. PMID:9438228

  11. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  12. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed habitats. PMID:26858732

  13. PSRO: advantages, risks, and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, R; Sullivan, F

    1975-08-01

    The authors propose that active physician participation in current review methodologies, including PSRO, can lessen the potential for such problems as the development of unrealistic standards, emphasis on review and record keeping as ends rather than means, and ineffectuality of the systems themselves. Potential advantages of PSRO are seen in areas of quality assessment and improvement, economy, and enhancement of the continuing learning processess of physicians. The authors suggest that physicians should resist pressures toward separation of reviewing authority from clinical competence. PMID:1170765

  14. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    PubMed Central

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J; Lowden, J A

    1981-01-01

    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of founder effect, genetic drift, and differential immigration patterns. PMID:7246543

  15. [Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].

    PubMed

    Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

    2001-10-01

    This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for each organ, together with external and cut-surface features. A third section allows the examiner to report other observations not requested previously, while a final section is also provided for the epicrisis and for the formulation of the final diagnosis, the same as that reported in the first form. The database is coupled with an interactive system for collecting voice comments, thereby replacing the need for tape-recorders in the autopsy room. The user can recall a dictation window, dictate a text, check spelling and insert additional text. The database is also coupled to an image acquisition system, on the assumption that moving images allow a more faithful documentation of reality. Therefore, all rooms in which autopsies are carried out on fetuses or neonates have been equipped with a fixed camera linked to a monitor and a video-recorder. A PCB, used for image digitalization, recognizes up to 16,000,000 different colors. Guided by dedicated software, image files are transferred to a computer and then saved with the autoptic report. The database can be consulted and queried in two principle ways: by key words in the contents or main disease descriptions, or by individual words or phrases contained within the complete text of the reports. The present database system for autopsy reporting has proved itself useful in a pathological anatomy service. The combined presence of images and texts renders the system useful also as a research tool. By linking to a Web site dedicated to pathologic anatomy, it will be possible to display online rare cases involving diagnostic difficulties. The system offers great advantages for present and retrospective diagnostics, as well as for research and education purposes. PMID:11725353

  16. Rural Medicare Advantage Plan Payment in 2015.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Payment to Medicare Advantage (MA) plans was fundamentally altered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). MA plans now operate under a new formula for county-level payment area benchmarks, and in 2012 began receiving quality-based bonus payments. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Payment Demonstration expanded the bonus payments to most MA plans through 2014; however, with the end of the demonstration bonus payments has been reduced for intermediate quality MA plans. This brief examines the impact that these changes in MA baseline payment are having on MA plans and beneficiaries in rural and urban areas. Key Data Findings. (1) Payments to plans in rural areas were 3.9 percent smaller under ACA payment policies in 2015 than they would have been in the absence of the ACA. For plans in urban areas, the payments were 8.8 percent smaller than they would have been. These figures were determined using hypothetical pre-ACA and actual ACA-mandated benchmarks for 2015. (2) MA plans in rural areas received an average annual bonus payment of $326.77 per enrollee in 2014, but only $63.76 per enrollee in 2015, with the conclusion of the demonstration. (3) In 2014, 92 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that received quality-based bonus payments under the demonstration, while in March 2015, 56 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that was eligible for quality-based bonus payments. PMID:26793822

  17. Immunization services offered in Québec (Canada) pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administration. In 2008–09, an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all Québec pharmacy owners (n = 1663). Among the 1102 (66%) respondents, 90% stated that vaccines were sold, 27% that a nurse administered vaccines in their pharmacy and 44% were planning to offer vaccine administration in the next five years. Three out of four stated they were doing vaccine promotion and 65%, vaccine counselling. Half of respondents said they would be willing to administer vaccines themselves if legislative modifications were made. Recommendations for cold chain maintenance were followed in 23% of pharmacies selling vaccines. Presence of another health professional in the pharmacy, higher number of opening hours, not being located in the same building than a medical clinic and having an agreement to collaborate with a public health unit or a medical clinic for immunization were positively associated with vaccine administration in multivariate analysis. Higher perceived difficulties with lack of demand from patients were negatively associated with vaccine administration. Most pharmacists are willing to increase their involvement in immunization. Collaboration between public health professionals and pharmacists should be reinforced. PMID:23782530

  18. [Subjective estimations of the treatment programmes offered in inpatient and outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Morfeld, M; Bürger, W; Dietsche, S; Koch, U

    2002-01-01

    The survey of psychosocial, somatic and economic outcomes is regarded as standard in establishing the effectiveness of various rehabilitative forms of medical care. Another important part is the patient's perspective for the subjective valuation of the entire measure or different facets of the rehabilitation measure. During a comparison of the effectiveness of different forms of care of orthopaedic rehabilitation (inpatient, outpatient in the hospital, outpatient) 1176 patients were questioned in writing at 4 different time points. The results concerning the general measurement of the satisfaction with the rehabilitation measure showed a high level and a high acceptance in all forms of medical care at the end of and after the measure. The result relating to the selection of the correct hospital for the specific troubles of the patient was positive as well. This can also be stated for the patients' estimation of the contacts between the doctors and the physiotherapists. At the end of measure, all the patients in every form of care viewed these contacts as being helpful. The outpatient offers were viewed a bit better by the patients concerning the contacts to doctors and physiotherapists. The extent of the care specific to the different occupational groups was estimated by almost all patients of all forms as being just about right. Additionally, the course organization and the work of the administration had a good evaluation - with slight advantages for the inpatient forms. PMID:12007035

  19. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract But Not Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A

    2016-02-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in J Mem Lang 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this ambiguity advantage may in reality be a polysemy advantage: caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings (homonymy). We report two lexical decision studies that investigated the effects of polysemy with new word sets. In both studies, polysemy was factorially manipulated while homonymy was controlled for. In Experiment 1, where the stimulus set consisted solely of concrete nouns, there was no effect of polysemy. However, in Experiment 2, where the stimulus set consisted of a mix of abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there was a significant polysemy advantage. Together, these two studies strongly suggest that polysemy affects abstract but not concrete nouns. In addition, they rule out several alternative explanations for these polysemy effects, e.g., sense dominance, age-of-acquisition, familiarity, and semantic diversity. PMID:25373555

  20. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  1. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  2. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  3. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  4. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  5. Unreinforced sheeting material offers strength, chemical resistance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The ability of multiple application structural or sheeting Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material to function in severe chemical and mechanical environments at extreme temperatures garnered it a 1995 Chemical Processing Vaaler Award. The 100% Teflon PTFE resin yields sheeting with high levels of tear and tensile strength and a flex life that allows it to be used without additional support. The resin provides chemical resistance, heat sealability, simple fabrication, and rugged construction. The material functions in temperatures to 500 degrees F and has found many uses in the chemical industry like chemical tank covers, drop-in tank liners, flue gas barriers in non-metallic expansion joints, gasketing, pump diaphragms, insulating jacketing and pipe lagging, protective suiting materials, inflatable liners for chemical service, heat-sealed insulation jackets for severe chemical service and many others.

  6. Research on the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Tender Offer for Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minli, Zhang; Shanshan, Qiao

    The BP model in artificial neural network is used in this paper. Various factors that affect the tender offer is identified and these factors as the input nodes of network to conduct iterated operation in the network is applied in this paper. Through taking advantage of the self-learning function of network, this paper constantly modifies the weight matrix to achieve the objective error of the network error to achieve the function of predicting offer. As a software support tool, MATLAB is used in artificial neural network, the neural network toolbox helps to reduce the workload of writing code greatly and make the application of neural network more widely.

  7. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

  8. ATTRACT--applications in telemedicine taking rapid advantage of cable television network evolution.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A

    1998-01-01

    ATTRACT is a project that intends to provide telemedicine services over Cable Television Networks. ATTRACT is an European Commission funded project (Healthcare Telematics). The main objective of ATTRACT is to take advantage of emerging European Cable Television network infrastructures and offer cost-effective care to patients at home. This will be achieved through a set of broadband network applications that competitively provide low cost interactive health-care services at home. The applications will be based on existing or developing European Cable Television network infrastructures in order to provide all kind of users with affordable homecare services. It is ATTRACT's intention that citizens and users benefit from high quality access to home telemedical services which also implies cost savings for patients, their families and the already over burdened health institutions. In addition, the European industries will have extensive opportunities to develop, evaluate and validate broadband network infrastructures providing multimedia and interactive telemedical services at home. ATTRACT contributes to the EU telecommunications and telematics policy objectives that promote the development and validation of "applications and services" which "provide an intelligent telematic environment for the patient in institutions and other points of care that helps the patient to continue, as far as possible, normal activities and external communication". PMID:10180587

  9. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel—audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel—interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel—key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics approval City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. Planned outputs We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: ‘what to expect in your virtual consultation’. Discussion The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they bring significant technical, logistical and regulatory challenges. We anticipate that this study will contribute to a balanced assessment of when, how and in what circumstances this model might be introduced. PMID:26826147

  10. Processing with kW fibre lasers: advantages and limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratky, A.; Schuöcker, D.; Liedl, G.

    2008-10-01

    Up-to-date fibre lasers produce multi-kw radiation with an excellent beam quality. Compared to CO2-lasers, fibre lasers have relatively low operational costs and offer a very high flexibility in production due to the beam delivery with process fibres. As a consequence, fibre lasers have attracted more and more attention. On the other hand, their use in industrial applications especially in the automotive industry is still limited to a certain extent and fibre lasers haven't replaced all other laser sources till now as it could be expected. In laser cutting, the small kerf width produced by fibre lasers should be advantageous since the heated volume is smaller compared to CO2-lasers. In fact, cutting velocities are usually much higher which is also caused by the higher absorption coefficient of most metals at the wavelength emitted by fibre lasers. Nevertheless, cutting with fibre lasers of some metals - e.g. stainless steels - is restricted to a small thicknesses of approx. 5mm. The reason for this is that the surface roughness of the edges increases dramatically with the thickness of the work piece. Applications of fibre lasers include e.g. remote welding or even remote cutting of a large variety of materials with usually excellent results. Due to the excellent beam quality the aspect ratio of the weld seam in relation to the penetration depth is quite good. In the case of thin sheet metal welding such a small beam waist is beneficial - but with thicker sheet metals it is very often disadvantageous since the preparation of samples is more complicated, costs increase and requirements on clamping devices rise. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of fibre lasers are discussed briefly. Applications of a 1.5 kW fibre laser are presented and compared to classical laser systems.

  11. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  12. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (?GB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm?2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle ?c of ?9°, which is substantially larger than the ?c of ?5° for YBa2Cu3O7–?. Even at ?GB>?c, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–?. PMID:21811238

  13. Tapered implants: from indications to advantages.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia Coutinho; Neves, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    Tapered implants have become routine for immediate implant placement after tooth extraction. It seemed extremely advantageous to use tapered implants in type 4 bone, where primary stability is difficult to achieve. The authors established a surgical implant placement protocol to be followed in areas where type 4 bone and a wide bone ridge (> or = 8 mm) are present. First, preparation of the implant alveolus is done exclusively with cylindric osteotomes, rather than with conic osteotomes or drills. The final cylindric osteotome is the same diameter as the final twist drill that is typically used in conventional preparation of the implant alveolus (a technique that can be adapted for use with other tapered implants). Because of the self-tapping property of the tapered implant used and its anatomic design, this surgical technique was developed to optimize the bone compaction effect in the coronal third of the implant, improving bone density and providing better primary stability values (> or = 70 ISO, via the Osstell Mentor device). With the strong bond that is created between the implant surface and the surrounding bone using this technique, immediate loading can be predictable, even in the type 4 bone that is commonly found in the maxillary tuberosity. PMID:19408478

  14. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  15. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  16. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  17. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors.

    PubMed

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries-the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (?(GB)) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe(2)As(2) (BaFe(2)As(2):Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (J(c)(BGB)) remained high (>1 MA cm(-2)) and nearly constant up to a critical angle ?(c) of ?9°, which is substantially larger than the ?(c) of ?5° for YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-?). Even at ?(GB)>?(c), the decay of J(c)(BGB) was much slower than that of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-?). PMID:21811238

  18. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  19. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  20. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  1. The Advantage of Mentally Rotating Clockwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the…

  2. More Advantages--In-House Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meares, Henry Oneil; Kittle, Helen Adele

    1976-01-01

    The method of suspension described here is both legally and educationally sound. The authors say the additional expense of a suspension-room teacher is economical when considered in light of costs incurred to school, child, and society under the old system. (Editor)

  3. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  4. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  5. Breaking the barriers to commercialization of MEMS: a firm's search for competitive advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Steven T.; Linton, Jonathan D.

    1999-08-01

    A model of infrastructure development for MEMS manufacturing Technologies is offered. The role of discontinuous innovation in achieving competitive advantage is briefly reviewed. This is followed by the development of a model that describes the stages in the growth of an infrastructure to support Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems infrastructure. We briefly describe how an infrastructure gradually grows to support a new industry, resulting from discontinuous innovation. the model indicates the evolving nature of the actions and investments that firms and governments need to make to support the growth of an immature industry. Consequently, we aim to not only offer a descriptive model, but offer guidance to firms on whether their intentions and resources fit with the state of the industry and to offer policy makers guidance on the timing of different types of support.

  6. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25603375

  7. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  8. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of innovation, highly restrictive administrative procedures, and a waste of funds on the search for the utopian goal of zero risk. Other drawbacks are more insidious. The precautionary principle could contribute to a general feeling of anxiety and unease in the population. It could be used by campaigns to manipulate public opinion in favor of a particular commercial interest or ideology. Furthermore, practitioners and public policy makers could be led to make choices not dictated by a search for the optimal solution but rather a solution that would protect them from future accusations (the so-called umbrella phenomenon). On the international level, the precautionary principle must not be used to mask protectionism. Nevertheless, a clear advantage of the precautionary principle is that it requires decision-makers to explain the rationale behind their decisions, to quantify the risks, and to provide objective information. However, the physician must not be tempted to make patients sign documents certifying that they have been given all relevant information on his or her diagnosis and treatment. This example underlines the role of legal texts and jurisprudence in the application of the precautionary principle. Finally, the precautionary principle implies new obligations for the State. In the field of health and healthcare, the State must undertake actions based on fully open and undisguised decision-making and provide complete information to the public. A pplication of the precautionary principle requires much discernment because the final outcome can be beneficial or harmful, depending on the way it is implemented. The precautionary principle, and its applications, must be precise and detailed within a well-defined framework. PMID:11319454

  9. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world. PMID:23814447

  10. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage ?6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in ?6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for ?6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  11. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of <10μs and repetition rates can be adjusted continuously from several kHz up to cw mode while addressing power levels from 0-100%. By combining trigger signals with analog modulations nearly any kind of pulse form can be realized. Diode lasers also offer a wide, adaptable range of wavelengths, and wavelength stabilization. We report a line width of less than 0.1nm while the wavelength stability is in the range of MHz which is comparable to solid state lasers. In terms of applications, especially our (broad) wavelength combining technology for power scaling opens the window to new processes of cutting or welding and process control. Fast power modulation through direct current control allows pulses of several microseconds with hundreds of watts average power. Spot sizes of less than 100 μm are obtained at the work piece. Such a diode system allows materials processing with a pulse parameter range that is hardly addressed by any other laser system. High productivity material ablation with cost effective lasers is enabled. The wide variety of wavelengths, high brightness, fast power modulation and high efficiency of diode lasers results in a strong pull of existing markets, but also spurs the development of a wide variety of new applications.

  12. Immediate-loading post extractive implants: indications, advantages and limits.

    PubMed

    Mampieri, G; Ottria, L; Barlattani, A

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of rehabilitating immediately an edentulous patient offers today remarkable advantages because it satisfies the patient's demands for comfort, aesthetics, and functionality and reduces the surgical stages for the professional.In the last years clinicians and companies have been concentrating their efforts in the development of new surgical techniques and biomaterials in order to speed up the osteointegration process, which fosters the functionality, that is the immediate-loading.This clinical report, based on the analysis of the literature and on the presentation of a case report, shows how satisfying results in functionality and aesthetic can be obtained by a careful diagnosis and an accurate therapeutic planning, reducing at the same time the stress for the patient and the surgical stages for the professional.In any case, it is necessary to have the rehabilitations with immediate-loaded implants directed by workers with a good knowledge and experience in surgery, periodontology, and prosthesis or by a work team able to face all the complications such advanced rehabilitations may cause. PMID:23285340

  13. Pulse oximetry advantages in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Solimano, A J; Smyth, J A; Mann, T K; Albersheim, S G; Lockitch, G

    1986-11-01

    We studied 12 infants with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia who were oxygen dependent and older than 30 days. Simultaneous readings of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) determined by two pulse oximeters (Nellcor 100, BTI Biox III) and transcutaneous (tc) PO2 (Sensor Medics, Transend) were correlated with SaO2 (Radiometer, OSM 2 Hemoximeter) and PaO2 (Corning 178) measured on blood from an indwelling arterial catheter. For each infant, the fractional inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) was adjusted to obtain three to five sets of data in the range of 70% to 95% SaO2. Fifty-three data points were generated and pooled for analysis. The slope of the regression line generated for the Nellcor 100 was .86; for the BTI Biox III, it was .91; and for the Sensor Medics Transend, it was .55, resulting in average errors of +2.5%, +1.0%, and -29%, respectively, when comparing corresponding transcutaneous and arterial values. When SaO2 was equal to or less than 95%, no infants were hyperoxic. These data confirm reports by others that tcPO2 values do not accurately represent PaO2 values in older infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pulse oximeters do not require user calibration, and their sensor is unheated so they will not cause skin burns. We conclude that pulse oximetry offers major advantages over tcPO2 measurements in the management of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PMID:3763297

  14. Medicare Advantage associated with lower mortality for incident dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Steven M; Sibbel, Scott; Colson, Carey; Hunt, Abigail; Nissenson, Allen R; Krishnan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Physicians across the care continuum are increasingly aligned around the belief that coordinated care can improve patient outcomes. As the principal caregivers for one of the most medically fragile patient groups in healthcare, nephrologists are especially attuned to the potential value of integrated care. Medicare Advantage (MA) offers one way to test this hypothesis. By law, end-stage renal disease patients currently cannot enroll into an MA plan, but if they develop ESRD while in such a plan, they may continue to be enrolled. The contrast between these patients and their counterparts who carry Medicare fee for service (MFFS) thereby represents a natural experiment that affords an opportunity to examine whether enrollment in a coordinated care system may improve outcomes. In order to promote (unbiased) comparison of patients in a non-randomized context, we propensity score-matched incident dialysis patients enrolled in MA versus those in MFFS. The data demonstrate that patients who were enrolled in an MA plan upon initiation of dialysis had a 9% lower mortality rate than their MFFS counterparts. This beneficial association of MA enrollment was found to be sustained over the first two years of dialysis treatment. PMID:26767249

  15. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  16. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  17. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  18. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  19. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  20. Information technology for competitive advantage: the case of learning and innovation in behavioural healthcare service.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-tseh; Lin, Binshan

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of IS/IT could offer a substantial competitive advantage to healthcare service providers through the realisation of improved clinical, financial, and administrative outcomes. In this study, 42 journal articles were reviewed and summarised with respect to identified benefits and challenges of the development and implementation of electronic medical records, tele-health, and electronic appointment reminders. Results of this study help pave the knowledge foundation for management of the behavioural healthcare to learn how to apply state-of-the-art information technology to offer higher quality, clinically proven effective services at lower costs than those of their competitors. PMID:22189179

  1. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  2. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas, and thus estimate the total mass of the galactic system. Earlier studies of the system had produced estimates that the black hole was 1 to 5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The new VLA observations indicate that there are about 10 billion solar masses of molecular gas in the system, and that the system's total mass is 40-50 billion solar masses. The gas and black hole combined thus account for 11-15 billion solar masses out of that total. "The accepted ratio indicates that a black hole of this mass should be surrounded by a stellar bulge of several trillion solar masses. Our dynamical measurement shows there's not much mass left over, excluding the black hole and the gas, to form a stellar bulge. This provides evidence that the black hole forms before the stellar bulge," said Fabian Walter, of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, who was a Jansky Postdoctoral Fellow at NRAO in Socorro when the observations were made. "One example certainly doesn't make the case, but in this object we we apparently have an example of a black hole without much of a stellar bulge. Now we need to make detailed studies of more such objects in the far-distant, early Universe," Carilli said. "With the vastly improved sensitivity of the Expanded VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which will come on line in a few years, we will have the tools we need to resolve this question definitively," Carilli added. "Studies like this are the key to understanding how galaxies first formed," Walter said. Walter and Carilli worked with Frank Bertoldi and Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute in Bonn; Pierre Cox of the Institute of Space Astrophysics of the University of Paris-South; Fred K.Y. Lo of the NRAO in Charlottesville, VA; Xiahui Fan of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; and Michael Strauss of Princeton University, on the project. Their research results are being published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Solving the paradox between same-object advantage and different-object advantage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Huang, Liqiang

    2015-10-01

    The same-object advantage (SOA) effect is usually cited as evidence for object-based attention. However, the different-object advantage (DOA) effect, which appears to be the opposite of the SOA effect, has also been reported by some researchers. The present study was designed to resolve this apparent inconsistency. As the SOA effect has been well documented, here we focus on exploring when and why the DOA effect occurs. With a series of four experiments, we manipulated the identicality between two targets and found the SOA effect when the targets were different but the DOA effect when they were identical. These results demonstrate that the presence of SOA vs. DOA effects can be critically determined by the identicality between targets. Moreover, Experiment 4 provides direct evidence for our hypothesis that the DOA effect arises from the benefit of placing two identical targets in distinct objects (e.g., rectangles) that can help the differentiation between targets. PMID:26318528

  4. Building and Accessing Clausal Representations: The Advantage of First Mention versus the Advantage of Clause Recency

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Hargreaves, David J.; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two seemingly contradictory phenomena: the Advantage of the First-Mentioned Participant (participants mentioned first in a sentence are more accessible than participants mentioned second) and the Advantage of the Most Recent Clause (concepts mentioned in the most recent clause are more accessible than concepts mentioned in an earlier clause). We resolved this contradiction by measuring how quickly comprehenders accessed participants mentioned in the first versus second clauses of two-clause sentences. Our data supported the following hypotheses: Comprehenders represent each clause of a two-clause sentence in its own mental substructure. Comprehenders have greatest access to information in the substructure that they are currently developing; that is, they have greatest access to the most recent clause. However, at some point, the first clause becomes more accessible because the substructure representing the first clause of a two-clause sentence serves as a foundation for the whole sentence-level representation. PMID:25505819

  5. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    SciTech Connect

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration for carbon ions as compared to opposing fields. In contrast, for protons, the PER{sub BIO} is almost independent on the field configuration. Concerning the artificial lateral OAR, the volume receiving 20% of the prescribed RBE-weighted dose (V20) was reduced by over 35% using helium ions and by over 40% using carbon ions compared to protons. The analysis of the patient plan showed that protons, helium, and carbon ions are similar in terms of target coverage whereas the dose to the surrounding tissue is increasing from carbon ions toward protons. The mean dose to the brain stem can be reduced by more than 55% when using helium ions and by further 25% when using carbon ions instead of protons. Conclusions: The comparison of the PER{sub RBE} and PER{sub PHY} {sub S} of the three ion types suggests a strong dependence of the advantages of the three ions on the dose-level, tissue type, and field configuration. In terms of conformity, i.e., dose to the normal tissue, a clear gain is expected using carbon or helium ions compared to protons.

  6. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  7. The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems. PMID:22662348

  8. The advantage of mentally rotating clockwise.

    PubMed

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2011-03-01

    The time taken to decide whether a character is shown in its mirror or normal version has been shown to increase approximately linearly with the angular departure from an up-right position. Additionally, in some studies, decisions took longer for clockwise tilted characters than for counterclockwise tilted ones. Other studies do not report the latter effect. We argue that inconsistencies across studies are caused by variance in participants' strategies. The task employed here was specifically designed to bring these strategies and thereby the direction of rotation under experimental control. From the EEG recorded during the rotation period, we extracted an event-related slow potential whose amplitude is sensitive to the amount of mental rotation. In both strategy conditions, the slow potential's amplitude was lower for clockwise than for counterclockwise rotations. We take this as evidence that mental rotation of alphanumeric characters is easier in a clockwise than in a counterclockwise direction. PMID:21111522

  9. The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The high voltage solar array offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. Conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT 2 experience are discussed and the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT 2 thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are reported. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

  10. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  11. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  12. 48 CFR 215.371 - Only one offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Only one offer. 215.371 Section 215.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Only one offer....

  13. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... its option, offer a medical examination (including a psychiatric evaluation) in any situation...

  14. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... its option, offer a medical examination (including a psychiatric evaluation) in any situation...

  15. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13... PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer,...

  16. 7 CFR 15.122 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 15.122 Section 15.122 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION Rules of Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.122 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in...

  17. 36 CFR 1150.79 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 1150.79 Section 1150.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Hearing Procedures § 1150.79 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with...

  18. 46 CFR 502.152 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 502.152 Section 502.152 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.152 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the...

  19. 28 CFR 7.1 - Standing offer of reward.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standing offer of reward. 7.1 Section 7.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REWARDS FOR CAPTURE OF ESCAPED FEDERAL PRISONERS § 7.1 Standing offer of reward. A standing offer of reward is made for the capture, or for assisting in,...

  20. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions from Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  1. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  2. 46 CFR 201.144 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 201.144 Section 201.144 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.144 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the...

  3. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Only One Offer. 252.215... Clauses 252.215-7008 Only One Offer. As prescribed at 215.408(4), use the following provision: Only One... not take effect unless the Contracting Officer notifies the offeror that— (1) Only one offer...

  4. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Only One Offer. 252.215... Clauses 252.215-7008 Only One Offer. As prescribed at 215.408(4), use the following provision: Only One... not take effect unless the Contracting Officer notifies the offeror that— (1) Only one offer...

  5. 7 CFR 29.57 - Where inspection is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where inspection is offered. 29.57 Section 29.57... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.57 Where inspection is offered. Tobacco..., samplers, or weighers are available and the tobacco is offered under conditions that permit of its...

  6. 7 CFR 29.57 - Where inspection is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where inspection is offered. 29.57 Section 29.57... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.57 Where inspection is offered. Tobacco..., samplers, or weighers are available and the tobacco is offered under conditions that permit of its...

  7. 7 CFR 29.57 - Where inspection is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection is offered. 29.57 Section 29.57... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.57 Where inspection is offered. Tobacco..., samplers, or weighers are available and the tobacco is offered under conditions that permit of its...

  8. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preparation and execution of offers. 644.87... Preparation and execution of offers. (a) Fee acquisition offer form. The use of the latest revision of ENG... be effected by using ENG Form 1572, Agreement for Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...

  9. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparation and execution of offers. 644.87... Preparation and execution of offers. (a) Fee acquisition offer form. The use of the latest revision of ENG... be effected by using ENG Form 1572, Agreement for Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...

  10. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preparation and execution of offers. 644.87... Preparation and execution of offers. (a) Fee acquisition offer form. The use of the latest revision of ENG... be effected by using ENG Form 1572, Agreement for Mutual Cancellation of Contract. Upon execution...

  11. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23... renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after notification has been filed by... need again file notification, but a new waiting period must be observed; (b) If a noncash tender...

  12. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23... renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after notification has been filed by... need again file notification, but a new waiting period must be observed; (b) If a noncash tender...

  13. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23... renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after notification has been filed by... need again file notification, but a new waiting period must be observed; (b) If a noncash tender...

  14. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23... renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after notification has been filed by... need again file notification, but a new waiting period must be observed; (b) If a noncash tender...

  15. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23... renewed tender offers. Whenever a tender offer is amended or renewed after notification has been filed by... need again file notification, but a new waiting period must be observed; (b) If a noncash tender...

  16. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6 Section 309.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  17. 43 CFR 3110.3-3 - Lease offer size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lease offer size. (a) Lease offers for public domain minerals shall not be made for less than 640 acres... lands within a section and there are no contiguous lands available for lease. Such public domain lease... domain or acquired lands may not include more than 10,240 acres. The lands in an offer shall be...

  18. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  19. [First-line surgery : indications, advantages and drawbacks].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Mattera, Rémi; Cheynet, François

    2015-03-01

    First-line surgery offers an additional option in our orthodontic treatment arsenal. Unlike the classic three-stage orthodontic-surgical protocol, it aims to correct the skeletal discrepancies during stage one in order to restore a favorable functional environment and enable orthodontic occlusal correction during a second stage. In some cases of maxilla-mandibular malformation, and for specific indications, it involves eliminating presurgical orthodontic preparation or reducing it to a minimum. From the orthodontic point of view, it reduces overall treatment time, facilitates treatment following surgery and speeds up tooth displacement. On the patient's side, it makes for rapid esthetic improvement and a radically enhanced quality of life. The use of anchorage devices, surgical splints or set-ups makes it possible to offset the drawbacks of this technique such as postsurgical occlusal instability or restrictive treatment planning. PMID:25888042

  20. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  1. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  2. A greener, efficient approach to Michael addition of barbituric acid to nitroalkene in aqueous diethylamine medium.

    PubMed

    Al-Najjar, Hany J; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Weber, Manuel; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a-t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a-k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. PMID:24445342

  3. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created by temperature difference between injected fluid and the host formation, may be particularly important for reservoir stability in high-temperature offshore locations. Overall, unconventional reservoirs in offshore locations offer the potential benefits of vast and safe storage for captured CO2 emissions.

  4. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities...

  5. Knee arthoplasty: recently developed ceramics offer new solutions.

    PubMed

    Heimke, Günther; Leyen, Stefan; Willmann, Gerd

    2002-04-01

    Knee arthroplasty has reached a high degree of reliability. Many of the remaining long-term loosening cases are due to the polyethylene wear debris. The introduction of the alumina ceramic to polyethylene bearing couple had been a promising means for its reduction. The discussion of its applications in total knee replacements shows the possibilities and limitations of this bearing couple. The complete avoidance of the polyethylene debris can be expected from the articulation of alumina ceramic against itself, as long-term follow-up studies of total hip replacements clearly indicate. However, this combination can only be considered with a design of the prostheses in which any incongruity of the articulating surfaces can be excluded. As this necessitates the introduction of an additional component into the relatively narrow space between the femoral condyle and the tibia replacement, a further condition is the availability of a material which, whilst maintaining the tribological advantages of the alumina ceramic, has a much higher mechanical strength than the medical grade alumina ceramic available before. As the specifications of a recently developed modification of an alumina ceramic are in the desired range, with an improvement by a factor of two for nearly all relevant properties, a total knee replacement in which all articulating surfaces are in complete congruity and consist of this extremely wear resistant modified alumina ceramic could be designed, manufactured, and tentatively implanted in a human cadaver knee. PMID:11922460

  6. IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER: DOES LC/ESI-MS/MS OFFER AN ADVANTAGE OVER GC/NCI-MS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-prope...

  7. Offering Global Collaboration Services beyond CERN and HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, J.; Ferreira, P.; Baron, T.

    2015-12-01

    The CERN IT department has built over the years a performant and integrated ecosystem of collaboration tools, from videoconference and webcast services to event management software. These services have been designed and evolved in very close collaboration with the various communities surrounding the laboratory and have been massively adopted by CERN users. To cope with this very heavy usage, global infrastructures have been deployed which take full advantage of CERN's international and global nature. If these services and tools are instrumental in enabling the worldwide collaboration which generates major HEP breakthroughs, they would certainly also benefit other sectors of science in which globalization has already taken place. Some of these services are driven by commercial software (Vidyo or Wowza for example), some others have been developed internally and have already been made available to the world as Open Source Software in line with CERN's spirit and mission. Indico for example is now installed in 100+ institutes worldwide. But providing the software is often not enough and institutes, collaborations and project teams do not always possess the expertise, or human or material resources that are needed to set up and maintain such services. Regional and national institutions have to answer needs, which are growingly global and often contradict their operational capabilities or organizational mandate and so are looking at existing worldwide service offers such as CERN's. We believe that the accumulated experience obtained through the operation of a large scale worldwide collaboration service combined with CERN's global network and its recently- deployed Agile Infrastructure would allow the Organization to set up and operate collaborative services, such as Indico and Vidyo, at a much larger scale and on behalf of worldwide research and education institutions and thus answer these pressing demands while optimizing resources at a global level. Such services would be built over a robust and massively scalable Indico server to which the concept of communities would be added, and which would then serve as a hub for accessing other collaboration services such as Vidyo, on the same simple and successful model currently in place for CERN users. This talk will describe this vision, its benefits and the steps that have already been taken to make it come to life.

  8. Improving analytical understanding through the addition of information: Bayesian and hybrid mathematics approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Diegert, K.V.

    1998-09-13

    Safety analysts frequently must provide results that are based on sparse (or even no) data. When data (or more data) become available, it is important to utilize the new information optimally in improving the analysis results. Two methods for accomplishing this purpose are Bayesian analysis, where "prior" probability distributions are modified to become "posterior" distributions based on the new data, and hybrid (possibilistic/probabilistic analysis) where possibilistic "membership" portrays the subjectivity involved and the probabilistic analysis is "frequentist." Each of these approaches has interesting features, and it is advantageous to compare and contrast the two. In addition to describing and contrasting these two approaches, we will discuss how features of each can be combined to give new advantages neither offers by itself.

  9. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion and surface modifications using bifunctional crosslinkers are presented with advantages, drawbacks and a general outlook.

  10. Three Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advantages and Advances

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich data sets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. PMID:20542136

  11. The development and advantages of helium ion microscopy for the study of block copolymer nanopatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan P.; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Leeson, Michael; Morris, Mick A.

    2015-03-01

    Helium ion microscopy (HIM) has been used to study nanopatterns formed in block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Owing to its' small spot size, minimal forward scattering of the incident ion and reduced velocity compared to electrons of comparable energy, HIM has considerable advantages and provides pattern information and resolution not attainable with other commercial microscopic techniques. In order to realize the full potential of BCP nanolithography in producing high density ultra-small features, the dimensions and geometry of these BCP materials will need to be accurately characterized through pattern formation, development and pattern transfer processes. The preferred BCP pattern inspection techniques (to date) are principally atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary electron microscopy (SEM) but suffer disadvantages in poor lateral resolution (AFM) and the ability to discriminate individual polymer domains (SEM). SEM suffers from reduced resolution when a more surface sensitive low accelerating voltage is used and low surface signal when a high accelerating voltage is used. In addition to these drawbacks, SEM can require the use of a conductive coating on these insulating materials and this reduces surface detail as well as increasing the dimensions of coated features. AFM is limited by the dimensions of the probe tip and a skewing of lateral dimension results. This can be eliminated through basic geometry for large sparse features, but when dense small features need to be characterized AFM lacks reliability. With this in mind, BCP inspection by HIM can offer greater insight into block ordering, critical dimensions and, critically, line edge roughness (LER) a critical parameter whose measurement is well suited to HIM because of its' enhanced edge contrast. In this work we demonstrate the resolution capabilities of HIM using various BCP systems (lamellar and cylinder structures). Imaging of BCP patterns of low molecular weight (MW)/low feature size which challenges the resolution of HIM technique. Further, studies of BCP patterns with domains of similar chemistry will be presented demonstrating the superior chemical contrast compared to SEM. From the data, HIM excels as a BCP inspection tool in four distinct areas. Firstly, HIM offers higher resolution at standard imaging conditions than SEM. Secondly, the signal generated from He+ is more surface sensitive and enables visualization of features that cannot be resolved using SEM. Thirdly; superior chemical contrast enables the imaging of un etched samples with almost identical chemical composition. Finally, dimensional measurement accuracy is high and consistent with requirements for advanced lithographic masks.

  12. 38 CFR 18b.64 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 18b.64 Section 18b.64 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND PART 18 OF THIS CHAPTER Hearing Procedures § 18b.64 Offer of proof. An offer...

  13. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling...

  14. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  15. GaAs ICs for new defense systems offer speed and radiation hardness benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, A.; Rooslid, S.

    1985-03-01

    In connection with rapid technical growth affecting the world of electronic warfare (EW), it will be necessary to design both electronic support measure and electronic countermeasure systems with improved algorithms and processing techniques. The designs will have to be implemented with higher speed electronic components. It is pointed out that the performance advantages of GaAs integrated circuits, particularly in the area of speed, make this technology the prime candidate for satisfying next generation wideband signal and data processing system requirements. GaAs digital integrated circuits offer advantages in speed, power dissipation, radiation hardness, and operating temperature range. Activities to reduce electron transit time for the improvement of device speed are focused on second generation GaAs devices referred to as heterostructures, since they consist of two different material systems, GaAs and AlGaAs. New developments related to the use of GaAs ICs are reviewed.

  16. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  17. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  18. Euro-markets offer important source of funds for US gas companies

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    As gas takes on a greater role in the US energy supply, European investors are favoring financial agreements with those US gas companies having attractive reserve positions. Overseas financing in the Eurobond and Eurobanking markets offers an advantageous source of funds for the gas industry, providing possible reductions in borrowing costs during periods of high US financing rates. Foreign issuers can often obtain covenants and other nonmonetary terms in their agreements not available in domestic markets. Furthermore, US regulatory commissions that encourage or reward innovation may view overseas financing as an innovative proposition.

  19. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  20. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  1. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  2. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  3. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  4. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  5. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  6. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under...

  7. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under...

  8. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under...

  9. 33 CFR 20.804 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 20.804 Section 20.804 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Evidence § 20.804 Objections and offers...

  10. Doctoral Degree Programs Offered by China's Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendsen, Robert D.

    China colleges and universities that grant doctoral programs and the specialized fields offered are specified. For each of the 111 institutions, information is provided on the type of institution, location, alternative English versions of the school's name, and the doctoral degree programs offered. A brief narrative overview on the institutions…

  11. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  12. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement... eligible country; ocean freight rates for the export of the eligible commodity from the U.S. and other... exporter's offer by CCC but not later than 10 a.m. of the next business day after the date the offer...

  13. 48 CFR 225.870-3 - Submission of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Submission of offers. 225.870-3 Section 225.870-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Coordination 225.870-3 Submission of offers. (a) As indicated in 225.870-4, the Canadian Commercial...

  14. 48 CFR 225.870-3 - Submission of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of offers. 225.870-3 Section 225.870-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Coordination 225.870-3 Submission of offers. (a) As indicated in 225.870-4, the Canadian Commercial...

  15. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  16. 33 CFR 20.804 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 20.804 Section 20.804 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Evidence § 20.804 Objections and offers...

  17. 33 CFR 20.804 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 20.804 Section 20.804 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Evidence § 20.804 Objections and offers...

  18. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The... provide veterinary services under the VMLRP. As part of the offer, successful VMLRP applicants will...

  19. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  20. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the...

  1. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the...

  2. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the...

  3. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the...

  4. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the...

  5. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  6. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  7. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  8. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  9. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  10. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation of Export....247-51 Evaluation of Export Offers. As prescribed in 47.305-6(e), insert the following provision: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water...

  12. 48 CFR 570.203-3 - Soliciting offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Soliciting offers. 570.203-3 Section 570.203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Simplified Lease Acquisition Procedures 570.203-3 Soliciting offers. (a)...

  13. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  14. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  15. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  16. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  17. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  18. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  19. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  20. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  1. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  2. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner of... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  3. 27 CFR 31.22 - Selling or offering for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....22 Selling or offering for sale. Whether the activities of any person constitute engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale is to be determined by the facts in each case. Any manner of... sale. 31.22 Section 31.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  4. NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

  5. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  6. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  7. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  8. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  9. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 4.840 Section 4.840 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  10. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is offered. Products will be... be provided in any other area which is not covered by a cooperative agreement if the...

  12. 7 CFR 52.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 52.4 Section 52.4... inspection service is offered. Inspection service may be furnished wherever any inspector or licensed sampler is available and the facilities and conditions are satisfactory for the conduct of such service....

  13. 7 CFR 58.5 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 58.5 Section 58.5... Grading Service § 58.5 Where service is offered. Subject to the provisions of this part, inspection or grading service may be performed when a qualified inspector or grader is available, and when...

  14. 38 CFR 17.103 - Referrals of compromise settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referrals of compromise settlement offers. 17.103 Section 17.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Charges, Waivers, and Collections § 17.103 Referrals of compromise settlement offers....

  15. 38 CFR 17.103 - Referrals of compromise settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referrals of compromise settlement offers. 17.103 Section 17.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Charges, Waivers, and Collections § 17.103 Referrals of compromise settlement offers....

  16. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  17. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  18. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  19. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  20. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of Export....247-51 Evaluation of Export Offers. As prescribed in 47.305-6(e), insert the following provision: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water...

  2. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  3. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1410.31 Section 1410.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.31 Acceptability of offers. (a) Except as provided...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  7. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  8. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  9. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  11. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  12. 47 CFR 73.4266 - Tender offer and proxy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender offer and proxy statements. 73.4266 Section 73.4266 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4266 Tender offer and...

  13. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6 Section 309.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  15. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  16. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of proposed registered offerings. 230.135 Section 230.135 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135 Notice of proposed registered offerings. (a) When notice is not an...

  17. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  18. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a "good-enough" processing strategy in which a "shallow" representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a "deep" (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep-grammatical-operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow-extra-grammatical-operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow-deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  19. Epistasis and the selective advantage of sex and recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Viviane M.; da Silva, Juliana K.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of the central mechanisms favoring sex and recombination in real populations is one of the fundamental issues in evolutionary biology. Based on a previous stochastic formulation for the study of sex, here we aim to investigate the conditions under which epistasis favors the fixation of the sexual mode of reproduction in a given population. In addition, we try to identify the evolutionary forces which contribute to this process. One considers a finite population model which assumes the existence of a recombination modifier allele that can activate the recombination mechanism. We have found that sex is very little favored in a scenario of antagonistic epistasis, and this advantage only occurs in a narrow range of values of the selection coefficient sd . On the other hand, synergistic epistasis favors recombination in a very broad domain. However, the major mechanism contributing to the spreading of the modifier allele depends on the range of values of sd . At large sd , background selection favors recombination since it increases the efficacy of selection, while at low sd Muller’s ratchet is the leading mechanism.

  20. Advantages of the avian model for human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    BERNARDO, ANA DE MELO; THORSTEINSDÓTTIR, SÓLVEIG; MUMMERY, CHRISTINE L.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Early detection of OC is crucial for providing efficient treatment, whereas high mortality rates correlate with late detection of OC, when the tumor has already metastasized to other organs. The most prevalent type of OC is epithelial OC (EOC). Models that have been used to study EOC include the fruit fly, mouse and laying hen, in addition to human EOC cells in 3D culture in vitro. These models have helped in the elucidation of the genetic component of this disease and the development of drug therapies. However, the histological origin of EOC and early markers of the disease remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to review the relative value of each of the different models in EOC and their contributions to understanding this disease. It was concluded that the spontaneous occurrence of EOC in the adult hen, the prolific ovulation, the similarity of metastatic progression with that in humans and the advantages of using the chicken embryo for modelling the development of the reproductive system, renders the hen particularly suitable for studying the early development of EOC. Further investigation of this avian model may contribute to a better understanding of EOC, improve clinical insight and ultimately contribute to decreasing its mortality rates among humans. PMID:26807219

  1. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  2. Gene Networks and Metacommunities: Dispersal Differences Can Override Adaptive Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Malcom, Jacob W.

    2011-01-01

    Dispersal is an important mechanism contributing to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In metapopulation and metacommunity ecology, dispersal enables new patches to be colonized; in evolution, dispersal counter-acts local selection, leading to regional homogenization. Here, I consider a three-patch metacommunity in which two species, each with a limiting quantitative trait underlain by gene networks of 16 to 256 genes, compete with one another and disperse among patches. Incorporating dispersal among heterogeneous patches introduces a tradeoff not observed in single-patch simulations: if the difference between gene network size of the two species is greater than the difference in dispersal ability (e.g., if the ratio of network sizes is larger than the ratio of dispersal abilities), then genetic architecture drives community outcome. However, if the difference in dispersal abilities is greater than gene network differences, then any adaptive advantages afforded by genetic architecture are over-ridden by dispersal. Thus, in addition to the selective pressures imposed by competition that shape the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, dispersal among patches creates an escape that may further alter the effects of different genetic architectures. These results provide a theoretical expectation for what we may observe as the field of ecological genomics develops. PMID:21738698

  3. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy

    PubMed Central

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a “good-enough” processing strategy in which a “shallow” representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a “deep” (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep—grammatical—operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow—extra-grammatical—operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow–deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  5. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more-traditional credit vehicle, to recover both system and administrative costs. This approach has a number of features that should appeal to PV owners, including long-term, fixed-cost, attractive financing; loans that are tied to the tax capacity of the property rather than to the owner's credit standing; a repayment obligation that transfers along with the sale of the property; and a potential ability to deduct the repayment obligation from federal taxable income as part of the local property tax deduction. For these reasons, Berkeley's program, which was first announced on October 23, 2007, has received considerable nationwide attention in both the trade and general press. Since the announcement, cities from throughout California and the broader U.S. have expressed keen interest in the possibility of replicating this type of program. In California alone, the cities of Santa Cruz, Santa Monica and Palm Desert are all reportedly considering similar programs, while the city of San Francisco has recently announced its own program, portions of which closely parallel Berkeley's approach. In addition, a bill (AB 811) that would authorize all cities in California, not just charter cities like Berkeley, to create this type of program was approved by the California General Assembly on January 29 and is currently under consideration in the State Senate. A similar bill in Colorado (HB 1350) was signed into law on May 28. Elsewhere, the city of Tucson, Arizona has also considered this financing approach.

  6. Faculty Usage of Social Media and Mobile Devices: Analysis of Advantages and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, Deborah Britt; Siha, Samia; Bell, Reginald L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the perceptions of professors using social media (also called Web 2.0 tools) in the classroom, what kinds of mobile devices are used to access the social media used, and what drives individuals to use them. In addition, it seeks to identify the advantages and concerns faculty has with the use of social media for…

  7. Faculty Usage of Social Media and Mobile Devices: Analysis of Advantages and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, Deborah Britt; Siha, Samia; Bell, Reginald L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the perceptions of professors using social media (also called Web 2.0 tools) in the classroom, what kinds of mobile devices are used to access the social media used, and what drives individuals to use them. In addition, it seeks to identify the advantages and concerns faculty has with the use of social media for…

  8. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  9. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  10. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  11. Distance Education in Rural Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews distance-education technologies, their uses for rural schools, and related issues. Lists advantages and disadvantages for satellite TV teaching, microcomputer networks, and two-way TV instruction. Concludes that technologies' advantages outweigh disadvantages. Suggests final decision making and assessment depend on local program content…

  12. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  13. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract but Not Concrete Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in "J Mem Lang" 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this "ambiguity advantage" may in reality be a "polysemy advantage": caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings…

  14. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  15. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any... the securities of a foreign private issuer in any business combination, are exempt from the...

  16. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any... the securities of a foreign private issuer in any business combination, are exempt from the...

  17. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any... the securities of a foreign private issuer in any business combination, are exempt from the...

  18. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any... the securities of a foreign private issuer in any business combination, are exempt from the...

  19. Social network analysis: foundations and frontiers on advantage.

    PubMed

    Burt, Ronald S; Kilduff, Martin; Tasselli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of social network analysis focusing on network advantage as a lens that touches on much of the area. For reasons of good data and abundant research, we draw heavily on studies of people in organizations. Advantage is traced to network structure as a proxy for the distribution of variably sticky information in a population. The network around a person indicates the person's access and control in the distribution. Advantage is a function of information breadth, timing, and arbitrage. Advantage is manifest in higher odds of proposing good ideas, more positive evaluations and recognition, higher compensation, and faster promotions. We discuss frontiers of advantage contingent on personality, cognition, embeddedness, and dynamics. PMID:23282056

  20. DNR offers 284 tracts in lease Sale 40

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The State of Alaska's Department of Natural Resources, Division of Minerals and Energy Management, offered 284 tracts of submerged lands in Cook Inlet and uplands on Kalgin Island, the Kenai Peninsula, the west side of Cook Inlet and in the lower Susitna Valley. State geologists classify the area as low in its potential for commercial discoveries of oil, but many companies feel that Cook Inlet has some promise. Major oil companies offered the highest cash bonus bids, but independents and speculators managed to pick up the bulk of the 284 tracts offered.

  1. Advantages of macromolecular to nanosized chemical-exchange saturation transfer agents for MRI applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunkou; Evbuomwan, Mary; Melendez, Milleo; Opina, Ana; Sherry, A Dean

    2010-03-01

    Chemical-exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents are a new class of MRI contrast agents that offer a number of advantages over conventional Gd(3+) agents. Over the past few years, a variety of small-molecule CEST agents responsive to physiological conditions, such as pH and temperature, have been designed and their imaging applications have been reported. One of the major drawbacks of current small-molecule CEST agents is their relatively low sensitivity. The advantages of using macromolecular and nanosized systems with large numbers of exchangeable groups to improve contrast sensitivity are highlighted in this brief review. Although this approach has been shown to amplify contrast sensitivity, other limitations, including relatively small chemical-shift differences between the exchanging species and bulk water and less than optimal proton exchange rates, still exist. By addressing these issues, it is anticipated that CEST agents will find useful applications in the detection of specific biomarkers of disease. PMID:21426171

  2. Evolution and Online Instruction: Using a Grounded Metaphor to Explore the Advantageous and Less Advantageous Characteristics of Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This research presents a case study of the first-time experience of the instructor-researcher in teaching an online class. Through thematic analysis and grounded metaphor, evolution was identified as the metaphor used to illuminate the emerging themes in creating a narrative. Advantageous and less-than-advantageous characteristics of online…

  3. Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157462.html Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans Antibodies from 1995 survivor protected ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An antibody treatment for Ebola might be able to protect people for up ...

  4. Vaginal Ring Offers Some Protection Against HIV, Study Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157394.html Vaginal Ring Offers Some Protection Against HIV, Study Says ... MONDAY, Feb. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An insertable vaginal ring containing a month's supply of a continuous- ...

  5. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  6. Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157691.html Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection: Study Many ... of 2012, about 7 percent of American primary care doctors recommended health apps to their patients. Such apps address a ...

  7. Iowa State Offers to Help JC Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, James

    1972-01-01

    The Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Iowa State University assists junior college publications programs throughout the state by offering annual workshops, helping in program design, and publishing a Transfer Tip Sheet.'' (RN)

  8. More Healthy Foods Offered in School Lunches, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... study finds. Elementary school cafeterias are offering more vegetables, fresh fruit, salad bars, whole grains and more ... of Vermont researchers found that more fruits and vegetables ended up in the garbage after the U.S. ...

  9. Doctors, Nurse Practitioners Offer Comparable Outpatient Heart Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155097.html Doctors, Nurse Practitioners Offer Comparable Outpatient Heart Care: Study While ... are needed to assess patient outcomes, satisfaction and value. SOURCES: Robert A. Harrington, M.D., professor, medicine ...

  10. Dentistry without the Drill? New Study Offers Hope

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156141.html Dentistry Without the Drill? New Study Offers Hope Tooth decay happens, but many ... news for those afraid of the dentist's drill: New research suggests that a "no-drill" approach can ...

  11. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  12. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  13. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  14. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  15. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  16. Talk Therapy, Antidepressants Offer Similar Results for Major Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Talk Therapy, Antidepressants Offer Similar Results for Major Depression Study finds both treatments can help To use ... equally effective as stand-alone treatments for major depressive disorder, new research indicates. A review of 11 previously ...

  17. 26 CFR 300.3 - Offer to compromise fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the poverty guidelines updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of... greater than the amount offered would create economic hardship within the meaning of § 301.6343-1 of...

  18. Child Care Centers Offering Too Little Outdoor Time

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155841.html Child Care Centers Offering Too Little Outdoor Time Some ... Nov. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Preschool children at child care centers spend too little time outdoors, a ...

  19. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false VMLRP service agreement offer. 3431.17 Section 3431.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... a veterinary shortage situation....

  20. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VMLRP service agreement offer. 3431.17 Section 3431.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... a veterinary shortage situation....

  1. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VMLRP service agreement offer. 3431.17 Section 3431.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... a veterinary shortage situation....

  2. Rocky Mountains offer plenty to keep producers looking for more

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the Rocky Mountain region, geological variety offers everything from coalbed methane to helium and carbon dioxide, and producers keep plugging hoping that an upswing in prices could make the region more lucrative.

  3. Brain Protein Might Offer New Clues to Alzheimer's Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156927.html Brain Protein Might Offer New Clues to Alzheimer's Treatment High levels of BDNF ... key to slowing progression of Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests. And boosting this protein might be ...

  4. Too Often, CPAP Is Only Sleep Apnea Treatment Offered

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_156479.html Too Often, CPAP Is Only Sleep Apnea Treatment Offered Many patients can't tolerate ... News) -- More than half of those diagnosed with sleep apnea fail to stick with the standard treatment ...

  5. Offering Induction of Labor for 22-Week Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Survey of Obstetricians

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fatima; Edmonds, Brownsyne Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe obstetricians’ induction counseling practices for 22-week preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and identify provider characteristics associated with offering induction. Methods Surveyed 295 obstetricians on their likelihood (0–10) of offering induction for periviable PPROM across 10 vignettes. 22-week vignettes were analyzed, stratified by parental resuscitation preference. Bivariate analyses identified physician characteristics associated with reported likelihood ratings. Results Obstetricians (N=205) were not likely to offer induction. Median ratings by preference were: resuscitation 1.0, uncertain 1.0, and comfort care 3.0. Only 41% of obstetricians were likely to offer induction to patients desiring comfort care. Additionally, several provider-level factors, including practice region, parenting status, and years in practice, were significantly associated with offering induction. Conclusions Obstetricians do not readily offer induction when counseling patients with 22-week ruptured membranes, even when patients prefer palliation. This may place women at risk for infectious complications without accruing a neonatal benefit from prolonged latency. PMID:25927269

  6. The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The high voltage solar array (HVSA) offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. The basic HVSA technology involves designing the solar array to deliver power in the form required by the ion thruster. This paper delves into conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT II experience for examples. In this light, the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT II thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are discussed. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

  7. Geography and destiny: local-market perspectives on developing Medicare Advantage regional plans.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Robert E; Strunk, Bradley C; Grossman, Joy M

    2005-01-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 established regional preferred provider organizations (PPOs) as a new private-plan option for beneficiaries in the Medicare Advantage (MA) program, starting in 2006. Developing network-based Medicare products uniformly priced across statewide or multistate regions presents unprecedented challenges and opportunities for health insurers. We held discussions with local health plan and hospital informants in six of the twelve Community Tracking Study (CTS) communities to obtain their perspectives on key considerations in evaluating whether they can and will offer regional PPO products under the MA program. PMID:16012141

  8. Invisalign, an innovative invisible orthodontic appliance to correct malocclusions: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shaymaa Abdulreda A H; Miethke, Henno Rainer

    2012-05-01

    Tooth movement may be achieved by the use of sequential positioners made by altering tooth positions on set-up models to simulate progress of treatment. The principle is based upon Kesling's positioner concept of 1945, though its subsequent application to splint therapy was labour intensive and did not result in precise tooth movement. Invisalign was developed by Align Technology, Inc (Santa Clara, CA, USA) in 1997 by applying 3-D imaging technology to overcome these problems, and permitting customization on a large scale. Their system offers significant advantages, but still suffers from limitations which are discussed in this article. PMID:22774688

  9. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  10. Ferreting Out the Identity of Gasoline Additives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersing agents for oil spills, hydraulic fracturing fluids for natural-gas production, and chemicals serving as gasoline additives share a common characteristic—for the most part, they are proprietary compounds. In the name of competitive advantage, companies carefull...

  11. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peši?, J.; Gaji?, R.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an acceleration of several times compared to standard CPU calculations.

  12. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  13. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  14. Potential Therapeutic Advantages of Doxorubicin when Activated by Formaldehyde to Function as a DNA Adduct-Forming Agent.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Suzanne M; Rephaeli, Ada; Nudelman, Abraham; Ugarenko, Michal; Phillips, Don R

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin has been in use as a key anticancer drug for forty years, either as a single agent or in combination chemotherapy. It functions primarily by interfering with topoisomerase II activity but in the presence of formaldehyde, it forms adducts with DNA, mainly with the exocyclic amine of guanine at GpC sites and these adducts are more cytotoxic than topoisomerase II induced damage. High levels of adducts form spontaneously from the endogenous level of formaldehyde in tumour cells (1,300 adducts per cell after a 4 hr treatment with doxorubicin), but substantially higher levels form with the addition of exogenous sources of formaldehyde, such as formaldehyde releasing prodrugs. The enhanced cytotoxicity of adducts has been confirmed in mouse models, with adduct-forming conditions resulting in much improved inhibition of tumour growth, as well as cardioprotection. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity has been attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning, and the cardioprotection is consistent with a mechanism switch from topoisomerase II poisoning to covalent adduct formation. Although the adducts have a half-life of less than one day, a population remains as essentially permanent lesions. The capacity of doxorubicin to form adducts offers a range of potential advantages over the conventional use of doxorubicin (as a topoisomerase II poison), including: enhanced cell kill; tumour-selective activation, hence tumour-selective cell kill; decreased cardiotoxicity; decreased resistance to prolonged doxorubicin treatment. There is therefore enormous potential to improve clinical responses to doxorubicin by using conditions which favour the formation of doxorubicin-DNA adducts. PMID:25866273

  15. Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

  16. 78 FR 69878 - First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Staffing, St. Petersburg, Florida; First Advantage Corporation, Charlotte, North Carolina, First Advantage Corporation, Bolingbrook, Illinois; First Advantage Corporation, Dallas, Texas; First Advantage...

  17. Offer patterns of nationally placed livers by donation service area.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jennifer C; Feng, Sandy; Vittinghoff, Eric; Roberts, John P

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that national liver distribution is highly concentrated in 6 US centers, and this raises the possibility of expedited placement. Therefore, we evaluated all national offers of nationally placed livers (n=1625) to adult wait-list candidates from February 2005 to January 2010. We developed a model to predict national utilization pathways; pathways exceeding the best-fit linear unbiased predictions by ?3 standard errors were defined as preferred. All 51 donation service areas (DSAs) placed 1 or more livers nationally, but the percentage per DSA ranged from 1% to 36%. Of 2830 possible national DSA-center pathways, 87% were used. Five hundred eighty livers (36%) were accepted on the first national offer. Four DSAs accounted for 47% of first-national-offer livers, and 44% of these were accepted by a single center. In comparison with first-offer livers using nonpreferred pathways, first offers along a preferred pathway were offered to fewer status 1 candidates (19% versus 61%) and had lower median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores (22 versus 36, P<0.001). In conclusion, DSA placement patterns of national livers vary widely, with 4 DSAs exporting a high proportion of national livers on the first national offer to non-status 1 candidates with MELD scores less than their local transplant MELD scores. Although this practice may facilitate liver placement, it raises the possibility of expedience trumping patient need. Here we propose changes to the national liver distribution system that will help to balance equity, efficiency, and transparency. PMID:23447450

  18. Diagnosis in Mathematics: The Advantages of an Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner

    1988-01-01

    The advantages of using interviews to diagnose children's needs are discussed. General interview strategies and specific questions for gaining insight into a student's understanding of the four operations are presented. (MNS)

  19. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. PMID:25475825

  20. Rank-In-Class: Current Advantages and Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podhajsky, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the use of rank-in-class (RIC) in the college admission process. Reviews the changes occurring in education that have an effect on RIC. Discusses the advantages of using RIC as a predictor of college success. (MKA)

  1. Back to basics: a bilingual advantage in infant visual habituation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Rahman, Aishah A; Hameed, Waseem B; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study, 114 monolingual and bilingual infants were compared in a very basic task of information processing-visual habituation-at 6 months of age. Bilingual infants demonstrated greater efficiency in stimulus encoding as well as in improved recognition memory for familiar stimuli as compared to monolinguals. Findings reveal a generalized cognitive advantage in bilingual infants that is broad in scope, early to emerge, and not specific to language. PMID:25074016

  2. Collegiate Licensing in Canada and the Statutory Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burshtein, Sheldon

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a specific provision in a Canadian statute enabling universities and other educational institutions to obtain protection and financial gain in a collegiate licensing program, an advantage not held in other countries or by other trademark licensers in Canada. (MSE)

  3. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  4. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  5. Distinct Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Are Children of Immigrants Advantaged?

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin; Woo, Han Soo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children of immigrants have generally ignored distinct developmental trajectories during adolescence and their role in the transition to adulthood. This study identifies distinct trajectories in cognitive, socio-behavioral, and psychological domains and estimates their consequences for young-adult. Drawing data from a nationally representative sample of 10,795 adolescents aged 13-17 who were followed up to ages 25-32, we use growth mixture modeling to test advantages for children of immigrants. The analysis shows a 1.5 generation advantage in academic achievement and school engagement, as well as a weaker second-generation advantage in academic achievement, but no disadvantage in depression for children of immigrants. In addition, we found that these results hold for children of Hispanic origin. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:22966927

  6. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  7. [Escherichia coli, other Enterobacteriaceae and additional indicators as markers of microbiologic quality of food: advantages and limitations].

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1995-03-01

    The 93/43 European Union directive assigns to the food and catering industries the main responsibility for an integrated safety and quality assurance strategy in the food chain. Relying on hazard analysis, followed by design and adoption of control of all critical points and practices ("HACCP"). Hiatus-free compliance with such HACCP-based Codes of Good Practices is to be assessed by monitoring, recording results on process performance charts and gauging such data against experimentally established, attainable and maintainable references ranges ("standards"). Marker microorganisms are a major analytical tool for validating compliance in the sense of the EU directive. They should be expertly chosen amongst microbes usually present in food so that their, whose presence in quantities exceeding predetermined levels point to a lack of microbiological integrity of a food product. This may encompass (i) the potential presence of taxonomically, physiologically and ecologically related pathogens, markers are called index organisms; or else (ii) a lack of process integrity; in this case, markers are termed indicator organisms. The classical index organism was E. coli, introduced in the 1980's to monitor drinking water supplies. It is still used as an appropriate marker to assess the bacteriological safety of raw foods. In the 1920's the coli-aerogenes ("coliform") group was adopted as an indicator to validate the adequate processing, i.e. pasteurization of dairy products. Since the 1950's the entire Enterobacteriaceae taxon is preferred for the latter purpose because it is better defined in determinative sense and includes more organisms of significance. In some food and water supplies, processed for safety, more vigorous or more resistant organisms than the Gram-negative rods are reliable supplementary markers. These include Enterococcus spp., spores of the Clostridium genus, and bacteriophages of E. coli and Bacteroides fragilis mimicking the fate of enteric viruses under particular ecological conditions. Population surveys conducted by the authors provided ranges for epsilon-factors. Those factors were defined as the proportion between colony forming units (cfu) numbers of index organisms and the pathogenic agent to whose potential occurrence they are expected to point. Epsilon factor values obtained for thermotropic Enterobacteriaceae in relation to Salmonella spp. allow the calculation of the probability that the pathogen has been reliably eliminated by the processing of initially contaminated raw materials, when cfu's of the marker organisms remain below a reference range previously fixed. PMID:7546448

  8. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  9. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  10. BUSINESS NEEDS AND GRADUATE BUSINESS SCHOOL OFFERINGS IN MARKETING

    PubMed Central

    Thams, Meg; Glueck, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a gap exists in the skill and knowledge businesses require of marketing employees and what the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools actually provide. In this quantitative study, two set of data were collected and compared, and a gap analysis conducted. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from members of the Business Marketing Association (BMA) regarding course preferences that would best prepare students for positions in marketing. Records analysis was then undertaken of the marketing course offerings of AACSB accredited MBA programs offering an emphasis in Marketing. Gap analysis was conducted by applying a test of difference to the results of the two data collection efforts. Results of the study suggest that some misalignment between school offerings and business needs exists. PMID:26726319

  11. The Bilingual Switching Advantage: Sometimes Related to Bilingual Proficiency, Sometimes Not.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lily; Taft, Marcus; Gollan, Tamar H

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between bilingualism and task switching ability using a standardized measure of switching and an objective measure of bilingual language proficiency. Heritage Language (HL) speaking Spanish-English and Mandarin-English bilinguals and English speaking monolinguals completed all four subtests of the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), an English verbal fluency task, and a picture naming test (the Multilingual Naming Test) in English. Bilinguals also named pictures in their HL to assess HL proficiency. Spanish-English bilinguals were advantaged in task switching, exhibiting significantly smaller switching cost than monolinguals, but were disadvantaged in verbal fluency and picture naming. Additionally, performance on these cognitive and linguistic tasks was related to degree of HL proficiency, so that increased ability to name pictures in Spanish was associated with greater switching advantage, and greater disadvantage in both verbal fluency and picture naming. Mandarin-English bilinguals, who differed from the Spanish-English bilinguals on several demographic and language-use characteristics, exhibited a smaller but statistically significant switching advantage, but no linguistic disadvantage, and no clear relationship between HL proficiency and the switching advantage. Together these findings demonstrate an explicit link between objectively measured bilingual language proficiency and both bilingual advantages and disadvantages, while also showing that consequences of bilingualism for cognitive and linguistic task performance can vary across different language combinations. PMID:26527242

  12. Additives boost gasoline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, L.M.

    1989-04-24

    Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the most important additives, what they are and what they do, and gives some guidelines on the selection and addition of them to the gasoline product.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  14. [Brief research on Nectar Offering in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Wa, Da

    2011-11-01

    As a part of the culture of Tibetan medicine, the Nectar Offering has a long history of a thousand year. There are some contents of Esoteric Sect in its ritual procedure. It was improved and established a special theory in the development. On the basic of literature research and investigating the senior inheritors, the contents of ritual procedure, including instrument, participants and procedure, its characteristics and significance were introduced. Nowadays, the culture of Nectar Offering is diluted gradually, and facing the danger of disappearing. PMID:22335844

  15. First tribal college or university to offer hydrology degree program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, Diana

    2012-07-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confederations exert sovereignty over about 27% of freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 20-30 Native American students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosciences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of Native American hydrologists, the Salish Kootenai College (SKC) in Pablo, Mont., now has associate and bachelor of science degree programs in hydrology, the first hydrology and geoscience degree programs offered by any of the Tribal Colleges and Universities in North America. SKC received approval to offer the degree programs from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities in 2010.

  16. Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-01-01

    The CMS-HCC risk adjustment system for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans calculates weights, which are effectively relative prices, for beneficiaries with different observable characteristics. To do so it uses the relative amounts spent per beneficiary with those characteristics in Traditional Medicare (TM). For multiple reasons one might expect relative amounts in MA to differ from TM, thereby making some beneficiaries more profitable to treat than others. Much of the difference comes from differences in how TM and MA treat different diseases or diagnoses. Using data on actual medical spending from two MA-HMO plans, we show that the weights calculated from MA costs do indeed differ from those calculated using TM spending. One of the two plans (Plan 1) is more typical of MA-HMO plans in that it contracts with independent community providers, while the other (Plan 2) is vertically integrated with care delivery. We calculate margins, or Average Revenue/Average Cost, for Medicare beneficiaries in the two plans who have one of 48 different combinations of medical conditions. The two plans’ margins for these 48 conditions are correlated (r=0.39, p<0.01). Both plans have margins that are more positive for persons with conditions that are managed by primary care physicians and where medical management can be effective. Conversely they have lower margins for persons with conditions that tend to be treated by specialists with greater market power than primary care physicians and for acute conditions where little medical management is possible. The two plan’s margins among beneficiaries with different observable characteristics vary over a range of 160 and 98 percentage points, respectively, and thus would appear to offer substantial incentive for selection by HCC. Nonetheless, we find no evidence of overrepresentation of beneficiaries in high margin HCC’s in either plan. Nor, using the margins from Plan 1, the more typical plan, do we find evidence of overrepresentation of high margin HCC’s in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

  17. School meals in French secondary state schools: Do national recommendations lead to healthier nutrition on offer?

    PubMed

    Bertin, Mélanie; Lafay, Lionel; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dubuisson, Carine

    2012-02-01

    To improve the dietary offering in schools, the French authorities published recommendations on nutrition in 1999, which were then revised in 2007. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional offering in secondary school meals and the extent to which the recommendations promote balanced nutritional offerings. In 2005, a national survey was conducted on a representative sample of secondary schools, either administrated by the Ministry of Education (ES) or the Ministry of Agriculture (AS). Information on school-catering organisation and twenty consecutive meals was collected from each of the 707 secondary schools surveyed. Nutritional composition was estimated according to the French food composition database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of food-group frequency guidelines (FFG) on nutritional offering. It was found that 15 and 26 % of ES and AS schools, respectively, had high compliance with the FFG, at lunch. Macronutrient content was unbalanced in ES school lunches in which 42·8 % lipids, 21·5 % proteins and 35·7 % carbohydrates contributed to the energy. Nevertheless, proper offerings in Fe, Ca and vitamin C content were observed. In addition, a lower offering in lipids and a higher offering in proteins, Ca, vitamin C and Fe were found when the FFG were applied (P < 0·001). Similar results were found for AS schools. This paper confirms the effectiveness of FFG in providing nutritionally balanced school meals. However, others measures such as nutrition promotion and actions to improve children's food habits have to be introduced to make the recommendations more effective and easier to understand. PMID:21835099

  18. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  19. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  20. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

  1. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  2. Places and faces: Geographic environment influences the ingroup memory advantage.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-03-01

    The preferential allocation of attention and memory to the ingroup (the ingroup memory advantage) is one of the most replicated effects in the psychological literature. But little is known about what factors may influence such effects. Here the authors investigated a potential influence: category salience as determined by the perceiver's geographic environment. They did so by studying the ingroup memory advantage in perceptually ambiguous groups for whom perceptual cues do not make group membership immediately salient. Individuals in an environment in which a particular group membership was salient (Mormon and non-Mormon men and women living in Salt Lake City, Utah) showed better memory for faces belonging to their ingroup in an incidental encoding paradigm. Majority group participants in an environment where this group membership was not salient (non-Mormon men and women in the northeastern United States), however, showed no ingroup memory advantage whereas minority group participants (Mormons) in the same environment did. But in the same environment, when differences in group membership were made accessible via an unobtrusive priming task, non-Mormons did show an ingroup memory advantage and Mormons' memory for ingroup members increased. Environmental context cues therefore influence the ingroup memory advantage for categories that are not intrinsically salient. PMID:20175617

  3. 12 CFR 390.413 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer and sale of all securities in the...

  4. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer and sale of all securities...

  5. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer and sale of all securities...

  6. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... District Engineer. This may be done at the same time a counteroffer is submitted to DAEN-REA in accordance... Division or District Engineer may also delegate to Project Managers (including the heads of any field... records. (3) Upon acceptance of the Offer to Sell, the Division or District Engineer will notify...

  7. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A... separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its students on...

  8. 45 CFR 86.34 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.34 Access to course offerings... activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its...

  9. 43 CFR 41.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.415 Access to course offerings... activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its...

  10. Physics Offerings Differ by Socioeconomic Profile of the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When we look at physics offerings by socioeconomic profile of the school, we do not find dramatic differences in the number of seniors enrolled at each type of school; the number of physics teachers is also fairly evenly distributed. About one-third of the seniors and one-third of the physics teachers are at each type of school. However, there are…

  11. Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

  12. Doctors Offer Fall Clean-Up Safety Advice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155081.html Doctors Offer Fall Clean-Up Safety Advice Take special care when using ladders, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons says ... Preidt Friday, October 9, 2015 FRIDAY, Oct. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fall clean-up often means it's time to drag ...

  13. 50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 260.12 Section 260.12 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service...

  14. 50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 260.12 Section 260.12 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service...

  15. 50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 260.12 Section 260.12 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service...

  16. 50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 260.12 Section 260.12 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service...

  17. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  18. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  19. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  20. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...