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Sample records for offers policymakers multiple

  1. What Can Computer Technology Offer Special Education? Research & Resources: Special Education Information for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Conference of State Legislatures, Washington, DC.

    Intended for policymakers, this brief addresses issues related to computer technology and its contributions to special education. Trends are noted and three types of applications are considered: computer assisted instruction, computer managed instruction, and computer support activities. Descriptions of several computer applications in local and…

  2. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  3. Multiple streams approach to tobacco control policymaking in a tobacco-growing state.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-08-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association's support generated an environment for 100% SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes. PMID:24370600

  4. Multiple Streams Approach to Tobacco Control Policymaking in a Tobacco-Growing State

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association’s support generated an environment for 100 % SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes. PMID:24370600

  5. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © Bob ... study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter sessions ...

  6. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve. PMID:19395827

  7. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  8. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  9. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... favored customer). However, the Government recognizes that the terms and conditions of commercial sales... objectives based on a review of relevant data and determine price reasonableness. (c) When establishing... offered to the most favored commercial customer(s). For example, an offeror may incur more expense...

  10. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  11. What does the multiple mini interview have to offer over the panel interview?

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Allan; Chen, Yu Sui; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Sow, Chew Fei; Alwis, Ranjit De

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper compares the panel interview (PI) performance with the multiple mini interview (MMI) performance and indication of behavioural concerns of a sample of medical school applicants. The acceptability of the MMI was also assessed. Materials and methods All applicants shortlisted for a PI were invited to an MMI. Applicants attended a 30-min PI with two faculty interviewers followed by an MMI consisting of ten 8-min stations. Applicants were assessed on their performance at each MMI station by one faculty. The interviewer also indicated if they perceived the applicant to be a concern. Finally, applicants completed an acceptability questionnaire. Results From the analysis of 133 (75.1%) completed MMI scoresheets, the MMI scores correlated statistically significantly with the PI scores (r=0.438, p=0.001). Both were not statistically associated with sex, age, race, or pre-university academic ability to any significance. Applicants assessed as a concern at two or more stations performed statistically significantly less well at the MMI when compared with those who were assessed as a concern at one station or none at all. However, there was no association with PI performance. Acceptability scores were generally high, and comparison of mean scores for each of the acceptability questionnaire items did not show statistically significant differences between sex and race categories. Conclusions Although PI and MMI performances are correlated, the MMI may have the added advantage of more objectively generating multiple impressions of the applicant's interpersonal skill, thoughtfulness, and general demeanour. Results of the present study indicated that the MMI is acceptable in a multicultural context. PMID:26873337

  12. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of 18F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with 11C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. 11C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as 11C-Choline or 11C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as 68Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. 177Lu- or 90Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  13. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of (18)F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with (11)C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. (11)C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as (11)C-Choline or (11)C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as (68)Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. (177)Lu- or (90)Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  14. Accepting multiple simultaneous liver offers does not negatively impact transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eldeen, Firas Zahr; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bhandari, Mayank; Roll, Garrett; Gunson, Bridget; Mergental, Hynek; Bramhall, Simon; Isaac, John; Muiesan, Paolo; Mirza, Darius F; Perera, M Thamara P R

    2016-02-01

    Impact of performing multiple liver transplants (LT) in a short period of time is unknown. Consecutively performed LT potentially increase complication rates through team fatigue and overutilization of resources and increase ischemia time. We analyzed the impact of undertaking consecutive LT (Consecutive liver transplant, CLT; LT preceded by another transplant performed not more than 12 h before, both transplants grouped together) on outcomes. Of 1702 LT performed, 314 (18.4%) were CLT. Outcome data was compared with solitary LT (SLT; not more than one LT in 12-h period). Recipient, donor, and graft characteristics were evenly matched between SLT and CLT; second LT of CLT group utilized younger donors grafts with longer cold ischemic times (P = 0.015). Implantation and operative time were significantly lower in CLT recipients on intergroup analysis (P = 0.0001 and 0.002, respectively). Early hepatic artery thrombosis (E-HAT) was higher in CLT versus SLT (P = 0.038), despite absolute number of E-HAT being low in all groups. Intragroup analysis demonstrated a trend toward more frequent E-HAT in first LT, compared to subsequent transplants; however, difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.135). In era of organ scarcity, CLT performed at high-volume center is safe and allows pragmatic utilization of organs, potentially reducing number of discarded grafts and reducing waiting list mortality. PMID:26463509

  15. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  16. Public policymaking and research information

    PubMed Central

    Seekins, Tom; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    The public policymaking process presents behavior analysts with opportunities to shape public policy and influence decisions that affect the evolution of communities. Although the scientist-advocate's role in public policymaking has received increased attention, little attention has been given to behavioral analyses of the policymaking context. This paper describes the stages of policymaking, including agenda formation, policy adoption, policy implementation, and policy review. It also analyzes seven types of research information important in agenda formation and policy adoption—information about the dimensions of an issue, number of people affected, relative standing of an issue, interests of those involved, controlling variables, program alternatives, and program acceptability. Methods for communicating research information to policymakers are discussed. PMID:22478646

  17. 29 CFR 2520.101-2 - Annual reporting by multiple employer welfare arrangements and certain other entities offering or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....701-2. Medical care means medical care within the meaning of section 733(a)(2) of ERISA and 29 CFR... and certain other entities offering or providing coverage for medical care to the employees of two or... and certain other entities offering or providing coverage for medical care to the employees of two...

  18. Advising Policymakers through the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Klaus F.

    2004-01-01

    In the information age, an exchange with the media is part of the duties the economics profession has to deliver to educate the public. A key issue is the education of policymakers through the media. It is the silver bullet of policy advice in comparison to commissioned research and face-to-face advice provided to the politician. It also pleases…

  19. Education: Challenges Facing Policymakers in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsela, William R.

    New York State's rural educational institutions offer opportunities needed by the state but their potentials go unrecognized by educational policymakers. Rural colleges, secondary schools, and Boards of Educational Services (BOCES) are funded at a lower level than urban counterparts at a time when most rural areas are experiencing population…

  20. Teacher Data Literacy: It's about Time. A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One element of quality teaching for improving student outcomes is effective data use. To date, however, policies have not gone far enough to promote the skills teachers need to be data literate. This brief for state policymakers offers a proposed definition of data literacy along with recommendations for state and federal policymakers. [The…

  1. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period

  2. Modelers and policymakers : improving the relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2004-06-01

    On April 22 and 23, 2004, a diverse group of 14 policymakers, modelers, analysts, and scholars met with some 22 members of the Sandia National Laboratories staff to explores ways in which the relationships between modelers and policymakers in the energy and environment fields (with an emphasis on energy) could be made more productive for both. This report is not a transcription of that workshop, but draws very heavily on its proceedings. It first describes the concept of modeling, the varying ways in which models are used to support policymaking, and the institutional context for those uses. It then proposes that the goal of modelers and policymakers should be a relationship of mutual trust, built on a foundation of communication, supported by the twin pillars of policy relevance and technical credibility. The report suggests 20 guidelines to help modelers improve the relationship, followed by 10 guidelines to help policymakers toward the same goal.

  3. Fluorofenidone Offers Improved Renoprotection at Early Interventions during the Course of Diabetic Nephropathy in db/db Mice via Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xuan; Mei, Wenjuan; Xie, Yanyun; Liu, Jishi; Lu, Miaomiao; Peng, Xiongqun; Yang, Congyin; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Mingyan; Luo, Renna; Yuan, Xiangning; Huang, Ling; Wu, Lin; Qin, Jiao; Peng, Yu; Jia, Xiujie; Hu, Gaoyun; Tang, Damu; Tao, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a situation that is in part attributable to the lack of effective treatments. Fluorofenidone is a newly developed reagent with anti-fibrotic activity. While fluorofenidone was previously demonstrated to possess renoprotection from DN pathogenesis in db/db mice, the protective process and its underlying mechanisms have not been well studied. To characterize fluorofenidone-derived renoprotection, we treated 5, 8, or 12-week old db/db mice with daily doses of placebo, fluorofenidone, or losartan until 24 weeks of age; the time at which diabetes and DN were fully developed in placebo-treated animals. In comparison to db/db mice receiving fluorofenidone at 12-weeks old, those treated at 5-weeks had less glomerular expansion and better preservation of renal functions, judged by serum creatinine levels, albumin to creatinine ratio, and urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 hours). These benefits of early treatment were associated with significant reductions of multiple DN-promoting events, such as decreased expression of TGF-β1 and the p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase as well as downregulated activation of protein kinase C-zeta (ζ), ERK and AKT. This improvement in renoprotection following early interventions is not a unique property of DN pathogenesis, as losartan does not apparently offer the same benefits and is not more renoprotective than fluorofenidone. Additionally, the enhanced renoprotection provided by fluorofenidone did not affect the diabetic process, as it did not alter serum levels of glycated serum proteins, glucose, triglyceride or cholesterol. Collectively, we provide evidence that fluorofenidone offers improved renoprotection at early stages of DN pathogenesis. PMID:25347392

  4. Galvanizers, Guides, Champions, and Shields: The Many Ways That Policymakers Use Public Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S; Gillespie, James A; Derrick, Gemma E; Hall, Wayne D; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    researchers play in policymaking, and the multiple ways that policymakers use these roles, provides researchers and policymakers with a framework for negotiating and reflecting on activities that may advance the public health goals shared by both. PMID:22188348

  5. Interpreting health statistics for policymaking: the story behind the headlines.

    PubMed

    Walker, Neff; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2007-03-17

    Politicians, policymakers, and public-health professionals make complex decisions on the basis of estimates of disease burden from different sources, many of which are "marketed" by skilled advocates. To help people who rely on such statistics make more informed decisions, we explain how health estimates are developed, and offer basic guidance on how to assess and interpret them. We describe the different levels of estimates used to quantify disease burden and its correlates; understanding how closely linked a type of statistic is to disease and death rates is crucial in designing health policies and programmes. We also suggest questions that people using such statistics should ask and offer tips to help separate advocacy from evidence-based positions. Global health agencies have a key role in communicating robust estimates of disease, as do policymakers at national and subnational levels where key public-health decisions are made. A common framework and standardised methods, building on the work of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) and others, are urgently needed. PMID:17368157

  6. Policymaking: A Challenge for School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ellen, Ed.

    This booklet consists of seven articles intended to introduce new school board members in Texas to the formation and implementation of educational policy, with particular emphasis on the legal requirements governing policy-making and other school board activities. The articles include the following: "Policy Development: An Overview," by Richard L.…

  7. Policymaking for Vermont Public Librarians and Trustees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document provides guidelines on policymaking for public librarians and public library trustees in Vermont. Topics covered include: (1) the importance of policies in bringing order, logic, stability, and continuity to a library's operation; (2) the roles of trustees and librarians in adopting carrying out policies; (3) reasons why policies…

  8. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  9. Increasing Charter School Accountability through Interventions and Closures: A Guide For State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey; Keller, Eric; LaVallee, Robert E.; Stewart, Nichole H.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise of charter school reform in public education is offering more autonomy in the use of funds and the design of curriculum in exchange for greater accountability in academic and financial outcomes. This premise poses a significant policy challenge for state policymakers to establish an appropriate level of regulation; charter schools…

  10. A glossary of theories for understanding policymaking.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2013-02-01

    Public health practitioners and researchers often seek to influence public policies in order to improve population health and/or reduce health inequalities. However, these efforts frequently appear to be uninformed by the many empirically-based theories about policymaking that have been developed within political science. This glossary provides a brief overview of some of the most popular of these theories, describing how each: frames the policymaking process; portrays the relationships and influence of specific policy actors; and depicts the potential for policy change (or inertia). Examples of their application to public health are provided to help improve understanding of the material presented. Throughout the article, the implications of the different theories for public health researchers and advocates seeking to inform policy decisions are emphasised. The glossary aims to provide an accessible overview to key theories about policy and decision-making, with a view to supporting public health efforts to achieve healthier public policies. PMID:23100379

  11. Partners in policymaking: the first five years.

    PubMed

    Zirpoli, T J; Wieck, C; Hancox, D; Skarnulis, E R

    1994-12-01

    Many individuals with disabilities and their families are becoming empowered by learning effective self-advocacy strategies. In this article one enpowerment and self-advocacy training program, Partners in Policymaking, for parents of young children and adults with disabilities was described. Initially developed in Minnesota, the Partners program has completed its fifth year, has 163 graduates, and is being replicated in several other states. Follow-up data, qualitative and quantitative, were collected from program graduates. Results indicated both satisfaction with the program and the presence of many active citizen-advocates in the community. PMID:7854135

  12. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-11-07

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml{sup -1}), CdCl{sub 2} (4 mM), CuCl{sub 2} (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses.

  13. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:27196884

  14. HRD Policymaking in Companies: An Interpretation of the Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wognum, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Usable responses from 106 of 199 Dutch human resources practitioners in industry, transportation, and banking revealed significant differences in human resource policymaking and strategic choices among these sectors. Better interaction between policymakers and human resource departments is needed to align personnel practices with company needs.…

  15. What Policymakers Can Do to Make Education Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frissen, Paul H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education challenges all schools to cater for a wider range of students. This implies that schools and teachers have to change. This literature study analyses how, if at all, policymakers can bring about changes in schools. Specific steering concepts of policymakers, whose interventions seem to address schools as "machine" bureaucracies,…

  16. POLICYMAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: ROUTINE SCREENING FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677

  17. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  18. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  19. Negotiating a Job Offer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests some operating principles for job candidates for academic appointments. Notes that candidates should receive offers in writing. Lists compensation, perquisites, fringe benefits, and other conditions that candidates should negotiate. (RS)

  20. JEA Offers Membership Rebates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Announces the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) plan to fully unify membership in state, regional, and the national JEAs by doubling the "rebate" program offered to state and regional Scholastic Press Associations for promoting JEA memberships. (MS)

  1. Dynamic development of public attitudes towards science policymaking.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Keisuke

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of mechanisms that form public attitudes towards science and technology policymaking is essential to the establishment of an effective public engagement platform. Using the 2011 public opinion survey data from Japan (n = 6,136), I divided the general public into three categories: the Attentive public, who are willing to actively engage with science and technology policymaking dialogue; the Interested public, who have moderate interest in science and technology but rely on experts for policy decisions; and the Residual public, who have minimal interest in science and technology. On the basis of the results of multivariate regression analysis, I have identified several key predispositions towards science and technology and other socio-demographic characteristics that influence the shift of individuals from one category of the general public to another. The findings provide a foundation for understanding how to induce more accountable, evidence-based science and technology policymaking. PMID:26416555

  2. State Policymakers' Views on the Arts in Education. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffery J.

    2006-01-01

    This Issue Brief is based on telephone interviews of 21 state policymakers to discuss the salient education issues in their states and their views on arts education. Six state senators, eight state representatives, one state board of education member, two deputy commissioners of education, three current state superintendents and one former state…

  3. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  4. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  5. Public Schools as Partners in Rural Development: Considerations for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    This paper describes four considerations for policymakers who wish to have public schools serve as viable partners in the rural development efforts of their communities. First, schools are a community resource. When rural students are given opportunities to engage in community-based learning, they develop responsible citizenship and leadership…

  6. Strategic Planning in Education: A Guide for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harry A.

    As defined in chapter I of this guide for policymakers, strategic planning is the method by which an organization identifies relevant trends in its environment, analyzes their potential implications, and projects an integrated strategy to address these future events and their contingencies. This process differs from formalized planning, based on…

  7. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  8. Qualitative Research: Its Value and Role in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Research Brief, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This Policy Research Brief explores the strengths of qualitative research and the types of information it can make available to policymakers concerned with issues affecting persons with disabilities. The naturalistic methodology employed in qualitative research is described. Three specific studies using qualitative methodology are excerpted and…

  9. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  10. In Pursuit of Quality Teaching: Five Key Strategies for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael; Palaich, Robert

    This document identifies five strategies that policymakers can use to promote the kind of innovation needed for teaching and learning to be successful. These strategies are as follows: (1) establish a diverse and high-quality approach to teacher preparation that involves solid K-12/postsecondary partnerships, strong field experience, and support…

  11. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  12. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  13. A College Trustee's Policy-Making Primer: The Role of a Policy Board in Governing Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolduc, Trudy; Lafrance, Glenys

    This guide to the policy-making functions of community colleges' boards of trustees is based on a 3-year operational review conducted by Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). The guide begins by outlining the purposes and processes of Cambrian's governance self-study. Next, differences among Canadian colleges that affect the role of their…

  14. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  15. At-Risk Youth: Considerations for State-Level Policymakers, Including a Summary of Recent State-Level Actions in the Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    In response to the growing dropout problem, most of the northeastern states (and islands) and many of their local districts have implemented policies and programs designed to reduce the number of students leaving school. This paper presents some observations, culled from various reports, for policymakers' consideration. Section I offers a set of…

  16. Practical Guidelines for Educating Policymakers: The Family Impact Seminar as an Approach to Advancing the Interests of Children and Families in the Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.; Weisz, P. Victoria; Miller, Monica K.

    2005-01-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct…

  17. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    PubMed

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy. PMID:22042898

  18. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  19. Effective communications strategies: engaging the media, policymakers, and the public.

    PubMed

    Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan. PMID:24199331

  20. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J; Jansen, Maria W J

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the "attractor landscape" metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  1. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  2. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y.; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the “attractor landscape” metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  3. Presidential and bureaucratic policy-making: The case of Mexican oil policy

    SciTech Connect

    de la Luz Valverde Rocha, M.

    1991-01-01

    A close examination of the literature yielded two different, but vague models of Mexican policy-making: (1) closed presidential policy-making and (2) open presidential policy-making. These two models are tested by identifying the regime's policy-making structures and by explaining the manner in which they operated to produce oil policy in two presidential administrations. To attain these goals, the oil policy-making process was divided into several stages. The policy roles played by different actors in the various stages of policy-making were analyzed. The process they engaged in to produce oil policy was also examined. The findings lend strong support to the open presidential policy-making model. The most salient features of this model are: (1) the president and different members of the Mexican federal bureaucracy share policy-making functions, power, and influence; (2) policymakers engage in a political process of persuasion, coalition building, information functions, power, and influence; and (3) policymakers engage in these and other political techniques to produce government decisions and actions.

  4. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.303-3 Late...

  5. Linguistic analysis of IPCC summaries for policymakers and associated coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Dessai, Suraje; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Renzi, Barbara Gabriella; Napolitano, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is the most widely read section of IPCC reports and the main springboard for the communication of its assessment reports. Previous studies have shown that communicating IPCC findings to a variety of scientific and non-scientific audiences presents significant challenges to both the IPCC and the mass media. Here, we employ widely established sentiment analysis tools and readability metrics to explore the extent to which information published by the IPCC differs from the presentation of respective findings in the popular and scientific media between 1990 and 2014. IPCC SPMs clearly stand out in terms of low readability, which has remained relatively constant despite the IPCC’s efforts to consolidate and readjust its communications policy. In contrast, scientific and quality newspaper coverage has become increasingly readable and emotive. Our findings reveal easy gains that could be achieved in making SPMs more accessible for non-scientific audiences.

  6. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  7. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate). Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5%) policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%), lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%), and limited value given to research (35.9%) all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light of changes unfolding

  8. Policymakers Dependence on Evidence in Education Decision Making in Oyo State Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Gbolahan, Sowunmi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated policymaker dependence on evidence in education decision making in Oyo State Ministry of Education. The study was conducted under a descriptive survey design, 44 out of the 290 policymakers of the Ministry and Board of Education across the State were purposively selected for the study. Descriptive statistics of frequency…

  9. A Policymaker's Primer on Education Research: How to Understand, Evaluate and Use It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this primer is to help policymakers and other interested individuals answer three big questions: (1) What does the research say? (2) Is the research trustworthy? (3) How can the research be used to guide policy? Answering these questions will help policymakers: (1) make evidenced-based decisions about education policies; (2) gain a…

  10. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  11. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  12. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees. 1625.12 Section 1625.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.12 Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees....

  13. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the state of…

  14. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and issues, to develop and recommend policy direction to the top executive officers of the corporation... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking... executive or high policymaking employees. (a) Section 12(c)(1) of the Act, added by the 1978 amendments...

  15. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and issues, to develop and recommend policy direction to the top executive officers of the corporation... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking... executive or high policymaking employees. (a) Section 12(c)(1) of the Act, added by the 1978 amendments...

  16. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and issues, to develop and recommend policy direction to the top executive officers of the corporation... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking... executive or high policymaking employees. (a) Section 12(c)(1) of the Act, added by the 1978 amendments...

  17. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and issues, to develop and recommend policy direction to the top executive officers of the corporation... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking... executive or high policymaking employees. (a) Section 12(c)(1) of the Act, added by the 1978 amendments...

  18. Ideal-Oriented Policymaking: An Analysis of the 985 Project Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuefei, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Generally, there are two types of Chinese public educational policymaking: problem oriented and ideal oriented. The 985 Project policy clearly exhibits the characteristics of the latter. Usually, the goals of ideal-oriented policymaking are long-term and overarching, so they can play a role in propagating, directing, and encouraging people to…

  19. Political Culture and the Exercise of Power: Combined Effects on Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen Kelley

    How implicit assumptions govern the process of policymaking, and how those implicit assumptions are simultaneously consistent with both the political culture of the state and with behaviors that are effective in achieving desired policy outcomes are investigated in this paper. Interview data were gathered from policymakers and analyzed to discover…

  20. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  1. Probability as Possibility Spaces: Communicating Uncertainty to Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiso, C.

    2015-12-01

    One problem facing the sciences is communicating results and recommendations to policymakers. This is perhaps particularly difficult in the geosciences where results are often based on probabilistic models, as probability is often and unduly equated with a specific kind of uncertainty or unreliability in the results. This leads to a great deal of miscommunication and misguided policy decisions. It is, then, valid to ask how scientists should talk about probability, uncertainty, and models in a way that correctly conveys what the users of these models intend. What I propose is a new way to think and, importantly, talk about probability which will hopefully make this much more transparent to both users and policy makers. Rather than using a frequentist (prior percentages) or Bayesian (observer uncertainty) framework, we should talk about probability as a tool for defining a possibility space for measurements. This model is conceptually simple and makes probability a tool of refinement rather than a source of inaccuracy. A similar possibility-space model has proven useful in the climate sciences and there is good reason to believe it will have similar applications in hydrology.

  2. The Voice of Experience: How Social Scientists Communicate Family Research to Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Bogenschneider, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Because scientific understanding of communicating family research to policymakers is incomplete, qualitative interviews were conducted with social scientists experienced in bridging the gulf between research and family policy. In keeping with the tenets of two communities and community dissonance theories, the underutilization of research in policymaking was attributed, in part, to misperceptions and miscommunication between researchers and policymakers who operate in different cultures. Social scientists identified cultural barriers they encountered and rewards they experienced when communicating research to policymakers. Ten recommendations detail pragmatic strategies for communicating across conflicting cultures to promote greater use of research in family policy decisions. The findings suggest a paradigm shift away from simply disseminating research to policymakers and toward developing collaborative relationships with them. PMID:20407597

  3. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  4. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners and policymakers along the route to success

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space including bicycle lanes, temporary parks and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. Objective The current paper describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in two U.S. urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St. Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Design Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include: year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and websites, media sources and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Main Outcome Measures Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on three grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy-makers in other contexts? Results Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach and merchant support were relatively similar among the two initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Conclusion Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents and city agencies are critical for

  5. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  6. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A Hidden…

  7. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Werner, James J; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  8. The Ozone Trends Panel - CFCs and evidence-based policymaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    played a pivotal role by chairing the chapter which demonstrated, using ground-based Dobson measurements and satellite observations, significant ozone losses in mid- and high latitudes in both hemispheres, especially in winter. These findings that basically validated the models focussed the attention of Governments that it was not only polar ozone that was being depleted, but ozone over heavily inhabited areas. This provided a stimulus for even stronger regulations to protect the ozone layer. Another facet of my career was to be the technical advisor to the US Government as the Ozone Convention and Montreal Protocol were negotiated. It was a pleasure to see that Governments recognized the importance of world-class research and the international assessments, in developing the Montreal Protocol and the subsequent amendments and adjustments. It is possibly the best example to date of evidence-based policymaking at the global scale.

  9. How Can Policy Theory Have an Impact on Policymaking? The Role of Theory-Led Academic-Practitioner Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and academics often hold different assumptions about the policymaking world based on their different experiences. Academics may enjoy enough distance from the policy process to develop a breadth of knowledge and produce generalisable conclusions across governments, while policymakers/practitioners such as civil servants may develop…

  10. The offerings from the Hyperboreans.

    PubMed

    Ruck, C A

    1983-08-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a

  11. Summary for policymakers: Unlocking the sustainable potential of land resources. Evaluation systems, strategies and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land evaluation can be used by national policymakers, international development organizations, farmers, and conservationists to increase productivity, biodiversity conservation success, and to promote innovation. Land evaluation helps make better decisions about how to use the land, and is therefore...

  12. Educating a Minority: How Families, Policymakers and Public Educators View Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1998-01-01

    Explores aspects of schooling children at home, including legal ramifications, resources available to home schoolers, and outcomes compared to students schooled conventionally. Examines the controversy posed by home schooling for public educators and policymakers. (HTH)

  13. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  14. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  15. The importance of engaging policy-makers at the outset to guide research on and introduction of vaccines: the use of policy-maker surveys.

    PubMed

    DeRoeck, Denise

    2004-09-01

    Face-to-face surveys of policy-makers and other influential leaders are a useful tool to identify, at an early stage, (a) major issues regarding the introduction of a new vaccine, (b) persons and groups in a country who play a major decision-making or influential role in the introduction of vaccines, (c) potential obstacles to the introduction of vaccines, and (d) data-needs of policy-makers to overcome these obstacles. By surveying the opinions and beliefs of those who will make or influence decisions on whether to introduce a new vaccine, these studies can help ensure that research activities respond to the needs of policy-makers in countries endemic for the target diseases. These surveys can also inform vaccine-introduction strategies by identifying financially and politically feasible means of distributing, targeting, and financing the vaccines. This paper describes the methodology used in conducting such surveys and discusses methodological issues. It also presents lessons learnt from two policy-maker surveys carried out in several Asian countries in regard to new-generation vaccines against cholera, typhoid fever, and shigellosis; and future vaccines against dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15609785

  16. From a “Perfect Storm” to “Smooth Sailing”: Policymaker Perspectives on Implementation and Sustainment of an Evidence-Based Practice in Two States

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Green, Amy E.; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers shape implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs), whether they are developing or responding to legislation and policies or negotiating public sector resource constraints. As part of a large mixed-method study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 24 policymakers involved in delivery of the same EBP in two U.S. states. We analyzed transcripts via open and focused coding techniques to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of implementation challenges; approaches to overcoming those challenges; and the importance of system-level contextual factors in ensuring successful implementation. Key findings centered on building support and leadership for EBPs; funding and contractual strategies; partnering with stakeholders; tackling challenges via proactive planning and problem solving; and the political, legal, and systemic pressures affecting EBP longevity. The policymaker perspectives offer guidance on nurturing system and organizational practice environments to achieve positive outcomes and for optimally addressing macro-level influences that bear upon the instantiation of EBPs in public sector child welfare systems. PMID:25125232

  17. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. PMID:25139708

  18. From a "perfect storm" to "smooth sailing": policymaker perspectives on implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based practice in two states.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Green, Amy E; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Policymakers shape implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs), whether they are developing or responding to legislation and policies or negotiating public sector resource constraints. As part of a large mixed-method study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 24 policymakers involved in delivery of the same EBP in two U.S. states. We analyzed transcripts via open and focused coding techniques to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of implementation challenges; approaches to overcoming those challenges; and the importance of system-level contextual factors in ensuring successful implementation. Key findings centered on building support and leadership for EBPs; funding and contractual strategies; partnering with stakeholders; tackling challenges via proactive planning and problem solving; and the political, legal, and systemic pressures affecting EBP longevity. The policymaker perspectives offer guidance on nurturing system and organizational practice environments to achieve positive outcomes and for optimally addressing macro-level influences that bear upon the instantiation of EBPs in public sector child welfare systems. PMID:25125232

  19. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Katharine J.; Freeman, Patrick T.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report’s summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  20. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries.

    PubMed

    Mach, Katharine J; Freeman, Patrick T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Field, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report's summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  1. Offering an Array of Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

  2. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  3. Health inequalities in European cities: perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joana; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Bécares, Laia; Burström, Bo; Gandarillas, Ana; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Diez, Èlia; Costa, Giuseppe; Ruiz, Milagros; Pikhart, Hynek; Marinacci, Chiara; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Santana, Paula; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting 13 European cities. Participants 19 elected politicians and officers with a directive status from 13 European cities. Main outcome Policymaker's knowledge and beliefs. Results Three emerging discourses were identified among the interviewees, depending on the city of the interviewee. Health inequalities were perceived by most policymakers as differences in life-expectancy between population with economic, social and geographical differences. Reducing health inequalities was a priority for the majority of cities which use surveys as sources of information to analyse these. Bureaucracy, funding and population beliefs were the main barriers. Conclusions The majority of the interviewed policymakers gave an account of interventions focusing on the immediate determinants and aimed at modifying lifestyles and behaviours in the more disadvantaged classes. More funding should be put towards academic research on effective universal policies, evaluation of their impact and training policymakers and officers on health inequalities in city governments. PMID:24871536

  4. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  5. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary...

  6. Integrated assessment in international policy-making. Final technical report, September 15, 1994--September 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Parson, E.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project undertook a preliminary investigation of the conduct and use of assessments, particularly integrated assessments, in international negotiation and policy-making. The research involved review of existing secondary literatures including related theoretical literatures of negotiation analysis and multi-party bargaining; review of archival and documentary material on a few international assessment cases; and interviews in North America and Europe with assessment managers and users. The project sought to identify empirical regularities in the relationships between assessment characteristics and the manner and extent of their contribution to policy-making; to specify and critically assess a set of candidate mechanisms through which assessments influence and assist international policy-making; and to derive from these investigations preliminary practical guidance for assessment design.

  7. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Offer. Report 1 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  8. A pilot qualitative study of New Zealand policymakers' knowledge of, and attitudes to, the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sheena; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Background The actions of policymakers are critical to advancing tobacco control. To evaluate the feasibility of using anonymous in-depth interviews to ascertain policymakers' knowledge about, and attitudes to, the tobacco industry, we undertook a pilot study involving New Zealand policymakers. Methods Five politicians (from different political parties) and five senior officials, who were involved in tobacco control policy, were recruited for semi-structured, anonymous, face-to-face interviews. Results Recruitment of appropriate senior policymakers was found to be possible. Interviewees were willing to answer questions fully and frankly about their knowledge and views of the tobacco industry. The preliminary data from this pilot suggest that some New Zealand politicians appeared to see contact with the industry as similar to contact with other groups, whereas the officials indicated at least a different style of relationship. Only one politician knew if their party accepted funding from tobacco companies. All but one of the interviewees thought that promotion of tobacco to under-16 s still occurs, albeit indirectly. The interviewees' knowledge of the investment in tobacco industries by New Zealand government agencies was low or absent. While most of those interviewed showed scepticism about tobacco company public relations efforts, this was absent in some cases. There was a wide understanding that the tobacco industry will use many tactics in the pursuit of profit, and to counteract government efforts to reduce the harm from smoking. Conclusion In-depth anonymous interviews appear to be feasible and can be productive for exploring sensitive tobacco-related policy issues with policymakers. The preliminary data from this group of New Zealand policymakers suggest important knowledge gaps, but also general distrust of this industry. From a tobacco control perspective, the results may suggest a greater focus by advocates on the funding of political parties by the

  9. The role of geomatics in supporting sustainable development policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aining

    Sustainable development has been on national policy agendas since 1992 when Agenda 21, an international agreement on sustainable development, was signed by over 150 countries. A key to sustainable development policy-making is information. Spatial information is an integral part of this information pool given the spatial nature of sustainable development. Geomatics, a technology dealing specifically with spatial information, can play a major role in support of the policy-making process. This thesis is aimed at advancing this role. The thesis starts with a discussion of theories and methodologies for sustainable development. The policy process for sustainable development is characterized, followed by an analysis of the requirements of sustainable development policy-making for geomatics support. The current status of geomatics in meeting these requirements is then examined, and the challenges and potential for geomatics to further address the needs are identified. To deal with these challenges, an integrated solution, namely the development of an on-line national policy atlas for sustainable development, is proposed, with a focus to support policy action formulation. The thesis further addresses one of the major research topics required for the implementation of the proposed solution, namely the exploration of the feasibility of a spatial statistics approach to predictive modelling in support of policy scenario assessments. The study is based on the case of national climate change policy formulation, with a focus on the development of new light duty vehicle sales mix models in support of transportation fuel efficiency policy-making aimed at greenhouse gas reductions. The conceptual framework and methodology for the case study are followed by the presentation of outcomes including models and policy scenario forecasts. The case study has illustrated that a spatial statistics approach is not only feasible for the development of predictive models in support of policy-making

  10. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

  11. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line...

  12. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line...

  13. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  14. The Role and Relevance of Rankings in Higher Education Policymaking. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsler, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Debates over the use of college rankings are often framed in binaries: ardent advocates versus outright rejectionists, rankers versus rankees. But the American higher education landscape is complex, and so too should be discussions of rankings. Moreover, the policymaking process is simultaneously intricate and predictable--information is processed…

  15. Conclusion: Recommendations for How Practitioners, Researchers, and Policymakers Can Promote Youth Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related…

  16. Stakeholder Partnerships as Collaborative Policymaking: Evaluation Criteria Applied to Watershed Management in California and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, William D.; Pelkey, Neil W.; Sabatier, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Public policymaking and implementation in the United States are increasingly handled through local, consensus-seeking partnerships involving most affected stakeholders. This paper formalizes the concept of a stakeholder partnership, and proposes techniques for using interviews, surveys, and documents to measure each of six evaluation criteria.…

  17. Protest and Policymaking: Explaining Fluctuation in Congressional Attention to Rights Issues, 1960-1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Brayden G.; Bentele, Keith G.; Soule, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Although past research has failed to establish a link between protest and policy change, we reexamine the relationship at the agenda-setting stage of policymaking. We assert that protestors compete for attention among lawmakers at the agenda-setting stage. An issue receives more attention when the frequency of protest activity around a particular…

  18. Making the Best of Schools: A Handbook for Parents, Teachers, and Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie; Lipton, Martin

    An inevitable tension exists between what parents want for their own child and the educational opportunities that schools now provide for all children. This handbook shows parents and policymakers how to cooperatively improve schools for all children by explaining effective educational practices and suggesting educational policy reforms. Schools…

  19. What Criteria Should Policymakers Use for Assisting Households with Educational Expenditure? The Case of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Low household expenditure on education compromises the learning and future labor market prospects of children. This study provides an empirical framework for determining the criteria that South Asian policymakers can use for assisting households with educational expenditure. A case study of urban Bangladesh using tobit and hurdle regression…

  20. Challenges and Opportunities in After-School Programs: Lessons for Policymakers and Funders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen; Raley, Rebecca

    This report describes program realities that policymakers must consider when shaping after-school initiatives in impoverished neighborhoods. Information comes from the multi-year evaluation of the Extended-Service Schools Adaptation Initiative, which is examining 60 after-school programs in 17 cities nationwide. Each initiative is adapting one of…

  1. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  2. A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

    2007-01-01

    On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

  3. The Structure of Educational Policy-making in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor

    1986-01-01

    Explains a theoretical framework for interpreting educational policy-making and, on the basis of that framework, identifies educational policy makers and policy changes in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s. Tests the theory by examining controversies about secondary education and the structure of the educational system. (JHZ)

  4. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  5. The Forgotten Factor in School Success--The Family. A Policymaker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy

    This guide, addressed to policymakers, describes specific programs to support the educational role of the family. Based on demonstrated research, it lays out low-cost methods to enhance the impact of schooling by involving the family. Following an executive summary, the volume presents six main sections, with recommendations for addressing the…

  6. The Cost of Class Size Reduction: Advice for Policymakers. RAND Graduate School Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichardt, Robert E.

    This dissertation provides information to state-level policymakers that will help them avoid two implementation problems seen in the past in California's class-size-reduction (CSR) reform. The first problem was that flat, per student reimbursement did not adequately cover costs in districts with larger pre-CSR class-sizes or smaller schools. The…

  7. Empowering Parents and Communities through Quality Public Reporting: A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Publicly reporting timely, actionable, and comprehensible data is one of the most powerful ways states can promote transparency, strengthen accountability, and ensure that everyone with a stake in education--parents, educators, policymakers, researchers, and members of the public and press-- has access to the information they need to make good…

  8. Children's Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking. A Wiskids Count Special Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Terry; Weidel, Carol; Cranley, M. Martha

    This Wiskid special report, the third in a series focusing on areas of child well-being in Wisconsin, focuses on issues related to childrens mental health. The first part of the report features the following articles: (1) Infant Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking (Raquel L. Reyes), introducing the concept of infant mental health and…

  9. Unlocking the Potential of the "What Works" Approach to Policymaking and Practice: Improving Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Maynard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Despite bipartisan support in Washington, DC, which dates back to the mid-1990s, the "what works" approach has yet to gain broad support among policymakers and practitioners. One way to build such support is to increase the usefulness of program impact evaluations for these groups. We describe three ways to make impact evaluations more…

  10. Is Small Beautiful? Policy-Making in Teacher Education in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menter, Ian; Hulme, Moira

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which political devolution has influenced the nature of education policy-making in Scotland, taking initial teacher education and early professional development as a case. Pre-devolution studies of the policy community in Scotland stressed the close relationships between the various stakeholders and the inherent…

  11. Creating and Sustaining High-Quality Charter School Governing Boards. A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines the laws, policies, and programs that states are using to create and sustain high-quality charter school governing boards. In particular, the guide focuses on the two aspects of governing boards that interviews with state administrators revealed are most critical for a board's success: board composition…

  12. Ideas for Policymakers: Enhancing the Impact of Think Tanks. Policy Insight, Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Silvia; Swanger, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    As think tanks have become more numerous, visible, and seemingly influential, scholars have begun to pay more attention to them--analyzing their characteristics, their modes of operation, and their roles in policymaking. This "Policy Insight" builds on this work and examines the role of think tanks in civil society, with an emphasis on their use…

  13. Building Skills for the New Economy: A Policymaker's Handbook. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    This paper presents specific steps elected officials, program managers, and other policymakers can take to craft a more effective workforce development system intended to give workers the tools they need to succeed in the new economy. First, the new labor market and work systems are discussed. The paper then lays out eight principles for all…

  14. Participatory Practices in Policy-Making: Negotiating Democratic Outcomes or Manoeuvring for Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppers, Wim

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the nature of participatory practices in policy-making in basic education and their impact on the directions and outcomes of policy. Drawing on theoretical developments in policy studies, the focus is on non-formal education as a policy challenge for EFA. Data are presented from a recent field study undertaken in Uganda of…

  15. Undocumented Immigrants and Higher Education Policy: The Policymaking Environment of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny

    2015-01-01

    This research presents findings of the policymaking environment in the area of postsecondary education benefits for undocumented immigrants in New York. In addition to describing the response to ever-changing federal, state, and local actions, this investigation also identifies five political forces (power of the governor, pressure of advocacy…

  16. Critical Policy Research and Special Education Policymaking: A Policy Trajectory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    Special educational policymaking is a discursive struggle, a power/knowledge interplay constituted within a realm of contradictory beliefs, values and discourses that frame the context within which the education of disabled children is envisioned and realised. The prevalent policy landscapes are precarious and ever-changing, as different…

  17. Policy-Making and Policy Learning in 14-19 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffe, David, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years 14-19 education has been the subject of numerous reviews, innovations and policy changes. What can be learnt from this experience and do current policies incorporate this learning? In this book, leading experts on 14-19 education and training explore the concept of policy-learning and examine recent policies and policy-making in…

  18. The Role of Social and Behavioral Science in Policymaking for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    An analysis of the present system of American television broadcasting reveals that social and behavioral science has had very limited influence on its regulatory policymaking. The television advertisement and its potential adverse effect on children have come to the attention of federal regulatory bodies, as well as consumer and children advocacy…

  19. Spin as Symbolic Capital: The Fields of Journalism and Education Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    How do policy-makers and journalists accumulate symbolic capital in terms of their strategic positioning in relation to policy making? How do they negotiate their impact on policy making across fields? How do they gain access to information, and how is this information constructed in terms of education and schooling? This paper focuses on…

  20. A Michigan School Money Primer for Policymakers, School Officials, Media and Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ryan S.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The system that finances Michigan's schools from kindergarten through 12th grade is a perennial topic of conversation among policymakers, parents, taxpayers and voters. A constructive discussion of this issue, however, requires a sound knowledge of the financial workings of Michigan's elementary and secondary school system. This knowledge is…

  1. Building and Using Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems: A Framework for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Data Collaborative (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    State policymakers are increasingly focused on closing the achievement gap and preparing all students to succeed in school and in life. However, college and career readiness begins long before students enter high school or even a classroom. Differences in children's abilities appear as early as the first year of life, and research has shown that…

  2. Pharmaceutical Companies’ Role in State Vaccination Policymaking: The Case of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders’ perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. Methods. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Results. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Conclusions. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers’ involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines. PMID:22420796

  3. Using Data to Improve Teacher Effectiveness: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation are leading efforts to ensure that every classroom has an effective teacher. Faced with the need to dramatically improve student outcomes, states have embraced a policy agenda that promotes and supports teacher quality in many ways, including developing evaluation and compensation policies, targeting professional…

  4. Uneasy Relationships? Conceptions of "Citizenship", "Democracy" and "Diversity" in the English Citizenship Education Policymaking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiwan, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Multicultural societies such as the UK typically claim to embrace a model of "participative", "inclusive" and "democratic" citizenship. In this article, I examine conceptions of participative citizenship, democracy and diversity and how they inter-relate in the citizenship education policymaking process in England. I illustrate that the dominant…

  5. More than a Message of Hope: A District-Level Policymaker's Guide to Understanding Resiliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn; Benard, Bonnie

    One of the greatest challenges facing today's district-level policymakers and educational leaders is helping America's youth avoid adverse outcomes such as school failure, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and delinquency. This document describes an alternative policy approach to address these problems--the building of resiliency in youth. Rather…

  6. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  7. THE ROLE AND POLICYMAKING ACTIVITIES OF STATE BOARDS OF EDUCATION. REPORT ON A SPECIAL STUDY PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHWEICKHARD, DEAN M.

    SPONSORED BY STATE BOARDS OF EDUCATION IN ELEVEN REPRESENTATIVE STATES (ARKANSAS, COLORADO, CONNECTICUT, GEORGIA, NEW MEXICO, OHIO, OREGON, PENNSYLVANIA, SOUTH DAKOTA, MINNESOTA, AND WEST VIRGINIA), THIS STUDY CENTERS AROUND SEVEN BASIC PROBLEMS--(1) CONCEPTS OF "POLICY" AND "POLICYMAKING" IN STATE AND LOCAL EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION ARE NOT…

  8. Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

  9. Convergent Institutional Logics in Public Higher Education: State Policymaking and Governing Board Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the convergent institutional logics driving decision making at an activist governing board in higher education. Through a case study of policymaking by a state-level coordinating board in Massachusetts, the article identifies four primary logics of action: mission differentiation, student opportunity, managerialism, and…

  10. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  11. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  12. Understanding China's Telecommunications Policymaking and Reforms: A Tale of Transition toward Liberalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bing

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes China's telecommunications policymaking mechanism by drawing on institutional theory and bargaining theory. Highlights include the telecommunications industry; implementation of telecommunications policy, including competition and foreign direct investment; and the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization on its…

  13. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  14. Starting a Second Chance Home: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Kathy; Kelly, Lisa M.

    This guide outlines 10 basic steps for policymakers and practitioners interested in creating Second Chance Homes in their areas. Second Chance Homes provide stable, nurturing environments for teen families with access to child care, education, job training, counseling, and advice on parenting and life skills. The guide is based on interviews with…

  15. Involving Teachers in Charter School Governance: A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines teacher involvement in charter school governance. Teacher involvement is defined to include the gamut of decision-making roles not typically afforded teachers in traditional public schools, including founding schools, serving on governing boards, and engaging in site-based collective bargaining. Different…

  16. A Research Agenda for the Common Core State Standards: What Information Do Policymakers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Ferguson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report looks specifically at the information and data needs of policymakers related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the types of research that could provide this information. The ideas in this report were informed by a series of meetings and discussions about a possible research agenda for the Common Core, sponsored by the…

  17. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts. PMID:25118135

  18. Interventions encouraging the use of systematic reviews by health policymakers and managers: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews have the potential to inform decisions made by health policymakers and managers, yet little is known about the impact of interventions to increase the use of systematic reviews by these groups in decision making. Methods We systematically reviewed the evidence on the impact of interventions for seeking, appraising, and applying evidence from systematic reviews in decision making by health policymakers or managers. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment Database, and LISA were searched from the earliest date available until April 2010. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion if the intervention intended to increase seeking, appraising, or applying evidence from systematic reviews by a health policymaker or manager. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. Results 11,297 titles and abstracts were reviewed, leading to retrieval of 37 full-text articles for assessment; four of these articles met all inclusion criteria. Three articles described one study where five systematic reviews were mailed to public health officials and followed up with surveys at three months and two years. The articles reported from 23% to 63% of respondents declaring they had used systematic reviews in policymaking decisions. One randomised trial indicated that tailored messages combined with access to a registry of systematic reviews had a significant effect on policies made in the area of healthy body weight promotion in health departments. Conclusions The limited empirical data renders the strength of evidence weak for the effectiveness and the types of interventions that encourage health policymakers and managers to use systematic reviews in decision making. PMID:21524292

  19. Survey of Argentine Health Researchers on the Use of Evidence in Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A.; Segura, Elsa; Winch, Peter; McLean, Robert K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion Despite Argentina’s long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between

  20. Policymaking as a Multi-Layered Activity. A Case Study from the Higher Education Sector in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with policymaking in the higher education sector as an activity which happens on many levels, with many and varying interests involved. As the present thematic issue highlights, language is present in higher education policymaking, whether explicitly or implicitly. This special issue's initial claim is that "Policy is what…

  1. Public School Funding and Legislated Policy-Making: A Case Study of the 1985 Indiana General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert O.

    To generate a theoretical model for future interpretation, this study analyzed the 1985 Indiana Legislature concerning educational policymaking in public school funding. Previous research indicates that the classical rational actor model of policymaking inadequately addresses multidimensional pressures at work in state legislatures. A model is…

  2. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the...

  3. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the...

  4. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons...

  5. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introductory offers. 502.101 Section 502.101... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer”...

  6. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable offer. 536.104 Section 536.104... Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention eligibility or entitlement must be terminated under § 536.207 or 536.208, the offer of a position is a...

  7. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... less than the amount claimed, a settlement authority will make a written final offer within his or...

  8. 48 CFR 570.306 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.306 Evaluating offers. (a) You must evaluate offers solely in accordance with the... solicitation. The file must include the basis for evaluation, an analysis of each offer, and a summary...

  9. Amplified Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  10. 12 CFR 563g.21 - Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of copies of offering circulars in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.21 Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings. A copy of the offering circular, or similar document, if any, used in connection...

  11. 12 CFR 563g.21 - Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of copies of offering circulars in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.21 Filing of copies of offering circulars in certain exempt offerings. A copy of the offering circular, or similar document, if any, used in connection...

  12. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    PubMed

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision. PMID:20199714

  13. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  14. Policymaking to preserve privacy in disclosure of public health data: a suggested framework.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Mehrdad A; Baykal, Nazife

    2015-03-01

    Health organisations in Turkey gather a vast amount of valuable individual data that can be used for public health purposes. The organisations use rigid methods to remove some useful details from the data while publishing the rest of the data in a highly aggregated form, mostly because of privacy concerns and lack of standardised policies. This action leads to information loss and bias affecting public health research. Hence, organisations need dynamic policies and well-defined procedures rather than a specific algorithm to protect the privacy of individual data. To address this need, we developed a framework for the systematic application of anonymity methods while reducing and objectively reporting the information loss without leaking confidentiality. This framework acts as a roadmap for policymaking by providing high-level pseudo-policies with semitechnical guidelines in addition to some sample scenarios suitable for policymakers, public health programme managers and legislators. PMID:24591703

  15. Health Planning in the United States and the Decline of Public-interest Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Evan M

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, health planning formed a major theme of American health policy. Planners aimed to improve health services and make them broadly available while using resources efficiently. This article provides a history, both intellectual and political, of the origins of planning, its rise, and—in the face of mounting problems—its decline. The story also illustrates broader changes in the culture of policymaking in American health care. From the Progressive Era through the 1960s, reform-minded experts in health worked to advance the public interest. Thereafter, they increasingly left behind public-interest ideals and their underlying extramarket values in favor of organizing and improving health care markets. Whatever the deficiencies of traditional policymaking may be, this study suggests the need to resurrect extramarket values in health policy. PMID:16771822

  16. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

  17. Coordinating Scientist and Policymaker Response Types and Times to Improve Watershed Management in Suburbanizing Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-05-01

    Watershed scientists and policymakers represent two separate professional cultures in the manner that they respond to new patterns of watershed land-use change. The lack of coordination between scientist and policymaker response types and times, which are the "how" and "when" of action, limit the water quality benefits of water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Science requires long-term experimentation to understand how suburbanization impacts the previously generalizable watershed relationships for undeveloped sites. Policy, on the other hand, must respond to constituents, in the form of clear watershed regulations, as soon as possible. As a result, management plans are often adopted that are not based on the best or latest scientific knowledge. Scientific investigations on pollutant loading mechanisms in New York City's suburbanized Croton water supply area and in Twin Cities suburbs indicate that policy makers would ideally provide spatially targeted guidelines that are sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Examples of these spatially distributed policy guidelines include set back distances for septic systems and loading rates for fertilizer application. This research recommends that policymakers and scientists better coordinate to set future research agendas that spatially quantify how heterogeneities in watershed response can be used to spatially guide geo-political zoning and development decisions.

  18. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Allison M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans) and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1) high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2) the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3) ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4) the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5) the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs. PMID:25485977

  19. “Developing Good Taste in Evidence”: Facilitators of and Hindrances to Evidence-Informed Health Policymaking in State Government

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Christopher J; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    Context Policymaking is a highly complex process that is often difficult to predict or influence. Most of the scholarship examining the role of research evidence in policymaking has focused narrowly on characteristics of the evidence and the interactions between scientists and government officials. The real-life context in which policymakers are situated and make decisions also is crucial to the development of evidence-informed policy. Methods This qualitative study expands on other studies of research utilization at the state level through interviews with twenty-eight state legislators and administrators about their real-life experiences incorporating evidence into policymaking. The interviews were coded inductively into the following categories: (1) the important or controversial issue or problem being addressed, (2) the information that was used, (3) facilitators, and (4) hindrances. Findings Hindrances to evidence-informed policymaking included institutional features; characteristics of the evidence supply, such as research quantity, quality, accessibility, and usability; and competing sources of influence, such as interest groups. The policymakers identified a number of facilitators to the use of evidence, including linking research to concrete impacts, costs, and benefits; reframing policy issues to fit the research; training to use evidence-based skills; and developing research venues and collaborative relationships in order to generate relevant evidence. Conclusions Certain hindrances to the incorporation of research into policy, like limited budgets, are systemic and not readily altered. However, some of the barriers and facilitators of evidence-informed health policymaking are amenable to change. Policymakers could benefit from evidence-based skills training to help them identify and evaluate high-quality information. Researchers and policymakers thus could collaborate to develop networks for generating and sharing relevant evidence for policy. PMID

  20. The Development of Evidence Briefs to Transfer Knowledge About Advanced Practice Nursing Roles to Providers, Policymakers and Administrators.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of health-related research knowledge between producers and users is a complex, dynamic and iterative process. There has been little research describing the preferred knowledge transfer strategies used by different stakeholder groups, including healthcare providers, policymakers and administrators. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of the content and preferred dissemination strategies of knowledge users of briefing notes about the effectiveness of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles in Canada. An on-line cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2011 to January 2012. Purposeful sampling was used to identify the target audience. The questionnaire included six items. The response rate was 44% (n=75/170). Participants identified that the briefing note should concisely summarize definitions for APN roles and information about the safety, effectiveness, cost savings and effective role implementation strategies. Multiple approaches were favoured to disseminate the information. Preferred dissemination strategies included personalized emails, meeting with briefing note recipients, engaging nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists in organizations where APN roles have been successfully implemented, engaging the media and using social media. The use of briefing notes has shown promise. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored briefing notes. PMID:26154117

  1. Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation’s food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. Methods The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Results Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were

  2. A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review. Methods Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts, CDS, DARE, Psychlit, Cochrane Library, NHSEED, HTA, PAIS, IBSS (Search dates: July 2000 - September 2012). Studies were included if they were primary research or systematic reviews about factors affecting the use of evidence in policy. Studies were coded to extract data on methods, topic, focus, results and population. Results 145 new studies were identified, of which over half were published after 2010. Thirteen systematic reviews were included. Compared with the original review, a much wider range of policy topics was found. Although still primarily in the health field, studies were also drawn from criminal justice, traffic policy, drug policy, and partnership working. The most frequently reported barriers to evidence uptake were poor access to good quality relevant research, and lack of timely research output. The most frequently reported facilitators were collaboration between researchers and policymakers, and improved relationships and skills. There is an increasing amount of research into new models of knowledge transfer, and evaluations of interventions such as knowledge brokerage. Conclusions Timely access to good quality and relevant research evidence, collaborations with policymakers and relationship- and skills-building with policymakers are reported to be the most important factors in influencing the use of evidence. Although investigations into the use of evidence have spread beyond the health field and into more countries, the main barriers and facilitators remained the same as in the earlier review. Few studies provide clear definitions of policy, evidence or policymaker. Nor are empirical data about

  3. Communicating Science to Policymakers: Lessons from a Year on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapani, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geoscientists communicate with policymakers for many reasons, including providing policymakers with scientific information that may help inform decision-making, and emphasizing the importance of their research in the context of funding needs. I spent the last year as the American Geophysical Union Congressional Fellow, and will discuss the fellowship program and my experiences communicating science to policymakers as a fellow working full-time on the legislative staff of Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA). In particular, I will compare and contrast the issues I faced as a fellow with those scientists may face in communicating with their elected officials and their staffs. As a fellow, my duties in the Senator's office with respect to handling scientific information boiled down to three essential functions: 1) synthesis: I was called upon to survey and synthesize scientific information related to various policy issues; 2) translation: I was expected to explain technical concepts and place scientific information in policy-relevant context; and 3) fact-checking: I was asked to assess the quality of scientific information. These are functions that most Congressional staff members cannot perform because they lack the background to do so. I will talk about how a Congressional office is organized, where I fit in, and my successes and failures in trying to put scientific information in policy context. One of the main limitations I faced was that I worked only to advance the legislative agenda of my host office, rather than more broadly to help policymakers understand and use science in their decision- making. Scientists who wish to communicate with their elected officials will not face this limitation, but may need to work to establish and maintain access. Successfully scheduling, meeting, and establishing a relationship with policymakers (and their staffs) is outside the usual experience of many scientists. I will discuss how and when to schedule a meeting, how to prepare

  4. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  5. Introductory Psychology (Second Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, G. Roger

    The second phase of field testing for an Introductory Psychology course offered in the regional open learning program of the University of Mid-America is reported. Learner characteristics and learner evaluations of the instructional units are compared with findings from the first course offering. Throughout the paper, learner comments are inserted…

  6. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  7. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  8. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  9. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  10. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  11. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  12. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  13. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  14. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  15. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  16. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The...

  17. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering statement. 230.252 Section 230.252 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.252 Offering statement. (a) Documents to be included....

  18. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  19. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  20. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  1. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  2. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503 Section 225.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts...

  3. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR 240.14d-1 through 240.14f-1. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  4. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.815 Section 12.815 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  5. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715... Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of the grantee organization or a designee at a level no lower than the grantee's designated awarding official determines otherwise, the...

  6. The Effects of Policy Knowledge on Attitudes and Behaviors towards Participation in Educational Policy-Making among Parents: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to examine the relations between knowledge, attitude and behavior towards educational policy-making. Understanding parents' knowledge in terms of attitude is important to predict behavior for participation in educational policy-making. Factors affecting parental participation in educational policy-making are…

  7. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  8. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act...

  9. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  10. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research, review existing product literature generally available in the industry to determine its adequacy... time for receipt of offers for commercial items, unless the acquisition is covered by the World...

  11. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  12. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Background Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Methods Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Results Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts’ opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Conclusion Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can

  13. Health policy and the policymaking system: A case study of primary care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Niall; Garvey, John; Palcic, Dónal

    2016-08-01

    In 2001 the Irish government published a reforming policy intended to modernise and expand the delivery of primary care in Ireland. Fifteen years later, the Irish health system remains beset by problems indicative of a fragmented and underdeveloped primary care system. This case study examines the formation and implementation of the 2001 primary care policy and identifies key risk categories within the policymaking process itself that inhibited the timely achievement of policy objectives. Our methodology includes a directed content analysis of the policy formation and implementation documents and the influencing academic literature, as well as semi-structured interviews with key personnel involved in the process. We identify three broad risk categories - power, resources and capability - within the policymaking process that strongly influenced policy formation and implementation. We additionally show that the disjoint between policy formation and policy implementation was a contested issue among those involved in the policy process and provided space for these risks to critically undermine Ireland's primary care policy. PMID:27342835

  14. Barriers and facilitators to evaluation of health policies and programs: Policymaker and researcher perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Milat, Andrew J; Moore, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Our research sought to identify the barriers and facilitators experienced by policymakers and evaluation researchers in the critical early stages of establishing an evaluation of a policy or program. We sought to determine the immediate barriers experienced at the point of initiating or commissioning evaluations and how these relate to broader system factors previously identified in the literature. We undertook 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of senior policymakers (n=9) and senior evaluation researchers (n=8) in Australia. Six themes were consistently raised by participants: political influence, funding, timeframes, a 'culture of evaluation', caution over anticipated results, and skills of policy agency staff. Participants also reflected on the dynamics of policy-researcher relationships including different motivations, physical and conceptual separation of the policy and researcher worlds, intellectual property concerns, and trust. We found that political and system factors act as macro level barriers to good evaluation practice that are manifested as time and funding constraints and contribute to organisational cultures that can come to fear evaluation. These factors then fed into meso and micro level factors. The dynamics of policy-researcher relationship provide a further challenge to evaluating government policies and programs. PMID:27461992

  15. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  16. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  17. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  18. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  19. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  20. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  1. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  2. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  3. Organizations Offering Literacy Training Courses: Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

    This directory for literacy workers and adult educators lists adult literacy organizations (not including universities and institutes) which offer training courses to literacy personnel in four geographic regions of the world. The directory begins with an overview of the survey which was done to collect the data used to compile the directory and…

  4. Study Offers Ways to Better European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    School systems that track students into certain classes and academic programs based on ability end up worsening disparities between high and low performers, according to a far-ranging report that offers recommendations for improving education across Europe. The study, commissioned by a branch of the European Union (EU), also found that bilingual…

  5. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  6. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy...

  7. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... (either to the trade in the event such commodity is not sold at retail by the packager or labeler, or...

  8. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  9. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receive equity loans as incentives. (iii) If an incentive offer for an equity loan is accepted, the equity... value appraisal conducted in accordance with subpart P of this part; (2) An incentive amount that will provide a fair return to the borrower; (3) An incentive amount that will not cause basic rents at...

  10. Five Reasons to Offer Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblender, Thomas E.; Glass, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has heard about online courses, and how they are good for students because they offer schedule flexibility or opportunities to take courses that a school would not normally provide. After all, students can take and complete these courses anytime, anywhere. As their popularity grows, several states have added online learning to their…

  11. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  12. 12 CFR 16.7 - Nonpublic offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without... transaction that satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part 230, Regulation D—Rules... bank issued securities subject to the limitations on resale of Commission Regulation D (17 CFR part...

  13. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  14. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  15. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  16. Benefits and Effectiveness of Administering Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: An Approach for Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Angeline; Levine, Orin

    2012-01-01

    For the influenza pandemic of 2009–2010, countries responded to the direct threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections. Delivering both vaccines together can potentially increase pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) immunization rates and prevent additional hospitalizations and mortality in the elderly and other high-risk groups. We used PubMed to review the literature on the concomitant use of PPV23 with seasonal influenza vaccines. Eight of 9 clinical studies found that a concomitant program conferred clinical benefits. The 2 studies that compared the cost-effectiveness of different strategies found concomitant immunization to be more cost-effective than either vaccine given alone. Policymakers should consider a stepwise strategy to reduce the burden of secondary pneumococcal infections during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. PMID:22397339

  17. Evidence and policymaking: The introduction of MMR vaccine in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Stuart; Tump, Janneke

    2010-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in the Netherlands two decades ago, using documentary and archival sources, this paper examines the way evidence is used in policymaking. Starting from the question of ‘what counts as evidence’, two central claims are developed. First, the decision to introduce MMR was not one but a series of decisions going back at least seven years, over the course of which the significance attached to various forms of evidence changed. Second, results of international studies were coming gradually to be of greater significance than evidence gathered from within the Netherlands itself. These developments had, and continue to have, major consequences for national scientific competences. PMID:20667640

  18. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  19. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  20. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public policy: eight models of interaction. In: Wagner P (ed) Social sciences and modern states: national experiences and theoretical crossroads. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991) do occur. 'Divergers' experience a gap between science and politics/policymaking; and it is their self-evident task to act as a bridge. They spread over four discourses: 'rational facilitators', 'knowledge brokers', 'megapolicy strategists', and 'policy analysts'. Others aspire to 'convergence'; they believe science and politics ought to be natural allies in preparing collective decisions. But 'policy advisors' excepted, 'postnormalists' and 'deliberative proceduralists' find this very hard to achieve. PMID:19655051

  1. Science does not speak for itself: translating child development research for the public and its policymakers.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who are engaged in the iterative construction of a core story of development, using simplifying models (i.e., metaphors) such as "brain architecture,"toxic stress," and "serve and return" to explain complex scientific concepts to nonscientists. The aim of this article is to stimulate more systematic, empirical approaches to the task of knowledge transfer and to underscore the need to view the translation of science into policy and practice as an important academic endeavor in its own right. PMID:21291426

  2. Media ratings for violence and sex. Implications for policymakers and parents.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Cantor, Joanne

    2003-02-01

    This article reviews research on the implementation of media-rating systems, parents' use and evaluation of them, and the impact of ratings on children. Although half or more of parents report using media-rating systems, understanding of various components of the systems is low, particularly for television ratings. A meta-analysis of national polls shows that parents overwhelmingly prefer that ratings specify content, rather than giving age recommendations. A second meta-analysis, of experiments testing the effects of ratings on children's interest in programs, shows that ratings indicating restricted or controversial content have a deterrent effect for children under age 8 but that, by age 11 and especially for boys, the ratings show a small enticement effect. This effect occurs for both age-based and content-based ratings. Implications for policymakers and parents are discussed. PMID:12747015

  3. Coalition Policy-Making under Constraints: Examining the Role of Preferences and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schermann, Katrin; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the formation and termination of coalitions, comparatively little attention has been paid to the policy output of multiparty governments. The present study attempts to narrow this research gap by analysing policy-making in three Austrian coalition governments between 1999 and 2008. Drawing on the party mandate literature, a manually coded textual analysis of election manifestos is conducted that yields a dataset containing over 1,100 pledges. The fulfilment of these pledges is taken as the dependent variable in a multivariate analysis. The results indicate that institutional determinants (adoption in the coalition agreement, ministerial control, and policy status quo) significantly influence the chances of pledge fulfilment and thus present a powerful predictor of coalition policy output. By contrast, factors related to parties’ preferences (consensus between parties, policy distance, pledge saliency, and majority support in parliament) do not have an impact. PMID:26770004

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights

  5. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  6. Offering Individual Genetic Research Results: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Beskow, Laura M.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of individual genetic research results to participants continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, centered primarily on the nature of the results: What are the criteria for the kinds of information that should, could, or should not be offered? There are widely diverging views about how to define these categories, as reasonable people can disagree about the value of various kinds of information. Data concerning participant preferences regarding receipt of results are important, but not determinative of researchers’ fundamental obligations. We suggest that research context is a vital consideration that has not been sufficiently incorporated into the discussion. We adapt an ancillary care framework to explore what different contexts might call for with regard to offering individual genetic research results. Our analysis suggests that, beyond exceptionally rare circumstances that give rise to a duty to rescue, a “one size fits all” threshold cannot be developed for decisions about return of individual results. Instead, researchers and IRBs must consider the scope of entrustment involved in the research, the intensity and duration of interactions with participants, and the vulnerability and dependence of the study population. The strength of this approach is that research context is foreseeable at the time a study is designed. Assessments of the nature and value of the information may still be required to decide whether to offer a particular result, but perhaps will be facilitated by a more grounded understanding of researchers’ obligations in different contexts. PMID:20592417

  7. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  8. Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: the policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. Methods A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Results Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Conclusion Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs. PMID:24570781

  9. Shock to the system: How catastrophic events and institutional relationships impact Japanese energy policymaking, resilience, and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklarew, Jennifer F.

    External shocks do not always generate energy system transformation. This dissertation examines how government relationships with electric utilities and the public impact whether shocks catalyze energy system change. The study analyzes Japanese energy policymaking from the oil crises through the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Findings reveal that policymakers' cooperation with and clout over electric utilities and the public can enable shocks to transform energy systems. When electric utilities wield clout, public trust in and influence on the government determine the existing system's resilience and the potential for a new system to emerge. Understanding this effect informs energy policy design and innovation.

  10. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  11. Petrofina offers to buy up Fina

    SciTech Connect

    Vames, S.

    1997-03-05

    Petrofina has offered to buy all publicly held shares of Fina, its US chemical and oil subsidiary. The shares are worth $266 million and amount to about 15% of the unit, which, combined with Petrofina`s existing 85% stake, would give Petrofina full ownership of Fina. While Petrofina does not give a reason for the buyout, analysts say the company may be planning to sell the entire unit outright or spin off some of its less profitable businesses. Ron Haddock, Fina`s CEO, denies the speculation. {open_quotes}This deal is merely a confirmation of Petrofina`s confidence in a commitment to our company.{close_quotes}

  12. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  13. Editor's Choice Offered as a Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2010-06-01

    Editor's Choice is now being offered as a service rather than on a subscription basis. As in the past, articles will be selected by collection editors with assistance from advisory panels. The selected articles will be listed on the AGU Web site (http://www.agu.org/pubs/journals/virtual/editors_choice/); these lists will be accessible to anyone. Those who are interested in reading the articles can access them through a personal or institutional subscription or can purchase them either individually or as part of a MultiChoice packet.

  14. Supporting Data Use While Protecting the Privacy, Security and Confidentiality of Student Information: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The education sector is beginning to embrace a culture that values, demands and uses data to support improved decisionmaking at every level--in classrooms, at kitchen tables and in state capitols. This shift is due in large part to state policymakers' leadership over the last six years in building statewide longitudinal data systems that collect…

  15. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  16. Crafting and Dismantling the Egalitarian Social Contract: The Changing State-Society Relations in Korea's Educational Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sang-Young

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changing dynamics between the Korean state and society in the field of educational policymaking. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Korean developmental state implemented a series of drastic egalitarian educational policies to address serious educational crises that were mainly driven by Korea's affluent middle class.…

  17. From Conflicting Interests to Collective Consent in Advanced Vocational Education: Policymaking and the Role of Stakeholders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2004-01-01

    This study considers the policymaking process of forming a new tertiary vocational education and training (VET) policy in Sweden during the 1990s, and the influence that external stakeholders played in that process. Since the late 1960s onwards, the VET system in Sweden has been mainly integrated with general and school-based education. Due to the…

  18. The Role of Assessment in Policy-Making for Languages Education in Australian Schools: A Struggle for Legitimacy and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The history of the role of assessment in policy-making for languages education in Australia over the past 20 years is characterised by a complex and shifting interface between language policy, curriculum and assessment. Three phases can be identified during which significant changes occur. These highlight an ongoing struggle for legitimacy for…

  19. Rejecting Exclusion, Embracing Inclusion: Conversation as Policy-Making at a US Baptist Conference on Sexuality and Covenant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Garcia, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    While much of the work on language, policy, and religion has focused on how discourse is influenced by policy, this article presents a case study of how discourse is used to construct policy itself. These policy-making discourses tend to occur in institutional settings; however, non-institutional discourse may also be instrumental in the…

  20. The Discrepancy of Meaning of Citizenship between the State and Society in China: Implications for Citizenship Education and Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sicong

    2013-01-01

    Although citizenship education has received significant official attention in China in recent years, its aim remains vague. At a time when social demands increasingly influence policymaking by the state, this article examines the meaning of citizenship to the state and society in China. Data are derived from a content analysis of the use of…

  1. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  2. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  3. Sustaining 21st Century Community Learning Centers: What Works for Programs and How Policymakers Can Help. Strategy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Amanda; Padgette, Heather Clapp

    2006-01-01

    This tool is part of a series of technical assistance resources on financing and sustaining out-of-school time and community school initiative. These tools and resources are intended to assist policymakers, program developers and community leaders in developing financing and sustainability strategies to support effective initiatives. For nearly a…

  4. Taking Stock of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: The Policy-Making Process in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Vandenabeele, Joke; Bruyninckx, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Flanders, a sub-national entity of Belgium. Our analysis shows how the policy-making process in Flanders is inextricably intertwined with three developments in environmental and educational policy: the increasing impact of ESD policy and…

  5. Why Policymakers Should Care about Children's Savings. Creating a Financial Stake in College: Report I of IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William, III

    2012-01-01

    "Creating a Financial Stake in College" is a four-part series of reports that focuses on the relationship between children's savings and improving college success. This series examines: (1) why policymakers should care about savings, (2) the relationship between inequality and bank account ownership, (3) the connections between savings and college…

  6. Caesars and Rubicon: The Hesitations of French Policymakers in Identifying a Third Way in Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derouet, Jean-Louis; Normand, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions made by French policymakers at a time when France was uncertain about which option to take. The purpose is to follow how actors chart their own course in an environment with plural justifications and how they mobilise resources in several spheres to set up ever-changing networks. The investigation will bear on all…

  7. Dissenter offers guidance in sentencing pleas.

    PubMed

    1995-10-20

    Federal Appeals Judge William R. Wilson, Jr. of St. Louis, MI denied defendant [name removed] a reduced sentence based on his HIV status. In the case of U.S. vs. [Name removed], Judge Wilson ruled that the potential onset of AIDS is not sufficient grounds for granting a prisoner a reduced jail sentence. Judge Wilson offers advice to defense lawyers who are seeking more lenient sentences for their HIV-positive clients. He suggests that defense attorneys submit extensive documentation from medical experts that specifies the impact that prison life will have on the HIV-positive inmate's longevity, access to treatment, nutrition, and overall prognosis. Notable cases that have considered extraordinary physical impairment for the purpose of altering sentences include U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Third Circuit Court, U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Sixth Circuit Court, and U.S. vs. [Name removed] from the Seventh Circuit Court. PMID:11362840

  8. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  9. What FM can offer DFCS design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1990-01-01

    The results of aircrafts and spacecrafts flight tests are reported. It is shown that the problems of Digital Flight Control Systems (DFCS) are the problems of systems whose complexity has exceeded the reach of the intellectual tools employed. It is also shown that intuition, experience, and techniques derived from mechanical and analog systems are insufficient for complex, integrated, digital systems. Formal Methods (FM) of computer science can offer DFCS systematic techniques for the construction of trustworthy software, including: techniques for the precise specification of requirements and the development of designs; systematic approaches to the design and structuring of distributed and concurrent systems; fault tolerance algorithms; and systematic methods of testing and analytic methods of verification.

  10. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  11. 21st Century Readiness for Every Student: A Policymaker's Guide. Principles and Recommendations for Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide will help policymakers understand and define the principles behind fusing core subject knowledge and higher-order thinking skills. Recommendations that reflect these principles will help policymakers support 21st century readiness for all students throughout a reauthorized ESEA and other federal legislation.

  12. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    PubMed Central

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research. PMID:16917647

  13. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J Timmons

    2008-05-27

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazon region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors-whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmentalist policy initiatives); the type and level of international support they have; and the organizational and financial resources that they are able to mobilize. In analysing the four periods, this article finds that while international influences and resources have been substantial in enabling environmentalist networks to flourish and influence the policy, their effectiveness has been nearly always outweighed by Brazilian developmentalist interests. The outcome in each phase has been a different form of stalemate on environmental protection, and the deforestation continued each time, albeit at slower rates. These findings suggest that the key for significantly lower rates of deforestation on the Amazon may be in the ability of pro-environment networks to neutralize opposition by creating an incentive structure that 'compensates' potential losers of policies that promote conservation. PMID:18267895

  14. BSE and variant CJD: emerging science, public pressure and the vagaries of policy-making.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William D

    2013-05-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was first recognized in 1987 in the United Kingdom and ultimately spread to cattle across Europe and to the Middle East, North America and Japan through the movement of infected animals and contaminated meat and bone meal. The human expression of BSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), likewise was first identified in the UK and now has been observed in many countries due to human exposure to BSE contaminated products or to vCJD contaminated human tissues through transplantation and injection. BSE provides an example of an emerging infectious disease that demonstrates the challenges of policy-making in the face of rapidly changing science and public outrage pushing for action. Lessons learned through the BSE epidemic include: (1) beware of facts as new science continues to emerge; (2) complex issues rarely have simple solutions; (3) evaluate epidemics from a macro-epidemiologic perspective to understand their complexity and devise effective risk management strategies; (4) options always exist for prevention/control; (5) risk communications play a vital role before and during an emerging disease epidemic; and (6) risk management progress involves both science and politics. Adoption of One Health approaches involving systems thinking and shared leadership hold the most promise for effectively managing complex emergency global health issues like BSE. PMID:23287715

  15. Use of Research Evidence in State Policymaking for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Kite, Hanna A.; Benning, Sara J.; Callanan, Rachel A.; Weisman, Susan R.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We describe how scientific evidence about obesity has been used in Minnesota legislative materials to understand how research evidence might more effectively be translated into policymaking. Methods. We selected 13 obesity-related bills introduced from 2007 to 2011 in Minnesota. Using state archives, we collected all legislative committee meeting materials and floor testimony related to each bill. We used a coding instrument to systematically analyze the content of a sample of 109 materials for their use of research evidence and non–research-based information. Results. Research evidence was mentioned in 41% of all legislative materials. Evidence was often used to describe the prevalence or consequences of obesity or policy impacts but not to describe health disparities. In 45% of materials that cited evidence, no source of evidence was indicated. By contrast, 92% of materials presented non–research-based information, such as expert beliefs, constituent opinion, political principles, and anecdotes. Conclusions. Despite an abundance of available research evidence on obesity, less than half of legislative materials cited any such evidence in discussions around obesity-related bills under consideration in Minnesota. PMID:25122015

  16. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Afghanistan, as follows: (a) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Afghanistan, award on that offer. (b)...

  18. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  19. Conflicts of interest and critiques of the use of systematic reviews in policymaking: an analysis of opinion articles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author financial conflicts of interest were associated with whether an opinion article was supportive or critical of the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We examined the nature of the arguments within each article, the types of disclosures present, and whether these articles are being cited in the academic literature. Methods We searched for articles that expressed opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We included articles that presented opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking and categorized each article as supportive or critical of such use. We extracted all arguments regarding the use of systematic reviews from each article and inductively coded each as internal or external validity argument, categorized disclosed funding sources, conflicts of interest, and article types, and systematically searched for undisclosed financial ties. We counted the number of times each article has been cited in the “Web of Science.” We report descriptive statistics. Results Articles that were critical of the use of systematic reviews (n = 25) for policymaking had disclosed or undisclosed industry ties 2.3 times more often than articles that were supportive of the use (n = 34). We found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives lacked published disclosures nearly twice as often (60% v. 33%) as other types of articles. We also found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives were less frequently cited in the academic literature than other article types (median number of citations = 5 v. 19). Conclusions It is important to consider whether an article has industry ties when evaluating the strength of the argument for or against the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We found that journal

  20. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  1. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in...

  2. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  3. Translating Disparities Research to Policy: A Qualitative Study of State Mental Health Policymakers' Perceptions of Mental Health Care Disparities Report Cards

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Anne; DeAngelo, Darcie; Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Report cards have been used to increase accountability and quality of care in health care settings, and to improve state infrastructure for providing quality mental health care services. However, to date, report cards have not been used to compare states on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. This qualitative study examines reactions of mental health care policymakers to a proposed mental health care disparities report card generated from population-based survey data of mental health and mental health care utilization. We elicited feedback about the content, format, and salience of the report card. Interviews were conducted with nine senior advisors to state policymakers and one policy director of a national non-governmental organization from across the U.S. Four primary themes emerged: fairness in state-by-state comparisons; disconnect between the goals and language of policymakers and researchers; concerns about data quality and; targeted suggestions from policymakers. Participant responses provide important information that can contribute to making evidence-based research more accessible to policymakers. Further, policymakers suggested ways to improve the structure and presentation of report cards to make them more accessible to policymakers and to foster equity considerations during the implementation of new health care legislation. To reduce mental health care disparities, effort is required to facilitate understanding between researchers and relevant stakeholders about research methods, standards for interpretation of research-based evidence and its use in evaluating policies aimed at ameliorating disparities. PMID:25383993

  4. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  5. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    PubMed

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gemma E; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James A; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  6. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  7. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to solicitations that include the provision at 252.225-7023, Preference for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  11. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (See 29 CFR 9.12(b) for regulatory provisions addressing circumstances in which a bona fide offer of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  12. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares. (1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  13. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares.(1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  14. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to sell...) Offering conversion shares. (1) The mutual holding company may offer to sell the conversion shares if the... and $50 per share. (6) The mutual holding company must include the estimated price in any...

  15. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  16. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  17. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  18. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  19. 49 CFR 604.43 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 604.43 Section 604.43..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.43 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has... respond to the offer of proof, may offer the evidence on the record when filing an appeal....

  20. 49 CFR 1018.71 - Referral of a compromise offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral of a compromise offer. 1018.71 Section... § 1018.71 Referral of a compromise offer. The Board may refer a debtor's firm written offer of compromise which is substantial in amount to GAO or to DOJ if the Board is uncertain whether the offer should...

  1. 31 CFR 316.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 316.1 Section 316..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES E § 316.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  2. 31 CFR 332.1 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 332.1 Section 332..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 332.1 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the...

  3. 46 CFR 201.144 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 201.144 Section 201.144 Shipping... PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.144 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an... accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  4. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with... identification and shall accompany the record as the offer of proof....

  5. 38 CFR 18b.64 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 18b.64... Procedures § 18b.64 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any... record as the offer of proof....

  6. Scholarship's Political Punch Examined: Policymakers, Educators Urged to Become Better "Consumers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Bemoaning the quality of education research--and offering prescriptions for improving it--have become popular pastimes in recent years. Now, some scholars say, it is time to take a hard look at the consumers who use, underwrite, ignore, or misconstrue the knowledge born from studies in the field. Often, political concerns dilute the impact of…

  7. Homework Is a Complicated Thing. Section 4: Grading the Policymakers' Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    1996-01-01

    Highlights five unsupported but popular notions about homework and offers five reality-based perspectives on the subject. It explains that homework is not the panacea to schools' problems, that it does not foster discipline and personal responsibility, and that parents do not always want their children to receive homework, particularly in the…

  8. Linking Costs and Postsecondary Degrees: Key Issues for Policymakers. Working Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author offers practical advice for decision-makers who are struggling to rein in college costs while improving productivity. He provides a step-by-step guide to different approaches for calculating costs, highlights the tremendous variability in cost across programs within institutions, and documents some of the "hidden costs" of…

  9. Nebraska Work Based Learning Manual. Planning and Implementation Guides for Educators, Employers, Policymakers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This manual contains a series of 10 detailed guides for school practitioners who are beginning to create work-based learning programs at their schools. Work-Based Learning Overview defines the different elements of work-based learning and describes the roles of program participants. Program Planning Guide offers suggestions about how to plan…

  10. Publication Bias: The Antagonist of Meta-Analytic Reviews and Effective Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, George C.; Kepes, Sven; Banks, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers three contributions for conducting meta-analytic reviews in education research. First, we review publication bias and the challenges it presents for meta-analytic researchers. Second, we review the most recent and optimal techniques for evaluating the presence and influence of publication bias in meta-analyses. We then…

  11. The Quality Improvement Demonstration Study: An example of evidence-based policy-making in practice

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W; Quimbo, Stella A; Solon, Orville

    2008-01-01

    unanticipated findings; introducing sustainable policy interventions based on the reform agenda; and providing results in real-time to policy makers through a combination of venues. Conclusion QIDS demonstrates that a large, prospective, randomized controlled policy experiment can be successfully implemented at a national level as part of sectoral reform. While we believe policy experiments should be used to generate evidence-based health policy, to do this requires opportunity and trust, strong collaborative relationships, and timing. This study nurtures the growing attitude that translation of scientific findings from the bedside to the community can be done successfully and that we should raise the bar on project evaluation and the policy-making process. PMID:18364050

  12. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  13. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  14. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  15. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  16. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  17. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%). Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2%) and policymakers in the government (40.5%). Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%), disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%), interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%), and involved them in their research (19.8%). Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%), practical constraints to implementation (66%), non-receptive policy environment (61.3%), and politically sensitive findings (57.7%) hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to improve the use of

  18. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  19. Pivotal Role of Policymakers as Leaders of P-20/Workforce Data Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    States are working to ensure that every citizen is prepared for the knowledge economy. Achieving this goal requires unprecedented alignment of policies and practices across the early childhood; elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education; and workforce sectors (P-20W). Consequently, many policy questions require data from multiple agencies…

  20. Disclosing Multiple Magma Degassing Sources Offers Unique Insights of What's Behind the Campi Flegrei Caldera Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, R.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Di Renzo, V.

    2013-12-01

    The definition of the structure and evolution of the magmatic system of Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), Southern Italy, has been a fundamental tool for the assessment of the short-term volcanic hazard. The ensemble of geophysical and petrologic data show that the CFc magmatic system has been -and still is- characterized by two major reservoirs at different depths. From the deep one (around 8 km), less evolved magmas crystallize and degas, supplying fluids and magmas to the shallow (3-4 km) reservoirs. A thorough reconstruction of processes occurring in magma chamber/s prior and/or during the CFc eruptions has shown that magmas entering shallow reservoirs mixed with resident and crystallized batches. Also the 1982-85 unrest episode has been related to a magma intrusion of 2.1 x 10^7 m^3 at 3-4 km depth, on the basis of geophysical data (ground deformation, gravimetry, seismic imaging) and their interpretation. Thermodynamic evaluation of magma properties, at the time of emplacement, suggests for such an intrusion a bulk density of 2.000 kg/m^3 . Such a value testifies the high amount of exsolved volatiles within the system. The available record of geochemical and isotopic data on surface fumaroles, coupled with melt inclusion data, has already shown that dual (deep and shallow) magma degassing from such two reservoirs, as well as their interaction with the hydrothermal system, allows explaining the relevant fluctuations observed at crater fumaroles after the 1982-85 magma intrusion. An important role was played by the rapid crystallization (around 30 years) of the shallow magma, such that in the recent years gas discharges should be fuelled mostly by the deep magma. Such a process is well recorded in the fumarolic gas composition of the last ~10 years, but has to be reconciled with the unrest dynamics which took place after year 2000, characterized by a slow but continuous ground uplift. All geochemical indicators (major species and noble gases) point to three possible scenarios: 1) only deep gases enter the hydrothermal system, because the shallow magmatic body is now fully crystallized and degassed. 2) The shallow magmatic body, invested by the arrival of deep gases, starts remelting and releasing gases into the hydrothermal system. 3) Magma from the deep reservoir slowly rises to shallow depths, well below the ductile-fragile transition for this area. These three scenarios carry contrasting implications for the volcanic hazard assessment, and demand a comprehensive treatment of geochemical and geophysical data in a way coherent with the knowledge that we have of the 1982-85 unrest

  1. 48 CFR 619.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 619.804 Section 619.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC....804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  2. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda R E; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss' models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  3. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda RE; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss’ models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  4. Iran's health policymakers' views on barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing in their context: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Mokhtari-Lakeh, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In most countries, one of the main reasons for developing more advanced roles for nurses is to improve access to care in the context of limited number of doctors. It is considered that the introduction of major policy initiatives, such as nurse prescribing, requires high-level discussion and policy development to ensure successful implementation. This study aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing based on policymakers' views in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was based on conventional content analysis approach. A purposeful sample of 14 participants were recruited, including 6 members of the Nursing Board, 6 members of the Iranian Nursing Organization, and 2 senior employees of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results: The four emerged categories as facilitators of nurse prescribing were labeled “positive views of health policymakers,” “human resources capabilities,” “non-medical prescribing experiences,” and “governmental and non-governmental organizational activities.” The four extracted categories as barriers of nurse prescribing were “socio-cultural factors,” “organizational factors,” “educational barriers,” and “human barriers.” Conclusions: Barriers and facilitating factors should be considered in order to bring about organizational policy changes and improve perspectives. Nurse prescribing requires the efforts of involved managers and authorities for development and modernization. The results of this study can serve as a compressed resource for policymakers and managers to identify the effective issues on nurse prescribing and can help them to plan for the implementation of nurse prescribing. PMID:27186208

  5. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a

  6. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  7. 43 CFR 3110.7 - Action on offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action on offer. 3110.7 Section 3110.7... Action on offer. (a) No lease shall be issued before final action has been taken on any prior offer to lease the lands or any extension of, or petition for reinstatement of, an existing or former lease...

  8. 26 CFR 300.3 - Offer to compromise fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offer to compromise fee. 300.3 Section 300.3... ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.3 Offer to compromise fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the... provided in this section, this fee applies to all offers to compromise accepted for processing. (b) Fee....

  9. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  10. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  11. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... Benefits Plans § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative...

  12. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  13. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in...

  14. 40 CFR 22.23 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR... information may make an offer of proof, which shall be included in the record. The offer of proof for excluded.... The offer of proof for excluded documents or exhibits shall consist of the documents or...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the number of years stated in § 3560.662. (2) If the incentive offer accepted includes an equity loan... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower...

  18. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United...

  19. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower accepts the Agency's offer of incentives, the borrower must complete the following actions: (1) Subject to...

  1. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  2. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  3. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the assurances required by §§ 15.4 and 15b.5 of this title (7 CFR part 15 relates to various non... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in...

  4. 5 CFR 339.302 - Authority to offer examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documented. An offer of an examination shall be carried out and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1613.706. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to offer examinations. 339.302... QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Medical Examinations § 339.302 Authority to offer examinations. An agency may,...

  5. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  6. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  7. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  8. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be invited through public notice given by the Secretary of the Treasury. Such public notices may be issued by...

  9. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  10. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  11. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  12. 31 CFR 309.6 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public notice of offering. 309.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.6 Public notice of offering. When Treasury bills are to be offered, tenders therefor will be...

  13. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  14. 12 CFR 810.2 - Public notice of offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public notice of offering. 810.2 Section 810.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.2 Public notice of offering. On the occasion of an offering of FFB bills, tenders therefor will be invited through public...

  15. 49 CFR 1503.641 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 1503.641 Section 1503.641... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.641 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the ALJ may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  16. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  17. 48 CFR 619.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 619.804-2 Section 619.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... offering. (a) When applicable, this notification shall identify that the offering is in accordance with...

  18. 14 CFR 16.231 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 16.231 Section 16.231... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.231 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the hearing officer may offer the evidence on the...

  19. 27 CFR 70.436 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.436 Section 70.436 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cigarette Papers and Tubes § 70.436 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise...

  20. 27 CFR 70.415 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.415 Section 70.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Beer § 70.415 Offers in compromise. Procedure in the case of offers in compromise of liabilities...

  1. 7 CFR 15.122 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 15.122 Section 15.122 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.122 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the hearing...

  2. 27 CFR 70.449 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offers in compromise. 70.449 Section 70.449 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.449 Offers in compromise. The procedures in the case of offers in...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent offering period... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-11 Subsequent offering period. A bidder may elect to provide a subsequent offering period of at least three business days during which tenders will be...

  4. 48 CFR 19.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 19.804-2....804-2 Agency offering. (a) After completing its evaluation, the agency must notify the SBA of the... statement that prior to the offering no solicitation for the specific acquisition has been issued as a...

  5. 34 CFR 101.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer of proof. 101.85 Section 101.85 Education... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 101.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the presiding...

  6. 31 CFR 902.5 - Further review of compromise offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Further review of compromise offers... COMPROMISE OF CLAIMS § 902.5 Further review of compromise offers. If an agency is uncertain whether to accept a firm, written, substantive compromise offer on a debt that is within the agency's...

  7. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155... Transportation Adjudications § 406.155 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the administrative law judge may offer the evidence for the record on appeal....

  8. Final-Offer Arbitration: "Sudden Death" in Eugene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary; Feuille, Peter

    1974-01-01

    A case study on final offer arbitration experiences in Eugene, Oregon, is presented and discussed. Basic criticisms leveled against the final-offer system are opposed by the authors and evidence is given in support of the use of final-offer arbitration. (DS)

  9. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities...

  10. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in any exchange offer for a class of securities of a foreign private issuer, or in any exchange of securities...

  11. Reducing the global burden of Preterm Birth through knowledge transfer and exchange: a research agenda for engaging effectively with policymakers.

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Horváth, Hacsi; Schmidt, Laura; Myers, Janet; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the world's leading cause of death in children under 5 years. In 2013, over one million out of six million child deaths were due to complications of PTB. The rate of decline in child death overall has far outpaced the rate of decline attributable to PTB. Three key reasons for this slow progress in reducing PTB mortality are: (a) the underlying etiology and biological mechanisms remain unknown, presenting a challenge to discovering ways to prevent and treat the condition; (ii) while there are several evidence-based interventions that can reduce the risk of PTB and associated infant mortality, the coverage rates of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries remain very low; and (c) the gap between knowledge and action on PTB--the "know-do gap"--has been a major obstacle to progress in scaling up the use of existing evidence-based child health interventions, including those to prevent and treat PTB.In this review, we focus on the know-do gap in PTB as it applies to policymakers. The evidence-based approaches to narrowing this gap have become known as knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). In our paper, we propose a research agenda for promoting KTE with policymakers, with an ambitious but realistic goal of reducing the global burden of PTB. We hope that our proposed research agenda stimulates further debate and discussion on research priorities to soon bend the curve of PTB mortality. PMID:26987438

  12. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students.

    PubMed

    Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J

    1999-10-01

    To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided. PMID:10640169

  13. Problems of multiple transfusions.

    PubMed

    GARDNER, F H

    1958-02-01

    The use of blood infusion in large amounts is increasing sharply. Increased knowledge of blood group antigens has alerted physicians to the possible hazards of hemolytic reactions to subgroups that must be eliminated by proper cross-matching techniques. Multiple transfusions of preserved blood often defeat their purpose in control of bleeding, for thrombocytopenia is enhanced. Careful selection of blood or preparations of plasma concentrates offer increased protection to the recipient.Plastic bag equipment increases the yield of viable platelets and keeps blood in usable condition for longer periods of storage. The use of multiple transfusions has complicated the selection of preserved blood to control pigment metabolism. PMID:13500210

  14. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  16. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  17. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  18. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  20. Employer Health Insurance Offerings and Employee Enrollment Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; Stein, Rebecca; Nicholson, Sean; Bundorf, M Kate

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine how the characteristics of the health benefits offered by employers affect worker insurance coverage decisions. Data Sources The 1996–1997 and the 1998–1999 rounds of the nationally representative Community Tracking Study Household Survey. Study Design We use multinomial logistic regression to analyze the choice between own-employer coverage, alternative source coverage, and no coverage among employees offered health insurance by their employer. The key explanatory variables are the types of health plans offered and the net premium offered. The models include controls for personal, health plan, and job characteristics. Principal Findings When an employer offers only a health maintenance organization married employees are more likely to decline coverage from their employer and take-up another offer (odds ratio (OR)=1.27, p<.001), while singles are more likely to accept the coverage offered by their employer and less likely to be uninsured (OR=0.650, p<.001). Higher net premiums increase the odds of declining the coverage offered by an employer and remaining uninsured for both married (OR=1.023, p<.01) and single (OR=1.035, p<.001) workers. Conclusions The type of health plan coverage an employer offers affects whether its employees take-up insurance, but has a smaller effect on overall coverage rates for workers and their families because of the availability of alternative sources of coverage. Relative to offering only a non-HMO plan, employers offering only an HMO may reduce take-up among those with alternative sources of coverage, but increase take-up among those who would otherwise go uninsured. By modeling the possibility of take-up through the health insurance offers from the employer of the spouse, the decline in coverage rates from higher net premiums is less than previous estimates. PMID:16174133

  1. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  2. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following... and surveying, air carrier operations, aircraft sales and services, sale of aviation...

  3. Clarifying the best interests standard: the elaborative and enumerative strategies in public policy-making.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chong-Ming; Dunn, Michael C; Chin, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    One recurring criticism of the best interests standard concerns its vagueness, and thus the inadequate guidance it offers to care providers. The lack of an agreed definition of 'best interests', together with the fact that several suggested considerations adopted in legislation or professional guidelines for doctors do not obviously apply across different groups of persons, result in decisions being made in murky waters. In response, bioethicists have attempted to specify the best interests standard, to reduce the indeterminacy surrounding medical decisions. In this paper, we discuss the bioethicists' response in relation to the state's possible role in clarifying the best interests standard. We identify and characterise two clarificatory strategies employed by bioethicists -elaborative and enumerative-and argue that the state should adopt the latter. Beyond the practical difficulties of the former strategy, a state adoption of it would inevitably be prejudicial in a pluralistic society. Given the gravity of best interests decisions, and the delicate task of respecting citizens with different understandings of best interests, only the enumerative strategy is viable. We argue that this does not commit the state to silence in providing guidance to and supporting healthcare providers, nor does it facilitate the abuse of the vulnerable. Finally, we address two methodological worries about adopting this approach at the state level. The adoption of the enumerative strategy is not defeatist in attitude, nor does it eventually collapse into (a form of) the elaborative strategy. PMID:27145811

  4. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part XVIII: rejections and offers.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-01-01

    If the candidate for a job is rejected, the individual should not necessarily be discouraged. It may be that the position was particularly competitive or that there were factors beyond the control of the applicant. However, it is important that the candidate carefully considers all aspects of the application and interview process for that position to see if anything could be learned from the process. If the applicant is not successful in being given a job offer for multiple positions, then there must be a careful analysis of the reasons. It could be caused by training, communication issues, a competitive job market-especially in that location, a problematic job record, and so on. If the job seeker is given an offer of employment, it is important to carefully consider all aspects of the offer and consider respectful, professional negotiations on some items. PMID:25290295

  5. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  6. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  7. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  8. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  9. Understanding EMRAM and how it can be used by policy-makers, hospital CIOs and their IT teams.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Lorren

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM)SM developed by HIMSS Analytics has become a universally recognized maturation model of a hospital's electronic medical record (EMR) environment. Numerous health care organizations (HCOs) throughout the world spend significant time and resources to improve their EMRAM standing. Yet, to the health care information technology (HIT) outsider, the value of the EMRAM and the outcomes of the efforts tied to advancing EMR capabilities are virtually unknown. This is a significant concern when efforts around the EMR compete for scarce health care resources. This article purposes to establish the EMRAM as a valuable framework for policy-makers and hospital leaders. To accomplish this end, we begin with a necessarily brief description of the EMRAM process and stages. Our attention will then turn to examples of the model's use and presence throughout the world, before ending on the ERMAM's benefits for varied health care audiences. PMID:24377140

  10. Collapsing the Vertical–Horizontal Divide: An Ethnographic Study of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Maternal Health

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.; Storeng, Katerini T.

    2008-01-01

    Using the international maternal health field as a case study, we draw on ethnographic research to investigate how public health researchers and policy experts are responding to tensions between vertical and horizontal approaches to health improvement. Despite nominal support for an integrative health system approach, we found that competition for funds and international recognition pushes professionals toward vertical initiatives. We also highlight how research practices contribute to the dominance of vertical strategies and limit the success of evidence-based policymaking for strengthening health systems. Rather than support disease-and subfield-specific advocacy, the public health community urgently needs to engage in open dialogue regarding the international, academic, and donor-driven forces that drive professionals toward an exclusive interest in vertical programs. PMID:18309123

  11. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  12. 48 CFR 212.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Streamlined evaluation of offers. 212.602 Section 212.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... for Evaluation and Solicitation for Commercial Items 212.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers....

  13. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  14. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  15. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  16. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  17. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  18. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  19. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  20. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  1. 22 CFR 229.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to course offerings. 229.415 Section 229.415 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  2. 45 CFR 2555.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to course offerings. 2555.415 Section 2555.415 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND... Prohibited § 2555.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall not provide any course or...

  3. 22 CFR 146.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to course offerings. 146.415 Section 146.415 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  4. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  5. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  6. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  7. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  8. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  9. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The... provide veterinary services under the VMLRP. As part of the offer, successful VMLRP applicants will...

  10. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  11. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  12. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  13. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  14. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  15. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  16. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  17. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  18. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  20. Current Offerings in Automated Authority Control: A Survey of Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sarah Hager

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of library systems and software vendors that examined the sources, management, and use of authority records in their systems and the functions of an authority control module within an integrated system. Several tables and graphs offer summaries and comparisons of vendors' offerings and capabilities. The questionnaire used is…

  1. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0...

  2. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0...

  3. 31 CFR 346.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 346.0 Section 346.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  4. 31 CFR 343.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 343.0 Section 343.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS General Information § 343.0 Offering of bonds....

  5. 31 CFR 348.0 - Offering of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of securities. 348.0 Section 348.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 348.0 Offering of securities. The Secretary of the Treasury (the Secretary) under authority of...

  6. 31 CFR 341.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 341.0 Section 341.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  7. 31 CFR 348.0 - Offering of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of securities. 348.0 Section 348.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 348.0 Offering of securities. The Secretary of the Treasury (the Secretary) under authority of...

  8. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.0 Offering of certificates. The Secretary of the...

  9. 31 CFR 345.0 - Offering of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of certificates. 345.0 Section 345.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.0 Offering of certificates. The Secretary of the...

  10. 31 CFR 343.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 343.0 Section 343.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS General Information § 343.0 Offering of bonds....

  11. 31 CFR 346.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 346.0 Section 346.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  12. 31 CFR 341.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 341.0 Section 341.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... BONDS § 341.0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury, under the authority of the...

  13. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  14. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494... Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity...

  15. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  16. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494....601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity and CCC bonus amounts...

  17. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494... Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices and CCC bonuses. For each Invitation, CCC will establish sales prices for the eligible commodity...

  18. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  19. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  20. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  1. 43 CFR 3110.9 - Future interest offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest offers. 3110.9 Section 3110.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3110.9 Future interest offers....

  2. Especially for Women. Programs and Services Offered by School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    This report describes programs and services school boards offer to women employees or women in the community. A special focus is innovative, nontraditional courses and services. The first section discusses offerings for school board staff. An overview of affirmative action/employment equity programs addresses their objectives and describes…

  3. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a registration... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of...

  4. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... notice of a proposed offering that satisfies the requirements of Commission Rule 135 (17 CFR 230.135); (2... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of securities... of Commission Rule 431 (17 CFR 230.431); (5) Subsequent to the effective date of a...

  5. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is offered. Products will be... be provided in any other area which is not covered by a cooperative agreement if the...

  6. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  7. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  8. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  9. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  10. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline. 54.405 Section 54.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline. All...

  11. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  12. 14 CFR 13.225 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of proof. 13.225 Section 13.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.225 Offer of...

  13. Assuring Quality in Online Offerings: Insights from a University's Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Heather L.; Hall, Michelle; Longman, Debbie G.

    2015-01-01

    As the growth of online education offered by universities accelerates and spreads, universities are increasingly grappling with concerns related to widespread availability and the maintenance of academic quality. The "Quality Matters at Southeastern" Program fosters quality through a peer review process and offers a certification process…

  14. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  15. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  16. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the taxpayer which would have been so determined if the United States had accepted the last... the outcome of a separate pending Federal, state, or other judicial or administrative proceeding. For... taxpayer to the United States during the qualified offer period; (ii) Specifies the offered amount of......

  17. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  18. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  19. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  20. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offer and sale of all securities in the transaction satisfies the Commission's Regulation D (17 CFR 230.501-230.506), except for the notice requirements of Commission Rule 503 (17 CFR 230.503) and the limitations on resale in Commission Rule 502(d) (17 CFR 230.502(d)). (b) Sales to 35 persons. The offer...

  1. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  2. 7 CFR 58.5 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 58.5 Section 58.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Grading Service § 58.5 Where service is offered. Subject to the provisions of this part, inspection...

  3. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  4. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 3. Adolescent pregnancy: the responsibilities of policymakers.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, F; Brindis, C

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, adolescent pregnancy and childbearing have emerged as major health and social policy issues, sparking debates in local and national forums. The concern is a response to rates of adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, and out-of-wedlock childbirth that have risen sharply in the past 20 years. The deleterious effects of early parenthood, especially in poor communities, have been amply documented; education, future employment, and health status are among the areas affected. Efforts at intervention have ranged from preventing pregnancy by encouraging celibacy to trying to enhance the options available to those who are already parents. Many of these efforts have fallen short, proving unequal to the complexity of the issues being tackled. Relatively successful approaches have also been developed, however, and the synthesis describes several. Strategies addressing the needs of adolescents comprehensively and involving a multiplicity of concerned players appear to be most effective in the long term. There is a pressing need for more program documentation to substantiate this and other promising strategies. PMID:3679836

  5. Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Lane, Christopher; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guy

    2008-11-01

    Many low-income countries need to substantially increase expenditure to meet universal coverage goals for essential health services but, because they have very low-incomes, most will be unable to raise adequate funds exclusively from domestic sources in the short to medium term. Increased aid for health will be required. However, there has long been a concern that the rapid arrival of large amounts of foreign exchange in a country could lead to an increase in inflation and loss of international competitiveness, with an adverse impact on exports and economic growth, an economic phenomenon termed 'Dutch disease'. We review cross-country and country-level empirical studies and propose a simple framework to gauge the extent of macroeconomic risks. Of the 15 low-income countries that are increasing aid-financed health spending, 7 have high macroeconomic risks that may constrain the sustained expansion of spending. These conditions also apply in one-quarter of the 42 countries not presently increasing spending. Health authorities should be aware of the multiple risk factors at play, including factors that are health-sector specific and others that generally are not. They should also realize that there are effective means for mitigating the risk of Dutch disease associated with increasing development assistance for health. International partners also have an important role to play since more sustainable and predictable flows of donor funding will allow more productivity enhancing investment in physical and human capital, which will also contribute to ensuring there are few harmful macroeconomic effects of increases in aid. PMID:19030692

  6. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230.802 Section 230.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF...

  7. How can hydrology inform economic policymaking? An assessment of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern United States using two concepts of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Nicoletti, C.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vörösmarty, C.; Fekete, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the Dublin-Rio Principles for water management, there is a global call to recognize the economic dimension of the interaction between societies and water resources. As frequently stated in the scientific water literature, the complexity of this interaction demands conceptual integration among diverse disciplines to both understand the critical issues and to design a set of policies to regulate the use of this resource. Water economic policy, economists are frequently told, is to be based not only on sound economic principles and knowledge, but also on hydrological realities. This paper offers a contribution for such an integration by showing how the use of two hydrological concepts for available water changes the evaluation of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern US. The analysis further suggests patterns of source-dependency that are proposed as relevant for economic policy design. Using USGS estimations for water economic withdrawals for 1985 through 2005, and benefiting from runoff data for the same period obtained from the WBMplus hydrological model, two sets of county-specific water stress indicators (WSIs) are built as ratios of withdrawals to two concepts of available water: internal runoff generated within each county, and internal runoff plus incoming surface flows generated elsewhere. A vis-a-vis value comparison between these sets yields two main findings. First, changes in the values of WSIs higher than 50% are observed for almost 70% of the 433 counties considered, a fact that suggests that small-scale stress assessments are highly sensitive to the utilized concept of water supply. Second, counties’ dependence on water sources is heterogeneous and can be classified into three groups by whether they mainly depend on internal runoff, on incoming flows, or on the mining of groundwater. The classification criterion interprets counties as mainly depending on internal runoff or on groundwater when their pairs of WSIs are of

  8. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  9. Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157462.html Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans Antibodies from 1995 survivor protected ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An antibody treatment for Ebola might be able to protect people for up ...

  10. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease Preliminary research tries new approach to rebuild ... therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble Boy" disease, researchers report. A small, early-stage trial ...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of... equipment shall, at a minimum, have the capability: (1) To allow simultaneous reception of any two...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of... equipment shall, at a minimum, have the capability: (1) To allow simultaneous reception of any two...

  13. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  14. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental ... HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research suggests that injecting adult stems cells directly into the brain may give stroke patients ...

  15. More Healthy Foods Offered in School Lunches, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... made salads in favor of salad bars, but Southern schools were more likely to offer pre-made ... a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Medical Center, in New York City. Studies have found ...

  16. New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159079.html New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers Warns ... this Memorial Day weekend, you might notice a new safety label on the package. This month, the ...

  17. 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those with Severe Hemophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159027.html 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those With Severe Hemophilia ... while the other uncovers the promise of a new drug To use the sharing features on this ...

  18. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental procedure helped restore ... into the brain may give stroke patients a new shot at recovery long after their stroke occurred. " ...

  19. Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160004.html Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia Bacteria's ability to spread within cells ... with mice suggests there is hope for a vaccine to protect against chlamydia, a common, sexually transmitted ...

  20. Research Offers Clues to Dementia with Language Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157752.html Research Offers Clues to Dementia With Language Loss In this rarer form of ... centers may help drive a rare form of dementia that causes people to lose their ability to ...

  1. 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those with Severe Hemophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159027.html 2 New Findings Offer Hope for Those With Severe Hemophilia ... while the other uncovers the promise of a new drug To use the sharing features on this ...

  2. Rocky Mountains offer plenty to keep producers looking for more

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the Rocky Mountain region, geological variety offers everything from coalbed methane to helium and carbon dioxide, and producers keep plugging hoping that an upswing in prices could make the region more lucrative.

  3. Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157538.html Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection: Report Lab ... and laboratory ratings don't indicate whether a football helmet is better at protecting high school players ...

  4. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158415.html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease ... WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new gene therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble ...

  5. Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157691.html Health Care Apps Often Offer Little Privacy Protection: Study Many ... of 2012, about 7 percent of American primary care doctors recommended health apps to their patients. Such apps address a ...

  6. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  7. Unique Challenges in Special Education Teacher Induction--Why a New Model Is Needed. Induction Insights. Supporting Special Education Teachers - Policymakers [PII-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many mentoring policies do not differentiate between novice special education teachers and their general education counterparts. Although novice special education teachers may benefit in part from general induction practices, their experience is limited when there is little attention given to their unique instructional needs. Policymakers can…

  8. Beliefs of Indiana Public School Policymakers on the Role of the School in Education about Sexuality: Its Responsibility, Its Quality, Its Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David; Jones, Herb

    1983-01-01

    A survey of school board members and superintendents of public schools in Indiana shows that school policymakers would support broad-based, well-developed programs in human sexuality taught by well-qualified teachers. Attitudes toward school responsibility for sex education and program goals are summarized. (PP)

  9. Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je T'aime Moi Non Plus. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    The French Government has had a paradoxical relationship with globalization. Globalization is perceived as both a threat to react against and a cradle for new policy ideas. French policymakers have a love-hate relationship with the European higher education reforms that started in the 1990s, a mixed sentiment that French singer Serge Gainsbourg…

  10. Legal Discourse and Decisions, Teacher Policymaking, and the Multilingual Classroom: Constraining and Supporting Khmer/English Biliteracy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilton-Sylvester, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Looks at ways U.S. English language policies at the micro and macro levels have influenced the development of Khmer biliteracy for children and adults. Shows the power of teacher policymaking and the role of the legal system in shaping what is possible in multilingual classrooms in the United States. (Author/VWL)

  11. Implications of Research for Nursing Practice, Education, and Policymaking. Proceedings of the Annual SCCEN Research Conference (2nd, Birmingham, Alabama, December 3-4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Colette, Ed.

    Proceedings are presented from a research conference to promote nursing research as a basis for policymaking in nursing practice, education, and health care services. The keynote address, by Patricia Jones, describes issues in health care financing in the 1980s and urges researchers to provide the kind of data and guidelines needed to support…

  12. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  13. The Case for a New Approach to Sex Education Mounts; Will Policymakers Heed the Message? Guttmacher Policy Review. Volume 10, Number 2, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Heather D.

    2007-01-01

    Abstinence-only-until-marriage education is a key component of social conservatives' global moral and religious agenda, and the cornerstone of the Bush administration's approach to reducing U.S. teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Fearful of being portrayed as anti-abstinence, policymakers have continued to support these…

  14. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  15. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence). We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i) a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii) a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a) allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid') until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b) making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c) new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and communicating these

  16. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management. PMID:20159661

  17. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the ... and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble ...

  18. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  19. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Podar, Klaus; Breitkreutz, Iris; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2009-07-25

    Multiple myeloma is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells, and mounting evidence indicates that the bone marrow microenvironment of tumour cells has a pivotal role in myeloma pathogenesis. This knowledge has already expanded treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Prototypic drugs thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have each been approved for the treatment of this disease by targeting both multiple myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Although benefit was first shown in relapsed and refractory disease, improved overall response, duration of response, and progression-free and overall survival can be achieved when these drugs are part of first-line regimens. This treatment framework promises to improve outcome not only for patients with multiple myeloma, but also with other haematological malignancies and solid tumours. PMID:19541364

  20. How Much Is Our Fairness Worth? The Effect of Raising Stakes on Offers by Proposers and Minimum Acceptable Offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games

    PubMed Central

    Novakova, Julie; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1–$10,000) and the shares, as well as the subjects’ gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts). Results We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p = 0.001, p<0.001, p = 0.0034). The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p = 0.007). Conclusion Our results suggest that people’s behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders’ sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus. PMID:23580080