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Sample records for official solid organ

  1. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  2. Application of Organic Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, S.

    1982-01-01

    If ions are considered to be solid material which transport electric charges, polymer materials can then be considered as organic solid electrolytes. The role of these electrolytes is discussed for (1) ion concentration sensors; (2) batteries using lithium as the cathode and a charge complex of organic material and iodine in the anode; and (3) elements applying electrical double layer capability.

  3. Solid organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in solid organ donation and transplantation. In addition to confirming the clinical diagnosis of brain death, imaging examinations are used to assess potential organ donors and recipients, evaluate donated organs, and monitor transplantation outcomes. This article introduces the history, biology, ethics, and institutions of organ donation and transplantation medicine. The article also discusses current and emerging imaging applications in the transplantation field and the controversial role of neuroimaging to confirm clinically diagnosed brain death. PMID:22461345

  4. 8 CFR 332.4 - Cooperation with official National and State organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation with official National and State organizations. 332.4 Section 332.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATURALIZATION ADMINISTRATION § 332.4 Cooperation with official National and...

  5. 8 CFR 332.4 - Cooperation with official National and State organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperation with official National and State organizations. 332.4 Section 332.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATURALIZATION ADMINISTRATION § 332.4 Cooperation with official National and...

  6. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  7. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  8. Official FFA Manual for the National Organization for Students of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    Topics covered in the 1975 Future Farmers of America (FFA) official manual are: a historical sketch of the organization, a description of the FFA organization, the national FFA center, national constitution and bylaws, the eight essentials of a good chapter, organizing a local chapter, chapter program activities, chapter meetings, parliamentary…

  9. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2015-12-01

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise

  10. Solid organ transplant training objectives for residents.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Vicente, R; Ballesteros, M A; Sabater, J; Roca, O; Rello, J

    2012-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing the current state of the educational objectives in the training of medical residents in solid organ transplantation (SOT), we conducted a review of the status of the official programs of the specialities involved in SOT, focusing particularly on lung transplantation. A survey of medical residents was also conducted to allow reflexion about the topic. We obtained 44 surveys from 4 University Hospitals with active programs in SOT, mainly from intensive care medicine and anesthesiology residents. We detected an important number of courses oriented to organ donation but very limited in terms of basic training in the management of the immediate postoperative period, principles of immunosuppression and updates on immunosuppressive therapy and complications (particularly rejection and infection). We also identified that these educational aspects should be directed not only to medical residents from specialities with a close retation to SOT, but also to all who may at some time have a relation to such patients. The use of information and communication techniques (ICTs), on-line courses and also simulations should be instruments to take into account in the biomedical training of medical residents. We conclude that we need a specific training program in complications of SOT, as well as fundamental principles in immunology and immunosuppressor pharmacology. PMID:22980670

  11. Hydrogenation of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.R.K.; Kawa, W.

    1980-02-01

    Eight organic solid wastes, six cellulosic and two noncellulosic, were hydrogenated batchwise with and without a catalyst. Conversions obtained range from 64 to 98 % of moisture- and ash-free (maf) raw material; oil yields, 10 to 59 %; and gaseous hydrocarbon yields, 7 to 16 %. Based on batch hydrogenation results, the oil production from large-scale hydrogenation of the wastes is projected to be 1.6 to 3.5 bbl/ton of maf raw material; the gaseous-hydrocarbon production, 2000 to 4100 standard cubic feet (scf). Activities of the two catalysts (SnCl/sub 2// and a combination of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S) used in the hydrogenation of the wastes are discussed. Also discussed are the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the hydrogenation, potential market for the product oil, and possible improvement of the oil yield. Elemental compositions of the hydrogenation oils and types of hydrocarbons including oxygenated hydrocarbons found in the oils are presented. The energy equivalent of the organic solid wastes generated in the United States in 1973 is shown to be 27 % of the nation's total 1972 energy production.

  12. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774... limited to: (1) The provision of services involving Iran necessary for carrying out the official business... the international organizations covered in this section, provided that funds transfers to or from...

  13. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774... limited to: (1) The provision of services involving Iran necessary for carrying out the official business... the international organizations covered in this section, provided that funds transfers to or from...

  14. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization Program Coordinators. 301.608 Section 301.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  15. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization Program Coordinators. 301.608 Section 301.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  16. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Polak, Wojciech G; Gładysz, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    HIV infection has been traditionally considered to be an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplantation. Recent advances in HIV treatment, as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), significantly reduced HIV-related mortality and morbidity. At the same time the number of HIV-infected patients with end-stage organ diseases constantly increased. Current data describing solid organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients demonstrated comparable outcome to that in the HIV-negative population. In light of this, solid organ transplantation should be considered as a treatment option for selected HIV-positive patients with end-stage organ disease. PMID:15171000

  17. Protective glove material permeation by organic solids.

    PubMed

    Fricker, C; Hardy, J K

    1992-12-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of permeation characteristics of glove materials by organic solids. The system employs a stainless steel exposure cell and allows rapid and uniform contact of either solid disks or powders with minimal membrane bowing. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for monitoring the permeation process, which provided detection limits of 0.9-1.2 ng for the organic solids evaluated. By using an automated system for instrument control and data collection, breakthrough times, steady-state times, and steady-state permeation rates have been determined for five common glove materials when exposed to nine organic solids. PMID:1471595

  18. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Government and certain international organizations. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury....509 Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations. All transactions and activities otherwise prohibited by this part that are for the conduct of the official...

  19. [Solid organ transplantation in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Kuman, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, small interesting and their combinations) are standard therapy of terminal organ failure. Czech Republic belongs to the states with developed transplantation program. The results correspond with current knowledge and results of leading centers in the world, as demostrated in this article. Organ donor shortage is major factor limiting development of organ transplantations as elsewhere in the Europe or in the world. PMID:26375707

  20. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prohibited by this part that are for the conduct of the official business of the United Nations, provided... purposes of this section only, the term “United Nations” means its principal organs, including...

  1. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  2. The neurology of solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avila, J David; Živković, Saša

    2015-07-01

    Transplantation is the rescue treatment for end-stage organ failure with more than 110,000 solid organs transplantations performed worldwide annually. Recent advances in transplantation procedures and posttransplantation management have improved long-term survival and quality of life of transplant recipients, shifting the focus from acute perioperative critical care needs toward long-term chronic medical problems. Neurologic complications affect up to 30-60 % of solid organ transplant recipients. Common etiologies include opportunistic infections and toxicities of antirejection medications, and wide spectrum of toxic and metabolic disturbances. Most complications are common to all allograft types, but some are relatively specific for individual allograft types (e.g., central pontine myelinolysis in liver transplant recipients). Close collaboration between neurologists and other transplant team members is essential for effective management. Early recognition of complications and accurate diagnosis leading to timely treatment is essential to reduce the morbidity and improve the overall transplant outcome. PMID:26008808

  3. Editorial: Immune monitoring in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shipkova, Maria; Wieland, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Solid organ transplantation is inevitably associated with the activation of the immune system of the graft recipient. An advanced knowledge of the immunological mechanisms leading to acute and chronic rejection, the advent of powerful immunosuppressive drugs, and refined surgical techniques have made solid organ transplantation a standard therapy to replace irretrievable loss of vital functions. The immune system is a complex network involving immune cells, cytokines, chemokines, antibodies, and the complement system. Monitoring and ideally influencing the allo-response of the organ recipient against the donor antigens may help to personalize the immunosuppressive therapy including the disclosure of those patients who are suitable for weaning or even discontinuation of immunosuppression. Immune monitoring comprises as plethora of candidate biomarkers capable of reflecting the donor specific and non-donor specific net activation state of the immune system in transplant recipients both before and after initiation of the immunosuppressive therapy. This special issue of Clinical Biochemistry on Immune Monitoring addresses the basic effects of immune activation in solid organ transplantation and critically reviews candidate biomarkers for immune monitoring and their analytical as well as clinical performance. PMID:26794634

  4. Conservation Directory, 1979. 24th Edition. A List of Organizations, Agencies, and Officials Concerned with Natural Resource Use and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jeannette, Ed.

    This annual directory contains lists of organizations, agencies, and officials concerned with natural resource use and management. Five indexes are included in the first section of the directory: (1) U.S. Federal Departments, Agencies, and Offices; (2) International, National, Interstate Organizations, and Commissions; (3) State, Territorial…

  5. DNA Extraction: Organic and Solid-Phase.

    PubMed

    Altayari, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction remains a critical step in DNA profiling of biological material recovered from scenes of crime. In the forensic community several methods have gained popularity, including Chelex(®), organic extraction, and solid-phase extraction. While some laboratories streamlined their processes and only use one method we have retained several methods and continue to use these for different sample types. In this chapter we present three methods that have been used for several years in our laboratory. PMID:27259731

  6. Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.H.

    1992-12-01

    A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

  7. Neurological Complications of Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Amy A.; Graus, Francesc; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2013-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of conditions whose successful therapy has produced a growing population of chronically immunosuppressed patients with potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with the type of organ transplanted, the indication for the procedure, and the intensity of long-term required immunosuppression, major neurological complications occur with all SOT types. The second part of this 2-part article on transplantation neurology reviews central and peripheral nervous system problems associated with SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors’ institutional experience. Particular emphasis is given to conditions acquired from the donated organ or tissue, problems specific to types of organs transplanted and drug therapy-related complications likely to be encountered by hospitalists. Neurologically important syndromes such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) are readdressed in the context of SOT. PMID:24167649

  8. Cutaneous melanoma in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Russo, I; Piaserico, S; Belloni-Fortina, A; Alaibac, M

    2014-08-01

    Solid organ transplant patients are at greatly increased risk of developing a wide variety of skin cancers, particularly epithelial skin cancers. On the other hand, it is well known that an intact immune system limits the development of benign melanocytic lesions. The eruptive nevi phenomenon, which we can observe in solid organ transplant recipients, is indicative of the relationship between melanocyte proliferation and immune system. Regression of melanocytic nevi after restoration of complete immune responsiveness is a further clinical example the role of immunosurveillance on melanocyte proliferation. However, melanoma incidence in organ transplant recipients appears only 2-3 folds higher than in general population. To this regard, organ transplant recipients who develop de novo melanomas thicker than 2mm seem to have a significantly worse outcome with a greatly increased risk of dying of metastatic melanoma, whereas those who develop a ≤2 mm thickness melanoma seem to have a prognosis similar to that of the general population. Furthermore, there is no evidence supporting an increased risk of melanoma recurrences after transplant in patients with a history of low-risk melanoma. Melanoma is also one of the most frequent and lethal donor-derived malignancies suggesting that a history of invasive melanoma should be considered an absolute contraindication to donation. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between immunosuppression and melanoma and to discuss its clinical implications for the management of transplant-associated melanoma. PMID:25068225

  9. Magnetoelectric effect in organic molecular solids

    PubMed Central

    Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    The Magnetoelectric (ME) effect in solids is a prominent cross correlation phenomenon, in which the electric field (E) controls the magnetization (M) and the magnetic field (H) controls the electric polarization (P). A rich variety of ME effects and their potential in practical applications have been investigated so far within the transition-metal compounds. Here, we report a possible way to realize the ME effect in organic molecular solids, in which two molecules build a dimer unit aligned on a lattice site. The linear ME effect is predicted in a long-range ordered state of spins and electric dipoles, as well as in a disordered state. One key of the ME effect is a hidden ferroic order of the spin-charge composite object. We provide a new guiding principle of the ME effect in materials without transition-metal elements, which may lead to flexible and lightweight multifunctional materials. PMID:26876424

  10. Magnetoelectric effect in organic molecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio

    2016-02-01

    The Magnetoelectric (ME) effect in solids is a prominent cross correlation phenomenon, in which the electric field (E) controls the magnetization (M) and the magnetic field (H) controls the electric polarization (P). A rich variety of ME effects and their potential in practical applications have been investigated so far within the transition-metal compounds. Here, we report a possible way to realize the ME effect in organic molecular solids, in which two molecules build a dimer unit aligned on a lattice site. The linear ME effect is predicted in a long-range ordered state of spins and electric dipoles, as well as in a disordered state. One key of the ME effect is a hidden ferroic order of the spin-charge composite object. We provide a new guiding principle of the ME effect in materials without transition-metal elements, which may lead to flexible and lightweight multifunctional materials.

  11. Magnetoelectric effect in organic molecular solids.

    PubMed

    Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    The Magnetoelectric (ME) effect in solids is a prominent cross correlation phenomenon, in which the electric field (E) controls the magnetization (M) and the magnetic field (H) controls the electric polarization (P). A rich variety of ME effects and their potential in practical applications have been investigated so far within the transition-metal compounds. Here, we report a possible way to realize the ME effect in organic molecular solids, in which two molecules build a dimer unit aligned on a lattice site. The linear ME effect is predicted in a long-range ordered state of spins and electric dipoles, as well as in a disordered state. One key of the ME effect is a hidden ferroic order of the spin-charge composite object. We provide a new guiding principle of the ME effect in materials without transition-metal elements, which may lead to flexible and lightweight multifunctional materials. PMID:26876424

  12. Psychosocial Challenges in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Kristin; Weinland, Stephan R; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-09-01

    Organ transplantation is often a life-saving surgery for individuals with end-stage organ disease. However, for most types of solid organ transplant, the demand for organs outweighs the supply, resulting in the need to institute a waiting list for suitable patients who cannot immediately receive an organ. Individuals who need transplants must undergo an assessment process that includes medical, surgical, and psychosocial evaluations. The transplant psychosocial evaluation considers whether surgical candidates are able and willing to care for the transplanted organ for many years. The evaluation must also consider a number of psychosocial risk factors that can lead to complications, which may cause premature loss of the graft. Some of these risk factors include a history of poor medical adherence, psychopathology (including substance use disorders), poor social support, and cognitive dysfunction. This article briefly summarizes the assessment of each of these risk factors and how they can be mitigated to ensure the best outcomes for patients and their families. PMID:26370201

  13. Bloodstream infections after solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kritikos, Antonios; Manuel, Oriol

    2016-04-01

    Solid-organ transplantation (SOT) has become the preferred strategy to treat a number of end-stage organ disease, because a continuous improvement in survival and quality of life. While preventive strategies has decreased the risk for classical opportunistic infections (such as viral, fungal and parasite infections), bacterial infections, and particularly bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain the most common and life-threatening complications in SOT recipients. The source of BSI after transplant depends on the type of transplantation, being urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and intraabdominal infections the most common infections occurring after kidney, lung and liver transplantation, respectively. The risk for candidemia is higher in abdominal-organ than in thoracic-organ transplantation. Currently, the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens, such as extended-spectrum betalactamase-producing Enterobacteriaciae and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, is causing particular concerns in SOT recipients, a population which presents several risk factors for developing infections due to MDR organisms. The application of strict preventive policies to reduce the incidence of post transplant BSIs and to control the spread of MDR organisms, including the implementation of specific stewardship programs to avoid the overuse of antibiotics and antifungal drugs, are essential steps to reduce the impact of post transplant infections on allograft and patient outcomes. PMID:26766415

  14. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15–78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  15. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  16. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  17. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  18. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  19. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the official business of the United States Government or the United Nations by contractors or grantees... conduct of the official business of the United Nations specialized agencies, programmes, and funds by... States Government or the United Nations, or its specialized agencies, programmes, and funds, to any...

  20. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Paya, C V

    1997-01-01

    Solid-organ transplantation is a therapeutic option for many human diseases. Infections are a major complication of solid-organ transplantation. All candidates should undergo a thorough infectious-disease screening prior to transplantation. There are three time frames, influenced by surgical factors, the level of immunosuppression, and environmental exposures, during which infections of specific types most frequently occur posttransplantation. Most infections during the first month are related to surgical complications. Opportunistic infections typically occur from the second to the sixth month. During the late posttransplant period (beyond 6 months), transplantation recipients suffer from the same infections seen in the general community. Opportunistic bacterial infections seen in transplant recipients include those caused by Legionella spp., Nocardia spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of viral infections. Herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus and others are also significant pathogens. Fungal infections, caused by both yeasts and mycelial fungi, are associated with the highest mortality rates. Mycobacterial, pneumocystis, and parasitic diseases may also occur. PMID:8993860

  1. Transplantation immunology: Solid Organ and bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Javier; Buckley, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    Development of the field of organ and tissue transplantation has accelerated remarkably since the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was discovered in 1967. Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. The roles of the different components of the immune system involved in the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host disease have been clarified. These components include: antibodies, antigen presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, signaling mechanisms and cytokines that they release. The development of pharmacologic and biological agents that interfere with the alloimmune response and graft rejection has had a crucial role in the success of organ transplantation. Combinations of these agents work synergistically, leading to lower doses of immunosuppressive drugs and reduced toxicity. Reports of significant numbers of successful solid organ transplants include those of the kidneys, liver, heart and lung. The use of bone marrow transplantation for hematological diseases, particularly hematological malignancies and primary immunodeficiencies, has become the treatment of choice in many of these conditions. Other sources of hematopoietic stem cells are also being used, and diverse immunosuppressive drug regimens of reduced intensity are being proposed to circumvent the mortality associated with the toxicity of these drugs. Gene therapy to correct inherited diseases by infusion of gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells has shown efficacy in two forms of severe combined immunodeficiency, providing an alternative to allogeneic tissue transplantation. PMID:20176267

  2. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  3. Spin Hall Effect in Disordered Organic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. G.

    2015-07-01

    We study the spin Hall effect (SHE) in disordered π -conjugated organic solids, where individual molecules are oriented randomly and electrical conduction is via carrier hopping. The SHE, which arises from interference between direct (i →j ) and indirect (i →k →j ) hoppings in a triad consisting of three molecules i , j , and k , is found to be proportional to λ (ni×nj+nj×nk+nk×ni), where λ is the spin admixture of π electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling and ni is the orientation vector of molecule i . Electrical conductivity σq q (q =x ,y ,z ) and spin Hall conductivity σsh are computed by numerically solving the master equations of a system containing 32 ×32 ×32 molecules and summing over contributions from all triads in the system. The obtained value of the spin Hall angle Θsh is consistent with experimental data in PEDOT:PSS, with a predicted temperature dependence of log Θsh˜T-1 /4 .

  4. Extraction of organic compounds from solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    Pyridine, benzene, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and n-methylpyrrolidone have been compared for the extraction of polycyclic organic materials (POMs) from urban air, diesel, and stack particulate samples. Both sonic and Soxhlet techniques have been examined for both natural environmental particulates and particulates spiked with selected POMs. The extraction results vary for different polycyclic compounds adsorbed on different solid matrices, so no single solvent or extraction technique could be unambiguously recommended. However, comparative average results for 14 compounds spiked onto fly ash at 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 ..mu..g/g showed pyridine to have 1.5 times more extraction efficiency than benzene. These and other reported results suggest that pyridine deserves more attention as an extractant for particulate samples. In separate tests, recoveries of POMs from fly ash were not improved by deactivation with aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide, thiocyanate and carbonate, and sodium nitrite prior to the extraction. 39 references, 5 tables.

  5. Invasive Mold Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Crabol, Yoann; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mold infections represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Whereas there is a large literature regarding invasive molds infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, data in solid organ transplants are scarcer. In this comprehensive review, we focused on invasive mold infection in the specific population of solid organ transplant. We highlighted epidemiology and specific risk factors for these infections and we assessed the main clinical and imaging findings by fungi and by type of solid organ transplant. Finally, we attempted to summarize the diagnostic strategy for detection of these fungi and tried to give an overview of the current prophylaxis treatments and outcomes of these infections in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:25525551

  6. Solid organ fabrication: comparison of decellularization to 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jangwook P; Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Ogle, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ fabrication is an ultimate goal of Regenerative Medicine. Since the introduction of Tissue Engineering in 1993, functional biomaterials, stem cells, tunable microenvironments, and high-resolution imaging technologies have significantly advanced efforts to regenerate in vitro culture or tissue platforms. Relatively simple flat or tubular organs are already in (pre)clinical trials and a few commercial products are in market. The road to more complex, high demand, solid organs including heart, kidney and lung will require substantive technical advancement. Here, we consider two emerging technologies for solid organ fabrication. One is decellularization of cadaveric organs followed by repopulation with terminally differentiated or progenitor cells. The other is 3D bioprinting to deposit cell-laden bio-inks to attain complex tissue architecture. We reviewed the development and evolution of the two technologies and evaluated relative strengths needed to produce solid organs, with special emphasis on the heart and other tissues of the cardiovascular system. PMID:27583168

  7. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  8. Process for hot briquetting of organic solid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Janusch, A.

    1982-11-23

    For the purpose of briquetting organic solid materials, such as brown coal or bituminous coal, the materials are heated by hot water and/or steam and under super-atmospheric pressure to temperatures exceeding 160/sup 0/ C. After discharging the organic solid materials, which have become dried to a great extent, the generated steam is separated by sucking off the steam without substantially cooling effect, bitumen-forming substances present within the organic solid materials thereby rapidly becoming homogeneously distributed. These homogeneously distributed binding agents give the compressed briquettes obtained a high strength and good mechanical properties when using substantially reduced compacting pressures as compared with known briquetting processes.

  9. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  10. Anesthetic Considerations for the Parturient After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moaveni, Daria M; Cohn, Jennifer H; Hoctor, Katherine G; Longman, Ryan E; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 40 years, the success of organ transplantation has increased such that female solid organ transplant recipients are able to conceive and carry pregnancies successfully to term. Anesthesiologists are faced with the challenge of providing anesthesia care to these high-risk obstetric patients in the peripartum period. Anesthetic considerations include the effects of the physiologic changes of pregnancy on the transplanted organ, graft function in the peripartum period, and the maternal side effects and drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents. These women are at an increased risk of comorbidities and obstetric complications. Anesthetic management should consider the important task of protecting graft function. Optimal care of a woman with a transplanted solid organ involves management by a multidisciplinary team. In this focused review article, we review the anesthetic management of pregnant patients with solid organ transplants of the kidney, liver, heart, or lung. PMID:27285002

  11. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR..., the International Labor Organization or the World Health Organization in or involving Iran by U.S..., but are not limited to: (1) The provision of services involving Iran necessary for carrying out...

  12. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR..., the International Labor Organization or the World Health Organization in or involving Iran by U.S..., but are not limited to: (1) The provision of services involving Iran necessary for carrying out...

  13. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or technology listed on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided in paragraph...

  14. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  15. Selective capture of volatile iodine using amorphous molecular organic solids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Shen; Kuo, Chih-Hong; Hsieh, Chang-Chih; Horng, Yih-Chern

    2012-03-28

    A simple shape-persistent organic molecular container is capable of selective absorption and storage of I(2(g)) over water vapor and NO gas even in its amorphous solid state. In addition, the strongly associated I(2) can be efficiently released from the charged container in organic solvents under ambient conditions. PMID:22331261

  16. Beyond the Officially Sacred, Donor and Believer: Religion and Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Messina, E

    2015-09-01

    Religious concerns might represent an important issue when donation for transplantation is discussed. Even if no religious tradition formally forbids organ donation and transplantation, members of the same religious group may have differing and often conflicting opinions in their own interpretation of how their religion encourages and/or supports organ donation and transplantation, as discussed in this article. It also should be considered that even if a religion refuses to define concrete rules about organ donation and transplantation, there are a great number of factors that may influence the decision-making process. Examples may include negative perceptions of the cutting and removal of organs or ignorance about the transplantation system, both of which would influence the decision-making process concerning transplantation. Knowledge of these facts may provide useful information, perhaps increasing transplant numbers. PMID:26361651

  17. 76 FR 13932 - Disclosure of Information to State Officials Regarding Tax-Exempt Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... IRS may disclose to an ASO, but make such disclosures contingent on the ASO adopting the safeguard... proceeding, or the proceeding arose out of, or in connection with, determining the civil liability of the organization or a taxable person, or collecting such civil liability, under state laws governing...

  18. Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids

    PubMed Central

    Cody, George D.; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M. O.; Nittler, Larry R.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites. PMID:21464292

  19. SORPTION OF ORGANICS ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: CORRELATION WITH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients arid with modified Randic indexes. he correlations developed are useful for assessing the rol...

  20. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  1. Solid Solution Model for Interstellar Dust Grains and Their Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Minoru M.; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2006-03-01

    We present a dust grain model based on the fundamental principle of solid solutions. The model is applicable to the mineral (silicate) component of the dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). We show that nanometer-sized mineral grains, which condense in the gas-rich outflow of late-stage stars or expanding gas shells of supernova explosions, do not consist of just high melting point oxides or silicates. Instead they form solid solutions with gas-phase components H2O, CO, and CO2 that are omnipresent in environments where the grains condense. Through a series of thermodynamically well-understood solid-state processes, these solid solutions become ``parents'' of organic matter that precipitates inside the grains. Thus, the mineral dust grains and their organics become part of the same thermodynamically defined solid phase and, hence, physically inseparable. This model can account for many astronomical observations, which no prior model can adequately address, specifically: (1) Organics in the diffuse ISM are identified by a 3.4 μm IR band, characteristic of aliphatic hydrocarbons composed of CH2 and of CH3 groups. (2) The methylene-to-methyl ratio is nearly constant, implying a CH2:CH3 ratio of ~5:2. (3) The intensity ratio between the 9.7 and the 3.4 μm band is nearly constant, implying a silicate-to-organics ratio of ~10:1. (4) In dense clouds the complex 3.4 μm band is replaced by a weak, featureless 3.47 μm band. (5) Whereas silicate grains identified by their 9.7 μm band tend to align in magnetic fields, grains with a strong 3.4 μm organic signature do not tend to align.

  2. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  3. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  4. Approaches to Establishing the Chemical Structure of Extraterrestrial Organic Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Wirick, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The majority of extraterrestrial organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites resides in a chemically complex, insoluble and perhaps macromolecular phase. We have been applying a series of independent solid state NMR experiments that are designed to provide a self consistent chemical characterization of this complex material. To date we have thoroughly analyzed 8 organic residues from different meteorites, including a CR2 (EET92042), CIl(Orgueil), CM2 (Murchison), Tagish Lake, CM2 (AlH83100), CM2 (Cold Bokkefeld), CM2 (Mighei), CM3 (Y86720). In fig 1. (1)H to (13)C cross polarization NMR spectra of four of these are shown. Note that there exists an enormous range in chemistry exhibited in organic solid [evident by the breadth of the spectral features both in the aliphatic region (sp(sup 3)) and the aromatic region (sp(sup 2))]. There is also considerable differences in the carbon chemistry across the meteorite groups.

  5. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented. PMID:16244921

  6. Universal noninvasive detection of solid organ transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Thomas M.; Khush, Kiran K.; Valantine, Hannah A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to monitor the health of transplanted organs, particularly with respect to rejection by the host immune system. Because transplanted organs have genomes that are distinct from the recipient's genome, we used high throughput shotgun sequencing to develop a universal noninvasive approach to monitoring organ health. We analyzed cell-free DNA circulating in the blood of heart transplant recipients and observed significantly increased levels of cell-free DNA from the donor genome at times when an endomyocardial biopsy independently established the presence of acute cellular rejection in these heart transplant recipients. Our results demonstrate that cell-free DNA can be used to detect an organ-specific signature that correlates with rejection, and this measurement can be made on any combination of donor and recipient. This noninvasive test holds promise for replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplant recipients and may be applicable to other solid organ transplants. PMID:21444804

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Prasad, G V

    2012-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. To assist in their management, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become increasingly used in both clinical research settings and practice. ABPM has been used to better define post-transplant hypertension incidence and prevalence in different solid organ transplantation populations. ABPM provides additional information on cardiovascular risk beyond that obtained by clinic-based readings, based on its ability to assess 24-h blood pressure (BP) load, detect nocturnal non-dipping, and predict target organ damage. It has provided some assurance about the safety of living kidney donation. Information from ABPM can be used to guide living kidney donor selection, and because ABPM-related data has been correlated with clinically important kidney and heart transplant recipient outcomes, it may be a valuable adjunct in their management. Despite these advantages, barriers to wider use of ABPM include expense, clinical inertia in hypertension management, lack of prospective clinical trial data, and clinical problems that compete with hypertension for attention such as acute or chronic allograft dysfunction. The increasing amount of research and clinical use for ABPM may allow for closer assessment and intervention to help address the increased cardiovascular risk faced by many solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:22220828

  8. Immunosuppression in Solid-Organ Transplantation: Essentials and Practical Tips.

    PubMed

    Jasiak, Natalia M; Park, Jeong M

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for successful management of patients with solid-organ transplant. Transplant nursing encompasses care and support of transplant recipients as well as caregivers and organ donors through all phases of transplantation, from pretransplant evaluation to posttransplant recovery and maintenance. The field of solid-organ transplantation has advanced rapidly, and new treatments continue to emerge. Nurses who are responsible for the care of transplant recipients should have a knowledge base in transplant immunology and pharmacology. This review discusses mechanism of action, indication, side effects, and drug interactions of commonly used immunosuppressive medications in solid-organ transplantation. Nonoral routes of drug administration, therapeutic drug monitoring, and patient monitoring strategies are also included as practical tips for bedside nurses who are responsible for delivery of direct patient care and education of patients and their caregivers. This review focuses on the following medications: antithymocyte globulins, basiliximab, alemtuzumab, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolate sodium, sirolimus, everolimus, belatacept, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab. PMID:27254639

  9. Gender issues in solid organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fangmin; Huang, Tao; Yuan, Shunzong; Zhou, Yeqing; Gong, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Gender as a critical, intrinsic, non-immunologic factor plays a pivotal role in the field of transplantation. The gender of donors and recipients is involved in the entire process, including organ donation and transplant surgery. This review article aims to summarize the literature related to the role of gender in solid organ donation and transplantation and to unveil the underlying mechanism by which gender mismatch between donor and recipient impacts transplant rejection. A systematic search was conducted through PubMed by using the following key words: "gender", or "sex", and "transplant", "organ donation" for published articles. The prima facie evidence demonstrated that females are more likely to donate their organs and are less willing than males to accept transplant surgery; however, their donated liver organs will have a higher risk of graft failure compared with males. With respect to kidney, heart, and lung transplantations, the role of gender remains controversial. Results of animal studies support the negative impact of gender mismatch on allograft function. In conclusion, our present study advances the knowledge of gender issues in the field of solid organ donation and transplantation. In general, gender mismatch is not advantageous to transplant outcome, as evidenced by many aspects of biological investigations on immunogenicity of H-Y antigen to females. Therefore, gender issues should be highlighted and an a priori intervention is needed to improve graft survival in clinical practice. PMID:24064859

  10. Is ABPM clinically useful after pediatric solid organ transplantation?

    PubMed

    Soergel, Marianne

    2004-10-01

    When ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is performed in populations with a high risk for secondary hypertension, such as solid organ transplant recipients, hypertension or abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability are often discovered even in patients with normal office blood pressure (BP). To discuss whether ABPM should be routinely assessed in pediatric solid organ recipients, the available information on pathological findings, association of ABPM abnormalities with outcome parameters, and treatment options is reviewed. ABPM is a useful tool to optimize therapy in the large proportion of transplant recipients with confirmed hypertension. Whether the use of ABPM on a routine basis should be recommended for pediatric transplantation patients without office hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:15367277

  11. Management of Abdominal Solid Organ Injury After Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jonathan E; Chokshi, Nikunj K

    2016-07-01

    Injury to the solid abdominal organs-liver, spleen, kidney, and pancreas-is one of the most common injury patterns in pediatric blunt trauma. Pediatric trauma centers are becoming increasingly successful in managing these injuries without operative intervention. Well-validated guidelines have been established for liver and spleen injury management, and operative intervention is reserved for patients who show evidence of active bleeding after resuscitation. No such guidelines yet exist for the management of traumatic injury of the kidney or pancreas. Exploratory laparotomy remains the treatment of choice in patients suffering hemodynamic collapse, but interventional radiologic or endoscopic procedures are increasingly used to manage all but the most devastating solid organ injuries. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e241-e246.]. PMID:27403671

  12. New solid electrolytes: substituted organic ammonium silver iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, J.R.; Walling, P.L.; Sherren, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    Several new solid electrolytes were synthesized from the reaction of substituted organic ammonium hydroiodides (pyridinium and quinolinium type) and varying quantities of silver iodide. The inductive effects of nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution on the pyridinium or quinolinium ring, as well as substituent position on the ionic conductivity, were determined. Pressure and thermal studies were undertaken to determine if new nonambient conductive phases existed. 39 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Primary Care of the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J; Pagalilauan, Genevieve

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is one of the major advances in medicine. Care of the SOT recipient is complex and continued partnership with the transplant specialist is essential to manage and treat complications and maintain health. The increased longevity of SOT recipients will lead to their being an evolving part of primary care practice, with ever more opportunities for care, education, and research of this rewarding patient population. This review discusses the overall primary care management of adult SOT recipients. PMID:26320047

  14. Polytraumatism and solid organ bleeding syndrome: The role of imaging.

    PubMed

    Thony, F; Rodière, M; Frandon, J; Vendrell, A; Jankowski, A; Ghelfi, J; Sengel, C; Arvieux, C; Bouzat, P; Ferretti, G

    2015-01-01

    In multiple injuries, features of bleeding from solid organs mostly involve the liver, spleen and kidneys and may be treated by embolization. The indications and techniques for embolization vary between organs and depend on the pathophysiology of the injuries, type of vascularization (anastomotic or terminal) and type of embolization (curative or preventative). Interventional radiologists should have a full understanding of these indications and techniques and management algorithms should be produced within each facility in order to define the respective place of the different treatment options. PMID:26206744

  15. The Divergent Roles of Macrophages in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Sahar; Reed, Elaine F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the phenotype and function of macrophages in the context of solid organ transplantation and will focus on fundamental insights into their paradoxical pro-inflammatory versus suppressive function. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of regulatory macrophages in tolerance induction. Recent findings Macrophages are emerging as an essential element of solid organ transplantation. Macrophages are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury, as well as both acute and chronic rejection, exacerbating injury through secretion of inflammatory effectors and by amplifying adaptive immune responses. Notably, not all responses associated with macrophages are deleterious to the graft, and graft protection can in fact be conferred by macrophages. This has been attributed to the presence of macrophages with tissue-repair capabilities, as well as the effects of regulatory macrophages. Summary The explosion of new information on the role of macrophages in solid organ transplantation has opened up new avenues of research and the possibility of therapeutic intervention. However, the role of myeloid cells in graft rejection, resolution of rejection and tissue repair remains poorly understood. A better understanding of plasticity and regulation of monocyte polarization is vital for the development of new therapies for the treatment of acute and chronic transplant rejection. PMID:26154913

  16. Solid-phase fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Déléris, Stéphane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Dudal, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The production of solid organic waste (SOW) such as sewage sludge (SS) or municipal solid waste (MSW) has been continuously increasing in Europe since the beginning of the 1990'. Today, the European Union encourages the stabilization of these wastes using biologic processes such as anaerobic digestion and/or composting to produce bio-energy and organic fertilizers. However, the design and management of such biologic processes require knowledge about the quantity and quality of the organic matter (OM) contained in the SOW. The current methods to characterize SOW are tedious, time-consuming and often insufficiently informative. In this paper, we assess the potential of solid-phase fluorescence (SPF) spectroscopy to quickly provide a relevant characterization of SOW. First, we tested well known model compounds (tryptophan, bovine serum albumin, lignin and humic acid) and biologic matrix (Escherichia coli) in three dimensional solid-phase fluorescence (3D-SPF) spectroscopy. We recorded fluorescence spectra from proteinaceous samples but we could not record the fluorescence emitted by lignin and humic acid powders. For SOW samples, fluorescence spectra were successfully recorded for MSW and most of its sub-components (foods, cardboard) but impossible for SS, sludge compost (SC) and ligno-cellulosic wastes. Based on visual observations and additional assays, we concluded that the presence of highly light-absorptive chemical structures in such dark-colored samples was responsible for this limitation. For such samples, i.e. lignin, humic acid, SS, SC and ligno-cellulosic wastes, we show that laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy enables the acquisition of 2D fluorescence spectra. PMID:21696938

  17. Risk for transmission of Naegleria fowleri from solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roy, S L; Metzger, R; Chen, J G; Laham, F R; Martin, M; Kipper, S W; Smith, L E; Lyon, G M; Haffner, J; Ross, J E; Rye, A K; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, D J; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, B J; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, S R; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, G S

    2014-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments. PMID:24279908

  18. Risk for Transmission of Naegleria fowleri from Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, SL; Metzger, R; Chen, JG; Laham, FR; Martin, M; Kipper, SW; Smith, LE; Lyon, GM; Haffner, J; Ross, JE; Rye, AK; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, DJ; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, BJ; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, SR; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, GS

    2015-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another free-living ameba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995–2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new post-mortem findings from four PAM patients, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments. PMID:24279908

  19. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Trine L.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosboek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 deg. C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested.

  20. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Trine L; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosbaek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 degrees C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH4/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH4/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH4/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested. PMID:15081067

  1. Diagnostic Yields in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted With Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio A.; Penugonda, Sudhir; Stosor, Valentina; Ison, Michael G.; Angarone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although diarrhea is a frequent complaint among solid organ transplant recipients, the contribution of infectious etiologies remains incompletely defined. We sought to define the etiologies of diarrhea and the yields of testing at our institution. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis over an 18-month period of hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients. We stratified diarrhea by community onset vs hospital onset of diarrhea. Results. We identified 422 admissions (representing 314 unique patients) with community-onset diarrhea, and 112 admissions (representing 102 unique patients) with hospital-onset diarrhea. The majority of community- and hospital-onset diarrheal episodes had no identified etiology (60.9% and 75.9%, respectively; P = .03), yet were also self-limited (91% and 91%, respectively; P = .894). Thereafter, the most frequently encountered infectious etiologies were Clostridium difficile infection (13.3% and 11.8%, respectively), norovirus enteritis (8.2% and 3%), cytomegalovirus disease or colitis (6.3% and 2.7%), and bacterial enterocolitis (0.9% and 0%) (P = .03). In aggregate, these entities represented 93.7% and 90.5% of the identified infectious etiologies, respectively. Protozoan causes were rarely seen. Coinfection, or the simultaneous detection of ≥2 pathogens, occurred in 8 (1.9%) and 2 (1.8%) community- and hospital-onset diarrheal admissions, respectively (P = .99). Conclusions. In solid organ transplant recipients who presented at our institution with diarrhea, approximately one-third had infectious etiologies identified, consisting predominantly of C. difficile, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, and bacterial enterocolitis. Other infectious etiologies were rare. PMID:25371488

  2. Utility of monitoring mycophenolic acid in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Mark; Zeidler, Johannes; Ensom, Mary H H; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Balion, Cynthia; Booker, Lynda; Archer, Carolyn; Raina, Parminder

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate whether monitoring concentrations of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in the serum or plasma of persons who receive a solid organ transplant will result in a lower incidence of transplant rejections and adverse events versus no monitoring of MPA. To investigate whether the incidence of rejection or adverse events differs according to MPA dose or frequency, type of MPA, the form of MPA monitored, the method of MPA monitoring, or sample characteristics. To assess whether monitoring is cost-effective versus no monitoring. DATA SOURCES The following databases were searched from their dates of inception (in brackets) until October 2007: MEDLINE (1966); BIOSIS Previews (1976); EMBASE (1980); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1995); and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1995). REVIEW METHODS Studies identified from the data sources went through two levels of screening (i.e., title and abstract, full text) and the ones that passed were abstracted. Criteria for abstraction included publication in the English language, study design (i.e., randomized controlled trial [RCT], observational study with comparison group, case series), and patient receipt of allograft solid organ transplant. Additionally, any form of MPA had to be measured at least once in the plasma or serum using any method of measurement (e.g., AUC0-12, C0). Furthermore, these measures had to be linked to a health outcome (e.g., transplant rejection). Certain biomarkers (e.g., serum creatinine, glomular filtration rate) and all adverse events were also considered health outcomes. RESULTS The published evidence on MPA monitoring is inconclusive. Direct, head-to-head comparison of monitoring versus no monitoring is limited to one RCT in adult, kidney transplant patients. Inferences about monitoring can be made from some observational studies, although the evidence is equivocal for MPA dose and dose frequency, nonexistent for type of MPA, inconclusive for form of MPA monitored

  3. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  4. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  5. [Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany; Thervet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a situation caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, triggering an evolutionary conserved adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response. When adaptation fails, excessive and prolonged ER stress triggers cell suicide. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative and heart diseases. The implication of the ER stress is not well recognized in solid organ transplantation, but increasing evidence suggests its implication in mediating allograft injury. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and to discuss its implication during tissue injury in solid organ transplantation. The possible implications of the ER stress in the modifications of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes are also discussed beyond the scope of adaptation and cell death. Increasing the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:20412745

  6. Ectonucleotidases in Solid Organ and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chernogorova, Petya; Zeiser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are ubiquitous signalling molecules which modulate distinct physiological and pathological processes. Nucleotide concentrations in the extracellular space are strictly regulated by cell surface enzymes, called ectonucleotidases, which hydrolyze nucleotides to the respective nucleosides. Recent studies suggest that ectonucleotidases play a significant role in inflammation by adjusting the balance between ATP, a widely distributed proinflammatory danger signal, and the anti-inflammatory mediator adenosine. There is increasing evidence for a central role of adenosine in alloantigen-mediated diseases such as solid organ graft rejection and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation are established treatment modalities for a broad spectrum of benign and malignant diseases. Immunological complications based on the recognition of nonself-antigens between donor and recipient like transplant rejection and GvHD are still major challenges which limit the long-term success of transplantation. Studies in the past two decades indicate that purinergic signalling influences the severity of alloimmune responses. This paper focuses on the impact of ectonucleotidases, in particular, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73, on allograft rejection, acute GvHD, and graft-versus-leukemia effect, and on possible clinical implications for the modulation of purinergic signalling after transplantation. PMID:23125523

  7. CT, MRI and DWI Features of a Solid Organizing Hepatic Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzer, Giampiero; Di Grazia, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Solid organizing hepatic abscess is a rare form of focal infection, which needs differentiation from benign and malignant solid masses. We report a case of a 30-year-old man with a solid organizing hepatic abscess, diagnosed by imaging and ex juvantibus criteria. CT and MRI findings are presented and role of DWI is outlined. Noninvasive diagnosis of a solid organizing hepatic abscess is possible in the appropriate clinical setting; percutaneous or surgical biopsy may be indicated in equivocal cases. PMID:25197604

  8. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate. PMID:20944744

  9. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60

  10. Gout in solid organ transplantation: a challenging clinical problem.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Lisa; Searle, Martin; O'Donnell, John; Chapman, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Hyperuricaemia occurs in 5-84% and gout in 1.7-28% of recipients of solid organ transplants. Gout may be severe and crippling, and may hinder the improved quality of life gained through organ transplantation. Risk factors for gout in the general population include hyperuricaemia, obesity, weight gain, hypertension and diuretic use. In transplant recipients, therapy with ciclosporin (cyclosporin) is an additional risk factor. Hyperuricaemia is recognised as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether anti-hyperuricaemic therapy reduces cardiovascular events remains to be determined. Dietary advice is important in the management of gout and patients should be educated to partake in a low-calorie diet with moderate carbohydrate restriction and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat. While gout is curable, its pharmacological management in transplant recipients is complicated by the risk of adverse effects and potentially severe interactions between immunosuppressive and hypouricaemic drugs. NSAIDs, colchicine and corticosteroids may be used to treat acute gouty attacks. NSAIDs have effects on renal haemodynamics, and must be used with caution and with close monitoring of renal function. Colchicine myotoxicty is of particular concern in transplant recipients with renal impairment or when used in combination with ciclosporin. Long-term urate-lowering therapy is required to promote dissolution of uric acid crystals, thereby preventing recurrent attacks of gout. Allopurinol should be used with caution because of its interaction with azathioprine, which results in bone marrow suppression. Substitution of mycophenylate mofetil for azathioprine avoids this interaction. Uricosuric agents, such as probenecid, are ineffective in patients with renal impairment. The exception is benzbromarone, which is effective in those with a creatinine clearance >25 mL/min. Benzbromarone is indicated in allopurinol-intolerant patients with

  11. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, Maïa; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Bernard, Sylvain; Rigaudier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Tissandier, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The formation of organic compounds is generally assumed to result from abiotic processes in the Solar System, with the exception of biogenic organics on Earth. Nitrogen-bearing organics are of particular interest, notably for prebiotic perspectives but also for overall comprehension of organic formation in the young Solar System and in planetary atmospheres. We have investigated abiotic synthesis of organics upon plasma discharge, with special attention to N isotope fractionation. Organic aerosols were synthesized from N2-CH4 and N2-CO gaseous mixtures using low-pressure plasma discharge experiments, aimed at simulating chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere and in the protosolar nebula, respectively. The nitrogen content, the N speciation and the N isotopic composition were analyzed in the resulting organic aerosols. Nitrogen is efficiently incorporated into the synthesized solids, independently of the oxidation degree, of the N2 content of the starting gas mixture, and of the nitrogen speciation in the aerosols. The aerosols are depleted in 15N by 15-25‰ relative to the initial N2 gas, whatever the experimental setup is. Such an isotopic fractionation is attributed to mass-dependent kinetic effect(s). Nitrogen isotope fractionation upon electric discharge cannot account for the large N isotope variations observed among Solar System objects and reservoirs. Extreme N isotope signatures in the Solar System are more likely the result of self-shielding during N2 photodissociation, exotic effect during photodissociation of N2 and/or low temperature ion-molecule isotope exchange. Kinetic N isotope fractionation may play a significant role in the Titan's atmosphere. On the Titan's night side, 15N-depletion resulting from electron driven reactions may counterbalance photo-induced 15N enrichments occurring on the day's side. We also suggest that the low δ15N values of Archaean organic matter (Beaumont and Robert, 1999) are partly the result of abiotic synthesis of

  12. Microsporidiosis Acquired Through Solid Organ Transplantation: A Public Health Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hocevar, Susan N.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Spak, Cedric W.; Rosenblatt, Randall; Diaz-Luna, Hector; Castillo, Isabel; Luna, Sergio; Friedman, Glen C.; Antony, Suresh; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Peterson, Tammie; Blau, Dianna M.; Sriram, Rama R.; da Silva, Alexandre; de Almeida, Marcos; Benedict, Theresa; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidial species most commonly recognized as a cause of renal, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in immunosuppressed patients, was identified as the cause of a temporally associated cluster of febrile illness among 3 solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor. Objective To confirm the source of the illness, assess donor and recipient risk factors, and provide therapy recommendations for ill recipients. Design Public health investigation. Setting Two transplant hospitals and community interview with the deceased donor’s family. Patients Three transplant recipients and the organ donor. Measurements Specimens were tested for microsporidia by using culture, immunofluorescent antibody, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Donor medical records were reviewed and a questionnaire was developed to assess for microsporidial infection. Results Kidneys and lungs were procured from the deceased donor and transplanted to 3 recipients who became ill with fever 7 to 10 weeks after the transplant. Results of urine culture, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction testing were positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi of genotype III in each recipient; the organism was also identified in biopsy or autopsy specimens in all recipients. The donor had positive serologic test results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Surviving recipients received albendazole. Donor assessment did not identify factors for suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Limitation Inability to detect organism by culture or polymerase chain reaction in donor due to lack of autopsy specimens. Conclusion Transmission of microsporidiosis through organ transplantation is described. Microsporidiosis is now recognized as an emerging transplant-associated disease and should be considered in febrile transplant recipients when tests for routinely encountered agents are unrevealing. Donor-derived disease is critical

  13. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  14. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  15. Solid-phase genotoxicity assay for organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.R.; Chung, N.; Alexander, M.

    1999-03-01

    A genotoxicity assay was developed for samples from environments in which toxic organic compounds are largely sorbed. The assay entails measurement of the rate of mutation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida to rifampicin resistance. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants was a function of the concentration of a test mutagen in soil. In studies of the utility of the assay in samples amended with 2-aminofluorene as a test mutagen, the ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants declined with time. The decline paralleled the disappearance of extractable 2-aminofluorene from the soil. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants also feel in four other soils with dissimilar properties. The authors suggest that this solid-phase assay is more appropriate for the estimation of genotoxicants sorbed in soil than assays involving extractants or suspensions of soil or sediment samples.

  16. From organic metals to superconductors: managing conduction electrons in organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Wudl, F.

    1984-06-01

    The conduction of electricity in organic solids, especially the parameters required for metallic electron flow and the phenomena responsible for its permanent interruption or perpetual flow are discussed in detail. Specifically, the permanent interruption, termed metal-to-insulator transition, or perpetual flow, termed metal-to-superconductor, are discussed as exhibited by tetrathiofulvalene (TTF), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetraselenafulvalene (TTMTSF), and salts of each of these compounds. A rather extensive literature survey is included with 60 references being cited.

  17. 7 CFR 37.10 - Official assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official assessment. 37.10 Section 37.10 Agriculture... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.10 Official assessment. Official assessment of an applicant's... completion of an adequacy audit by the auditors. (b) Program assessment. Assessment of a...

  18. 7 CFR 37.10 - Official assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official assessment. 37.10 Section 37.10 Agriculture... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.10 Official assessment. Official assessment of an applicant's... completion of an adequacy audit by the auditors. (b) Program assessment. Assessment of a...

  19. 7 CFR 37.10 - Official assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official assessment. 37.10 Section 37.10 Agriculture... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.10 Official assessment. Official assessment of an applicant's... completion of an adequacy audit by the auditors. (b) Program assessment. Assessment of a...

  20. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate...

  1. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate...

  2. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate...

  3. Invasive candidiasis serological diagnosis in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Magdalena; Gołaś, Marlena; Dąbkowska, Maria; Pączek, Leszek; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of fungal infections, because of ongoing immunosuppressive treatment. There are three post organ transplant phases: early, intermediate, and late, all of them at risk of Candida infections. Since conventional tests are insufficient, specific secondary diagnostic tests are still being explored. Serological tests are currently the most common choice. The present study was to determine the usefulness of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody detection in diagnosing invasive candidiasis in liver or kidney transplant recipients. The levels of mannan and anti-mannan antibodies were assessed with Platelia Candida Ag Plus, and Platelia Candida Ab Plus (Biorad, Marne-la-Coquette, France) commercial tests, according to manufacturer's guidelines. Sixty six serum samples were obtained from 25 patients (9 liver transplant recipients, 7 kidney transplant recipients, and 9 patients prepared for a kidney transplant), 29 serum samples from 15 patients tested positive for mannan antigen. Serum samples were obtained from 14 patients tested positive for anti- mannan antibodies. Fungal antigen detection in blood serum in patients under immunosuppression, especially with neutropenia, suggests that antifungal treatment should be administered. Serological tests, especially mannan and anti-mannan ones, are very useful for confirmation or exclusion of invasive candidiasis in high-risk patients. PMID:26155122

  4. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y; Little, Marc A; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M; Brown, Craig M; Smith, Martin W; Morrison, Carole A; Hardwick, Laurence J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10(-3) S cm(-1) at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  5. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  6. 12 CFR 1700.3 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 1700.3 Section 1700.3... DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Official logo and seal. The..., and signage. The logo serves as the official seal to authenticate official documents of the Agency....

  7. 12 CFR 1700.3 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 1700.3 Section 1700.3... DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Official logo and seal. The..., and signage. The logo serves as the official seal to authenticate official documents of the Agency....

  8. Serologic Vaccination Response after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Rosenberger, Kerstin Daniela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Junghanss, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. Methods In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. Results Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1) most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2) the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3) SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4) for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. Conclusion Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients remain poorly supported

  9. Race and invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Amelia K; McGwin, Gerald; Andes, David R; Lyon, G Marshall; Chiller, Tom; Pappas, Peter G; Baddley, John W

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities in access to solid organ transplantation (SOT) and graft survival are well recognized, but there are limited data on the relationship of race to risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI) among SOT recipients. We conducted a case-control study using data from the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) to investigate race and IFI. Cases (n = 1,214) and controls (n = 16,550) were compared on demographic variables using chi-square, and the relationship between race and IFI was assesses with unconditional logistic regression. Compared to White transplant patients, Blacks had similar odds of developing IFI (OR = .97, 95% Cl 0.82-1.15, P = .7125), while participants who identified as other ethnicity were less likely to develop IFI (OR = .56, 95% Cl .41-.75, P < .001). Blacks, when compared to White patients, were at increased odds of developing cryptococcal infection (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.35-3.54, P = .002). Despite pharmacogenetic differences, Black transplant recipients were not more likely overall to develop IFI compared to White transplant recipients. PMID:25065083

  10. Plasma cell neoplasms in US solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Engels, Eric A; Clarke, Christina A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Lynch, Charles F; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Gibson, Todd M; Landgren, Ola; Morton, Lindsay M

    2013-06-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated risk for plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs, comprising multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma), but little is known about risk factors in the transplant setting. Through linkage of the US solid organ transplant registry with 15 state/regional cancer registries, we identified 140 PCNs in 202 600 recipients (1987-2009). PCN risk was 1.8-fold increased relative to the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.80, 95%CI 1.51-2.12). Among cases, 102 were multiple myeloma (SIR 1.41) and 38 were plasmacytoma (SIR 7.06). PCN incidence increased with age, but due to the rarity of PCNs in younger people in the general population, SIRs were highest in younger transplant recipients (p = 0.03). PCN risk was especially high in recipients who were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seronegative at transplantation (SIR 3.93). EBV status was known for 18 tumors, of which 7 (39%) were EBV positive. Following liver transplantation, PCN risk was higher in recipients with cholestatic liver disease (SIR 2.78); five of these cases had primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). A role for primary EBV infection after transplantation is supported by the increased PCN risk in young EBV seronegative recipients and the presence of EBV in tumors. PBC may be another risk factor, perhaps by causing chronic immune activation. PMID:23635036

  11. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss. PMID:23743726

  12. Organic-inorganic supramolecular solid catalyst boosts organic reactions in water.

    PubMed

    García-García, Pilar; Moreno, José María; Díaz, Urbano; Bruix, Marta; Corma, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks are appealing as synthetic hosts for mediating chemical reactions. Here we report the preparation of a mesoscopic metal-organic structure based on single-layer assembly of aluminium chains and organic alkylaryl spacers. The material markedly accelerates condensation reactions in water in the absence of acid or base catalyst, as well as organocatalytic Michael-type reactions that also show superior enantioselectivity when comparing with the host-free transformation. The mesoscopic phase of the solid allows for easy diffusion of products and the catalytic solid is recycled and reused. Saturation transfer difference and two-dimensional (1)H nuclear Overhauser effect NOESY NMR spectroscopy show that non-covalent interactions are operative in these host-guest systems that account for substrate activation. The mesoscopic character of the host, its hydrophobicity and chemical stability in water, launch this material as a highly attractive supramolecular catalyst to facilitate (asymmetric) transformations under more environmentally friendly conditions. PMID:26912294

  13. PARTITIONING OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental aspects of partitioning of toxic organic compounds on municipal wastewater treatment plant solids have been investigated. Sorption on wastewater solids was not affected by solids-to-liquid ratio. Kinetic data on sorption showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a sl...

  14. Advances and Challenges in Immunotherapy for Solid Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-Hyman, Cameron; Turka, Laurence A.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Although major advances have been made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation in the last 50 years, big challenges remain. This Review outlines the current immunological limitations for HSCT and solid organ transplantation, and discusses new immune-modulating therapies in clinical trials and under pre-clinical development that may allow these obstacles to be overcome. PMID:25810312

  15. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the United Nations are authorized, provided that no payment pursuant to this license may involve a... “United Nations” means its principal organs, including funds, bodies, commissions, agencies,...

  16. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the United Nations are authorized, provided that no payment pursuant to this license may involve a... “United Nations” means its principal organs, including funds, bodies, commissions, agencies,...

  17. Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: Comprehensive Imaging Review.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Menias, Christine O; Tammisetti, Varaha S; Lubner, Meghan G; Kielar, Ania; Shaaban, Akram; Mansour, Joseph; Surabhi, Venkateshwar R; Hara, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancies for solid organ recipients as well as graft survival rates for these patients have improved over the years because of advanced immunosuppressive therapies; however, with chronic use of these drugs, posttransplant malignancy has become one of the leading causes of morbidity for them. The risk of carcinogenesis in transplant recipients is significantly higher than for the general population and cancers tend to manifest at an advanced stage. Posttransplant malignancies are thought to develop by three mechanisms: de novo development, donor-related transmission, and recurrence of a recipient's pretransplant malignancy. Although nonmelanoma skin cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, anogenital cancer, and lung cancer are malignancies that are thought to arise de novo, malignant melanoma and cancers that arise in the renal allograft are frequently donor related. Hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas have a greater tendency to recur in liver transplant recipients. An altered or deranged immune system caused by chronic immunosuppression is considered to be one of the major contributing factors to carcinogenesis. The proposed pathogenic mechanisms for oncogenesis include impaired immunosurveillance of neoplastic cells, weakened immune activity against oncogenic viruses, and direct carcinogenic effects of immunosuppressive agents. Imaging plays an important role in screening, follow-up, and long-term surveillance in patients with malignancies because key imaging features can guide in their timely diagnosis. However, some benign entities such as transplant-related renal fibrosis, biliary necrosis, and infectious nodules in the lungs mimic malignancies and require pathologic confirmation. Management strategies that can improve malignancy-related morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients include prevention of risk factors, appropriate modulation of immunosuppressive agents, prophylaxis against infection

  18. Metabolic consequences of modern immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Among other factors, sophistication of immunosuppressive (IS) regimen accounts for the remarkable success attained in the short- and medium-term solid organ transplant (SOT) survival. The use of steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have led to annual renal graft survival rates exceeding 90% in the last six decades. On the other hand, attrition rates of the allograft beyond the first year have remained unchanged. In addition, there is a persistent high cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate among transplant recipients with functioning grafts. These shortcomings are in part due to the metabolic effects of steroids, CNI and sirolimus (SRL), all of which are implicated in hypertension, new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT), and dyslipidemia. In a bid to reduce the required amount of harmful maintenance agents, T-cell-depleting antibodies are increasingly used for induction therapy. The downsides to their use are greater incidence of opportunistic viral infections and malignancy. On the other hand, inadequate immunosuppression causes recurrent rejection episodes and therefore early-onset chronic allograft dysfunction. In addition to the adverse metabolic effects of the steroid rescue needed in these settings, the generated proinflammatory milieu may promote accelerated atherosclerotic disorders, thus setting up a vicious cycle. The recent availability of newer agent, belatacept holds a promise in reducing the incidence of metabolic disorders and hopefully its long-term CV consequences. Although therapeutic drug monitoring as applied to CNI may be helpful, pharmacodynamic tools are needed to promote a customized selection of IS agents that offer the most benefit to an individual without jeopardizing the allograft survival. PMID:27293540

  19. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-03-24

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  20. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  1. The beginning of clinical tolerance in solid organ allografts.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Anthony P

    2004-06-01

    Development of effective multidrug immunosuppressive regimens and improvements in the management of chronically immunosuppressed patients have produced extraordinary patient and allograft survival in clinical organ transplantation. Unfortunately, significant problems of morbidity and mortality related to chronic immunosuppression remain. Thus, there is an enormous motivation and interest in inducing specific unresponsiveness (tolerance) to clinical solid organ allografts. Operational clinical tolerance may be defined as stable, normal graft function in the total absence of a requirement for maintenance immunosuppression. Alternatively, the concept of employing tolerogenic strategies to permit graft acceptance with dramatically reduced immunosuppression requirements is referred to as prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance. There have been isolated examples of clinical tolerance, usually in the context of spontaneous or induced donor chimerism, excellent HLA matching, and/or drug weaning or patient noncompliance. The various attempts that are currently being employed to induce some type of clinical tolerance are reviewed in this manuscript. Strategies in which all immunosuppression was to be withdrawn from the recipient (donor-specific unresponsiveness) are first discussed. These include strategies that utilize initial immunoablation with varying doses of irradiation and/or lymphocytic antibodies with or without donor-specific bone marrow infusion and short-term standard immunosuppressive therapy. Strategies to induce prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance that utilize induction lymphoablation with polyclonal or monoclonal antilymphocyte antibodies, with or without donor bone marrow infusion, followed by limited low-dose immunosuppressive therapy are also discussed. The ethical considerations in testing clinical tolerance strategies and protocols are discussed in detail. The limited number of clinical tolerance studies already available affirms that

  2. A method for estimating solid organ donor potential by organ procurement region.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, C L; Gortmaker, S L; Williams, J M; Beasley, C L; Brigham, L E; Capossela, C; Matthiesen, M E; Gunderson, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to develop a methodology for estimating potential solid organ donors and measuring donation performance in a geographic region based on readily available data on the hospitals in that region. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed in a stratified random sample of 89 hospitals from 3 regions to attain a baseline of donor potential. Data on a range of hospital characteristics were collected and tested as predictors of donor potential through the use of hierarchical Poisson regression modeling. RESULTS: Five hospital characteristics predicted donor potential: hospital deaths, hospital Medicare case-mix index, total hospital staffed beds, medical school affiliation, and trauma center certification. Regional estimates were attained by aggregating individual hospital estimates. Confidence intervals for these regional estimates indicated that actual donations represented from 28% to 44% of the potential in the regions studied. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology accurately estimates organ donor potential within 3 geographic regions and lays the foundation for evaluating organ donation effectiveness nationwide. Additional research is needed to test the validity of the model in other geographic regions and to further explore organ donor potential in hospitals with fewer than 50 beds. PMID:9807530

  3. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  4. Officiating Classes as Part of the Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.

    Two surveys were conducted to find the availability of officiating classes in colleges across the nation, to share information about the organization of these officiating classes, and to find the methods by which officials first learn how to officiate. The first survey was directed toward colleges with professional physical education programs. Of…

  5. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This... as the official seal used to certify and authenticate official documents of the Board of...

  6. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This... as the official seal used to certify and authenticate official documents of the Board of...

  7. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This... as the official seal used to certify and authenticate official documents of the Board of...

  8. Solid organ abdominal ischemia, part I: clinical features, etiology, imaging findings, and management.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Oh, Sarah K; Stein, Marjorie W; Kaul, Bindu; Flusberg, Milana; Chernyak, Victoria; Rozenblit, Alla M; Mazzariol, Fernanda A

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ abdominal ischemia commonly presents with acute pain prompting radiologic evaluation and often requires urgent treatment. Despite different risk factors and anatomic differences, most solid organ ischemia is due to arterial or venous occlusion and, less frequently, a low-flow state. Radiologic diagnosis is critical, as clinical presentations are often nonspecific. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice (except in adnexal torsion) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) useful in equivocal cases or follow-up of ischemic disease. This article will provide a pictorial review of the CT and MRI features of solid abdominal organ ischemia while highlighting key clinical features, etiology, and management. PMID:27317217

  9. A SOLID SUBSTRATE IMMUNOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR MONITORING ORGANIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid substrate 'film-badge' type monitor has been developed that is capable of detecting 2-aminobenzimidazole (2-ABZI) at less than one part per million in water in less than 10 minutes. The monitor makes use of the reaction which takes place between 2-ABZI in the sample and a...

  10. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Maverick, Andrew W

    2011-12-17

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  11. EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

  12. Impact of solids retention time on dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradability in treated wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its biodegradability in treated wastewater have recently gained attention because DON potentially causes oxygen depletion and/or eutrophication in receiving waters. Laboratory scale chemostat experiments were conducted at 9 different solids retention times (SRTs)...

  13. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Fibers for Preconcentration of Organics in Titan's Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodyss, R.; Beauchamp, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers are a simple and reliable means for extracting and concentrating organic trace species from liquid hydrocarbon solutions, making them an attractive approach for chemical analysis of Titan's lakes.

  14. Experimental Assessment of the Degradation of "Unbiodegradable" Organic Solids in Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M; Takács, I; Tränckner, Jens

    2016-03-01

    In current process models activated sludge consists of biodegradable and unbiodegradable organic fractions. Recent evidence suggests that this approach may not be accurate because some of this "unbiodegradable" material may indeed be degradable. To improve sludge production predictions, it is important to know to what extent the "unbiodegradable" organic fraction is degradable. Assuming that volatile suspended solids (VSS) is a measure of the sum of biodegradable and unbiodegradable organic solids and the integral of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is representative of the biodegradable organics, the combination of these measurements can be used to predict the change of unbiodegradable organic solids within an aerobic digestion batch experiment. This procedure was used to estimate degradation rates of "unbiodegradable" VSS between 0.006 to 0.029 d(-1). The advantage of the proposed method is that the degradation rate can be determined directly based on measurements and relies on a limited number of assumptions. PMID:26931538

  15. Molecule-displacive ferroelectricity in organic supramolecular solids

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Noro, Shin-ichiro; Kubo, Kazuya; Yoshitake, Masashi; Liu, Zun-Qi; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectricity is essential to many forms of current technology, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. In this circumstance, organic ferroelectrics are of particular importance because of their potential application in tomorrow's organic devices, and several pure organic ferroelectrics have been recently developed. However, some problems, such as current leakage and/or low working frequencies, make their application prospects especially for ferroelectric memory (FeRAM) not clear. Here, we describe the molecule-displacive ferroelectricity of supramolecular adducts of tartaric acid and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane N,N′-dioxide. The adducts show large spontaneous polarization, high rectangularity of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops even at high operation frequency (10 kHz), and high performance in polarization switching up to 1 × 106 times without showing fatigue. It opens great perspectives in terms of applications, especially in organic FeRAM. PMID:23873392

  16. Molecule-displacive ferroelectricity in organic supramolecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Kubo, Kazuya; Yoshitake, Masashi; Liu, Zun-Qi; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2013-07-01

    Ferroelectricity is essential to many forms of current technology, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. In this circumstance, organic ferroelectrics are of particular importance because of their potential application in tomorrow's organic devices, and several pure organic ferroelectrics have been recently developed. However, some problems, such as current leakage and/or low working frequencies, make their application prospects especially for ferroelectric memory (FeRAM) not clear. Here, we describe the molecule-displacive ferroelectricity of supramolecular adducts of tartaric acid and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane N,N'-dioxide. The adducts show large spontaneous polarization, high rectangularity of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops even at high operation frequency (10 kHz), and high performance in polarization switching up to 1 × 106 times without showing fatigue. It opens great perspectives in terms of applications, especially in organic FeRAM.

  17. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis

    2013-08-22

    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics. PMID:23879450

  18. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  19. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  20. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  1. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  2. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  3. International indicators of donation and solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Protto, S; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The main goal of any organ procurement organization (OPO) is to offer the greatest number of organs achievable with the goal of reducing mortality and the waiting list time of patients. Evaluation of OPO activity is mandatory to identify causes of missed potential donors seeking to implement changes in steps susceptible of improvement. In this review, we have presented the classical indicators of brain death along with new indicators. We observed that when the donor generation capacity is adjusted to the deaths, the indicator is more reliable for comparisons of countries with different mortality rates. We concluded that the indicators are complementary, because they measure different aspects of the process. To have a better understanding of the situation, country, institution, or hospital, one should simultaneously use all of the indicators. PMID:19857771

  4. Vaccination strategies in patients with solid organ transplant: evidences and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients need emphases on immunization that result in certainly decrease the risk of vaccine preventable diseases. Organ transplant candidate should complete the recommended full vaccination schedule as early as possible during the courses of underlying disease because the patients with end stage liver or renal disease have reduced immune response to vaccine. Furthermore, live attenuated vaccines are generally contraindicated after transplantation. This review summarizes current information and the evidences regarding the efficacy and safety of immunization in adult solid organ transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27489802

  5. Metal-organic frameworks: Shuttling in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    Incorporating mechanically interlocked molecular shuttles within a metal-organic framework that has enough free space in the crystal lattice to permit volume-conserving translational motion sets the stage for defect-free molecular-electronic device fabrication and more.

  6. Opportunistic deep cutaneous mycoses in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tessari, G; Cagalli, A; Girolomoni, G

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among organ transplant recipients, despite many progresses concerning diagnosis, preventions and treatment. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections in transplanted recipients include type and severity of immunosuppression, especially in life-saving organs as lung or liver, older age at transplantation, and technical complexity of surgery, living in endemic areas or exposure to a contaminated environment. Superficial fungal infections are caused by Candida, Dermatophytes, and Malassezia. In invasive mycoses, skin lesions may occur as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of invasive mycoses, or after direct inoculation in the skin. Aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Zygomycoses, dark mould infections, fusariosis and infections attributable to Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria species are the most common etiological agents. Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection are not specific, and a high degree of suspicion is required, and prompt biopsy for histology and culture is needed. Therapy with lyposomal amphotericin B and new triazoles are effective. PMID:25068229

  7. Opportunistic deep cutaneous mycoses in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tessari, G; Cagalli, A; Girolomoni, G

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among organ transplant recipients, despite many progresses concerning diagnosis, preventions and treatment. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections in transplanted recipients include type and severity of immunosuppression, especially in life-saving organs as lung or liver, older age at transplantation, and technical complexity of surgery, living in endemic areas or exposure to a contaminated environment. Superficial fungal infections are caused by Candida, Dermatophytes, and Malassezia. In invasive mycoses, skin lesions may occur as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of invasive mycoses, or after direct inoculation in the skin. Aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Zygomycoses, dark mould infections, fusariosis and infections attributable to Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria species are the most common etiological agents. Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection are not specific, and a high degree of suspicion is required, and prompt biopsy for histology and culture is needed. Therapy with lyposomal amphotericin B and new triazoles are effective. PMID:24938725

  8. Informatics calibration of a molecular descriptors database to predict solid dispersion potential of small molecule organic solids.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael D; Wildfong, Peter L D

    2011-10-14

    The use of a novel, in silico method for making an intelligent polymer selection to physically stabilize small molecule organic (SMO) solid compounds formulated as amorphous molecular solid dispersions is reported. 12 compounds (75%, w/w) were individually co-solidified with polyvinyl pyrrolidone:vinyl acetate (PVPva) copolymer by melt-quenching. Co-solidified products were analyzed intact using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the pair distribution function (PDF) transform of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data to assess miscibility. Molecular descriptor indices were calculated for all twelve compounds using their reported crystallographic structures. Logistic regression was used to assess correlation between molecular descriptors and amorphous molecular solid dispersion potential. The final model was challenged with three compounds. Of the 12 compounds, 6 were miscible with PVPva (i.e. successful formation) and 6 were phase separated (i.e. unsuccessful formation). 2 of the 6 unsuccessful compounds exhibited detectable phase-separation using the PDF method, where DSC indicated miscibility. Logistic regression identified 7 molecular descriptors correlated to solid dispersion potential (α=0.001). The atomic mass-weighted third-order R autocorrelation index (R3m) was the only significant descriptor to provide completely accurate predictions of dispersion potential. The three compounds used to challenge the R3m model were also successfully predicted. PMID:21756988

  9. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  10. New organic binary solids with phenolic coformers for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draguta, Sergiu; Fonari, Marina S.; Leonova, Evgenia; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2015-10-01

    Five binary adducts between N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 1, N,N-diethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 2, N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-pyridin-3-yldiazenyl]aniline 3, and coformers that include 4-nitrophenol I, 4-nitrobenzoic acid II, benzene-1,3-diol III, and 2,4-dinitrophenol IV were synthesized to follow the factors influencing the formation of polar crystals. New solids were characterized by melting points and absorption spectra, while their structures were proven by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Adducts differ by the components' ratio and position of the acidic hydrogen atom, thus giving examples of four new cocrystals and one salt. The single crystal X-ray analysis revealed the acentric packing for two compounds, 1 (I) and 3(3) (III) that crystallize in the Pca21 and P1 space groups. The melting point data and the cut-off wavelength from absorption spectra show that these materials are stable till relatively high temperatures and transparent in a wide range of spectrum.

  11. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rahul S; Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M; Atwood, Jerry L; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-08-26

    Separation of xenon and krypton is of industrial and environmental concern; the existing technologies use cryogenic distillation. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space. PMID:27377260

  12. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  13. Electron Shuttling Capacity of Solid-Phase Organic Matter in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter, as an electron shuttle, plays an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of metals, especially the redox reactions for iron. Microorganisms can reduce soil organic matter under anaerobic conditions, and biotically-reduced soil organic matter can abiotically donate electrons to ferric oxides. Such soil organic matter-mediated electron transport can facilitate the interactions between microorganisms and insoluble terminal electron acceptors, i.e. iron minerals. Most previous studies have been focused on the electron shuttling processes through dissolved soil organic matter, and scant information is available for solid-phase soil organic matter. In this study, we aim to quantify the electron accepting capacity for solid-phase organic matter in soils collected from four different forests in the United States, including Truckee (CA), Little Valley (NV), Howland (ME) and Hart (MI). We used Shewanella oneidensisMR-1 to biotically reduce soil slurries, and then quantified the electrons transferred to solid-phase and solution-phase organic matter by reacting them with Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(III)-NTA). The generation of Fe(II) was measured by a ferrozine assay to calculate the electron accepting capacity of soil organic matter. Our preliminary results showed that the Truckee soil organic matter can accept 0.51±0.07 mM e-/mol carbon. We will measure the electron accepting capacity for four different soils and correlate them to the physicochemical properties of soils. Potential results will provide information about the electron accepting capacity of solid-phase soil organic matter and its governing factors, with broad implication on the coupled biogeochemical cycles of carbon and iron.

  14. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode.

    PubMed

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  15. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    PubMed Central

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  16. Survival of poliovirus within organic solids during chlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Hejkal, T W; Wellings, F M; LaRock, P A; Lewis, A L

    1979-01-01

    Poliovirus in fecal homogenates was used to determine the protection against inactivation by chlorination afforded virus that was occluded within particulates. Virus that was closely associated with or occluded within small fecal particulates was protected. A fourfold increase in combined residual chlorine was required to achieve the same degree of inactivation for occluded virus as for free or secondarily adsorbed virus. A combined chlorine residual of 6.6 mg/liter was necessary to achieve 50% inactivation in 15 min at pH 8.0 and 22 degrees C in a particulate suspension containing occluded virus compared to 1.4 mg/liter for free virus. These differences were found to be relatively small compared to differences due to the presence of dissolved organics or between free and combined chlorine residuals. The results suggest different mechanisms of protection due to adsorption and occlusion. PMID:225993

  17. Role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of solid organ injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H; Jaffer, T; Eguchi, S; Wang, Z; Linkermann, A; Ma, D

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is a type of regulated cell death dependent on the activity of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein (RIP) kinases. However, unlike apoptosis, it is caspase independent. Increasing evidence has implicated necroptosis in the pathogenesis of disease, including ischemic injury, neurodegeneration, viral infection and many others. Key players of the necroptosis signalling pathway are now widely recognized as therapeutic targets. Necrostatins may be developed as potent inhibitors of necroptosis, targeting the activity of RIPK1. Necrostatin-1, the first generation of necrostatins, has been shown to confer potent protective effects in different animal models. This review will summarize novel insights into the involvement of necroptosis in specific injury of different organs, and the therapeutic platform that it provides for treatment. PMID:26583318

  18. Solid state concentration quenching of organic fluorophores in PMMA.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam P; Buckley, Alastair R

    2015-01-14

    In this study the concentration quenching phenomenon is explored for seven organic singlet emitters (Rhodamine 6G, Pyridine 2, Lumogen F Red 305, Perylene, Coumarin 102, DCM and DCJTB) in an inert host of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Combining fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield measurements on samples of different molecular separation allows a deep decay rate analysis to be performed yielding, for each fluorophore, a monomial power law that indicates the strength and type of interaction. The fluorophores studied exhibit interactions in between that of FRET-like dipole-dipole (R(-6)) and surface-surface (R(-2)) with many lying close to that expected for surface-dipole (R(-3)) interactions. With no observed dependence on molecular structure it is concluded that the concentration quenching rate in singlet emitters follows a power law as kCQ = aR(-3.1±0.7) with aggregation expected to increase the magnitude of the observed power. PMID:25428178

  19. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients: SET/GESITRA-SEIMC/REIPI recommendations.

    PubMed

    Torre-Cisneros, J; Aguado, J M; Caston, J J; Almenar, L; Alonso, A; Cantisán, S; Carratalá, J; Cervera, C; Cordero, E; Fariñas, M C; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Fortún, J; Frauca, E; Gavaldá, J; Hernández, D; Herrero, I; Len, O; Lopez-Medrano, F; Manito, N; Marcos, M A; Martín-Dávila, P; Monforte, V; Montejo, M; Moreno, A; Muñoz, P; Navarro, D; Pérez-Romero, P; Rodriguez-Bernot, A; Rumbao, J; San Juan, R; Vaquero, J M; Vidal, E

    2016-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major complication of solid organ transplantation. Because of management of CMV is variable among transplant centers, in 2011 the Spanish Transplantation Infection Study Group (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) developed consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Since then, new publications have clarified or questioned the aspects covered in the previous document. For that reason, a panel of experts revised the evidence on CMV management, including immunological monitoring, diagnostics, prevention, vaccines, indirect effects, treatment, drug resistance, immunotherapy, investigational drugs, and pediatric issues. This document summarizes the recommendations. PMID:27132815

  20. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance.

  1. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  2. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhibik, Oussama; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien; Defranoux, Christophe; Sanaur, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically emitting thin-film organic lasers and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 μJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several μm thicknesses are realized, thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm-1 at 550-680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyrromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size "printed pixels" of 50 mm2 present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50 μm × 50 μm AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet printing are simple and do not incorporate any tuning or cavity element, they are simple to make, have a negligible fabrication cost, and can be used as fully disposable items. This work opens the way towards the fabrication of really low-cost tunable visible lasers with an affordable technology that has the potential to be widely disseminated.

  3. [Chronic rejection: Differences and similarities in various solid organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Suhling, H; Gottlieb, J; Bara, C; Taubert, R; Jäckel, E; Schiffer, M; Bräsen, J H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, chronic rejections after transplantation of the lungs, heart, liver, and kidney are described. Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) plays an important role in all of these transplantations and has a significant influence on patient survival. The pathophysiological reasons for CAD varies greatly in the various organs.Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the most important determinant of survival and quality of life after lung transplantation. Diagnosis is based on lung function, especially forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) decline. Prevention, early detection, and rapid treatment are extremely important. Azithromycin and extracorporeal photopheresis are commonly used for treatment because they usually positively influence the progression of lung remodeling.The expression for chronic rejection of the heart is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Immunological and nonimmunological factors are important for its development. Due to limited therapeutic options, prevention is of utmost importance (administration of mTOR inhibitors and minimizing cardiovascular risk factors).The mid- and long-term survival rates after liver transplantation have hardly changed in recent decades, which is an indication of the difficulty in diagnosing chronic graft dysfunction. Chronic ductopenic rejection accounts for a small proportion of late graft dysfunction. Idiopathic posttransplant hepatitis and de novo autoimmune hepatitis are important in addition to recurrence of the underlying disease that led to transplantation.Chronic allograft nephropathy is the result of severe rejection which cumulates in increasing fibrosis with remodeling. The earliest possible diagnosis and therapy is currently the only option. Diagnosis is based on evidence of donor-specific antibodies and histological findings. PMID:26782281

  4. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  5. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  6. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  7. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  8. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  9. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  10. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  11. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  12. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  13. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  14. [Influence of goethite on anaerobic fermentation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu-Lu; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Wang, Jin

    2014-05-01

    Effects of goethite on the anaerobic fermentation process of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, including the biogas production and characteristics of leachate, were investigated in the anaerobic digesters constructed by PVC. The results showed that the addition of goethite promoted hydrolysis and acidogenesis efficiency of solid wastes and gas production rate. The total gas volume was 163.4 L,which increased by 20% compared to the blank. The intermediate products of Fe2+ , NH+4 -N, NO-3 -N, COD and organic acids in the leachate were analyzed. Results showed that the addition of goethite reduced the system ORP to - 124 mV which could improve the activity of the anaerobic microorganism. Addition of goethite could also promote the utilization of organic acids which decreased the inhibition effects of organic acids on the anaerobic microorganism. PMID:25055697

  15. Donor-derived tuberculosis after solid organ transplantation in two patients and a staff member.

    PubMed

    Bucher, J N; Schoenberg, M B; Freytag, I; Lange, U; Hofmann-Thiel, S; Guba, M O; Werner, J; Eder, A; Schelling, G; Stangl, M

    2016-06-01

    Because of global mobility and migration resulting in a growing diversity of the donor pool, the risk for donor-derived tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients becomes more and more relevant, even in countries with a low overall tuberculosis incidence. Here, we describe a case series of donor-derived tuberculosis in 2 of 3 solid organ transplant recipients and one medical staff member in Germany resulting in the death of one recipient. This case series highlights the relevance of this topic to clinicians. It advocates for a better communication between organ procurement organizations and transplant centers regarding donor information and transplant recipient outcome. Furthermore, it underpins the necessity for a standardized critical incident reporting system in the german transplant system to improve short- and long-term recipient's safety, health and survival. PMID:26498284

  16. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Aaron J.; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance 1H-2H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance 2H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2 h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the 2H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of 1H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  17. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance (2)H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the (2)H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of (1)H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques. PMID:26363582

  18. Self-Supporting Metal-Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Peng, Fei; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Ruiyun; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jiawei; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Teng; Long, Lasheng; Sun, Junliang; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-04-11

    Metal-organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6 O4 (OH)4 (HCO2 )6 ] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4'-(4-benzoate)-(2,2',2''-terpyridine)-5,5''-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal-organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities. PMID:26954885

  19. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  20. 9 CFR 325.7 - Shipment of products requiring special supervision between official establishments under official...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipment of products requiring special supervision between official establishments under official seal; certificate. 325.7 Section 325.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  1. What’s new in clinical solid organ transplantation by 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Innovative and exciting advances in the clinical science in solid organ transplantation continuously realize as the results of studies, clinical trials, international conferences, consensus conferences, new technologies and discoveries. This review will address to the full spectrum of news in transplantation, that verified by 2013. The key areas covered are the transplantation activity, with particular regards to the donors, the news for solid organs such as kidney, pancreas, liver, heart and lung, the news in immunosuppressive therapies, the news in the field of tolerance and some of the main complications following transplantation as infections and cancers. The period of time covered by the study starts from the international meetings held in 2012, whose results were published in 2013, up to the 2013 meetings, conferences and consensus published in the first months of 2014. In particular for every organ, the trends in numbers and survival have been reviewed as well as the most relevant problems such as organ preservation, ischemia reperfusion injuries, and rejections with particular regards to the antibody mediated rejection that involves all solid organs. The new drugs and strategies applied in organ transplantation have been divided into new way of using old drugs or strategies and drugs new not yet on the market, but on phase Ito III of clinical studies and trials. PMID:25540734

  2. Recent advances in biomarker discovery in solid organ transplant by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Tara K; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2012-01-01

    The identification and clinical use of more sensitive and specific biomarkers in the field of solid organ transplantation is an urgent need in medicine. Solid organ transplantation has seen improvements in the short-term survival of transplanted organs due to recent advancements in immunosuppressive therapy. However, the currently available methods of allograft monitoring are not optimal. Recent advancements in assaying methods for biomolecules such as genes, mRNA and proteins have helped to identify surrogate biomarkers that can be used to monitor the transplanted organ. These high-throughput ‘omic’ methods can help researchers to significantly speed up the identification and the validation steps, which are crucial factors for biomarker discovery efforts. Still, the progress towards identifying more sensitive and specific biomarkers remains a great deal slower than expected. In this article, we have evaluated the current status of biomarker discovery using proteomics tools in different solid organ transplants in recent years. This article summarizes recent reports and current status, along with the hurdles in efficient biomarker discovery of protein biomarkers using proteomics approaches. Finally, we will touch upon personalized medicine as a future direction for better management of transplanted organs, and provide what we think could be a recipe for success in this field. PMID:22087656

  3. COMPARISON OF SOLID ADSORBENT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The specific objective of the study was to compare the performance of three solid adsorbents (Tenax, an experimental polyimide resin, and Spherocarb) as well as cryogenic trapping/gas chromatography for sampling and analysis of a target list of volatile organic compounds in ambie...

  4. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Combinatorial Chemistry: A Laboratory Preparation of Oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truran, George A.; Aiken, Karelle S.; Fleming, Thomas R.; Webb, Peter J.; Hodge Markgraf, J.

    2002-01-01

    The principles and practice of solid-phase organic synthesis and combinatorial chemistry are utilized in a laboratory preparation of oligopeptides. A parallel synthesis scheme is used to generate a series of tripeptides. A divergent synthesis scheme is used to prepare two pentapeptides, one of which is leucine enkephalin, a neurotransmitter known to be an analgesic agent.

  5. TRICKLING FILTER/SOLIDS CONTACT PERFORMANCE WITH ROCK FILTERS AT HIGH ORGANIC LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of the trickling filter/solids contact (TF/SC) process at high organic loadings was studied at the Morro Bay-Cayucos treatment plant. The average secondary effluent TSS increased only slightly (from 13 mg/L to 15 mg/L) when the filter BOD5 loading was doubled from...

  6. Chemical compositions of dissolved organic matter from various sources as characterized by solid-state NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters plays an important role in biogeochemical and ecological processes. This study used solid-state NMR techniques to explore the molecular signatures of riverine DOM in relation to its point and nonpoint sources. DOM samples were isolated from (1) two st...

  7. Treatment of HEV Infection in Patients with a Solid-Organ Transplant and Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Peron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. Treatment of HEV infection has been thoroughly studied in solid-organ-transplant patients who have developed a chronic HEV infection. In this review, we report on our current knowledge regarding treatment of HEV infection. PMID:27537905

  8. Treatment of HEV Infection in Patients with a Solid-Organ Transplant and Chronic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Peron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. Treatment of HEV infection has been thoroughly studied in solid-organ-transplant patients who have developed a chronic HEV infection. In this review, we report on our current knowledge regarding treatment of HEV infection. PMID:27537905

  9. AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

  10. PTX3 Polymorphisms and Invasive Mold Infections After Solid Organ Transplant.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Lecompte, T Doco; Bibert, Stephanie; Manuel, Oriol; Rüeger, Sina; Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans; Khanna, Nina; Mueller, Nicolas J; Meylan, Pascal R; Pascual, Manuel; van Delden, Christian; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2015-08-15

    Donor PTX3 polymorphisms were shown to influence the risk of invasive aspergillosis among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Here, we show that PTX3 polymorphisms are independent risk factors for invasive mold infections among 1101 solid organ transplant recipients, thereby strengthening their role in mold infection pathogenesis and patients' risk stratification. PMID:25977268

  11. OBTAINING IMPROVED PRODUCTS FROM THE ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has investigated several processes for the conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) to a powder. The study concentrated on two types of processes: (1) conversion of MSW to a powdered carbon char by low-temperature pyrolysis, and (2) embrittle...

  12. HAZARDOUS GAS PRODUCTION BY ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLID ORGANIC TRANSURANIC WASTE MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to use fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the t...

  13. Resection of Abdominal Solid Organs Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zderic, Vesna; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Foley, Jessica L.; Vaezy, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for minimizing blood loss during surgery by hemodynamically isolating large portions of solid organs before their resection. A high-power HIFU device (in-situ intensity of 9000 W/cm2, frequency of 3.3 MHz) was used to produce a wall of cautery for sealing of blood vessels along the resection line in surgically-exposed solid organs (liver lobes, spleen and kidneys) of eight adult pigs. Following HIFU application, the distal portion of the organ was excised using a scalpel. If any blood vessels were still bleeding, additional HIFU application was used to stop the bleeding. The resection was achieved in 6.0 ± 1.5 min (liver), 3.6 ± 1.1 min (spleen) and 2.8 ± 0.6 min (kidneys) of HIFU treatment time, with no occurrence of bleeding for up to 4 hours (until sacrifice). The coagulated region at the resection line had average width of 3 cm and extended through the whole thickness of the organ (up to 4 cm). Blood vessels of up to 1 cm in size were occluded. This method holds promise for future clinical applications in resection of solid tumors and hemorrhage control from high-grade organ injuries. PMID:17498864

  14. Formation and organization of planar polymeric and nanocomposite nanostructures on liquid and solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutov, G. B.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Gubin, S. P.; Kislov, V. V.; Rakhnyanskaya, A. A.; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A. N.; Tolstikhina, A. L.

    2004-09-01

    We describe a new approach to fabrication of organized planar polymeric and composite nanostructures based on synthetic reactions in organized polymeric Langmuir monolayer at the gas-liquid interface. Novel polymeric quasi-crystalline planar monomolecular structures were formed at the gas-aqueous phase interface using new water-insoluble amphiphilic polyelectrolyte molecules. Corresponding ultrathin polymeric nanoscale-ordered films and stable planar polymeric nanocomposite structures with organized inorganic nanoparticles (palladium, gold and iron oxide) grown in the polymeric monolayer were formed successfully on the solid substrate surfaces. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  15. Complexation of Cu with dissolved organic carbon in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Meima, J.A.; Van Zomeren, A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-05-01

    The complexation of Cu with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in leachates from fresh and 1.5-year old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash was studied using a competitive ligands-exchange solvent extraction procedure. At least two different ligands appear to be involved in the complexation of copper with DOC. The dissolved Cu appears to be 95--100% organically bound in leachates from both the fresh and the weathered bottom ash, and geochemical modeling indicates that the leaching of Cu from these ashes is primarily controlled by the availability of the organic ligands in the bottom ash. The mechanism that binds Cu to the solid phase is likely to be tenorite in the fresh bottom ash, and sorption to amorphous Fe/Al-(hydr)-oxides in the weathered bottom ash.

  16. Graft-versus-host disease in paediatric solid organ transplantation: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Thomas; Hind, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    GvHD is a rare and serious complication of organ transplantation. The literature is sparse following solid organ transplantation. The aim of this report was to review the literature of GvHD in paediatric solid organ transplantation. We searched PubMed for English-language full-text manuscripts between 1990 and 2015 for eligible studies. A total of 28 publications were found pertaining to paediatric GvHD following solid organ transplantation. GvHD had a mean incidence of 11% (range 8.3-13.4%) following SBTx and 1.5% following liver transplantation. Where described, the most common sites for presentation of GvHD were the skin (87%), the native GI tract (43%), the lungs (7%), the eyes (4%), HA (4%), and the kidneys (1%). Diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy (93%) and/or chimerism (41%). Treatments used include steroids (80%), of which 75% showed partial or complete resolution. Mortality was 33.3% (range 0-100%). Novel therapies include ECP and MSC therapy. GvHD is a rare but serious disease with high mortality. Novel therapies may offer hope in the future, but currently there is limited evidence for their efficacy in the context of intestinal or liver transplantation. PMID:27198497

  17. Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery in Patients With Previous Solid Organ Transplantation (Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas).

    PubMed

    Vargo, Patrick R; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Johnston, Douglas R; Smedira, Nicholas G; Moazami, Nader; Blackstone, Eugene H; Soltesz, Edward G

    2015-12-15

    A growing number of solid organ transplant survivors require surgery for cardiac disease. We examined the effect of having a previous transplant on outcomes after cardiac surgery in these patients from a population-based perspective. Of 1,709,735 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, or thoracic aorta surgery from 2004 to 2008 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 3,535 patients (0.21%) had a previous organ transplant (2,712 kidney, 738 liver, 300 pancreas). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to determine the effect of a previous solid organ transplant on outcomes. In-hospital mortality rate was 7% for patients who underwent transplantation versus 4% for patients who did not undergo transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 2.38). Patients who underwent transplantation were at an increased risk for acute renal failure (OR 1.62, CI 1.36 to 1.94) and blood transfusions (OR 1.63, CI 1.36 to 1.95). Median length of stay was longer (10 vs 9 days), with greater median total charges ($111,362 vs $102,221; both p <0.001). Occurrence of stroke, gastrointestinal complication, infection, and pneumonia was similar between groups. In conclusion, previous solid organ transplantation is an incremental risk factor for postoperative mortality after cardiac surgery. Renal protective strategies and bleeding control should be stressed to mitigate complications. PMID:26520471

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed. PMID:17512716

  19. Contraceptive use in female recipients of a solid-organ transplant

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Sally; Lai, Sophia; Garcia, Juanita E.; Mody, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Women of reproductive age account for more than one-third of all solid-organ transplant recipients and are advised against becoming pregnant for 1 to 2 years after their surgeries. The risks posed to the woman, the transplanted organ, and the fetus underscore the importance of systems to ensure that patients receive counseling on family planning, including return to fertility, contraceptive use, and when pregnancy can be safely considered, and highly effective methods of contraception. Objective To investigate use of contraceptives among women after solid-organ transplant and to identify opportunities to improve care. Design A cross-sectional survey study. Setting An urban academic medical center. Patients Women 18 to 50 years old who have received a kidney, pancreas, and/or liver transplant within the past 1 to 24 months. Intervention Participants completed self-administered questionnaires regarding their menstrual pattern, pregnancy history, contraceptive use before and after transplant, and counseling on family planning issues. Main Outcome Measures Contraceptive use. Results The most common contraceptive method used in both the year preceding transplant and the year after transplant was condoms. Participants desired more counseling on highly effective contraceptive methods, such as intrauterine devices. Participants would like to receive contraceptive counseling from an obstetrician/gynecologist or transplant care team provider. Conclusion Female recipients of solid-organ transplants want more counseling on highly effective methods of contraception. PMID:25488557

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of solid waste: Effect of increasing organic loading rates and characterization of the solubilised organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The impact of stepwise increase in OLR (up to 7.5kgVS/m(3)d) on methane production, reactor performance and solubilised organic matter production in a high-loading reactor were investigated. A reference reactor operated at low OLR (<2.0kgVS/m(3)d) was used solely to observe the methane potential of the feed substrate. Specific methane yield was 0.33lCH(4)/gVS at the lowest OLR and dropped by about 20% at the maximum OLR, while volumetric methane production increased from 0.35 to 1.38m(3)CH(4)/m(3)d. At higher loadings, solids hydrolysis was affected, with consequent transfer of poorly-degraded organic material into the drain solids. Biodegradability and size-fractionation of the solubilised COD were characterized to evaluate the possibility of a second stage liquid reactor. Only 18% of the organics were truly soluble (<1kD). The rest were in colloidal and very fine particulate form which originated from grass and cow manure and were non-biodegradable. PMID:23334011

  1. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. PMID:26821599

  2. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  3. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW. PMID:22351654

  4. Solid organ transplant recipients: clinical considerations in the application of exercise.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, K-J L; McKenzie, D C; Yoshida, E M

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 000 solid organ transplants are performed worldwide each year and this has a significant impact on physical function and quality of life. However, the capacity for exercise in solid-organ recipients is reduced. Regular physical activity improves most of the indices of fitness in these patients but, with few exceptions, they do not reach the values seen in healthy controls. The reason for the 40-60% reduction in maximal exercise capacity is not clear; the disease process, need for life long immunosuppression and sedentary lifestyle all contribute. The interaction between exercise and immunosuppressing medication merits research as does the specifics of the exercise prescription for these patients. This paper reviews important features of this rapidly expanding group of patients and suggests clinical considerations in the application of exercise in this population. PMID:25115810

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel. PMID:25700341

  6. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  7. Peculiarities of the submicroscopic organization of chlorella cells cultivated on a solid medium in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Popova, A. F.; Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.

    The submicroscopic organization of Chlorella vulgaris cells (strain LARG-1) growing over 30 days on a solid agarized medium aboard the orbital station ``Mir'' was studied. A number of differences in the ultrastructure of cells of the experimental population compared to the control has been revealed. Thus, changes in the membrane system of plastids, in particular, appearance of numerous vesicles of different diameter and outgrowths of the plastids and their contact with the plasmalemma as well as a considerable decrease of reserve polysaccharide number in the plastids. Moreover, an increase in the size of mitochondria, their cristae and lipid drops in cytoplasm, the formation of more complicated configuration folding of plasmalemma and appearance of small-granular material of mean electron density in the periplasmic space of Chlorella cells grown during space flight, are demonstrated. Comparative cytological analysis has revealed general regularities of rearrangements of the submicroscopic organization in Chlorella cells cultivated on both solid and semiliquid agarized nutrient media.

  8. A closed loop for municipal organic solid waste by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walde, Janette; Pümpel, Thomas; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Insam, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of producing lactic acid from municipal organic solid waste different pH values (4-7) and temperatures (37°C and 55°C) were tested. For the evaluation of fermentation conditions the chemical, physical, and microbial characters were monitored over a period of 7days. Quantitative real time PCR, PCR-DGGE, and next generation sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene library were applied to identify the key players of the lactic acid production and their association. Lactobacillus acidophilus and its closest relatives were found to be efficient lactic acid producers (>300mM) under most suitable fermentation conditions tested in this study: 37°C with either uncontrolled pH or at a pH of 5. These data provide the first step in the realization of the idea "reuse, reduce, and recycle" of municipal organic solid waste. PMID:25459815

  9. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  10. State transformations and ice nucleation in amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, K. J.; Wise, M. E.; Jensen, E. J.; Schill, G. P.; Freedman, M. A.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    Amorphous (semi-)solid organic aerosol particles have the potential to serve as surfaces for heterogeneous ice nucleation in cirrus clouds. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy have been used in conjunction with a cold stage to examine water uptake and ice nucleation on individual amorphous (semi-)solid particles at atmospherically relevant temperatures (200-273 K). Three organic compounds considered proxies for atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were used in this investigation: sucrose, citric acid and glucose. Internally mixed particles consisting of each organic and ammonium sulfate were also investigated. Results from water uptake experiments followed the shape of a humidity-induced glass transition (Tg(RH)) curve and were used to construct state diagrams for each organic and corresponding mixture. Experimentally derived Tg(RH) curves are in good agreement with theoretical predictions of Tg(RH) following the approach of Koop et al. (2011). A unique humidity-induced glass transition point on each state diagram, Tg'(RH), was used to quantify and compare results from this study to previous works. Values of Tg'(RH) determined for sucrose, glucose and citric acid glasses were 236, 230 and 220 K, respectively. Values of Tg'(RH) for internally mixed organic/sulfate particles were always significantly lower; 210, 207 and 215 K for sucrose/sulfate, glucose/sulfate and citric acid/sulfate, respectively. All investigated SOA proxies were observed to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei at tropospheric temperatures. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on pure organic particles occurred at Sice = 1.1-1.4 for temperatures below 235 K. Particles consisting of 1:1 organic-sulfate mixtures took up water over a greater range of conditions but were in some cases also observed to heterogeneously nucleate ice at temperatures below 202 K (Sice= 1.25-1.38). Polynomial curves were fitted to experimental water uptake data and then incorporated into the Community Aerosol Radiation

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  13. Long-Term Operation Tests of Organic Solid-State Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Hiramoto, Masahiro

    The long-term operation tests of two types of solid-state organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, p-n heterojunction type cells and p-i-n junction type cells, were performed. In both cells, a drastic decrease in photocurrent within 1 h was observed in air. This rapid decrease was revealed to be caused by oxygen molecules which act as a electron trap in the electron transporting organic layer. Initial decrease of photocurrent was effectively suppressed under high vacuum (10-7 Torr). In the case of a p-n type cell, the decrease in short-circuit photocurrent was only 15% even under prolonged light irradiation of 260 h.

  14. Solid-state enzyme deactivation in air and in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Toscano, G.; Pirozzi, D.; Maremonti, M.; Greco, G. Jr. . Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-09-05

    Thermal deactivation of solid-state acid phosphatase is analyzed, both in the presence and in the absence of organic solvents. The thermal deactivation profile departs from first order kinetics and shows an unusual, temperature-dependent, asymptotic value of residual activity. The process is described by a phenomenological equation, whose theoretical implications are also discussed. The total amount of buffer salts in the enzyme powder dramatically affects enzyme stability in the range 70 to 105 C. The higher salt/protein ratio increases the rate of thermal deactivation. The deactivation rate is virtually unaffected by the presence of organic solvents, independent of their hydrophilicity.

  15. Molecular and electronic transport in solid-state/organic hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, Pradeep

    The persistent miniaturization of solid state devices has led us in the direction of integrating soft materials into solid-state structures. Since organic molecules have natural dimensions in the nanometer range or smaller, they can be useful facilitators in the fabrication of nanoscale devices, and due to their versatile functionality they can be incorporated in actual device structures and even serve as active device components. The central theme of this thesis is the integration of soft (organic and biological) molecules with solid state surfaces and devices to create novel hybrid nanostructures. The techniques of self assembly of organic molecules onto solid-state surfaces have been well developed through extensive research in the past. Self assembly and directed self-assembly of organic and biological molecules were used extensively in this work to demonstrate desired selectivity in the assembled molecular patterns and retainment of the bio/chemical functionality of the assembled molecules. A micro-contact printing technique was used to create microscale molecular templates. Selective directed assembly of biological motor proteins was demonstrated, enabling controlled motor motility without creating any physical barrier. The biological motor protein, heavy mero-myosin, assembled onto organic molecular patterns utilizing biotin-streptavidin linkage, was able to support actin motility, demonstrating the successful assembly and functionality of the motor proteins. On the other hand, nanoscale molecular patterns were prepared with dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The extraordinary precision and high spatial registry of DPN was used to study molecular transport of organic molecules on solid surfaces. We discovered a new phenomenon of nanoscale anomalous diffusion while assembling dodecylamine on mica. Furthermore, DPN was used to functionalize an active region of a micro-Hall device fabricated from an InAs quantum well heterostructure using conventional lithographic

  16. Ab initio calculation of ionization potential and electron affinity in solid-state organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youngho; Jeon, Sang Ho; Cho, Youngmi; Han, Seungwu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the vertical ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of organic semiconductors in the solid state that govern the optoelectrical property of organic devices using a fully ab initio way. The present method combines the density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory based on G W approximations. To demonstrate the accuracy of this approach, we carry out calculations on several prototypical organic molecules. Since IP and EA depend on the molecular orientation at the surface, the molecular geometry of the surface is explicitly considered through the slab model. The computed IP and EA are in reasonable and consistent agreements with spectroscopic data on organic surfaces with various molecular arrangements. However, the transport gaps are slightly underestimated in calculations, which can be explained by different screening effects between surface and bulk regions.

  17. Aqueous liquid feed organic fuel cell using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A liquid organic fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  18. Literature survey and documentation on organic solid deposition problem. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Ting-Horng

    1993-12-01

    Organic solid deposition is often a major problem in petroleum production and processing. Recently, this problem has attracted more attention because operating costs have become more critical to the profit of oil production. Also, in miscible gas flooding, asphaltene deposition often occurs in the wellbore region after gas breakthrough and causes plugging. The organic deposition problem is particularly serious in offshore oil production. Cooling of crude oil when it flows through long-distance pipelines under sea water may cause organic deposition in the pipeline and result in plugging. NIPER`s Gas EOR Research Project has been devoted to the study of the organic solid deposition problem for three years. NIPER has received many requests for technical support. Recently, the DeepStar project committee on thermo-technology development and standardization has asked NIPER to provide them with NIPER`s expertise and experience. To assist the oil industry, NIPER is preparing a state-of-the-art review on the technical development for the organic deposition problem. In the first quarter, this project has completed a literature survey and documentation. total of 258 publications (114 for wax, 124 for asphaltene, and 20 for related subjects) were collected and categorized. This literature survey was focused on the two subjects: wax and asphaltene. The subjects of bitumen, asphalt, and heavy oil are not included. Also, the collected publications are mostly related to production problems.

  19. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dugenest, S.; Casabianca, H.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F.; Combrisson, J.

    1999-04-01

    Bottom ash is the main solid residue which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. To be reused in public works, it has to be stored previously a few months. This material is composed primarily of a mineral matrix but also contains unburnt organic matter. The mineral content and its change in the course of aging are relatively well-known, in contrast with the organic content. So in order to detect the phenomena responsible for changes in organic matter and their effects during aging, the concentrations of the main organic compounds previously characterized, the number of microorganisms, and the release of carbon dioxide were followed kinetically in model laboratory conditions. The results showed that the aging process led to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter available in bottom ash, composed essentially of carboxylic acids and n-alkanes (steroids and PAH`s to a lesser extent), and consequently that it would improve the bottom ash quality. Furthermore these results were confirmed by the study of aging conducted in conditions used in the industrial scale.

  20. Increased Risk for Lymphoid and Myeloid Neoplasms in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Scott C.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Landgren, Ola; Warren, Joan L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background By assessing the spectrum of hematologic malignancies associated with solid organ transplantation in the elderly, we provide information on the pathogenesis of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms and the clinical manifestations of immunosuppression. Methods Using data from the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare database, we identified 83,016 cases with a hematologic malignancy (age 66-99 years) and 166,057 population-based controls matched to cases by age, sex, and calendar year. Medicare claims were used to identify a history of solid organ transplantation. We utilized polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) comparing transplantation history among cases with various hematologic malignancy subtypes and controls, adjusting for the matching factors and race. Results A prior solid organ transplant was identified in 216 (0.26%) cases and 204 (0.12%) controls. Transplantation was associated with increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) (OR=2.13, 95%CI 1.67-2.72), especially diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR=3.29, 95%CI 2.28-4.76), marginal zone lymphoma (OR=2.48, 95%CI 1.17-5.22), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (OR=3.32, 95%CI 1.41-7.81), and T-cell lymphoma (OR=3.07, 95%CI 1.56-6.06). Transplantation was also associated with elevated risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR=2.53, 95%CI 1.01-6.35) and plasma cell neoplasms (OR=1.91, 95%CI 1.24-2.93). Risks for myeloid neoplasms were also elevated (OR=1.99, 95%CI 1.41-2.81). Conclusion Solid organ transplantation is associated with a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies in the elderly. Risk was increased for four specific NHL subtypes for which a viral agent has been implicated, supporting an added role for immunosuppression. Impact Our results support monitoring for a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies following solid organ transplant. PMID:20406959

  1. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  2. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  3. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  4. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  5. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  6. A quasimechanism of melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Bryan F

    2009-01-01

    It has been know for half a century that many crystalline organic solids undergo an acceleration in the rate of thermal decomposition as the melting temperature is approached. This acceleration terminates at the melting point, exhibiting an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence in the faster decomposition rate from the liquid phase. This observation has been modeled previously using various premelting behaviors based on e.g. freezing point depression induced by decomposition products or solvent impurities. These models do not, however, indicate a mechanism for liquid formation and acceleration which is an inherent function of the bulk thermodynamics of the molecule. Here we show that such an inherent thermodynamic mechanism for liquid formation exists in the form of the so-called quasi-liquid layer at the solid surface. We explore a kinetic mechanism which describes the acceleration of rate and is a function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We construct a differential rate law from these thermodynamic free energies and a normalized progress variable. We further construct a reduced variable formulation of the model which is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and show that it is applicable to the observed melt acceleration in several common organic crystalline solids. A component of the differential rate law, zero order in the progress variable, is shown to be proportional to the thickness of the quasiliquid layer predicted by a recent thermodynamic theory for this phenomenon. This work therefore serves not only to provide new insight into thermal decomposition in a broad class or organic crystalline solids, but also further validates the underlying thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon of liquid formation on the molecular surface at temperatures below the melting point.

  7. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. PMID:20605069

  8. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Nayono, Satoto E; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-01

    A highly polluted liquid ("press water") was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of "press water" as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 degrees C. A high methane productivity of 270 m(-3) CH(4)ton(-1) COD(added) or 490 m(-3) CH(4)ton(-1) VS(added) was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m(-3)d(-1). The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6m(3)m(reactor)(-3)d(-1) to 7.1 m(3)m(reactor)(-3)d(-1). The results indicated that "press water" from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates. PMID:19825510

  9. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    SciTech Connect

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.; David Kilcoyne, A. L. E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  10. Intellectual and academic performance in children undergoing solid organ pretransplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lee, Jennifer L; Cousins, Laura A; Mee, Laura L

    2015-03-01

    Although prior research has shown lower intellectual functioning across pediatric solid organ transplant recipients relative to matched siblings or norm comparisons, few studies have assessed intellectual and academic performance prior to transplant across organ groups. The current data examine intellectual and academic functioning in children being evaluated for kidney, liver, or heart transplant. This investigation included intellectual and academic testing data from 195 children and adolescents between the ages of six and 19 yr evaluated for solid organ transplantation. Across organ groups, patients' intellectual functioning as estimated by the WASI/WASI-II at the time of pretransplant evaluation was within the average range, but lower compared to test norms. Patients demonstrated lower estimates of word reading, math computation, and spelling skills compared to the normal population, with the exception of heart patients' word reading and spelling skills and liver patients' spelling scores. Cognitive and academic impairments exist in children prior to transplantation. Findings emphasize the support that patients may require to manage the complicated medical regimen and succeed academically. Routine cognitive and academic assessment can inform healthcare providers regarding transplant patients' capacity to take on increasing medical responsibility and successfully reintegrate into the school environment. PMID:25389073

  11. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  12. Methanogenic pathway and community structure in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of organic solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The methanogenic pathway and microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of organic solid waste were investigated in a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor using artificial garbage slurry as a feedstock. The decomposition pathway of acetate, a significant precursor of CH(4) and a key intermediate metabolite in the anaerobic digestion process, was analyzed by using stable isotopes. A tracer experiment using (13)C-labeled acetate revealed that approximately 80% of the acetate was decomposed via a non-aceticlastic oxidative pathway, whereas the remainder was converted to methane via an aceticlastic pathway. Archaeal 16S rRNA analyses demonstrated that the hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanoculleus spp. accounted for >90% of detected methanogens, and the aceticlastic methanogens Methanosarcina spp. were the minor constituents. The clone library targeting bacterial 16S rRNA indicated the predominance of the novel Thermotogales bacterium (relative abundance: ~53%), which is related to anaerobic acetate oxidizer Thermotoga lettingae TMO, although the sequence similarity was low. Uncultured bacteria that phylogenetically belong to municipal solid waste cluster I were also predominant in the microflora (~30%). These results imply that the microbial community in the thermophilic degrading process of organic solid waste consists exclusively of unidentified bacteria, which efficiently remove acetate through a non-aceticlastic oxidative pathway. PMID:20851673

  13. Modeling the influence of decomposing organic solids on sulfate reduction rates for iron precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hemsi, Paulo S; Shackelford, Charles D; Figueroa, Linda A

    2005-05-01

    The influence of decomposing organic solids on sulfate (S04(2-)) reduction rates for metals precipitation in sulfate-reducing systems, such as in bioreactors and permeable reactive barriers for treatment of acid mine drainage, is modeled. The results are evaluated by comparing the model simulations with published experimental data for two single-substrate and two multiple-substrate batch equilibrium experiments. The comparisons are based on the temporal trends in SO4(2-), ferrous iron (Fe2+), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations, as well as on rates of sulfate reduction. The temporal behaviors of organic solid materials, dissolved organic substrates, and different bacterial populations also are simulated. The simulated results using Contois kinetics for polysaccharide decomposition, Monod kinetics for lactate-based sulfate reduction, instantaneous or kinetically controlled precipitation of ferrous iron mono-sulfide (FeS), and partial volatilization of H2S to the gas phase compare favorably with the experimental data. When Contois kinetics of polysaccharide decomposition is replaced by first-order kinetics to simulate one of the single-substrate batch experiments, a comparatively poorer approximation of the rates of sulfate reduction is obtained. The effect of sewage sludge in boosting the short-term rate of sulfate reduction in one of the multiple-substrate experiments also is approximated reasonably well. The results illustrate the importance of the type of kinetics used to describe the decomposition of organic solids on metals precipitation in sulfate-reducing systems as well as the potential application of the model as a predictive tool for assisting in the design of similar biochemical systems. PMID:15926572

  14. A novel hybrid metal-organic framework-polymeric monolith for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Lan; Lirio, Stephen; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2014-03-17

    This study describes the fabrication of a novel hybrid metal-organic framework- organic polymer (MOF-polymer) for use as a stationary phase in fritless solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for validating analytical methods. The MOF-polymer was prepared by using ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as porogenic solvent followed by microwave-assisted polymerization with the addition of 25 % MOF. This novel hybrid MOF-polymer was used to extract penicillin (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin) under different conditions. Quantitative analysis of the extracted penicillin samples using the MOF-organic polymer for SPME was conducted by using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) coupled with UV analysis. The penicillin recovery was 63-96.2 % with high reproducibility, sensitivity, and reusability. The extraction time with the proposed fabricated SPME was only 34 min. PMID:24615770

  15. [Voriconazole for the therapy of mycoses in recipients of solid organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Salavert, Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are the third cause of infectious complications in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT), showing an incidence of 5-42% depending of the trasplanted organ. Moreover, IFI account for significant morbility and mortality in SOT, ranging between 25-95% depending on the type of fungus and its organ localization. Different strategies (prophylaxis, preemptive treatment, treatment, antifungal combinations, routes of administration) have been tested to improve the prognosis of IFI in SOT. To reach this objective, it was essential to have access to new antifungals showing a higher spectrum of activity on the fungal pathogens, both classical and emerging, and showing improvements in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, ease of administration and acceptability and lower rates of adverse effects. Introduction of voriconazole in the therapeutic arsenal has facilitated to reach these goals due to its special pharmacological characteristics, its in vitro antifungal activity and the in vivo clinical efficacy demonstrated in different studies. PMID:17874859

  16. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey W.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  17. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. PMID:27281225

  18. The Official Knowledge and Adult Education Agents: An Ethnographic Study of the Adult Education Team of a Local Development-Oriented Nongovernmental Organization in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Armando Paulo Ferreira; Cristovao, Artur Fernando Arede Correia

    2010-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations, particularly those related to development work (local development-oriented nongovernmental organizations; LDNGO), and their agents have been assuming, in Portugal, an important role in the field of adult education. These organizations develop with the State, at the national level, and with supranational institutions…

  19. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:25531821

  20. Hepatitis C in non-hepatic solid organ transplant candidates and recipients: A new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Belga, Sara; Doucette, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to affect 130-150 million people globally which corresponds to 2%-3% of the total world population. It remains the leading indication for liver transplant worldwide and has been demonstrated to negatively impact both patient and graft survival following non-hepatic organ transplantation. In the era of interferon-based therapy, although treatment and cure of HCV prior to non-hepatic transplant improved survival, tolerability and low cure rates substantially limited therapy. Interferon (IFN)-based therapy following non-hepatic solid organ transplant, due to the risk of allograft rejection, is generally contraindicated. Rapid advances in IFN-free therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the last few years have completely changed the paradigm of hepatitis C therapy. Compared to IFN-based regimens, DAAs have less frequent and less severe adverse effects, shorter durations of therapy, and higher cure rates that are minimally impacted by historically negative predictors of response such as cirrhosis, ethnicity, and post-transplant state. Recent studies have shown that liver transplant (LT) recipients can be safely and effectively treated with DAA combination therapies; although data are limited, many of the principles of therapy in LT may be extrapolated to non-hepatic solid organ transplant recipients. Here we review the data on DAA combination therapies in transplantation, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pre- vs post-transplant HCV therapy and future directions. PMID:26819530

  1. Vapor-phase infrared spectroscopy on solid organic compounds with a pulsed resonant photoacoustic detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlome, Richard; Fischer, Cornelia; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2005-08-01

    There is a great need for a low cost and sensitive method to measure infrared spectra of solid organic compounds in the gas phase. To record such spectra, we propose an optical parametric generator-based photoacoustic spectrometer, which emits in the mid-infrared fingerprint region between 3 and 4 microns. In this system, the sample is heated in a vessel before entering a home built photoacoustic cell, where the gaseous molecules are excited by a tunable laser source with a frequency repetition rate that matches the first longitudinal resonance frequency of the photocaoustic cell. In a first phase, we have focused on low-melting point stimulants such as Nikethamide, Mephentermine sulfate, Methylephedrine, Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. The vapor-phase spectra of these doping substances were measured between 2800 and 3100 cm-1, where fundamental C-H stretching vibrations take place. Our spectra show notable differences with commercially available condensed phase spectra. Our scheme enables to measure very low vapor pressures of low-melting point (<160 °C) solid organic compounds. Furthermore, the optical resolution of 8 cm-1 is good enough to distinguish closely related chemical structures such as the Ephedra alkaloids Ephedrine and Methylephedrine, but doesn't allow to differentiate diastereoisomeric pairs such as Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine, two important neurotransmitters which reveal different biological activities. Therefore, higher resolution and a system capable of measuring organic compounds with higher melting points are required.

  2. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  3. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  4. Continuous thermophilic composting (CTC) for rapid biodegradation and maturation of organic municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Wen-Jun; Huang, Cui; Fan, Chang-Zheng; Xu, Zheng-Yong

    2009-10-01

    Fewer and fewer municipal solid wastes are treated by composting in China because of the disadvantages of enormous investment, long processing cycle and unstable products in a conventional composting treatment. In this study, a continuous thermophilic composting (CTC) method, only a thermophilic phase within the process, has been applied to four bench-scale composting runs, and further compared with a conventional composting run by assessing the indexes of pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), C/N ratio, germination index (GI), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dehydrogenase activity. After composting for 14 days, 16 days, 18 days and 19 days in the four CTC runs, respectively, mature compost products were obtained, with quality similar to or better than which had been stabilized for 28 days in run A. The products from the CTC runs also showed favorable stability in room temperature environment after the short-term composting at high temperature. The study suggested CTC as a novel method for rapid degradation and maturation of organic municipal solid wastes. PMID:19487122

  5. Organic–inorganic supramolecular solid catalyst boosts organic reactions in water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Pilar; Moreno, José María; Díaz, Urbano; Bruix, Marta; Corma, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks are appealing as synthetic hosts for mediating chemical reactions. Here we report the preparation of a mesoscopic metal-organic structure based on single-layer assembly of aluminium chains and organic alkylaryl spacers. The material markedly accelerates condensation reactions in water in the absence of acid or base catalyst, as well as organocatalytic Michael-type reactions that also show superior enantioselectivity when comparing with the host-free transformation. The mesoscopic phase of the solid allows for easy diffusion of products and the catalytic solid is recycled and reused. Saturation transfer difference and two-dimensional 1H nuclear Overhauser effect NOESY NMR spectroscopy show that non-covalent interactions are operative in these host–guest systems that account for substrate activation. The mesoscopic character of the host, its hydrophobicity and chemical stability in water, launch this material as a highly attractive supramolecular catalyst to facilitate (asymmetric) transformations under more environmentally friendly conditions. PMID:26912294

  6. Donor Monoclonal Gammopathy May Cause Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Felldin, M; Ekberg, J; Polanska-Tamborek, D; Hansson, U; Sender, M; Rizell, M; Svanvik, J; Mölne, J

    2016-09-01

    Prior research on donor monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been inadequate regarding the risk for lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation recipients. Seven organ recipients from two different donors developed lymphoproliferative disease. The origin of the malignancy was determined by use of microsatellite analysis, and the plasma of the two donors was analyzed with the use of electrophoresis. The clinical courses of the seven recipients were followed for 36-60 months. One donor transmitted lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma to two kidney recipients and MGUS to a liver recipient, all IgMκ. A second donor caused IgGλ myeloma in two kidney and one liver recipient, and IgGλ gammopathy in a heart recipient. Transplant nephrectomy was performed in three kidney recipients and remission was achieved. The fourth kidney recipient has kept the graft and the disease has progressed. The liver recipient died from myeloma. There were no clinical signs of lymphoproliferative disease in the donors, but retrospective serum analyses showed M-components, IgMκ (37 g/L) and IgGλ (8 g/L). Donors with MGUS may cause donor-transmitted malignancies via passenger lymphocytes/plasma cells in solid organ recipients. The results call for a large register study of the incidence of donor MGUS and lymphoproliferative disease in their recipients. PMID:27575725

  7. Impact of solid phase antibody testing on organ allocation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reinsmoen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the solid phase antibody assays has allowed for the detection and characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) specific antibodies with greater sensitivity and specificity. This information can then be used along with the donor's HLA typing to predict crossmatch results (a virtual crossmatch). Using these data and the level of immunological risk assessed to the antibodies detected, the determination of unacceptable antigens can be made. The calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA) provides for a means to determine the frequency of these unacceptable antigens in the donor population and thereby predict the probability of a positive crossmatch. In 2009, the Organ Procurement Transplant Network administered by the United Network for Organ Sharing adopted the CPRA as the means to define sensitization and to assign allocation points. Follow-up studies have shown that the number of organ offers refused due to a positive crossmatch has decreased significantly and has saved money through the elimination of unnecessary testing. An additional benefit has been the increased number of sensitized patients being transplanted successfully. Through technical improvements and the refined interpretation of the solid phase antibody assays, continual progress is being made in the definition of the unacceptable antigens and the ability to transplant sensitized patients. PMID:25095534

  8. Hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J P; Wang, H E; Locke, J E; Mannon, R B; Safford, M M; Baddley, J W

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a considerable health issue in the United States and represents the most common healthcare-associated infection. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of CDI, which can affect both graft and patient survival. However, little is known about the impact of CDI on health services utilization posttransplantation. We examined hospital-onset CDI from 2012 to 2014 among transplant recipients in the University HealthSystem Consortium, which includes academic medical center-affiliated hospitals in the United States. Infection was five times more common among transplant recipients than among general medicine inpatients (209 vs 40 per 10 000 discharges), and factors associated with CDI among transplant recipients included transplant type, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and inpatient complications. Institutional risk-standardized CDI varied more than 3-fold across high-volume hospitals (infection ratio 0.54-1.82, median 1.04, interquartile range 0.78-1.28). CDI was associated with increased 30-day readmission, transplant organ complications, cytomegalovirus infection, inpatient costs, and lengths of stay. Total observed inpatient days and direct costs for those with CDI were substantially higher than risk-standardized expected values (40 094 vs 22 843 days, costs $198 728 368 vs $154 020 528). Further efforts to detect, prevent, and manage CDI among solid organ transplant recipients are warranted. PMID:26484839

  9. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  10. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (γ), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low γ values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched